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Sample records for race sex body

  1. Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Zimanyi, Monika A; Armitage, James A; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that low nephron number (Nglom) is a strong determinant of individual glomerular volume (IGV) in male Americans. However, whether the same pattern is present in female Americans remains unclear. The contributions of body surface area (BSA) and race to IGV in the context of Nglom also require further evaluation. Kidneys without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. The extremes of female Nglom were used to define high and low Nglom for both sexes. Nglom and IGV were estimated by design-based stereology. A total of 24 African and Caucasian American females (n = 12 per race; 6 per Nglom extreme) were included. These subjects were subsequently matched to 24 comparable males by age and Nglom and to 18 additional males by age, Nglom and BSA. IGV average and variance were very similar in female African and Caucasian Americans with high and low Nglom. Males with low Nglom from both races showed greater IGV average and variance than comparable females matched by age and Nglom. These differences in IGV between sexes were not observed in Caucasian Americans with low Nglom that were matched by age, Nglom and BSA. In contrast, glomeruli from African Americans were larger than those from Caucasian Americans, especially in subjects with high Nglom. While female Americans with low Nglom did not show glomerular hypertrophy, comparable males with low Nglom showed marked glomerular hypertrophy that was closely associated with high BSA. Glomerular size in African Americans may be confounded by multiple additional factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifecourse socioeconomic position and 16 year body mass index trajectories: differences by race and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Shaw, Benjamin A; Yucel, Recai M; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Strogatz, David S

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) and changes in body mass index (BMI), and assess disparities in these associations across racial/ethnic groups. With longitudinal data from 4 waves of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (1986-2002), we employed mixed-effects modeling to estimate BMI trajectories for 1174 Blacks and 2323 White adults. We also estimated associations between these trajectories and lifecourse SEP variables, including father's education, perceived childhood SEP, own education, income, wealth, and financial security. Blacks had higher baseline BMIs, and steeper increases in BMI, compared to Whites. Childhood SEP, as measured by high father's education, was associated with lower baseline BMI among Whites. High education was associated with a lower baseline BMI within both race and sex categories. Income had contrasting effects among men and women. Higher income was associated with higher BMI only among males. Associations between indicators of SEP and BMI trajectories were only found for Whites. Our study demonstrates that lifecourse SEP may influence adult BMI differently within different racial and sex groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height(2)), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αX(β)) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in populations who differ in stature. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Reference man and woman more fully characterized: Variations on the basis of body size, age, sex, and race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Total body neutron activation analysis, prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis, and whole body counting have been used to determine the elemental composition of the human body. The total body elements measured were potassium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and phosphorus. Total body water was also determined by the dilution principle using tritiated water. Observations were made in an adult US population that totaled 1374 and ranged in age from 20 to 90 yr. The dataset for the white population consisted of 175 males and 1134 females observations; for the black population, it consisted of 30 male and 35 female observations. The variation in the elemental composition of both males and females in any 5-yr age group was large and ranged up to 20% (SD). Age-, race-, sex-, and size-specific differences were evident. When equations were developed that predicted the elemental composition of the adult on the basis of age, weight, and height, the variation in the age groups was reduced approximately in half. Age-specific mean values for the 20- to 29-yr-old white population were also compared with values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-23 Reference Man. The open-quotes averageclose quotes young adult male was larger than Reference Man; the in vivo data also indicated a larger skeletal mass, more lean tissues and body water, but lower body sodium. When in vivo prediction equations were used to adjust for size differences, good agreement was found between the expected values and those for Reference Man. The ICRP-23 does not contain elemental data for Reference Woman; therefore, the in vivo data in the present study provide the first estimates of body composition for Reference Woman

  5. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex , and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sagar Munjal,1 Anirudh Gautam,2 Alan M Rapoport,3 Dennis M Fisher4 1Department of Neurology Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Pharmacokinetics, Modeling and Simulation & Bioanalysis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 4P Less Than, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective/background: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI], age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL; or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL. Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax, area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2, and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞ were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others. Results: Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex

  6. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  7. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  8. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  9. Fragile differences, relational effects: stories about the materiality of race and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the materiality of difference, about race, sex and sexual differences among others. To find out about these differences and their materialities, this article looks not into bodies but rather at how bodies are positioned in spaces and how they are enacted in practice. In the

  10. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  11. The discriminative ability of waist circumference, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying metabolic syndrome: Variations by age, sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Subenthiran, Soobitha; Huey, Teh C; Kuay, Lim K; Mustapha, Feisul I; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Mustafa, Amal N

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that there is variation in the capabilities of BMI, WC and WHR in predicting cardiometabolic risk and that it might be confounded by gender, ethnicity and age group. The objective of this study is to examine the discriminative abilities of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to predict two or more non-adipose components of the metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high fasting plasma glucose) among the adult Malaysian population by gender, age group and ethnicity. Data from 2572 respondents (1044 men and 1528 women) aged 25-64 years who participated in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a population-based cross sectional study, were analysed. Participants' socio-demographic details, anthropometric indices (BMI, WC and WHR), blood pressure, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose level were assessed. Receiver operating characteristics curves analysis was used to evaluate the ability of each anthropometric index to discriminate MetS cases from non-MetS cases based on the area under the curve. Overall, WC had better discriminative ability than WHR for women but did not perform significantly better than BMI in both sexes, whereas BMI was better than WHR in women only. Waist circumference was a better discriminator of MetS compared to WHR in Malay men and women. Waist circumference and BMI performed better than WHR in Chinese women, men aged 25-34 years and women aged 35-44 years. The discriminative ability of BMI and WC is better than WHR for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS. Therefore, either BMI or WC measurements are recommended in screening for metabolic syndrome in routine clinical practice in the effort to combat cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    OpenAIRE

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have...

  13. Gendered race: are infants’ face preferences guided by intersectionality of sex and race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Kerri L.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female), and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each) that differed according to sex (Female or Male) or race (Asian, Black, or White). All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure. PMID:26388823

  14. Gendered race: are infants' face preferences guided by intersectionality of sex and race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I; Johnson, Kerri L; Johnson, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female), and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each) that differed according to sex (Female or Male) or race (Asian, Black, or White). All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants' social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants' preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  15. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  16. Crime Victims and Offenders: A Question of Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell

    1981-01-01

    This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)

  17. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  18. Estimation and evidence in forensic anthropology: sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2009-05-01

    Forensic anthropology typically uses osteological and/or dental data either to estimate characteristics of unidentified individuals or to serve as evidence in cases where there is a putative identification. In the estimation context, the problem is to describe aspects of an individual that may lead to their eventual identification, whereas in the evidentiary context, the problem is to provide the relative support for the identification. In either context, individual characteristics such as sex and race may be useful. Using a previously published forensic case (Steadman et al. (2006) Am J Phys Anthropol 131:15-26) and a large (N = 3,167) reference sample, we show that the sex of the individual can be reliably estimated using a small set of 11 craniometric variables. The likelihood ratio from sex (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio for the "population at large") is, however, relatively uninformative in "making" the identification. Similarly, the known "race" of the individual is relatively uninformative in "making" the identification, because the individual was recovered from an area where the 2000 US census provides a very homogenous picture of (self-identified) race. Of interest in this analysis is the fact that the individual, who was recovered from Eastern Iowa, classifies very clearly with [Howells 1973. Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference Among Recent Human Populations. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology; 1989. Skull Shape and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. Easter Islander sample in an analysis with uninformative priors. When the Iowa 2000 Census data on self-reported race are used for informative priors, the individual is clearly identified as "American White." This analysis shows the extreme importance of an informative prior in any forensic application. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Human sex differences in emotional processing of own-race and other-race faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Pan, Yangu

    2014-06-18

    There is evidence that women and men show differences in the perception of affective facial expressions. However, none of the previous studies directly investigated sex differences in emotional processing of own-race and other-race faces. The current study addressed this issue using high time resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 25 participants (13 women and 12 men) were analyzed. It was found that women showed increased N170 amplitudes to negative White faces compared with negative Chinese faces over the right hemisphere electrodes. This result suggests that women show enhanced sensitivity to other-race faces showing negative emotions (fear or disgust), which may contribute toward evolution. However, the current data showed that men had increased N170 amplitudes to happy Chinese versus happy White faces over the left hemisphere electrodes, indicating that men show enhanced sensitivity to own-race faces showing positive emotions (happiness). In this respect, men might use past pleasant emotional experiences to boost recognition of own-race faces.

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  1. The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination Laws

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; Wendy A. Stock

    2001-01-01

    The question of the effects of race and sex discrimination laws on relative economic outcomes for blacks and women has been of interest at least since the Civil Rights and Equal Pay Acts passed in the 1960s. We present new evidence on the effects of these laws based on variation induced first by state anti-discrimination statutes passed prior to the federal legislation and then by the extension of anti-discrimination prohibitions to the remaining states with the passage of federal legislation...

  2. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  3. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  5. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  6. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequential effects in judgements of attractiveness: the influences of face race and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S S Kramer

    Full Text Available In perceptual decision-making, a person's response on a given trial is influenced by their response on the immediately preceding trial. This sequential effect was initially demonstrated in psychophysical tasks, but has now been found in more complex, real-world judgements. The similarity of the current and previous stimuli determines the nature of the effect, with more similar items producing assimilation in judgements, while less similarity can cause a contrast effect. Previous research found assimilation in ratings of facial attractiveness, and here, we investigated whether this effect is influenced by the social categories of the faces presented. Over three experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of own- (White and other-race (Chinese faces of both sexes that appeared successively. Through blocking trials by race (Experiment 1, sex (Experiment 2, or both dimensions (Experiment 3, we could examine how sequential judgements were altered by the salience of different social categories in face sequences. For sequences that varied in sex alone, own-race faces showed significantly less opposite-sex assimilation (male and female faces perceived as dissimilar, while other-race faces showed equal assimilation for opposite- and same-sex sequences (male and female faces were not differentiated. For sequences that varied in race alone, categorisation by race resulted in no opposite-race assimilation for either sex of face (White and Chinese faces perceived as dissimilar. For sequences that varied in both race and sex, same-category assimilation was significantly greater than opposite-category. Our results suggest that the race of a face represents a superordinate category relative to sex. These findings demonstrate the importance of social categories when considering sequential judgements of faces, and also highlight a novel approach for investigating how multiple social dimensions interact during decision-making.

  8. Race is gendered: how covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    We argue that race and sex categories are psychologically and phenotypically confounded, affecting social categorizations and their efficiency. Sex categorization of faces was facilitated when the race category shared facial phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian women and Black men) but was impaired when the race category shared incompatible phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian men and Black women). These patterns were evident in the disambiguation of androgynous faces (Study 1) and the efficiency of judgments (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5). These patterns emerged due to common facial phenotypes for the categories Black and men (Studies 3 and 5) and due to shared stereotypes among the categories Black and men and the categories Asian and women (Studies 4 and 5). These findings challenge the notion that social categories are perceived independent of one another and show, instead, that race is gendered.

  9. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  10. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, A C; Melton, L J; Harris, T; Borrud, L; Shepherd, J; McGowan, J

    2009-07-01

    Total body bone density of adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 differed as expected for some groups (men>women and blacks>whites) but not others (whites>Mexican Americans). Cross-sectional age patterns in bone mineral density (BMD) of older adults differed at skeletal sites that varied by degree of weight-bearing. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data offer the opportunity to compare bone density of demographic groups across the entire skeleton. The present study uses total body DXA data (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic, Bedford MA, USA) from the NHANES 1999-2004 to examine BMD of the total body and selected skeletal subregions in a wide age range of adult men and women from three race/ethnic groups. Total body, lumbar spine, pelvis, right leg, and left arm BMD and lean mass from 13,091 adults aged 20 years and older were used. The subregions were chosen to represent sites with different degrees of weight-bearing. Mean BMD varied in expected ways for some demographic characteristics (men>women and non-Hispanic blacks>non-Hispanic whites) but not others (non-Hispanic whites>Mexican Americans). Differences in age patterns in BMD also emerged for some characteristics (sex) but not others (race/ethnicity). Differences in cross-sectional age patterns in BMD and lean mass by degree of weight-bearing in older adults were observed for the pelvis, leg, and arm. This information may be useful for generating hypotheses about age, race, and sex differences in fracture risk in the population.

  11. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  12. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex, national...

  13. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national...

  14. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena

    2014-09-01

    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  15. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-07-01

    Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the "normative" and "non-normative" entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories - "early," "normative," "late," and "inexperienced," and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for sex education curriculum and policy makers.

  17. A meta-analysis of sex and race differences in perceived workplace mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mallory A; Joseph, Dana L; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; Beus, Jeremy M

    2018-02-01

    Despite the growing number of meta-analyses published on the subject of workplace mistreatment and the expectation that women and racial minorities are mistreated more frequently than men and Whites, the degree of subgroup differences in perceived workplace mistreatment is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, we meta-analyzed the magnitude of sex and race differences in perceptions of workplace mistreatment (e.g., harassment, discrimination, bullying, incivility). Results indicate that women perceive more sex-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's sex) in the workplace than men (δ = .46; k = 43), whereas women and men report comparable perceptions of all other forms of mistreatment (δ = .02; k = 300). Similarly, although racial minorities perceive more race-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's race) in the workplace than Whites (δ = .71; k = 18), results indicate smaller race differences in all other forms of workplace mistreatment (δ = .10; k = 61). Results also indicate that sex and race differences have mostly decreased over time, although for some forms of mistreatment, subgroup differences have increased over time. We conclude by offering explanations for the observed subgroup differences in workplace mistreatment and outline directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from Backpage.com ( http://www.backpage.com ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold.

  19. Sex, race, and consideration of bariatric surgery among primary care patients with moderate to severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Christina C; Huskey, Karen W; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Davis, Roger B; Hamel, Marybeth

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is one of few obesity treatments to produce substantial weight loss but only a small proportion of medically-eligible patients, especially men and racial minorities, undergo bariatric surgery. To describe primary care patients' consideration of bariatric surgery, potential variation by sex and race, and factors that underlie any variation. Telephone interview of 337 patients with a body mass index or BMI > 35 kg/m(2) seen at four diverse primary care practices in Greater-Boston. Patients' consideration of bariatric surgery. Of 325 patients who had heard of bariatric surgery, 34 % had seriously considered surgery. Men were less likely than women and African Americans were less likely than Caucasian patients to have considered surgery after adjustment for sociodemographics and BMI. Comorbid conditions did not explain sex and racial differences but racial differences dissipated after adjustment for quality of life (QOL), which tended to be higher among African American than Caucasian patients. Physician recommendation of bariatric surgery was independently associated with serious consideration for surgery [OR 4.95 (95 % CI 2.81-8.70)], but did not explain variation in consideration of surgery across sex and race. However, if recommended by their doctor, men were as willing and African American and Hispanic patients were more willing to consider bariatric surgery than their respective counterparts after adjustment. Nevertheless, only 20 % of patients reported being recommended bariatric surgery by their doctor and African Americans and men were less likely to receive this recommendation; racial differences in being recommended surgery were also largely explained by differences in QOL. High perceived risk to bariatric surgery was the most commonly cited barrier; financial concerns were uncommonly cited. Single geographic region; examined consideration and not who eventually proceeded with bariatric surgery. African Americans and men were less likely to

  20. Race, space, place: notes on the racialisation and spatialisation of commercial sex work in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Pardis

    2010-11-01

    This paper focuses on the perceived racialisation and resultant spatialisation of commercial sex in Dubai. In recent years, the sex industry in Dubai has grown to include women from the Middle East, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Africa. With the increase in sex workers of different nationalities has come a form of localised racism that is embedded in structures and desires seen within specific locations. The physical spatialisation of sex work hinges on perceived race and produces distinct income generating potential for women engaged in the sex industry in Dubai. The social and physical topography of Dubai is important in marginalising or privileging these various groups of sex workers, which correlates race, space and place with rights and assistance. I begin with a description of the multidirectional flows of causality between race, space, place and demand. I then discuss how these various groups are inversely spatialised within the discourse on assistance, protection and rights. The findings presented here are based on ethnographic research conducted with transnational migrants in the UAE in 2004, 2008 and 2009.

  1. Race, Sex, and Their Influences on Introductory Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Cindy; Weaver, Michelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics or SATS was administered for three consecutive years to students in an Introductory Statistics course at Cornell University. Questions requesting demographic information and expected final course grade were added. Responses were analyzed to investigate possible differences between sexes and racial/ethnic…

  2. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  3. Sex and Race Differences in Dieting and Exercise among University Students. Research Report #3-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Paul R.; Sedlacek, William E.

    The attitudes of college students toward diet and exercise were studied, with attention to whether attitudes varied by race and sex. A survey, which included items from the Eating Attitudes Test, was administered to 727 entering freshmen: 305 white females, 286 white males, 46 black females, and 38 black males. The findings showed that diet and…

  4. Sex and Race Disparities in Health: Cohort Variations in Life Course Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lee, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses changes in sex and race disparities in health over the life course and across cohorts by conducting growth curve analyses of nationally representative longitudinal data that spans 15 years. It finds that changes in disparities in depressive symptoms, disability and self-assessments of health across the life course are…

  5. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  6. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  7. Age Stereotypes as a Function of Sex, Race, and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of race, age, sex, and vocational preference on attitudes toward older workers in a study of 125 business students. Results showed Blacks rated a younger worker more favorably and an older worker less favorably than Whites on three of four work-related dimensions. (JAC)

  8. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  9. Stability of vocational interests after recent spinal cord injury: comparisons related to sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Ricks, Jillian M

    2012-04-01

    To identify the stability of vocational interests first assessed during inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury and again an average of 834.9 days postinjury to determine the extent to which stability of interest varies as a function of race and sex. Longitudinal. Data were collected at a specialty hospital. At enrollment, participants were a minimum of 16 years of age, were currently hospitalized for inpatient rehabilitation, were less than 6 months postinjury, had residual impairment after traumatic spinal cord injury, and were either white or black, and non-Hispanic. Participants (N=304) were assessed an average ± SD of 50±26.6 days after injury and again an average ± SD of 834.9±192.7 days postinjury (averaged 785.1 d between assessments). Not applicable. The Strong Interest Inventory, a 317-item vocational interests measure. A repeated-measures general linear model was used with 4 groups based on a combination of race and sex. Significant cohort by time interactions were observed on 4 general occupational themes (investigative, artistic, enterprising, and conventional). In nearly all cases, black women showed decreases in average interest scores compared with the other groups. There was a clear pattern of change in the direction of greater homogeneity of interests over time as measured by the range of theme scores between cohorts based on sex and race. Although changes in mean interest profiles varied as a function of sex and race, less consistent differences were observed when stability coefficients were the measure of change. The direction and degree of change in mean scores for vocational interests was related to sex and race. With the exception of black women, vocational interests increased from baseline to follow-up. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Race, sex, and risk factors in radiographic worsening of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, Ernest R; Ran, Di; Ashbeck, Erin L; Ratzlaff, Charles; Kwoh, C Kent

    2018-02-01

    Characterize radiographic worsening in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by race and sex over 4 years and evaluate the role of established risk factors in observed race/sex differences. Whites (WHs) (694 males and 929 females) and African-Americans (AAs) (92 males and 167 females) at risk for radiographic KOA were eligible. Cox shared frailty models were used to estimate race and sex group differences in radiographic worsening, defined by Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) and OARSI joint space narrowing (JSN). Mixed effect models for repeated measures were used to estimate race- and sex-specific mean medial and lateral fixed joint space width (fJSW) over 4 years of follow-up, as well as annual loss of fJSW. Risk of OARSI medial JSN grade worsening was higher among AA males than WH females [HR = 2.28, (95% CI: 1.14-4.57)], though adjustment for KOA risk factors attenuated the association. Compared to WH females, WH males had lower risk of K-L grade worsening [adjusted HR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.96)]. Mean baseline medial fJSW (mm) was 6.49 in WH and AA males, 5.42 in WH females, and 5.41 in AA females. Annual change in mean medial fJSW was greater in AA males (-0.19mm/year) than in other subgroups (-0.09 WH males, -0.07 WH females, -0.10 AA females, p WHs, AAs had less lateral fJSW at baseline and throughout follow-up. Compared to WHs and AA females, AA males experienced higher risk of medial joint space loss. Controlling for established risk factors attenuated associations between race/sex and disease worsening, suggesting that risk factors such as obesity, history of knee injury, and bony finger joint enlargements largely explain race/sex variations in rates of KOA development and progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = -0.52, P marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r (2) = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) - 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.

  12. Women's Race-and Sex-Based Social Attitudes: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available How do individual differences in personality and sexuality relate to social attitudes? We contend that personality traits and sexual orientation are descriptions of underlying biases (e.g., perceptual that exert top-down influences into all of life's domains including social attitudes. The present study (N=200 women examined individual differences in sex-based and race-based social attitudes as a function of the Big Five traits, the Dark Triad traits, and sexual orientation. We found that affiliative-based motivations in the form of agreeableness, openness, and narcissism predicted the desire and tendency to affiliate with other women. We also found fear-based (i.e., neuroticism and entitlement-based (i.e., narcissism traits were associated with efforts towards political action for gender equality. We found a "go-along" disposition (i.e., agreeableness and openness was associated with greater endorsement of traditional gender roles. We replicated associations between the Big Five traits (i.e., openness and agreeableness and race-based social attitudes. Uniquely, Machiavellianism was associated with more race-based social attitudes but with diminished endorsement of traditional gender roles. And last, we suggest that experienced discrimination among bisexual women may lead them to be less likely to hold both undesirable race-based and sex-based social attitudes.

  13. Triple punishment in employment access: the role of beauty, race and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Galarza; Gustavo Yamada

    2012-01-01

    "We investigate the role of physical appearance, in addition to race and sex, in the rate of discrimination observed in the labour market of Lima. Our experimental design allows us to disentangle the effect of each of those three variables on the callback rates received by our fictitious job candidates. Since we are controlling for variables that are important in the selection process (mainly, education and job experience), our results provide better indicators of discrimination than the ones...

  14. Kinetic analysis of the function of the upper body for elite race walkers during official men 20 km walking race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoga-Miura, Koji; Ae, Michiyoshi; Fujii, Norihisa; Yokozawa, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the function of the upper extremities of elite race walkers during official 20 km races, focusing on the angular momentum about the vertical axis and other parameters of the upper extremities. Sixteen walkers were analysed using the three-dimensional direct linear transformation method during three official men's 20 km walking races. The subjects, included participants at the Olympics and World Championships, who finished without disqualification and had not been disqualified during the two years prior to or following the races analysed in the present study. The angular momenta of the upper and lower body were counterbalanced as in running and normal walking. The momentum of the upper body was mainly generated by the upper extremities. The joint force moment of the right shoulder and the joint torque at the left shoulder just before right toe-off were significantly correlated with the walking speed. These were counterbalanced by other moments and torques to the torso torque, which worked to obtain a large mechanical energy flow from the recovery leg to the support leg in the final phase of the support phase. Therefore, a function of the shoulder torque was to counterbalance the torso torque to gain a fast walking speed with substantial mechanical energy flow.

  15. Diversity based on race, ethnicity, and sex, of the US radiation oncology physician workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christina H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; Pworkforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influences of Sex, Race, and Prior Reading Ability on Newspaper Reading Skill Improvement in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Charles

    This study uses the revised modules of a previous study of the effects of newspapers in elementary schools to determine the effects of the modules and newspaper use in general, as well as to determine whether the variables of sex, race, prior reading ability, and same or opposite race of teacher and student influenced results. The study was…

  17. The ARIC-PET amyloid imaging study: Brain amyloid differences by age, race, sex, and APOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Schneider, Andrea L C; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Xueqi; Green, Edward; Gupta, Naresh; Knopman, David S; Mintz, Akiva; Rahmim, Arman; Sharrett, A Richey; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Wong, Dean F; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-08-02

    To evaluate differences in amyloid deposition in a community-based cohort without dementia by age, sex, race, education, and APOE ε4 allele status. Recruited from the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, 329 participants without dementia, ages 67-88 years, were imaged using florbetapir PET at 3 US community sites (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi). Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated; global cortical SUVR >1.2 was evaluated as the primary outcome. Age, race, sex, education level, and number of APOE ε4 alleles were evaluated in multivariable models including vascular risk factors, brain white matter hyperintensity and total intracranial volume, and cognitive status. A total of 141 of the participants (43%) were black. In multivariable models, odds of elevated SUVR was increased in participants with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.65 per 10 years of age) and black race (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.23-3.51) but did not differ by educational level. Each ε4 allele was associated with increased odds of elevated SUVR (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.61-4.39). In this community-based cohort without dementia, florbetapir uptake is associated with older age and APOE genotype. Black race was associated with higher SUVR, after adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, cognitive status, white matter hyperintensity volume, and APOE genotype, with effect sizes nearing those seen for APOE ε4. Replication of these findings is needed in other cohorts, and reasons for and consequences of these observed differences by race warrant further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  19. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  20. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  1. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  2. Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social Capital at Home and at School*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731

  3. Pregravid hypertension may have different secondary sex ratio effects in different races in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Males are born in excess of females and the ratio is expressed as M/F (male/female births=secondary sex ratio, also known as secondary sex ratio). This is expected to approximate 1.048. Racial M/F disparities are known. A recent study in China showed that pregravid systolic hypertension is higher in women who delivered a boy than in those who had a girl. This study was carried out in order to identify the effect of pregravid hypertension in the United States on M/F by race. Monthly male and female live births by race for the entire US along with the presence/absence of hypertension were obtained from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2007-2015 for the four racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American and White. This study analysed 36,364,253 live births. For White births, mothers who had chronic hypertension were likelier to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.003). Conversely, Black or African American mothers who had hypertension were less likely to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.022). There were F differences for/F differences for the presence or absence of hypertension for the other two races or for the total. It is possible that hypothesised innate interracial periconceptual hormonal differences may modulate M/F responses to hypertension in different races. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in common psychoacoustical tasks by sex, menstrual cycle, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G; Maloney, Mindy M; Leshikar, Erin M; Pho, Michelle H

    2018-04-01

    The psychoacoustical literature contains multiple reports about small differences in performance depending upon the sex and phase of the menstrual cycle of the subjects. In an attempt to verify these past reports, a large-scale study was implemented. After extensive training, the performance of about 75 listeners was measured on seven common psychoacoustical tasks. For most tasks, the signal was a 3.0-kHz tone. The initial data analyses failed to confirm some past outcomes. Additional analyses, incorporating the limited information available about the racial background of the listeners, did confirm some of the past reports, with the direction and magnitude of the differences often diverging for the White and Non-White listeners. Sex differences and race differences interacted for six of the seven tasks studied. These interactions suggest that racial background needs to be considered when making generalizations about human auditory performance, and when considering failures of reproducibility across studies. Menstrual differences were small, but generally larger for Whites than Non-Whites. Hormonal effects may be responsible for the sex and cycle differences that do exist, and differences in intra-cochlear melanocytes may account for the race differences.

  5. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  6. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  7. Body as Danger: Gender, Race and Body in Toni Morrison's Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-hua Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p115 This paper aims at tackling the question as to why Sula as a social nonconformist and sexual dissident ends up as an avatar of evil, a powerless victim of witch-hunt and eventually a scapegoat for the decline and misfortunes of her community. To facilitate this critical task, this paper shall irst apply Michel Foucault’s genealogy of “the body as the bearer of pleasure and desire” as laid out in Abnormal to illustrate that Christian folks in Sula’s community interpret Sula’s nonconformity as evil and treat her as a danger to their social order. Thus, this paper argues that the black folks’ ostracism of Sula betokens their mass hysteria and witch-hunt to exorcise their community of danger and evil. Moreover, this paper suggests that Sula is gendered and racialized as a black witch and symbolically executed. In conclusion, this paper contends that an identiication of body with lesh, a phallocentric gender ideology and race bias converge into the black folk’s association of Sula with a witch and a danger and their subsequent victimization of sula as a scapegoat for all the misfortunes of their community.

  8. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Vocational interests after recent spinal cord injury: comparisons related to sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Saunders, Lee L; Staten, David; Rohe, Daniel E

    2011-04-01

    To compare vocational interests as a function of sex and race among persons with recent spinal cord injury (SCI), because previous research used almost exclusively white men. Limited research from nearly 2 decades ago suggested SCI selectively occurs to men whose vocational interests are consistent with the Realistic theme of the Holland typology, indicative of a preference for activities and occupations requiring physical strength and dexterity. The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) was completed an average of 50 days after SCI onset. Data were collected at a specialty hospital and analyzed at a medical university. Adults with traumatic SCI (N=500) were assessed during inpatient rehabilitation. Not applicable. The SII, a 317-item measure of vocational interests. Although the findings for white men were consistent with elevation of the Realistic theme when compared with the reference group, the interests of women and black participants were substantially different. Women scored highest on Social, Enterprising, and Conventional themes compared with the reference group. Black participants reported significantly higher elevations than whites on 5 themes (all except Realistic), with elevations on the Social, Enterprising, and Conventional themes exceeding standardized norms. The Artistic and Investigative themes were least descriptive of the overall sample. Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of likely differences in patterns of vocational interests as a function of race and sex, and use vocational interests as a means of facilitating postinjury adaptation. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disability Prevalence According to a Class, Race, and Sex (CSR) Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata.

  11. Food Insecurity and Pre-diabetes in Adults: Race/Ethnic and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Reesor, Layton M; Scott, Claudia W; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-07-01

    We examined sex and race/ethnicity differences in the association between food insecurity status and prediabetes among adults. We used cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data on non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults aged 18-59 years whose household income was ≤ 299% Federal Poverty Line (N = 19,048). Food insecurity status was determined by 3 or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale. Pre-diabetes was self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations of food insecurity with pre-diabetes and adjusted for several demographic characteristics. All models were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, food insecure non-Hispanic white women and non-Hispanic black women had 53% and over 200% higher odds of being pre-diabetic, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to pre-diabetes for Hispanic women or men. Limited food resources appear to place non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women at risk for pre-diabetes. Linking food assistance programs with community-based health education programs may be a comprehensive approach to support those who are food insecure with diabetes prevention.

  12. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  14. National Differences in Trends for Heart Failure Hospitalizations by Sex and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Kominski, Gerald F; Ong, Michael K; Mays, Vickie M; Brook, Robert H; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2017-07-01

    National heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates have not been appropriately age standardized by sex or race/ethnicity. Reporting hospital utilization trends by subgroup is important for monitoring population health and developing interventions to eliminate disparities. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to estimate the crude and age-standardized rates of HF hospitalization between 2002 and 2013 by sex and race/ethnicity. Direct standardization was used to age-standardize rates to the 2000 US standard population. Relative differences between subgroups were reported. The national age-adjusted HF hospitalization rate decreased 30.8% from 526.86 to 364.66 per 100 000 between 2002 and 2013. Although hospitalizations decreased for all subgroups, the ratio of the age-standardized rate for men compared with women increased from 20% greater to 39% ( P trend=0.002) between 2002 and 2013. Black men had a rate that was 229% ( P trend=0.141) and black women, 240% ( P trend=0.725) with reference to whites in 2013 with no significant change between 2002 and 2013. Hispanic men had a rate that was 32% greater in 2002 and the difference narrowed to 4% ( P trend=0.047) greater in 2013 relative to whites. For Hispanic women, the rate was 55% greater in 2002 and narrowed to 8% greater ( P trend=0.004) in 2013 relative to whites. Asian/Pacific Islander men had a 27% lower rate in 2002 that improved to 43% ( P trend=0.040) lower in 2013 relative to whites. For Asian/Pacific Islander women, the hospitalization rate was 24% lower in 2002 and improved to 43% ( P trend=0.021) lower in 2013 relative to whites. National HF hospitalization rates have decreased steadily during the recent decade. Disparities in HF burden and hospital utilization by sex and race/ethnicity persist. Significant population health interventions are needed to reduce the HF hospitalization burden among blacks. An evaluation of factors explaining the improvements in the HF hospitalization rates among

  15. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  16. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans: 1. Race, sex, and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzke, J F; Beebe, G W; Norman, J E

    1979-09-01

    Five thousand three hundred five World War II and Korean conflict veterans who have been compensated by the Veterans Administration for multiple sclerosis (MS) were matched to controls on the basis of age, date of entry into military service, and branch of service. Case/control ratios for white males, white females, and black males were 1.04, 1.86, and 0.45, respectively. The coterminous 48 states, divided into three tiers on the basis of latitude, exhibited the well-known north-south gradient in risk: For all races and both sexes, case/control ratios were 1.41, 1.00, and 0.53 for the North, Middle, and South tiers. Both white females and black males showed this same north-to-south variation in risk. The case/control ratio for males of races other than black or white was 0.23, with possible deficits in risk for American Indians and Japanese-Americans. Filipinos and Hawaiian Japanese were significantly low-risk groups. These findings suggest that both a racial and a possibly genetic predisposition, as well as a geographically determined differential exposure to an environmental agent, are related to the risk of MS.

  17. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  18. An Overview of Age, Sex and Race Determination from Teeth and Skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Forensic dentistry represents the overlap between the dental and legal professions. Throughout this century, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search for identity of individual remains. Dental maturity has played an important role in estimating the chronological age of individuals. Age estimation is a sub-discipline of the forensic sciences and should be an important part of every identification process, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Forensic dentist helps in identification of deceased victims by age, sex and race determination from teeth and skull. Since the scope of forensic odontology is very broad and challenging, dental surgeons trained in forensic odontology can make unique contributions in the administration of justice, which is the key note of democracy.

  19. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  20. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  1. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  2. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a

  3. The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, Ilsa L.; Kuriloff, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of gender, race, religion, and political orientation on 4 sex role measures among 556 first-year college students. Liberals as compared to conservatives and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality,…

  4. Sex differences in association of race performance, skin-fold thicknesses, and training variables for recreational half-marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between selected skin-fold thicknesses and training variables with a half-marathon race time, for both male and female recreational runners, using bi- and multivariate analysis. In 52 men, two skin-fold thicknesses (abdominal and calf) were significantly and positively correlated with race time; whereas in 15 women, five (pectoral, mid-axilla, subscapular, abdominal, and suprailiac) showed positive and significant relations with total race time. In men, the mean weekly running distance, minimum distance run per week, maximum distance run per week, mean weekly hours of running, number of running training sessions per week, and mean speed of the training sessions were significantly and negatively related to total race time, but not in women. Interaction analyses suggested that race time was more strongly associated with anthropometry in women than men. Race time for the women was independently associated with the sum of eight skin-folds; but for the men, only the mean speed during training sessions was independently associated. Skin-fold thicknesses and training variables in these groups were differently related to race time according to their sex.

  5. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

    2014-07-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Biometric gonioscopy and the effects of age, race, and sex on the anterior chamber angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; Foster, P J; Wamsley, S; Gutmark, J; Nolan, W; Seah, S K; Johnson, G J; Broman, A T

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To utilise a novel method for making measurements in the anterior chamber in order to compare the anterior chamber angles of people of European, African, and east Asian descent aged 40 years and over. Methods: A cross sectional study on 15 people of each sex from each decade from the 40s to the 70s, from each of three racial groups—black, white, and Chinese Singaporeans. Biometric gonioscopy (BG) utilises a slit lamp mounted reticule to make measurements from the apparent iris insertion to Schwalbe's line through a Goldmann one mirror goniolens. The main outcome measures were BG measurements of the anterior chamber angle as detailed above. Results: There was no significant difference in angle measurement between black, white, and Chinese races in this study. However, at younger ages people of Chinese race appeared to have deeper angles than white or black people, whereas the angles of older Chinese were significantly narrower (p = 0.004 for the difference in slope of BG by age between Chinese and both black and white people). Conclusion: The failure to detect a difference in angle measurements between these groups was surprising, given the much higher prevalence of angle closure among Chinese. It appears that the overall apparent similarity of BG means between Chinese and Western populations may mask very different trends with age. The apparently more rapid decline in angle width measurements with age among Chinese may be due to the higher prevalence of cataract or “creeping angle closure.” However, longitudinal inferences from cross sectional data are problematic, and this may represent a cohort phenomenon caused by the increasing prevalence of myopia in the younger Singaporean population. PMID:11801496

  7. Race and Sex Differences in Post-Myocardial Infarction Angina Frequency and Risk of 1-Year Unplanned Rehospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Connie N; Kaltenbach, Lisa A; Doll, Jacob A; Cohen, David J; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2017-02-07

    Race and sex disparities in in-hospital treatment and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have been described, but little is known about race and sex differences in post-MI angina and long-term risk of unplanned rehospitalization. We examined race and sex differences in post-MI angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization to identify factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization, testing for whether race and sex modify these relationships. Using TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome) data, we examined 6-week and 1-year angina frequency and 1-year unplanned rehospitalization stratified by race and sex among MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with unplanned rehospitalization and tested for interactions among angina frequency, race, and sex. A total of 11 595 MI patients survived to 1 year postdischarge; there were 66.6% white male patients, 24.3% white female patients, 5.3% black male patients, and 3.8% black female patients. Overall, 29.7% had angina at 6 weeks, and 20.6% had angina at 1 year postdischarge. Relative to white patients, black patients were more likely to have angina at 6 weeks (female: 44.2% versus 31.8%; male: 33.5% versus 27.1%; both Prace or sex (adjusted 3-way P interaction =0.41). One-fifth of MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention report 1-year postdischarge angina, with black and female patients more likely to have angina and to be rehospitalized. Better treatment of post-MI angina may improve patient quality of life and quality of care and help to lower rates of rehospitalization overall and particularly among black and female patients, given their high prevalence of post-MI angina. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01088503. © 2017 American

  8. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  9. Transformation of lipid bodies related to hydrocarbon accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race B.

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    Reiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available The colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii accumulates large quantities of hydrocarbons mainly in the extracellular space; most other oleaginous microalgae store lipids in the cytoplasm. Botryococcus braunii is classified into three principal races (A, B, and L based on the types of hydrocarbons. Race B has attracted the most attention as an alternative to petroleum by its higher hydrocarbon contents than the other races and its hydrocarbon components, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes, both can be readily converted into biofuels. We studied race B using fluorescence and electron microscopy, and clarify the stage when extracellular hydrocarbon accumulation occurs during the cell cycle, in a correlation with the behavior and structural changes of the lipid bodies and discussed development of the algal colony. New accumulation of lipids on the cell surface occurred after cell division in the basolateral region of daughter cells. While lipid bodies were observed throughout the cell cycle, their size and inclusions were dynamically changing. When cells began dividing, the lipid bodies increased in size and inclusions until the extracellular accumulation of lipids started. Most of the lipids disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the extracellular accumulation, and then reformed. We therefore hypothesize that lipid bodies produced during the growth of B. braunii are related to lipid secretion. New lipids secreted at the cell surface formed layers of oil droplets, to a maximum depth of six layers, and fused to form flattened, continuous sheets. The sheets that combined a pair of daughter cells remained during successive cellular divisions and the colony increased in size with increasing number of cells.

  10. Sex and race/ethnic disparities in the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and muscle mass: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leuotsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-09-18

    The cross-sectional area of total muscle mass has been reported to decrease by about 40% for those 20-60 years of age. Depressive symptoms may discourage motivation to engage in physical activity such as strength training shown to negate muscle loss. Inflammation related to depressive symptoms may also contribute to muscle atrophy. Physiological differences by sex and race/ethnicity may also modify the association between depression and muscle mass. Evidence on the relationship between depression (or depressive symptoms) and adiposity has been mounting; however, little is known about the depressive symptoms-muscle mass association. We sought to determine the association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and lean muscle mass and whether this varies by sex and race/ethnicity. Evaluating 1605 adults (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Abdominal Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between EDS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale score≥16 and/or antidepressant use) and computed tomography-measured abdominal lean muscle mass using linear regression. Muscles were evaluated as a whole and by functionality (locomotion vs. stabilization/posture). Covariates included height, body mass index, sociodemographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and health behaviors (pack-years of smoking, alcohol locomotion compared to men, total intentional exercise, daily caloric intake). Sex and race/ethnicity were assessed as potential modifiers. Statistical significance was at a pdepressive symptoms had 5.9 cm2 lower lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to men without EDS, fully-adjusted (CI=-10.5, -1.4, p=0.011). This was statistically significantly different from the null finding among women (interaction p=0.05). Chinese participants with EDS had 10.2 cm2 lower abdominal lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to those without EDS (fully

  11. The Development of Sex Category Representation in Infancy: Matching of Faces and Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Alyson; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a significant social category, and adults derive information about it from both faces and bodies. Research indicates that young infants process sex category information in faces. However, no prior study has examined whether infants derive sex categories from bodies and match faces and bodies in terms of sex. In the current study,…

  12. On the Threshold of Discrimination: the Burden of Sex and Race Attributes in Brazil (1989- 1999

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    Ciro Biderman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is characterized by high levels of income inequality between blacks and whites, men and women. To undertake a solid analysis of the level of discrimination which prevails in the labor market, we sought, in this paper, to control the effects of individual attributes (such as age and schooling and of workplace characteristics (formal labor relations, geographical location and job ladder position. Based on a comparison between two microdata sources provided by PNAD (National Research by Domicile Sampling, relative to the years of 1989 and 1999, it was possible to establish three different results. In the first place, it was perceived that, in relation to women, market discrimination is even higher than that measured by the mere difference between their income and the income of men; in relation to black men and women, the net effect which could be attributed to income discrimination does not appear as high, since other, and at times more important, factors act simultaneously, explaining the significant salary differences which distinguish them from white workers. In the second place, it was observed that the 1990’s usher a reduction in the intensity with which factors connected to race and sex discrimination affect such inequalities; this reduction, however, is still small, deriving mainly from the important losses in the average salary of men, especially white men. In the third place, when observed in relation to the different positions in income distribution, inequality determinants vary in importantce, and factors related to sex and color discrimination appear as the most decisive, especially among women and blacks who may reach top positions in the social ladder.

  13. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

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    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  14. Assessment of Sex Differences in Body Composition Among Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Golden, Neville H; Peebles, Rebecka; Long, Jin; Murray, Stuart B; Leonard, Mary B; Carlson, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    To compare deficits in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LM) among male and female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other covariates associated with body composition. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all subjects aged 9-20 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of AN and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans after initial evaluation at Stanford between March 1997 and February 2011. From the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, LM and FM results were converted to age-, height-, sex-, and race-specific Z-scores for age using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference data. A total of 16 boys and 119 girls with AN met eligibility criteria. The FM Z-score in girls with AN (-3.24 ± 1.50) was significantly lower than that in boys with AN (-2.41 ± .96) in unadjusted models (p = .007). LM was reduced in both girls and boys with AN, but there was no significant sex difference in LM Z-scores. In multivariate models, lower percentage median body mass index was significantly associated with lower FM Z-scores (β = .08, p Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Minority race and male sex as risk factors for non-beneficial gastrostomy tube placements after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Roland; Carrese, Joseph A; Cooper, Lisa A; Urrutia, Victor C; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding after stroke; however, PEG tubes placed in patients in whom death is imminent are considered non-beneficial. We sought to determine whether placement of non-beneficial PEG tubes differs by race and sex. In this retrospective cohort study, inpatient admissions for stroke patients who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharged to hospice, or died during the hospitalization, were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between race and sex with PEG placement. Of 36,109 stroke admissions who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharge to hospice, or experienced in-hospital death, a PEG was placed in 2,258 (6.3%). Among PEG recipients 41.1% were of a race other than white, while only 22.0% of patients without PEG were of a minority race (prace was associated with PEG placement compared to whites (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.57-1.96), and men had 1.27 times higher odds of PEG compared to women (95% CI 1.16-1.40). Racial differences were most pronounced among women: ethnic/racial minority women had over 2-fold higher odds of a PEG compared to their white counterparts (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.81-2.41), while male ethnic/racial minority patients had 1.44 increased odds of a PEG when compared to white men (95% CI 1.24-1.67, p-value for interaction race and male sex are risk factors for non-beneficial PEG tube placements after stroke.

  16. Body, sex and subversion: reflections on two queer theoreticians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Gomes Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to present two important queer theoreticians, Beatriz Preciado and Marie-Hélène Bourcier. After outlining their work and highlighting their definitions of sex and gender, I discuss the centrality of the body in the general economy of their works. I conclude by posing some questions, in which I emphasize the urgency of inquiring into the various vectors of differences that result from inequalities and exclusions.

  17. Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R

    2014-09-01

    To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

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    Barandun U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results: After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β=-0.52, P<0.0001 and percent body fat (β=0.27, P <0.0001 were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44: race time (minutes = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, % – 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours. Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r=0.33, P=0.0002. The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics.Conclusion: The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners.Keywords: body fat, skinfold thickness, anthropometry, endurance, athlete

  19. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  20. The Effects of Sex, Race, IQ and SES on the Reading Scores of Sixth Graders for Both Levels and Gains in Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the effects of sex, race, socioeconomic status, and intelligence upon the reading achievement test scores of sixth-grade pupils in one school district. Differential effects were found. (Author)

  1. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  3. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-05-01

    To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these subpopulations is important as population averages may mask important differences. 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N = 14,092) were used. Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 vs. 200 kcal). The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within subgroups accounting for age, weight, and race/ethnicity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  5. Sex-related differences in atrial fibrillation: Data from the RACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, M.; Van Gelder, I.C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rate control treatment versus sinus rhythm restoration and maintenance in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation in a substudy of the Rate Control Versus Electrical Cardioversion (RACE) trial. Rhythm control treatment was associated with greater cardiovascular

  6. Person (mis)perception: functionally biased sex categorization of bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Iida, Masumi; Tassinary, Louis G

    2012-12-22

    Social perception is among the most important tasks that occur in daily life, and perceivers readily appreciate the social affordances of others. Here, we demonstrate that sex categorizations are functionally biased towards a male percept. Perceivers judged body shapes that varied in waist-to-hip ratio to be men if they were not, in reality, exclusive to women, and male categorizations occurred more quickly than female categorizations (studies 1 and 4). This pattern was corroborated when participants identified the average body shapes of men and women (study 2) and when we assessed participants' cognitive representations (study 3). Moreover, these tendencies were modulated by emotion context (study 4). Thus, male categorizations occurred readily and rapidly, demonstrating a pronounced categorization bias and temporal advantage for male judgements.

  7. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Rašiti Naser; Vlora Ajvazi; Adem Nura; Halim Hajredini

    2011-01-01

    The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94...

  8. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

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    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  9. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  10. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  11. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Molla, Michael T; Truman, Benedict I; Athar, Heba; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yoon, Paula W

    2015-09-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) varies among demographic segments of the US population and by geography. To quantify that variation, we estimated the national and regional HLE for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region in 2008. National HLEs were calculated using the published 2008 life table and the self-reported health status data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Regional HLEs were calculated using the combined 2007-09 mortality, population and NHIS health status data. In 2008, HLE in the USA varied significantly by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions. At 25 years of age, HLE for females was 47.3 years and ∼2.9 years greater than that for males at 44.4 years. HLE for non-Hispanic white adults was 2.6 years greater than that for Hispanic adults and 7.8 years greater than that for non-Hispanic black adults. By region, the Northeast had the longest HLE and the South had the shortest. The HLE estimates in this report can be used to monitor trends in the health of populations, compare estimates across populations and identify health inequalities that require attention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Intersections of poverty, race/ethnicity, and sex: Alcohol consumption and adverse outcomes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Joseph E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Gattis, Maurice; Joo, Young Sun; Nelson, Jennifer C.; Williams, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether intersectionality theory—which formalizes the notion that adverse health outcomes owing to having a marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic, may be magnified for individuals with an additional marginalized social status, identity, or characteristic —can be applied using quantitative methods to describe the differential effects of poverty on alcohol consumption across sex and race/ethnicity. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we analyze longitudinal data from Black, Hispanic, and White drinkers (n = 21,140) to assess multiplicative interactions between poverty, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, sex, and race/ethnicity, on adverse alcohol outcomes. Findings indicated that the effect of poverty on the past-year incidence of heavy episodic drinking was stronger among Black men and Black women in comparison to men and women of other racial/ethnic groups. Poverty reduction programs that are culturally informed may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the adverse outcomes of alcohol consumption. PMID:28349171

  13. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anne J; Hall, Emily J

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs. The effects of canine characteristics (e.g. gender, coat colour) were explored in order to identify factors that could increase the risk of exercise-induced hyperthermia (defined as body temperature exceeding the upper normal limit of 38.8°C).108 dogs were recruited from 10 race days, where ambient conditions ranged from - 5 to 11°C measured as universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). 281 post race tympanic membrane temperatures were recorded, ranging from 37.0-42.5°C. There was a weak correlation between speed and post-race temperature (r = 0.269, P temperature was found, the proportion of dogs developing exercise-induced hyperthermia during the race increased with UTCI (r = 0.688, P = 0.028). Male dogs (χ(1) = 18.286, P dogs (χ(2) = 8.234, P = 0.014), were significantly more likely to finish the race with a temperature exceeding 40.6°C. Prolonged elevati°n of body temperature above this temperature is likely to cause heatstroke. At every race dogs exceeded this critical temperature, with 10.7% (n = 30) of the overall study population exceeding this temperature throughout the study period. The results suggest male dogs, dark coloured dogs, and increased speed of running all increase the risk of heatstroke in racing canicross dogs. Further research is required to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on post-race cooling, to better understand safe running conditions for dogs. Copyright © 2017

  14. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  15. Race-related differences in depression onset and recovery in older persons over time: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, L.C.; Thorpe, R.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Yaffe, K.; Wakefield, D.; Ayonayon, H.N.; Satterfield, S.; Newman, A.B.; Simonsick, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate race-related differences in depression onset and recovery in older persons, overall and by sex, and examine race-related differences in mortality according to depression. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: General community in pre-designated zip code areas in Memphis,

  16. Differential environmental exposure among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity variables: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravartty, Dolon; Wiseman, Clare L S; Cole, Donald C

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent, range and types of studies of differential environmental chemical exposures among non-Indigenous Canadians as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. Computerized database searches were performed from November to December 2013 using Medline, Embase, CAB Abstracts, Proquest and Scopus to identify relevant studies of environmental exposures among non-Indigenous adults aged ≥18 years in Canada published between 1993 and 2013. Articles were identified for full-text review based on a screening of titles and abstracts and were excluded during this initial review if they focused on environmental exposures in the following populations: 1) Indigenous populations, 2) individuals <15 years of age, 3) pregnant women and associated negative birth outcomes, or 4) non-Canadian populations. Articles were also excluded if the primary focus was on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, non-chemical occupational hazards, infectious diseases, noise and/or radiation. A full-text review of 78 identified articles systematically assessed how sex/gender and race/ethnicity were considered. Although 59% of studies stratified results by sex, less than half of these offered any explanation of differential exposures. Eighteen of the 78 studies (23%) used terms related to race/ethnicity in their participant descriptions. Of the studies that conducted subgroup analyses of exposure results by race/ethnicity (n=15), a total of 8 also included subgroup analysis by sex. Overall, 3 of the 78 (3%) articles reviewed analyzed environmental exposures as a function of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. The role of sex/gender and race/ethnicity in influencing environmental exposure levels among non-Indigenous Canadians has not been adequately addressed to date.

  17. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  18. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun,; Knechtle,Patrizia; Klipstein,; Rüst,Christoph Alexander; Rosemann,Thomas; Lepers,Romuald

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  20. HIV prevalence by race co-varies closely with concurrency and number of sex partners in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence differs by more than an order of magnitude between South Africa's racial groups. Comparing the sexual behaviors and other risk factors for HIV transmission between the different races may shed light on the determinants of South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. METHODS: Five nationally representative and one city-representative population-based surveys of sexual behavior were used to assess the extent to which various risk factors co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in South Africa. RESULTS: In 2004, the prevalence of HIV was 0.5%, 1%, 3.2% and 19.9% in 15-49 year old whites, Indians, coloureds and blacks respectively. The risk factors which co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in the six surveys were age of sexual debut (in five out of five surveys for men and three out of six surveys for women, age gap (zero surveys in men and three in women, mean number of sex partners in the previous year (five surveys in men and three in women and concurrent partnerships (five surveys in men and one in women. Condom usage and circumcision were both more prevalent in the high HIV prevalence groups. The reported prevalence of concurrency was 6 to 17 times higher in the black as opposed to the white men in the five surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in sexual behavior in general, and the prevalence of concurrency and the number of sexual partners in particular, offer a plausible and parsimonious cause to explain a part of the differing prevalences of HIV between South Africa's racial groups.

  1. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  2. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Rašiti Naser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94 kg, with the average height of 168.98 cm, at the average age of 29.75, with the achieved average result of 2:13.23 hours in the race. In the intercorrelation matrix only one significant coefficient of correlation is obtained (p<0.001 between the body height and body weight. By the regressive analysis the influence of the predictory variables (height, weight and age on the criteria variable – sig. =0, 21 (the result of the marathon is not confirmed, which provides only 15% (RO²=.302 of analysis in the common ground of variability. The rest of 91% in analysing the total variability of the criteria variable can be ascribed to some other anthropologic characteristics, and mainly to the functional characteristics of anaerobic type.

  4. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G

    2002-07-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  5. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  6. Monitoring dose-length product in computed tomography of the chest considering sex and body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Naomichi; Hanawa, Hironori; Hata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Dose-length product (DLP) is widely used as an indicator of the radiation dose in computed tomography. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of sex and body weight in DLP-based monitoring of the radiation dose. Eight hundred computed tomographies of the chest performed using four different scanners were analysed. The DLP was compared with body weight by linear regression in men and women separately. The DLP was positively correlated with body weight, and dependence on sex and weight differed among scanners. Standard DLP values adjusted for sex and weight facilitated inter-scanner comparison of the radiation dose and its dependence on sex and weight. Adjusting the DLP for sex and weight allowed one to identify examinations with possibly excessive doses independently of weight. Monitoring the DLP in relation to sex and body weight appears to aid detailed comparison of the radiation dose among imaging protocols and scanners and daily observations to find unexpected variance. (authors)

  7. Male sex, African American race or ethnicity, and triiodothyronine levels at diagnosis predict weight gain after antithyroid medication and radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Miguel A; Loken, Won Mee J; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Safer, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether racial or ethnic differences affect weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism and to reassess established risk factors such as sex, age, and cause of hyperthyroidism. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 111 patients treated with radioiodine (RAI) for hyperthyroidism, with or without preceding antithyroid medication, during 2002 to 2005. We ascertained age, sex, race or ethnicity, insurance status, compliance with visits, serum triiodothyronine (T3) level at diagnosis, and cause of hyperthyroidism. Weights and serum thyroidstimulating hormone levels were obtained at diagnosis, at time of RAI therapy, and at 0 to 4 months, 4 to 8 months, 8 to 12 months, and 24 months after RAI treatment. There was a significant weight increase after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Levels of T3 at initial diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, male sex, and black or Hispanic ethnicity were found to be independent predictors of weight gain after RAI treatment. We found a significant interaction between race or ethnicity and sex in multivariate models. There was no difference in thyroid function across racial or ethnic groups or the sexes. Age, cause of hyperthyroidism, posttreatment thyroid-stimulating hormone level, compliance, and insurance status were not found to be significant predictors of weight gain. The T3 level at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is a strong predictor of weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Black race or ethnicity and male sex are also risk factors for weight gain.

  8. More Men Run Relatively Fast in U.S. Road Races, 1981–2006: A Stable Sex Difference in Non-Elite Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Deaner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that more men than women run fast relative to sex-specific world records and that this sex difference has been historically stable in elite U.S. runners. These findings have been hypothesized to reflect an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness in “show-off” domains. The current study tests this hypothesis in non-elite runners by analyzing 342 road races that occurred from 1981–2006, most in or near Buffalo, NY. Both absolutely and as a percentage of same-sex finishers, more men ran relatively fast in most races. During the 1980s, as female participation surged, the difference in the absolute number of relatively fast men and women decreased. However, this difference was stable for races that occurred after 1993. Since then, in any given race, about three to four times as many men as women ran relatively fast. The stable sex difference in relative performance shown here for non-elites constitutes new support for the hypothesis of an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness.

  9. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  10. The Relationship of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children to Sex, Race, and Fluid-Crystallized Intelligence on the KAIT at Ages 11 to 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…

  11. Detailed Occupation and Years of School Completed by Age, for the Civilian Labor Force by Sex, Race, and Spanish Origin: 1980 Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, John A.; And Others

    The report presents tabular data on occupation and years of school completed by age for the civilian labor force, by sex, race and Spanish origin, obtained from the 1980 Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File. All tables list males and females separately for each category. Table 1 lists totals for 613 labor force categories, then…

  12. Race/Ethnic Differences in Desired Body Mass Index and Dieting Practices Among Young Women Attending College in Hawai‘i

    OpenAIRE

    Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native ...

  13. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  14. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Salter; Selda Dagistanli

    2015-01-01

    Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ...

  15. Assessing the potential for an ongoing arms race within and between the sexes: selection and heritable variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Urban; Lew, Timothy A; Byrne, Phillip G; Rice, William R

    2005-07-01

    male defense, but we found substantial intersexual conflict in the context of male offensive sperm competitive ability. These results indicate that conflict between competing males also promotes an associated arms race between the sexes.

  16. Race, Sex, and Discrimination in School Settings: A Multilevel Analysis of Associations with Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Brittany D.; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical phase of development and experimentation with delinquent behaviors. There is a growing body of literature exploring individual and structural impacts of discrimination on health outcomes and delinquent behaviors. However, there is limited research assessing how school diversity and discrimination impact…

  17. 'Not that cheapo China con-job': Alterity, Race and Same Sex Desire in 'Jarum Halus', a Malaysian Film Adaptation of 'Othello'

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Mark Thornton

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses Jarum Halus (dir. Mark Tan, 2008), a Malaysian film adaptation of Othello, in terms of interlinked figures of difference and alterity. In particular, the essay argues that the film “translates” Shakespeare in such a way as to understand race and same-sex desire as urgently linked thematics. As Chinese, Daniel/Othello functions as the central figure of alterity, with the film highlighting the extent to which his non-Malay status reflects back on discourses of race inside c...

  18. Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: why we should measure them all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yukiko; Whipp, Alyce; Kindig, David; Billard, Beverly; Rudolph, Barbara

    2014-06-13

    Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and comparable manner. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of large, publicly available data, 2008, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) and 2008, 2009, and 2010 United States Birth Records from the National Vital Statistics System. The study population is American adults older than 25 years of age residing in the selected 93 counties, representing about 30% of the US population, roughly equally covering all geographic regions of the country. Main outcome measures are: (1) Attribute (group characteristic)-specific inequality: education-, sex-, or race-specific inequality in each of the four health outcomes (poor or fair health, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, and low birthweight) in each county; (2) Overall inequality: the average of these three attribute-specific inequalities for each health outcome in each county; and (3) Summary inequality in total morbidity: the weighted average of the overall inequalities across the four health outcomes in each county. The range of inequality across the counties differed considerably by health outcome; inequality in poor or fair health had the widest range and the highest median among inequalities in all health outcomes. In more than 70% of the counties, education-specific inequality was the largest in all health outcomes except for low birthweight. It is feasible to extend population health reporting to include reporting of a subpopulation group

  19. Race-Based Sexual Stereotypes and their Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior in Racially-Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially-diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks. PMID:26116010

  20. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  1. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  2. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2000-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  3. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2002-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  4. Body Fat Phenotypes, Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer Risk in Post Manopausal African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Junaidah

    2001-01-01

    ... in this country, with very little known about their sex hormone profile. Recent findings have suggested that body fat distribution may be a better marker for breast cancer risk than degree of obesity...

  5. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A

    2009-01-27

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether age-sex-specific percentiles of coronary artery calcium (CAC) predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. The presence and extent of CAC correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 asymptomatic participants followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled with Cox regression, and we compared models with percentiles based on age, sex, and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used (0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, 400+ Agatston units). There were 163 (2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age- and sex-specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) than when using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76, p = 0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77, p better model fit with the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events (>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.30 to 28.9, and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6, 95% CI: 11.8 to 36.0). Within groups based on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low-risk, regardless of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-, sex-, and race

  7. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  8. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  9. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  10. Race/ethnic differences in desired body mass index and dieting practices among young women attending college in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.

  11. Season, sex and age variation in the haematology and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body condition and haematological indices provide powerful information when assessing wildlife health. Reference intervals for these indices can facilitate wildlife management, and would benefit initiatives to save the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus). We collected data from 126 ...

  12. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  13. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  14. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  15. Disparities in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment according to weight status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Lipson, S K

    2018-03-02

    Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment. Using large-scale survey data from the healthy bodies study, we examined variations in prevalence of perceived need for ED treatment, ED diagnosis, past-year ED treatment, and treatment barriers according to weight status, race, socioeconomic background, and sex among undergraduate and graduate students with symptoms of an ED (N = 1,747). Among students with symptoms of an ED, 30.7% perceived a need for treatment, 10.5% had received a diagnosis, and 13.6% had received treatment in the past year. Individual characteristics were highly associated with perceived need, diagnosis, and past-year treatment. Females were more likely than males to perceive a need for treatment (OR = 1.97), to be diagnosed (OR = 4.66), and to be treated (OR = 1.64) for their ED symptoms. Socioeconomic background was associated with perceived need for treatment and past-year treatment, with students from affluent backgrounds having higher odds of perceiving need (OR = 1.52) and of receiving treatment (OR = 1.89) compared with their non-affluent peers. At a population-level, the unmet need for ED treatment disproportionately affects certain groups. Stereotypes about who develops EDs could contribute to disparities in ED treatment and outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W. Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2006-05-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W; Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  18. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Someswara Rao, M.; Nagaratnam, A.; Mishra, U.C.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40 K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40 K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  19. The Content of Our Cooperation, Not the Color of Our Skin: An Alliance Detection System Regulates Categorization by Coalition and Race, but Not Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2014-01-01

    Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance—that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to erase important

  20. The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin: an alliance detection system regulates categorization by coalition and race, but not sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pietraszewski

    Full Text Available Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance--that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to

  1. The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin: an alliance detection system regulates categorization by coalition and race, but not sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2014-01-01

    Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance--that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to erase important social

  2. A new perspective on sexual mixing among men who have sex with men by body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Kit; Wong, Horas T H; Naftalin, Claire M; Lee, Shui Shan

    2014-01-01

    "Casual sex" is seldom as non-selective and random as it may sound. During each sexual encounter, people consciously and unconsciously seek their casual sex partners according to different attributes. Influential to a sexual network, research focusing on quantifying the effects of physical appearance on sexual network has been sparse. We evaluated the application of Log odds score (LOD) to assess the mixing patterns of 326 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong in their networking of casual sex partners by Body Image Type (BIT). This involved an analysis of 1,196 respondents-casual sex partner pairs. Seven BITs were used in the study: Bear, Chubby, Slender, Lean toned, Muscular, Average and Other. A hierarchical pattern was observed in the preference of MSM for casual sex partners by the latter's BIT. Overall, Muscular men were most preferred, followed by Lean toned while the least preferred was Slender, as illustrated by LOD going down along the hierarchy in the same direction. Marked avoidance was found between men who self-identified as Chubby and men of Other body type (within-group-LOD: 1.25-2.89; between-group-LOD: man who self-identified as Average for casual sex. We have demonstrated the possibility of adopting a mathematical prototype to investigate the influence of BIT in a sexual network of MSM. Construction of matrix based on culture-specific BIT and cross-cultural comparisons would generate new knowledge on the mixing behaviors of MSM.

  3. The Relationship of Body Length and Ratio Pappilla with Sex in Gobi Fish (Sicyopterus macrostetholepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Taula Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex in goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. has been done at Animal Structure and Developmental Laboratory, Biologi Department, Faculty of Matematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang, which purposed to analyse the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex of goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr.. The samples were taken in wild stream area at Batangkuranji river, Padang City. This research used descriptive method and data were analyzed by qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of investigation showed that in several goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. with different sex had the same of body length and the same of ratio papilla. So, there was not relationship between of body length and ratio papilla with sex.  Goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. it belongs to the hermaphrodite protogini, which the androgynous young females, while in adulthood, it would change sex to male. The results of this study are expected to add to the treasures of knowledge and information about reproductive gobies (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. in the preservation and development of fish farming.   

  4. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  5. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  6. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner's race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16-20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants' sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.

  7. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  8. Variations in body morphology explain sex differences in thermoeffector function during compensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can sex-related differences in cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses be explained primarily by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass during compensable exercise that elicits equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes across participants? What is the main finding and its importance? Mass-specific surface area was a significant determinant of vasomotor and sudomotor responses in men and women, explaining 10-48% of the individual thermoeffector variance. Nonetheless, after accounting for changes in mean body temperature and morphological differences, sex explained only 5% of that inter-individual variability. It was concluded that sex differences in thermoeffector function are morphologically dependent, but not sex dependent. Sex is sometimes thought to be an independent modulator of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, sex differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area). To evaluate that possibility, vasomotor and sudomotor functions were assessed in 60 individuals (36 men and 24 women) with widely varying (overlapping) specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 and 241.2-303.1 cm 2  kg -1 , respectively). Subjects completed two trials in compensable conditions (28°C, 36% relative humidity) involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at fixed, area-specific metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W m -2 ; moderate, ∼200 W m -2 ). Equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes were evoked across participants. Forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were positively related to specific surface area during light work in men (r = 0.67 and r = 0

  9. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    Full Text Available Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age.Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander. Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage.The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.

  10. Sex and the City (of God): is sex forfeited or fulfilled in Augustine's resurrection of body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret R

    2005-01-01

    Reading Augustine’s hypothetical description of resurrection bodies through Freud and his critics’ construction of "sexuality," I suggest that Augustine’s mature writings on the resurrection include some-thing like post-Freudian ideas of sexuality, even though the concept itself was not part of Augustine’s conceptual universe. Historicizing "sexuality" frees the concept for revision so that sexuality can be thought of as embedded in social assumptions and arrangements rather than individual, as part rather than essence of the self, and as gendered rather than universal. Collecting and composing hints and clues scattered in Augustine’s sermons and treatises, I sketch a post-Augustinian proposal for an ideal sexuality that is not incompatible with, but extends, elaborates, and refines Augustine’s description of resurrection bodies.

  11. Sex Differences in Quality of Life Impairment Associated With Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B; Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Harrison, Carmel; Mond, Jonathan M

    2017-07-01

    Body dissatisfaction is strongly associated with quality of life impairment among both male and female adults, and the strength of this relationship is comparable between the sexes. Whether this is the case among adolescents, however, is unclear. Adolescent girls (n = 1,135) and boys (n = 531) aged 12-18 years were recruited from secondary schools located in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Students completed a survey that included measures of body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial health- and physical health-related quality of life. Girls reported higher levels of dissatisfaction than boys for each of the 12 body features assessed. The strength of the adverse associations between body dissatisfaction and quality of life impairment did not, however, differ by sex, and this was the case for both physical health-related and psychosocial quality of life domains. For both girls and boys, associations between body dissatisfaction and both quality of life impairment persisted after controlling for eating disorder symptoms, body mass index, and other covariates. While levels of body dissatisfaction remain higher in girls than in boys, the adverse impact of body dissatisfaction on adolescents' quality of life does not appear to differ by sex. This impact entails impairment in both physical health and psychosocial quality of life domains and does not appear to be accounted for by an association between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder pathology. The findings support the need to conceive of body dissatisfaction as a public health concern in its own right. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Peres, S Camille; Pickens, Adam W; Mehta, Ranjana K; Benden, Mark

    2017-09-18

    Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA) levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490) enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) versus not (≤149 min MVPA). Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60%) were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese). The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h), followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.1) versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1-3.2) versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1-4.8) or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6-7.5) users of technology), and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01-3.7) levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use) were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to improve the health of young adults.

  13. Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D. Towne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490 enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA versus not (≤149 min MVPA. Results Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60% were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese. The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h, followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.1 versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1–3.2 versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1–4.8 or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6–7.5 users of technology, and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01–3.7 levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. Conclusions In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to

  14. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawala, Annick; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs.

  15. Body image and self-esteem in disorders of sex development: A European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; de Vries, Annelou L C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2018-04-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) refer to congenital conditions with atypical sex development and are associated with psychosexual issues. The aim of this study was to assess body image and self-esteem across the DSD spectrum and to study the impact of diagnosis and mediating characteristics. Data collection was part of dsd-LIFE, a cross-sectional study conducted by 14 European expert clinics on wellbeing and health care evaluation of adults diagnosed with DSD. Main outcome measures in the present analyses were the Body Image Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Additional data were obtained on treatments, openness, body embarrassment, sexual satisfaction, anxiety, and depression. The participating sample (n = 1,040) included 226 classified as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, 225 as Klinefelter Syndrome, 322 as Turner Syndrome, and 267 as conditions with 46,XY karyotype. Many participants had received hormonal and surgical treatments. Participants scored lower on body image and self-esteem compared to control values, whereas each diagnosis showed different areas of concern. Limited openness, body embarrassment, and sexual issues were frequently reported. Overall body satisfaction was associated with BMI, hormone use, openness, body embarrassment, anxiety, and depression; genital satisfaction with age at diagnosis, openness, sexual satisfaction, and body embarrassment. Body embarrassment, anxiety, and depression predicted lower self-esteem. While each DSD showed specific issues related to body image and self-esteem, our findings indicate that the related factors were similar across the conditions. Clinical care on this subject could be improved by giving specific attention to factors like openness, body embarrassment, sexuality, anxiety, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  17. Race and Sex Differences in the Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Silent Myocardial Infarction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-05-31

    Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  19. The Use of Body Worn Sensors for Detecting the Vibrations Acting on the Lower Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Spörri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the use of body worn sensors to evaluate the vibrations that act on the human body in alpine ski racing from a general and a back overuse injury prevention perspective. In the course of a biomechanical field experiment, six male European Cup-level athletes each performed two runs on a typical giant slalom (GS and slalom (SL course, resulting in a total of 192 analyzed turns. Three-dimensional accelerations were measured by six inertial measurement units placed on the right and left shanks, right and left thighs, sacrum, and sternum. Based on these data, power spectral density (PSD; i.e., the signal's power distribution over frequency was determined for all segments analyzed. Additionally, as a measure expressing the severity of vibration exposure, root-mean-square (RMS acceleration acting on the lower back was calculated based on the inertial acceleration along the sacrum's longitudinal axis. In both GS and SL skiing, the PSD values of the vibrations acting at the shank were found to be largest for frequencies below 30 Hz. While being transmitted through the body, these vibrations were successively attenuated by the knee and hip joint. At the lower back (i.e., sacrum sensor, PSD values were especially pronounced for frequencies between 4 and 10 Hz, whereas a corresponding comparison between GS and SL revealed higher PSD values and larger RMS values for GS. Because vibrations in this particular range (i.e., 4 to 10 Hz include the spine's resonant frequency and are known to increase the risk of structural deteriorations/abnormalities of the spine, they may be considered potential components of mechanisms leading to overuse injuries of the back in alpine ski racing. Accordingly, any measure to control and/or reduce such skiing-related vibrations to a minimum should be recognized and applied. In this connection, wearable sensor technologies might help to better monitor and manage the overall back overuse-relevant vibration

  20. Sex-related online behaviors and adolescents' body and sexual self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated: (1) the prevalence and development of 2 receptive (sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] use and sexual information seeking) and 2 interactive (cybersex and general social networking site [SNS] use) online behaviors in adolescence; (2) whether development of these behaviors predict adolescents' body and sexual self-perceptions; and (3) whether parental strategies regarding adolescents' Internet use reduce engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Four-wave longitudinal data among 1132 seventh- to 10th-grade Dutch adolescents (mean age at wave 1: 13.95 years; 52.7% boys) were collected. Developmental trajectories of sex-related online behaviors were estimated by using latent growth curve modeling. Self-perception outcomes at wave 4 and parental strategies predicting online behaviors were investigated by adding regression paths to growth models. Boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM. Patterns for girls' SEIM use and boys' and girls' sexual information seeking and cybersex were consistently low. SNS use, however, was a common, daily activity for both. Higher initial levels and/or faster increases in sex-related online behaviors generally predicted less physical self-esteem (girls' SNS use only), more body surveillance, and less satisfaction with sexual experience. Private Internet access and less parental rule setting regarding Internet use predicted greater engagement in sex-related online behaviors. Although most sex-related online behaviors are not widespread among youth, adolescents who engage in such behaviors are at increased risk for developing negative body and sexual self-perceptions. Particular attention should be paid to adolescents' SNS use because this behavior is most popular and may, through its interactive characteristics, elicit more critical self-evaluations. Prevention efforts should focus on parents' role in reducing risky sex-related online behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. A new perspective on sexual mixing among men who have sex with men by body image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Leung

    Full Text Available "Casual sex" is seldom as non-selective and random as it may sound. During each sexual encounter, people consciously and unconsciously seek their casual sex partners according to different attributes. Influential to a sexual network, research focusing on quantifying the effects of physical appearance on sexual network has been sparse.We evaluated the application of Log odds score (LOD to assess the mixing patterns of 326 men who have sex with men (MSM in Hong Kong in their networking of casual sex partners by Body Image Type (BIT. This involved an analysis of 1,196 respondents-casual sex partner pairs. Seven BITs were used in the study: Bear, Chubby, Slender, Lean toned, Muscular, Average and Other.A hierarchical pattern was observed in the preference of MSM for casual sex partners by the latter's BIT. Overall, Muscular men were most preferred, followed by Lean toned while the least preferred was Slender, as illustrated by LOD going down along the hierarchy in the same direction. Marked avoidance was found between men who self-identified as Chubby and men of Other body type (within-group-LOD: 1.25-2.89; between-group-LOD: <-1. None of the respondents reported to have networked a man who self-identified as Average for casual sex.We have demonstrated the possibility of adopting a mathematical prototype to investigate the influence of BIT in a sexual network of MSM. Construction of matrix based on culture-specific BIT and cross-cultural comparisons would generate new knowledge on the mixing behaviors of MSM.

  2. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  4.  Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Barandun U; Knechtle B; Knechtle P; Klipstein A; Rust CA; Rosemann T; Lepers R

    2012-01-01

     Background: Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners.Methods: Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times.Results...

  5. Reliability of Heart Rate Variability in Children: Influence of Sex and Body Position During Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Cristiane; Bertollo, Maurizio; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2017-05-01

    To examine which body position and indices present better reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) measures in children and to compare the HRV analyzed in different body positions between sexes. Twenty eutrophic prepubertal children of each sex participated in the study. The RR intervals were recorded using a portable heart rate monitor twice a day for 7 min in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. The reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; two way mixed) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV).Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the sexes. High levels of reproducibility were indicated by higher ICC in the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (RMSSD: 0.93 and 0.94) and Poincaré plot of the short-term RR interval variability (SD1: 0.92 and 0.94) parameters for boys and girls, respectively, in the supine position. The ICCs were lower in the sitting and standing positions for all HRV indices. In addition, the girls presented significantly higher values than the boys for SDNN and absolute high frequency (HF; p position. The supine position is the most reproducible for the HRV indices in both sexes, especially the vagal related indices.

  6. A combined morphometric analysis of foot form and its association with sex, stature, and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of footprints is a classic means for orthopedic diagnosis. In forensics and physical anthropology, it is commonly used for the estimation of stature and body mass. We studied individual variation and sexual dimorphism of foot dimensions and footprint shape by a combination of classic foot measurements and geometric morphometric methods. Left and right feet of 134 healthy adult males and females were scanned twice with a 3D optical laser scanner, and stature as well as body mass were recorded. Foot length and width were measured on the 3D scans. The 2D footprints were extracted as the plantar-most 2 mm of the 3D scans and measured with 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Both foot size and footprint shape are sexually dimorphic and relate to stature and body mass. While dimorphism in foot length largely results from dimorphism in stature, dimorphism in footprint shape partly owes to the dimorphism in BMI. Stature could be estimated well based on foot length (R(2)  = 0.76), whereas body mass was more closely related to foot width (R(2)  = 0.62). Sex could be estimated correctly for 95% of the individuals based on a combination of foot width and length. Geometric morphometrics proved to be an effective tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape. However, for the estimation of stature, body mass, and sex, shape variables did not considerably improve estimates based on foot length and width. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men is Associated with Race, Sexual Risk Behavior and Peer Network Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna L; Schneider, John; Garofalo, Robert; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2017-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious to prevent HIV infection, however, uptake among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is relatively low. The purpose of this study was to describe PrEP use and related factors in a representative sample of YMSM in two cities, Chicago and Houston. YMSM, ages 16-29, were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2014 to 2016. Correlates of PrEP uptake were assessed in weighted multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 12.2% of participants (of 394) reported ever taking PrEP; Black YMSM had the lowest rates of uptake (4.7%) and Whites the highest (29.5%). In a multivariable regression model, having an HIV positive sex partner, reporting recent group sex, peer network size, and city (Chicago) were significantly and positively associated with use of PrEP, while Black race was negatively associated with it. Given evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP uptake in this study, further research is needed to identify potential mechanisms of action and points of intervention.

  8. Energy expenditure in professional flat jockeys using doubly labelled water during the racing season: Implications for body weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Lucas, Daloni; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2018-03-01

    To formulate individualized dietary strategies for jockeys, it is vital that energy requirements are quantified. We measured total energy expenditure (TEE) over two separate weeks in spring and summer using doubly labelled water in a group of male flat jockeys (n = 8, 36.9 ± 5.7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 54.6 ± 2.5 kg). Total energy intake (TEI) was self-recorded, as were all riding and structured exercise activity. Mean daily TEE was 10.83 (±2.3) and 10.66 (±1.76) MJ, (p = .61) respectively. Self-reported TEI were 6.03 (±1.7) and 5.37 (±1.1) MJ (p = .40), respectively, and were significantly lower than TEE (p = .01). Mean race rides were 17 (±6) and 13 (±3; p = 0.37) and horses ridden at morning exercise were 8 (±6) and 7 (±4; p = .77) respectively. Additional structured exercise was 76.25 (±95.1) and 52.5 (±80.9) min per week (p = .35), respectively. At the individual level, TEE was related to body mass and the level of non-racing physical activity, but not riding. Physical activity levels for TEE were 1.76 (±0.37) and 1.69 (±0.27; p = .59) and appear modest when compared with other athletes, and similar to age-matched non-athletes, suggesting that conventional sport-specific nutritional recommendations do not appear applicable. The large discrepancy between TEE and TEI suggests significant under reporting of dietary intake. These data now provide an appropriate framework from which to formulate jockey nutritional guidelines to promote the ability to achieve the daily weight target and improve athlete welfare.

  9. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  10. Sex differences in the influence of body mass index on anatomical architecture of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Hamadani, K; Bhatt, R; Fling, C; Alaverdyan, M; Torgerson, C; Ashe-McNalley, C; Van Horn, J D; Naliboff, B; Tillisch, K; Sanmiguel, C P; Labus, J S

    2017-08-01

    The brain has a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters. Structural and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in a sample of 124 individuals (61 males and 63 females). Graph theory was applied to calculate anatomical network properties (centrality) for regions of the reward, salience and sensorimotor networks. General linear models with linear contrasts were performed to test for BMI and sex-related differences in measures of centrality, while controlling for age. In both males and females, individuals with high BMI (obese and overweight) had greater anatomical centrality (greater connectivity) of reward (putamen) and salience (anterior insula) network regions. Sex differences were observed both in individuals with normal and elevated BMI. In individuals with high BMI, females compared to males showed greater centrality in reward (amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) and salience (anterior mid-cingulate cortex) regions, while males compared to females had greater centrality in reward (putamen) and sensorimotor (posterior insula) regions. In individuals with increased BMI, reward, salience and sensorimotor network regions are susceptible to topological restructuring in a sex-related manner. These findings highlight the influence of these regions on integrative processing of food-related stimuli and increased ingestive behavior in obesity, or in the influence of hedonic ingestion on brain topological restructuring. The observed sex differences emphasize the importance of

  11. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  12. Adolescents in Public Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: The Impacts of Sex and Race on Referrals and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…

  13. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  14. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  15. Sex impacts the relation between body composition and physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Rudy J; Misic, Mark M; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2009-01-01

    To determine the sex-specific relationships between physical activity, aerobic fitness, adiposity (%Fat), mineral-free lean mass (MFLM), and balance and gait performance in older adults. Eighty-five female and 49 male sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults (mean [SD] age, 69.6 [5.4] and 70.3 [4.7] years, respectively) were evaluated on habitual physical activity via questionnaire, aerobic fitness by a maximal oxygen consumption treadmill test, whole and regional body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and lower extremity physical function using gait tasks and computerized dynamic posturography. As expected, men had less body fat, more lean mass, and higher aerobic fitness than did women and tended to perform better on all lower extremity physical function tasks (all P 0.50, all P women (r = -0.38, P men. Neither fitness nor body composition was related to balance in men, whereas in women, leg MFLM was positively associated (r = 0.27, P Women, but not men, with a greater ratio of body weight to leg MFLM performed worse on gait tasks (P women are more strongly affected by alterations in body composition. Lower %Fat and preservation of lower body lean mass have important implications for reducing the risk of physical disability, especially in older women.

  16. [Anthropology of the individual, sex, and race in the works of Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2015-11-01

    By analysing his unpublished and published works, we have identified anthropological elements in the studies of Croatian physician Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919) that distinguish him as one of the rare researchers in Croatia who attempted to synthesize cultural and biological anthropology. Gundrum collected comparative data on biological characteristics of various ethnic groups, searched for a connection between biological structures and cultural development, and assessed certain social facts and customs from the perspective of medical teleology. This article presents the four most frequent anthropological issues raised in his work: anatomy and physiology of individuals, ethnic groups and "races"; attitudes on prostitution; Jews as a model of alcohol abstinence; and the "degeneration" of Western culture/civilisation. In spite of pronounced linear evolutionism, his work compares social and medical practices between Western and non-Western nations.

  17. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia A; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally. A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants were resurveyed through mails 5 years later (Time, 2; N = 2,516). The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong and significant in both boys and girls (all p values p = .16), or between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p = .79) or girls (p = .80). Among girls, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (all p values = .0001-.03). The relationship was nonsignificant in underweight girls (p = .36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES group girls (all p values p values = .18-.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages.

  18. The Body as a Substrate of Differentiation. Shifting the Focus from Race Science to Life Scientists' Research on Human Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipphardt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article suggests to focus on the history of human variation instead of focussing on the history of race science. It views the latter as a subset of the former, hence views race science as embedded into the larger field of life scientists' investigations into human variation. This paper explores why human variation is such an attractive and productive object particularly for the life sciences. It proposes that knowledge about human variation is incomplete in a promising way, and ...

  19. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  20. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, selfesteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 femal...

  1. Sex-specific functional adaptation of the femoral diaphysis to body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2018-03-24

    The human femoral diaphysis is often used to reconstruct loading histories (mobility, activity, body mass). The proximal femur is known to be differentially affected by changes in total fat-mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%), but the adaptation of the entire diaphysis to body composition has not been thoroughly characterized to date. Understanding how the femoral diaphysis adapts to body components would benefit biomechanical interpretations of the femoral variation and nutrition-related studies. Combining various methods from clinical nutrition, biological anthropology, and geometric morphometrics, we evaluated the correlation of measures taken on the entire femoral diaphysis with estimated FM, FFM, and BF% from 61 CT scans (17 females, 44 males). The sample was predominantly composed of people with obesity. Cortical area of the cross-sections and local cortical thickness showed high correlation with BF% in particular, in females only. The curvature significantly decreased with FM and BF% in both sexes. The lowest correlations are found with FFM. The observed sexual dimorphism is consistent with differing aging processes; cortical bone decreases in females through endosteal resorption while it remains almost constant in males who compensate for endosteal resorption by periosteal apposition on the diaphyseal surface. The functional adaptation to compressive forces indicates a systemic endosteal apposition of bone material with increased BF% and FM in females only. FM and BF% are linked to a straighter femur in both sexes, suggesting an optimization of the resistance to compressive loads by distributing them more linearly along the entire diaphysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of race and sex on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and blood flow distribution in response to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Ren, Li-Hua; Li, Li; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Tie-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    To assess racial, sexual, and regional differences in cerebral hemodynamic response to high altitude (HA, 3658 m). We performed cross-sectional comparisons on total cerebral blood flow (TCBF = sum of bilateral internal carotid and vertebral arterial blood flows = QICA + QVA), total cerebrovascular resistance (TCVR), total cerebral oxygen delivery (TCOD) and QVA/TCBF (%), among six groups of young healthy subjects: Tibetans (2-year staying) and Han (Han Chinese) at sea level, Han (2-day, 1-year and 5-year) and Tibetans at HA. Bilateral ICA and VA diameters and flow velocities were derived from duplex ultrasonography; and simultaneous measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted. Neither acute (2-day) nor chronic (>1 year) responses showed sex differences in Han, except that women showed lower TCOD compared with men. Tibetans and Han exhibited different chronic responses (percentage alteration relative to the sea-level counterpart value) in TCBF (-17% vs. 0%), TCVR (22% vs. 12%), TCOD (0% vs. 10%) and QVA/TCBF (0% vs. 2.4%, absolute increase), with lower resting TCOD found in SL- and HA-Tibetans. Our findings indicate racial but not sex differences in cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to HA, with Tibetans (but not Han) demonstrating an altitude-related change of CBF distribution.

  3. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographical variation in sexual behavior and body traits in a sex role reversed wolf spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollatti, Fedra; Diaz, Virginia Garcia; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Aisenberg, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship. They prefer males which construct longer burrows, and males prefer virgin females in good body condition. The objective of this study was to compare sexual behavior patterns, as well as body characteristics and burrow dimensions, between two geographically distant locations of A. senex, one in Uruguay (Uruguayan location) and the other from central Argentina (Argentinean location). We found differences in the number of male abdominal vibrations, male and female touches during mating, and number of erections of male leg spines, which all were higher in matings of Argentinean pairs. On the other hand, male body mass and female body condition were higher in Uruguayan individuals. The wide distribution of A. senex could be determining variations in the biotic and abiotic features that affect the species, generating differences in the strength of selective forces acting on individuals from the two studied locations.

  5. Race/Ethnic Differences in Birth Size, Infant Growth, and Body Mass Index at Age Five Years in Children in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Caryn E S; Novotny, Rachel; Grove, John S; Hurwitz, Eric L

    2015-12-01

    Factors at birth and infancy may increase risk of being overweight in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of birth size and infant growth (2-24 months) with BMI at age 5 years in a multiethnic population. This was a retrospective study (using electronic medical records of a health maintenance organization in Hawaii) of singleton children born in 2004-2005, with linked maternal and birth information, infant weights (n = 597) and lengths (n = 473) in the first 2 years, and BMI measures at age 5 years (n = 894). Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of BMI at age 5 years with birth size and infant growth. Birth weight was positively associated with BMI at age 5 years, adjusting for gestational age, sex, race/ethnicity, and maternal prepregnancy weight, age, education, and smoking. A greater change in infant weight was associated with a higher BMI at age 5 years, though the effect of birth weight on BMI was neither mediated nor modified by infant growth rate. Birth weight, change in infant weight, and BMI at age 5 years varied by race/ethnicity. Change in infant BMI in the first 2 years was higher in other Pacific Islanders and whites (Δ = 0.966; confidence interval [CI] = 0.249-1.684; p = 0.02) than in Asian, other, and part Native Hawaiian race/ethnic groups. Early biological measures of birth weight and infant weight gain varied by race/ethnicity and positively predicted BMI at age 5 years.

  6. Impact of age, sex, therapeutic intent, race and severity of advanced heart failure on short-term principal outcomes in the MOMENTUM 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel J; Mehra, Mandeep R; Naka, Yoshifumi; Salerno, Christopher; Uriel, Nir; Dean, David; Itoh, Akinobu; Pagani, Francis D; Skipper, Eric R; Bhat, Geetha; Raval, Nirav; Bruckner, Brian A; Estep, Jerry D; Cogswell, Rebecca; Milano, Carmelo; Fendelander, Lahn; O'Connell, John B; Cleveland, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Primary outcomes analysis of the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing MCS Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) trial short-term cohort demonstrated a higher survival rate free of debilitating stroke and reoperation to replace/remove the device (primary end-point) in patients receiving the HeartMate 3 (HM3) compared with the HeartMate (HMII). In this study we sought to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pre-specified patient subgroups (age, sex, race, therapeutic intent [bridge to transplant/bridge to candidacy/destination therapy] and severity of illness) on primary end-point outcomes in MOMENTUM 3 patients implanted with HM3 and HMII devices. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze patients enrolled in the "as-treated cohort" (n = 289) of the MOMENTUM 3 trial to: (1) determine interaction of various subgroups on primary end-point outcomes; and (2) identify independent variables associated with primary end-point success. Baseline characteristics were well balanced among HM3 (n = 151) and HMII (n = 138) cohorts. No significant interaction between the sub-groups on primary end-point outcomes was observed. Cox multivariable modeling identified age (≤65 years vs >65 years, hazard ratio 0.42 [95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.78], p = 0.006]) and pump type (HM3 vs HMII, hazard ratio 0.53 [95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.96], p = 0.034) to be independent predictors of primary outcomes success. After adjusting for age, no significant impact of sex, race, therapeutic intent and INTERMACS profiles on primary outcomes were observed. This analysis of MOMENTUM 3 suggests that younger age (≤65 years) at implant and pump choice are associated with a greater likelihood of primary end-point success. These findings further suggest that characterization of therapeutic intent into discrete bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy categories offers no clear clinical advantage, and should ideally be abandoned. Copyright

  7. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Knapp

    Full Text Available In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.

  8. Effects of body position and sex group on tongue pressure generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Angela M; Cirstea, Carmen M; Auer, Ed T; Searl, Jeff P

    2013-11-01

    Fine control of orofacial musculature is necessary to precisely accelerate and decelerate the articulators across exact distances for functional speech and coordinated swallows (Amerman & Parnell, 1990; Benjamin, 1997; Kent, Duffy, Slama, Kent, & Clift, 2001). Enhanced understanding of neural control for such movements could clarify the nature of and potential remediation for some dysarthrias and other orofacial myofunctional impairments. Numerous studies have measured orolingual force and accuracy during speech and nonspeech tasks, but have focused on young adults, maximum linguapalatal pressures, and upright positioning (O'Day, Frank, Montgomery, Nichols, & McDade, 2005; Solomon & Munson, 2004; Somodi, Robin, & Luschei, 1995; Youmans, Youmans, & Stierwalt, 2009). Patients' medical conditions or testing procedures such as concurrent neuroimaging may preclude fully upright positioning during oral motor assessments in some cases. Since judgments about lingual strength and coordination can influence clinical decisions regarding the functionality of swallowing and speech, it is imperative to understand any effects of body positioning differences. In addition, sex differences in the control of such tasks are not well defined. Therefore, this study evaluated whether pressures exerted during tongue movements differ in upright vs. supine body position in healthy middle-aged men and women. Twenty healthy middle-aged adults compressed small air-filled plastic bulbs in the oral cavity at predetermined fractions of task-specific peak pressure in a randomized block design. Tasks including phoneme repetitions and nonspeech isometric contractions were executed in upright and supine positions. Participants received continuous visual feedback regarding targets and actual exerted pressures. Analyses compared average pressure values for each subject, task, position, and effort level. Speech-like and nonspeech tongue pressures did not differ significantly across body position or sex

  9. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A; Popkin, Barry M; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  10. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, (two 24-hr recalls. A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status.Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively, whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100, reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1 to $6.62/d (Q4 was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components.Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010 requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  12. Autonomic control of body temperature and blood pressure: influences of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C J; Barnes, Jill N; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Female reproductive hormones exert important non-reproductive influences on autonomic regulation of body temperature and blood pressure. Estradiol and progesterone influence thermoregulation both centrally and peripherally, where estradiol tends to promote heat dissipation, and progesterone tends to promote heat conservation and higher body temperatures. Changes in thermoregulation over the course of the menstrual cycle and with hot flashes at menopause are mediated by hormonal influences on neural control of skin blood flow and sweating. The influence of estradiol is to promote vasodilation, which, in the skin, results in greater heat dissipation. In the context of blood pressure regulation, both central and peripheral hormonal influences are important as well. Peripherally, the vasodilator influence of estradiol contributes to the lower blood pressures and smaller risk of hypertension seen in young women compared to young men. This is in part due to a mechanism by which estradiol augments beta-adrenergic receptor mediated vasodilation, offsetting alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, and resulting in a weak relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and total peripheral resistance, and between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. After menopause, with the loss of reproductive hormones, sympathetic nerve activity, peripheral resistance and blood pressure become more strongly related, and sympathetic nerve activity (which increases with age) becomes a more important contributor to the prevailing level of blood pressure. Continuing to increase our understanding of sex hormone influences on body temperature and blood pressure regulation will provide important insight for optimization of individualized health care for future generations of women.

  13. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  15. Sex differences in wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and mechanical efficiency in novice young able-bodied adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikhot, Dhissanuvach; Taylor, Matthew J D; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2018-03-13

    An awareness of sex differences in gait can be beneficial for detecting the early stages of gait abnormalities that may lead to pathology. The same may be true for wheelchair propulsion. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sex on wheelchair biomechanics and mechanical efficiency in novice young able-bodied wheelchair propulsion. Thirty men and 30 women received 12  min of familiarisation training. Subsequently, they performed two 10-m propulsion tests to evaluate comfortable speed (CS). Additionally, they performed a 4-min submaximal propulsion test on a treadmill at CS, 125% and 145% of CS. Propulsion kinetics (via Smart wheel ) and oxygen uptake were continuously measured in all tests and were used to determine gross mechanical efficiency (GE), net efficiency (NE) and fraction of effective force (FEF). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed directly after each trial. Results indicated that CS for men was faster (0.98 ± 0.24 m/s) compared to women (0.71 ± 0.18 m/s). A lower GE was found in women compared to men. Push percentage, push angle and local RPE were different across the three speeds and between men and women. NE and FEF were not different between groups. Thus, even though their CS was lower, women demonstrated a higher locally perceived exertion than men. The results suggest sex differences in propulsion characteristics and GE. These insights may aid in optimising wheelchair propulsion through proper training and advice to prevent injuries and improve performance. This is relevant in stimulating an active lifestyle for those with a disability.

  16. Exploring Differences in the Aspirin-Colorectal Cancer Association by Sex and Race/Ethnicity: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Monroe, Kristine R; Haiman, Christopher A; Marchand, Loïc Le

    2017-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer. We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and colorectal cancer is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident colorectal cancer cases among 183,199 eligible participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Use of aspirin and other NSAIDs was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in men (HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86 for current vs. never users of aspirin) but not in women (P interaction = 0.005). Among male current users, a reduced risk was observed with ≥6 years of aspirin or total NSAID use. The inverse association with current NSAID use in men was observed in all racial/ethnic groups, except for Native Hawaiians, and was stronger in whites. Our findings suggest that the benefit of NSAIDs for colorectal cancer may be strongest for white men and generalizes to African American, Japanese, and Latino, but not to Native Hawaiian men. The lack of inverse association observed in women and Native Hawaiian men in the MEC should be interpreted with caution. As only very few ethnic/racial groups are likely to be represented in trials of NSAIDs and colorectal cancer, it is important to conduct prospective observational studies in various populations to test the generalizability of their results. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 162-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  18. Cross-sex hormonal treatment and body uneasiness in individuals with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Castellini, Giovanni; Bandini, Elisa; Casale, Helen; Fanni, Egidia; Benni, Laura; Ferruccio, Naika; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Manieri, Chiara; Gualerzi, Anna; Jannini, Emmanuele; Oppo, Alessandro; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment (CHT) used for gender dysphoria (GD) could by itself affect well-being without the use of genital surgery; however, to date, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effects of CHT alone. This study aimed to assess differences in body uneasiness and psychiatric symptoms between GD clients taking CHT and those not taking hormones (no CHT). A second aim was to assess whether length of CHT treatment and daily dose provided an explanation for levels of body uneasiness and psychiatric symptoms. A consecutive series of 125 subjects meeting the criteria for GD who not had genital reassignment surgery were considered. Subjects were asked to complete the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) to explore different areas of body-related psychopathology and the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R) to measure psychological state. In addition, data on daily hormone dose and length of hormonal treatment (androgens, estrogens, and/or antiandrogens) were collected through an analysis of medical records. Among the male-to-female (MtF) individuals, those using CHT reported less body uneasiness compared with individuals in the no-CHT group. No significant differences were observed between CHT and no-CHT groups in the female-to-male (FtM) sample. Also, no significant differences in SCL score were observed with regard to gender (MtF vs. FtM), hormone treatment (CHT vs. no-CHT), or the interaction of these two variables. Moreover, a two-step hierarchical regression showed that cumulative dose of estradiol (daily dose of estradiol times days of treatment) and cumulative dose of androgen blockers (daily dose of androgen blockers times days of treatment) predicted BUT score even after controlling for age, gender role, cosmetic surgery, and BMI. The differences observed between MtF and FtM individuals suggest that body-related uneasiness associated with GD may be effectively diminished with the administration of CHT even without the use of genital surgery for Mt

  19. Body dissatisfaction: Do associations with disordered eating and psychological well-being differ across race/ethnicity in adolescent girls and boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fernandes, Nisha; Loth, Katie; Hannan, Peter J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether body dissatisfaction, and its associations with disordered eating and psychological well-being, differ significantly across racial/ethnic groups of adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a large, population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens, 2010 (EAT 2010) (N = 2,793; Mage = 14.4 years). The sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Body dissatisfaction differed significantly across racial/ethnic groups; Asian American girls and boys reported the most dissatisfaction with their bodies. Among boys, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and unhealthy weight control behaviors was moderated by race/ethnicity (p psychological well-being interacted significantly with adolescents' racial/ethnic backgrounds (with the exception of girls' self-esteem). Findings highlight specific racial/ethnic differences in the associations between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being, and underscore the importance of addressing body dissatisfaction in youth of all racial/ethnic backgrounds. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sexually Explicit Online Media, Body Satisfaction, and Partner Expectations Among Men who have Sex with Men: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leickly, Emily; Nelson, Kimberly; Simoni, Jane

    2017-09-01

    Limited research has investigated the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (SEOM) on body satisfaction and partner expectations of men who have sex with men (MSM). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM, covering the perceived influence of MSM-specific SEOM. All nine men who broached the topics of body satisfaction and partner expectations reported that MSM-specific SEOM set unreasonably high physical appearance expectations for themselves and/or their potential partners. Although MSM-specific SEOM might be negatively affecting body satisfaction and partner expectations among MSM, its ubiquity may make it a useful tool to support body positivity.

  1. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  2. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  3. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex, Body Image, and Relationships: A BRIGHTLIGHT Workshop on Information and Support Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Taylor, Rachel M; Lobel, Brian; McCann, Beth; Soanes, Louise; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A

    2018-05-09

    Discovering sexuality and romantic relationships are important development milestones in adolescence and young adulthood. A cancer diagnosis imposes obstacles for young people such as changes in their sexual function due to the disease and/or side effects of treatment, body image concerns, and interpersonal relationship difficulties. This can cause psychological distress and can impact on quality of life. We aimed to explore sexual health information and support needs of adolescents and young adults with cancer. Five young people aged 16-24 years, with a previous cancer diagnosis when aged 13-22 years, attended an in-depth 4-hour workshop. The framework approach was used to analyze workshop transcripts. Three overarching themes emerged: (i) information sharing; (ii) contexts and relationships (influencing factors); and (iii) information sharing preferences. Information shared by healthcare professionals was focused on a medicalized view of sex with symptoms, infection control, and protected sex at its core. Young people had unanswered questions related to sexual function, the impact of cancer and how to manage it, and about pleasure, body image, and relationships. Parents' presence at clinical consultations inhibited discussions about sex. Young people wanted professionals who were comfortable to talk about sex with them. Young people exhibited significant unmet needs around information provision on sex, body image, and relationships. They wanted information to be given by professionals and access to online resources. Development of training for professionals and resources to support young people requires further work.

  5. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  7. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Skorek

    Full Text Available Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five, self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  8. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18–21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems. PMID:25375238

  9. Sex, race, and the adverse effects of social stigma vs. other quality of life factors among primary care patients with moderate to severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Christina C; Davis, Roger B; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W; Hamel, Mary B

    2015-02-01

    Patients with obesity face widespread social bias, but the importance of this social stigma to patients relative to other quality of life (QOL) factors is unclear. Our aim was to examine the importance of obesity-related social stigma relative to other QOL factors on reducing patients' overall well-being. We used a cross-sectional telephone interview. The study was conducted at four diverse primary care practices in Greater Boston. Three hundred and thirty-seven primary care patients aged 18-65 years and with a body mass index (BMI) of 35 kg/m(2) or higher participated in the study. Patients' health utility (preference-based QOL measure) was determined via responses to a series of standard gamble scenarios assessing willingness to risk death to lose various amounts of weight or to achieve perfect health. We used the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-lite instrument to assess QOL domains specific to obesity (physical function, self-esteem, sexual life, public distress or social stigma, and work), and we examined variation in utility explained by these domains. Depending on patients' race/ethnicity, mean health utilities ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 among men and from 0.89 to 0.93 among women. After adjustment for race, BMI, and education, none of the QOL domains explained much of the variation in utility among men, except for work function among Hispanic men. In contrast, social stigma was the leading QOL contributor to utility for Caucasian women (explaining 6 % of the marginal variation beyond demographics and BMI). In contrast, sexual function was the most important contributor among African American women (3 % marginal variation), and work life was most important among Hispanic women (> 20 % in variation). Lower scores in one domain did not always translate into lower well-being. Moreover, QOL summary scores often explained less of the variation than some individual domains. Obesity-related social stigma had disproportionate adverse effects on Caucasian women

  10. Searching for justice for body and self in a coercive environment: sex work in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, A K

    2004-05-01

    Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work.

  11. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  12. Imaging Mental Representations of Sex-Typed Bodies: The Effect of Number of Trials on Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Lick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex categorization is a critical process in social perception. While psychologists have long theorized that perceivers have distinct mental representations of men and women that help them to achieve efficient sex categorizations, researchers have only recently begun using reverse-correlation to visualize the content of these mental representations. The present research addresses two issues concerning this relatively new methodological tool. First, previous studies of reverse-correlation have focused almost exclusively on perceivers’ mental representations of faces. Our study demonstrates that this technique can also be used to visualize mental representations of sex-typed bodies. Second, most studies of reverse-correlation have employed a relatively large number of trials (1,000+ to capture perceivers’ mental representations of a given category. Our study demonstrated that, at least for sex-typed representations of bodies, high quality reverse-correlation images can be obtained with as few as 100 trials. Overall, our findings enhance knowledge of reverse-correlation methodology in general and sex categorization in particular, providing new information for researchers interested in using this technique to understand the complex processes underlying social perception.

  13. Body-mass or sex-biased tick parasitism in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)? A GAMLSS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-03-01

    Macroparasites feeding on wildlife hosts follow skewed distributions for which basic statistical approaches are of limited use. To predict Ixodes spp. tick burden on roe deer, we applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) which allow incorporating a variable dispersion. We analysed tick burden of 78 roe deer, sampled in a forest region of Germany over a period of 20 months. Assuming a negative binomial error distribution and controlling for ambient temperature, we analysed whether host sex and body mass affected individual tick burdens. Models for larval and nymphal tick burden included host sex, with male hosts being more heavily infested than female ones. However, the influence of host sex on immature tick burden was associated with wide standard errors (nymphs) or the factor was marginally significant (larvae). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with host body mass. Thus, controlled for host body mass and ambient temperature, there is weak support for sex-biased parasitism in this system. Compared with models which assume linear relationships, GAMLSS provided a better fit. Adding a variable dispersion term improved only one of the four models. Yet, the potential of modelling dispersion as a function of variables appears promising for larger datasets. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. "Women's bodies are shops": beliefs about transactional sex and implications for understanding gender power and HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

    2011-02-01

    Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women's economic circumstances. This article explored the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania using an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus groups and 46 in-depth interviews with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/caregivers. Transactional sex was widely accepted by both parents and young people. Male parents equated sexual exchange to buying meat from a butcher and interpreted women's demand for exchange before sex with personal power. Young men referred to transactional sex as the easiest way to get a woman to satisfy their sexual desires while also proving their masculinity. Young women perceived themselves as lucky to be created women as they could exploit their sexuality for pleasure and material gain. They felt men were stupid for paying for "goods" (vagina) they could not take away. Mothers were in agreement with their daughters. Although young women saw exploitation of the female body in positive terms, they were also aware of the health risks but ascribed these to bad luck. Interventions aimed at tackling transactional sex in the interests of women's empowerment and as a strategy for HIV prevention need to understand the cultural beliefs associated with the practice that may make it thrive despite the known risks.

  15. Sex determination mode does not affect body or genital development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Whiteley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD. However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps. This is possible because of the transitional sex determination system of this species, in which genetically male individuals reverse sex at high incubation temperatures. This can trigger the evolutionary transition of GSD to TSD in a single generation, making P. vitticeps an ideal model organism for comparing the effects of both sex determination processes in the same species. Results We conducted four incubation experiments on 265 P. vitticeps eggs, covering two temperature regimes (“normal” at 28 °C and “sex reversing” at 36 °C and the two maternal sexual genotypes (concordant ZW females or sex-reversed ZZ females. From this, we provide the first detailed staging system for the species, with a focus on genital and limb development. This was augmented by a new sex chromosome identification methodology for P. vitticeps that is non-destructive to the embryo. We found a strong correlation between embryo age and embryo stage. Aside from faster growth in 36 °C treatments, body and external genital development was entirely unperturbed by temperature, sex reversal or maternal sexual genotype. Unexpectedly, all females developed hemipenes (the genital phenotype of adult male P. vitticeps, which regress close to hatching. Conclusions The tight correlation between embryo age and embryo stage

  16. Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yancy, Clyde W; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D; Schulte, Phillip J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-08-16

    Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one. We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity. Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, Prace/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, Pdifferences by race and ethnicity persisted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship betw...

  18. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E; Jack, Shane P D; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    2017-10-06

    of suicide by firearms and hanging/suffocation occurred across all urbanization levels; rates of suicide by firearms in nonmetropolitan/rural counties were almost two times that of rates in larger metropolitan counties. Suicide rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties are consistently higher than suicide rates in metropolitan counties. These trends also are observed by sex, race/ethnicity, age group, and mechanism of death. Interventions to prevent suicides should be ongoing, particularly in rural areas. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts might include leveraging protective factors and providing innovative prevention strategies that increase access to health care and mental health care in rural communities. In addition, distribution of socioeconomic factors varies in different communities and needs to be better understood in the context of suicide prevention.

  19. Amino acid profiles of young adults differ by sex, body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Vargas-Morales, J M; Méndez-García, A L; López-Barradas, A M; Granados-Portillo, O; Ordaz-Nava, G; Rocha-Viggiano, A K; Gutierrez-Leyte, C A; Medina-Cerda, E; Rosado, J L; Morales, J C; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Noriega, L G

    2018-04-01

    An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19.9 ± 2.4 years who were applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. The subjects underwent a physical examination and provided a clinical history and a blood sample for biochemical, hormonal and amino acid analyses. The women had higher levels of arginine, aspartate and serine and lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, urea and valine than the men. The obese subjects had higher levels of alanine, aspartate, cysteine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine and lower levels of glycine, ornithine and serine than the normal weight subjects. Subjects with IR (defined as HOMA > 2.5) had higher levels of arginine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, taurine and valine than the subjects without IR. Furthermore, we identified two main groups in the subjects with obesity and/or IR; one group was composed of amino acids that positively correlated with the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters, whereas the second group exhibited negative correlations. This study demonstrates that young adults with obesity or IR have altered amino acid profiles characterized by an increase in alanine, aspartate, proline and tyrosine and a decrease in glycine. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  20. A Kidney Graft Survival Calculator that Accounts for Mismatches in Age, Sex, HLA, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Valarie B; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Song, Peter X-K; Bray, Mathieu; Wang, Wen; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2017-07-07

    Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors. Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors. Models were adjusted for year of transplant and donor and recipient characteristics, with particular attention to mismatches in age, sex, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), body size, and weight. The dependence of graft failure on increasing donor age was less pronounced for living-donor than for deceased-donor transplants. Male donor-to-male recipient transplants had lower graft failure, particularly better than female to male (5%-13% lower risk). HLA mismatch was important in all donor types. Obesity of both the recipient (8%-18% higher risk) and donor (5%-11% higher risk) was associated with higher graft loss, as were donor-recipient weight ratios of transplants where both parties were of similar weight (9%-12% higher risk). These models are used to create a calculator of estimated graft survival for living donors. This calculator provides useful information to donors, candidates, and physicians of estimated outcomes and potentially in allowing candidates to choose among several living donors. It may also help inform candidates with compatible donors on the advisability of joining a KPD program. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Gender and Body Concerns in Adolescent Females: Single Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell

    This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…

  2. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed.

  3. Sex and genetic effects on upper and lower body fat and associations with diabetes in multigenerational families of African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace M; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Kuller, Lewis H; Evans, Rhobert W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively defined the genetic and environmental influences on body fat storage in the arms and legs and their association with diabetes, especially in families of African heritage. We analyzed body fat distribution by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (percentage total fat, percentage trunk fat, percentage arm fat, and percentage leg fat) and fasting serum glucose in 471 individuals (mean age, 43 years) from 8 multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (mean family size = 51; 3535 relative pairs). Diabetes was inversely associated with percentage leg fat (P = .009) and, to some extent, positively associated with percentage arm fat independent of age, sex, and body size (P = .08), but not with anthropometric or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric measures of total and central adiposity. Furthermore, percentage leg fat was inversely, whereas percentage arm fat was positively, associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and serum glucose (P Genetic correlation (rho(G)) between arm and leg fat was -0.61 (P genetic influences. This study provides new evidence for a strong genetic and sex contribution to upper and lower body fat, with relatively little covariation between these traits due to shared genes. Our findings also suggest that, in this population, leg fat is associated with diabetes independent of overall adiposity.

  4. Survival of radio-implanted drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake) in relation to body size and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Norton, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) has experienced population declines across its range primarily as a result of extensive habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Conservation efforts for D. couperi have been hindered, in part, because of informational gaps regarding the species, including a lack of data on population ecology and estimates of demographic parameters such as survival. We conducted a 2- year radiotelemetry study of D. couperi on Fort Stewart Military Reservation and adjacent private lands located in southeastern Georgia to assess individual characteristics associated with probability of survival. We used known-fate modeling to estimate survival, and an information-theoretic approach, based on a priori hypotheses, to examine intraspecific differences in survival probabilities relative to individual covariates (sex, size, size standardized by sex, and overwintering location). Annual survival in 2003 and 2004 was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.73-0.97, n = 25) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.86; n = 27), respectively. Results indicated that body size, standardized by sex, was the most important covariate determining survival of adult D. couperi, suggesting lower survival for larger individuals within each sex. We are uncertain of the mechanisms underlying this result, but possibilities may include greater resource needs for larger individuals within each sex, necessitating larger or more frequent movements, or a population with older individuals. Our results may also have been influenced by analysis limitations because of sample size, other sources of individual variation, or environmental conditions. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  5. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetra eYean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.

  6. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yean, Chetra; Benau, Erik M; Dakanalis, Antonios; Hormes, Julia M; Perone, Julie; Timko, C Alix

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.

  7. Bumpus in the snake den: effects of sex, size, and body condition on mortality of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R; LeMaster, M P; Moore, I T; Olsson, M M; Mason, R T

    2001-03-01

    Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live animals sampled at the same time reveal significant biases. Three primary sources of mortality were identified. Predation by crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos (590 snakes killed), was focussed mostly on small snakes of both sexes. Crows generally removed the snake's liver and left the carcass, but very small snakes were sometimes brought back to the nest. Suffocation beneath massive piles of other snakes within the den (301 dead animals) involved mostly small males and (to a lesser extent) large females; snakes in poor body condition were particularly vulnerable. Many emaciated snakes (n = 142, mostly females) also died without overt injuries, probably due to depleted energy reserves. These biases in vulnerability are readily interpretable from information on behavioral ecology of the snakes. For example, sex biases in mortality reflect differences in postemergence behavior and locomotor capacity, the greater attractiveness of larger females to males, and the high energy costs of reproduction for females.

  8. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  9. Body mass index trajectories from adolescence to midlife: differential effects of parental and respondent education by race/ethnicity and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Frongillo, Edward A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Race/ethnicity and education are among the strongest social determinants of body mass index (BMI) throughout the life course, yet we know relatively little about how these social factors both independently and interactively contribute to the rate at which BMI changes from adolescence to midlife. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine variation in trajectories of BMI from adolescence to midlife by mothers’ and respondents’ education and (2) determine if the effects of mothers’ and respondents’ education on BMI trajectories differ by race/ethnicity and gender. Design We used nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our sample included White (n=4433), Black (n=2420), and Hispanic (n=1501) respondents. Self-reported height and weight were collected on 16 occasions from 1981 to 2008. We employed two-level linear growth models to specify BMI trajectories. Results Mothers’ education was inversely associated with BMI and BMI change among women. Among men, mothers’ education was inversely associated with BMI; these educational disparities persisted for Whites, diminished for Blacks, and widened for Hispanics. Respondents’ education was inversely associated with BMI among women, but was positively associated with the rate of BMI change among Black women. Respondents’ education was inversely associated with BMI among White and Hispanic men, and positively associated with BMI among Black men. These educational disparities widened for White and Black men, but narrowed for Hispanic men. Conclutions Our results suggest that by simultaneously considering multiple sources of stratification, we can more fully understand how the unequal distribution of advantages or disadvantages across social groups affects BMI across the life course. PMID:22107248

  10. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  11. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (pbehaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  15. Sex-dependent association between omega-3 index and body weight status in older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Mingay

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Omega-3 status was associated with weight status, particularly in older women but not in men. These results suggest the need for sex-based intervention trials to examine the role of dietary intake and/or supplementation of LCn-3PUFA in weight management of older adults.

  16. Body weight, perceived weight stigma and mental health among women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: insights from the modified labelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L

    2018-01-01

    With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J.; Krohmer, Randolph W.; Waye, Heather L.; Mason, Robert T.; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M.

    2017-01-01

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. PMID:28381620

  18. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene S J; Yap, Jonathan; Xu, Chang Fen; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Seow, Swee Chong; Ching, Chi Keong; Yeo, Khung Keong; Richards, A Mark; Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Toon Wei; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-07-01

    Existing electrocardiographic (ECG) reference values were derived in middle-aged Caucasian adults. We aimed to assess the association of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Resting 12-lead ECG and anthropometric measurements were performed in a community-based cohort of 3777 older Asians (age 64.7±9.1 years, 1467 men, 88.8% Chinese, 7.7% Malay, 3.5% Indian, body mass index [BMI] 24.0±3.9kg/m(2)). Men had longer PR interval, wider QRS, shorter QTc interval and taller SV3. In both sexes, older age was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger R aVL and more leftward QRS axis, while higher BMI was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger RaVL and more negative QRS axis. There were significant inter-ethnic differences in QRS duration among men, as well as in PR and QTc intervals among women (all adjusted p<0.05). Findings were similar in a healthy subset of 1158 adults (age 61.2±9.1 years, 365 men) without cardiovascular risk factors. These first community-based ECG data in multi-ethnic older Asians highlight the independent effects of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrition- and sex-dependent utilization of body resources in relation to reproduction in a scorpionfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter; Engels, Sierk

    Reproduction often comes at a cost of a reduction in body functions. In order to enhance their reproductive output, some insect species degenerate their thoracic muscles, typically resulting in reduced flight ability. From a life-history trade-off perspective, we expect the importance of body

  1. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  2. From Sub- to Super-Citizenship: Sex Hormones and the Body Politic in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria , Emilia

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Sex hormones in Brazil are mobilised as modes of regulatory control and to discipline subjectivites. Their packaging effectively differentiates between two forms of citizenship. The first, available to those with private health, is founded on notions of personal autonomy, individual choice and self-enhancement, while the second frames decisions in terms of the individual’s moral responsibility to the wider collectivity. Here, technical and biomedical interventions on m...

  3. Description of Three Female 24-h Ultra-Endurance Race Winners in Various Weather Conditions and Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Žákovská, Alena; Sudi, Karl

    2017-08-31

    A The incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is higher in women than in men. We present three cases of a very mild post-race EAH in female winners of three 24-h ultra races in various weather conditions and disciplines with post-race plasma sodium [Na⁺] levels of 134 mM (Case 1), 133 mM (Case 2) and 134 mM (Case 3). Moreover, Case 1 and Case 2 showed elevated creatine kinase concentrations of >10,000 U/l with an absence of renal function abnormality. The common characteristics were female sex, veteran recreational category, long race experience in the particular sports discipline, excellent race performance, similar total weekly training hours and the presence of luteal phase of the menstrual cycle during the race. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased and post-race K⁺/Na⁺ ratio in urine increased in all three cases. In addition, an increased body mass and a decreased urine specific gravity and urine osmolality suggested over-drinking in Case 1. A decrease in the glomerular filtration rate and creatine clearance accompanied by an increase in urine [Na⁺] may contribute to fluid overload in Cases 2 and 3. Furthermore, urine osmolality reached a level indicating antidiuretic hormone secretion in all the present cases. Therefore, we recommend that race medical personnel should not forget to look for EAH even in fast and experienced female athletes and during races in different environmental conditions.

  4. Body Composition Explains Sex Differential in Physical Performance Among Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, L.A.; Delmonico, M.J.; Visser, M.; Boudreau, R.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Schwartz, A.V.; Simonsick, E.M.; Satterfield, S.; Harris, T.; Newman, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Older women have higher percent body fat, poorer physical function, lower strength, and higher rates of nonfatal chronic conditions than men. We sought to determine whether these differences explained physical performance differences between men and women. Methods. Physical performance

  5. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Sex, & Muscle Activation on Pressure Distribution During Lateral Falls on the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Steven P; Martel, Daniel R; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-12-01

    Hip fracture incidence rates are influenced by body mass index (BMI) and sex, likely through mechanistic pathways that influence dynamics of the pelvis-femur system during fall-related impacts. The goal of this study was to extend our understanding of these impact dynamics by investigating the effects of BMI, sex, and local muscle activation on pressure distribution over the hip region during lateral impacts. Twenty participants underwent "pelvis-release experiments" (which simulate a lateral fall onto the hip), including muscle-'relaxed' and 'contracted' trials. Males and low-BMI individuals exhibited 44 and 55% greater peak pressure, as well as 66 and 56% lower peripheral hip force, compared to females and high-BMI individuals, respectively. Local muscle activation increased peak force by 10%, contact area by 17%, and peripheral hip force by 11% compared to relaxed trials. In summary, males and low-BMI individuals exhibited more concentrated loading over the greater trochanter. Muscle activation increased peak force, but this force was distributed over a larger area, preventing increased localized loading over the greater trochanter. These findings suggest potential value in incorporating sex, gender, and muscle activation-specific force distributions as inputs into computational tissue-level models, and have implications for the design of personalized protective devices including wearable hip protectors.

  6. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  7. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  8. Age- and Sex-Dependent Values of the Distribution of Body Composition Parameters Among Chinese Children Using the Hattori Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Hu, Li; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xu, Hao

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between the fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) and between the fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) in Chinese children using the Hattori chart and to compare the changing pattern with Korean counterparts. In this study, 1541 (764 girls) children and adolescents aged 5-19 yr were recruited from southern China. The subjects' body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between FFM and FM and between FFMI and FMI were delineated using the Hattori chart. Between 5 and 12 yr, a concurrent increase in FFM and FM and in FFMI and FMI was found in both sexes. After 12 yr, the age-related changing patterns are generally characterized by a sharp increase in FM, with a relatively small increase in FFM for girls, and a sharp increase in FFM, with a relatively little fluctuation in FM for boys. The increase in weight and BMI with age for this stage is largely due to the increase in FFM and FFMI in boys and in both the FFM and FM and FFMI and FMI components in girls. Sex differences in the patterns of body composition were found in Chinese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases......The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none...

  10. Breast Feeding, Sex and Body Composition as Correlates of Stunting Among Kenyan Children at 6 and 15 Months of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyole, Silvenus; Omollo, Selina; Skau, Jutta; Michaelsen, Kim; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Kinyuru, John; Owuor, Bethuel; Estambale, Benson; Owino, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction and objective: Stunting is prevalent in young children in low-income countries, and has detrimental effects on psychomotor development and later working capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass), breastfeeding and sex with stunting in Kenyan children aged 6 and 15 months Subjects and Method: As part of a nutrition trial conducted in Western Kenya, 449 six months old infants were recruited if MUAC≥11.5 cm. At six and 15 months of age, weight, recumbent length, skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured. Deuterium oxide dilution method was used to determine body fat and fat-free-mass. A predose saliva sample was taken prior to a dose to the infant of 0.5 g deuterium oxide per kg of body weight. Postdose saliva samples were taken after 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Deuterium enrichment was measured using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of stunting Results: At 6 months, males had FMI being 14.03 kg/m2 (95% CI 13.80; 14.26) compared to females at 13.67(95% CI 13.40; 13.94). At 15 months males had an FMI of 14.74(95% CI 14.48; 14.99) while females had 14.41(95% CI 14.18; 14.64). At age 6 and 15 months, females had a lower -0.45 (95% CI -2.37; 1.46) kg/m2 and -0.36 (95% CI -0.59;-0.13) kg/m2 FFMI compared to girls, respectively. Stunting was not associated with body composition at neither 6 nor 15 months. Those who stopped breastfeeding before 15 months (11.1%) had a 0.01(95% CI 0.002; 0.02) kg/m2 lower FFMI when they reached 15 months. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher FFMI in early infancy in resource poor settings .Stunting was associated with lower FMI at the age of 6 months but not at 15 months. Wasting was associated with a deficit

  11. Effect of dietary protease supplementation and sex on dressing percentage and body conformation in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković Snežana; Lukić Miloš; Škrbić Zdenka; Rakonjac Simeon; Petričević Veselin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents research results on the effect of protease on the dressing percentage of conventionally dressed carcass and body conformation in broiler chickens. Broiler diet was supplemented with 0.2% protease (group E-I) and 0.3% protease (group E-II), and protein content in the feed was reduced by 4% (E-I) and 6% (E-II) through a decrease in soybean meal content. Fast-growing Cobb 500 broilers were used for a 63-day fattening trial. Body conformatio...

  12. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  13. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  14. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  15. Modifications of animal response to Partial Body Hyperthermia (PBH) as a potent radioprotector: Relationships with animal age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-04-01

    Currently available radio protectors are poorly tolerated in man. Thus, the use of the most promising agent, WR 2721 [S-2 (3-aminoprophylamino) ethylphosphoro thioic acid] has been limited due to its poor clinical tolerance. In a search for less toxic and/or without side effects agents, radioprotective effects of partial body hyperthermia (PBH) have been tested on Wistar rats of both sexes at different ages. Groups of male and female rats were irradiated [Total Body Irradiation (TBI)] in a perforated plexi-glass boxes using a 60 Co source. The irradiation dose was 9 Gy which is considered as a lethal dose of 100% of animals (LD 1 00) (the dose rate was = 80-85 rad.min -1 ). Irradiated animals were monitored for 2 weeks at least, and percentage of survival was calculated on the control groups. Partial Body Hyperthermia was carried out 20 hours prior to irradiation of 200-250 gr rats (by immersion of lower parts and legs of rats, in water bath at 43 centigrade for 1 h). Irradiated PBH treated animals were monitored for 30 days after irradiation and the survival percentage was calculated. Our results showed that PBH treatment, can be considered as a radioprotector. Moreover, the results of the undertaken study showed that this response changes as a function of animal age and sex. Thus, PBH was more effective on young rats (males and females), However, after 30 days of irradiation, PBH was more effective on males than females. The conclusion reached by this study is that animal response to PBH decreases with aging. Despite that the precise mechanism by which PBH induces retardation of death and enhance survival of rats is still obscure, Hyperthermia is known to enhance the immune response. Literature reveals that the productions of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins as well as natural killer cell activity are enhanced after hyperthermia. (author)

  16. Sex, Pregnancy, and Schooling: Obstacles to a Critical Teaching of the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Laurie A.

    1987-01-01

    Teachers, in their interactions with students, prevent a critical teaching of the body because of the following problems: (1) their information is cloaked in protectionism; (2) conservative educational policies hinder them; and (3) the classroom is too limited to adequately address the question. (Author/BJV)

  17. O corpo diferente: representações das raças humanas nos manuais escolares de zoologia - The different body: representations of the human races in zoology textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento Filipe Barreiras Pinto Cavadas, Portugal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Este trabalho visou comparar o modo como os autores dos manuais escolares de Zoologia, da segunda metade do século 19 e do início do século 20, realizaram a transposição didática dos estudos antropológicos sobre as raças humanas para essas obras. Constataram-se diferenças na tipologia e nos carateres antropológicos utilizados para descrever as raças humanas. Aferiu-se, ainda, a existência de afirmações que vincularam o determinismo biológico porque alguns autores valorizaram física, moral e intelectualmente a raça caucasiana em detrimento das outras raças.Palavras-chave: manuais escolares, raças humanas, zoologia. The different body: representations of the human races in zoology textbooksAbstractThe aim of this study is to compare how the authors of Zoology textbooks of the second half of 19th century and early 20th century made the didactic transposition of anthropological studies on the human races for these textbooks. The results show differences in the typology and anthropological characteristics used to describe the human races. It was also noticed the presence of statements related to the concept of biological determinism because the authors valued physic, morally and intellectually the Caucasian race instead other races.Key-words: textbooks, human races, zoology. El cuerpo diferente: representaciones de las razas humanas en los manuales escolares de zoologiaResumenEste estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar la forma en que los autores de los manuales escolares de Zoología de la segunda mitad del siglo 19 y principios del siglo 20 hizo la transposición didáctica de los estudios antropológicos sobre las razas humanas para estos manuales. Se encontraron diferencias en las características de la tipología y las características antropológicas utilizadas para describir las razas humanas. También se señaló que hay declaraciones que vinculaban el determinismo biológico debido a que algunos autores han valorizado f

  18. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  19. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Obanda

    Full Text Available Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC, platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of

  20. Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, Johann; Herttrich, Theresa; Zhao, Ying Y; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Quante, Mirja

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and sleep regulation. However, the role of chemerin and progranulin, two recently described adipokines, in the context of sleep remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess variations by sex, across different sleep stages and in relation to glucose metabolism. The study sample included 34 overweight/obese and 32 normal-weight adolescents from secondary schools and the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study cohort. We obtained longitudinal serum adipokine levels during in-laboratory polysomnography followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly higher mean nocturnal serum chemerin area under the curve (AUC) levels (348.2±133.3 vs. 241.7±67.7 vs. ng/mL×h, pprogranulin AUC was found between the groups. However, when assessing sex-specific levels, serum progranulin AUC levels were ~30% higher in overweight/obese males compared to overweight/obese females. Of note, nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin AUC did not exhibit a correlation with markers of glucose metabolism or sleep stages. Collectively, we report a sexual dimorphism in nocturnal progranulin and chemerin levels, which may help explain underlying differences in energy balance and body composition between males and females in the context of obesity.

  1. Patterns of neuroendocrine coupling in 9-year-old children: Effects of sex, body-mass index, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sarah R; Lerner, Matthew D; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-02-01

    Previous investigations have explored stress and pubertal hormones in parallel; it has been a recent development, however, to explore the relationships between different hormones during puberty, and how this hormonal cross-talk may be influenced by the environment. The current study investigated neuroendocrine coupling, or the extent to which hormones are correlated within the individual, and also investigated early life stressors that may influence coupling. Participants were 405 adrenarcheal children (mean Tanner stage=1.73 for girls and 1.38 for boys) from a longitudinal study who provided saliva samples for analysis of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone. Saliva was collected when children were 9-years-old, while early life stressors were assessed at each longitudinal assessment (ages 3, 6, and 9). Results from multi-level modeling (MLM) analyses provided evidence of positive cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol-testosterone coupling in middle childhood, and identified body mass index as a predictor of the strength of hormone coordination. While exposure to stressful life events did not impact cortisol-DHEA coupling patterns, stress interacted with sex to predict looser cortisol-testosterone coupling in girls, but not boys. The current study adds to the existing literature on the development of neuroendocrine coupling, and provided further evidence of sex differences in the impact of stress. Furthermore, hormone coupling may be investigated in the future as a mechanism by which puberty is associated with negative behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance and body composition of Nile tilapia fed diets supplemented with AminoGut® during sex reversal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themis Sakaguti Graciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the effects of the commercial product AminoGut® (Ajinomoto, SP, a source of glutamine and glutamate, on performance and body composition of Nile tilapia fingerlings. A study was conducted with 26,000 Gift strain tilapias, with seven days of age during the sex reversal, with initial weight and length of 0.037±0.09 g and 13.28±0.78 mm. The fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications, totaling 1,300 fish/tank of 0,5m3 each one. Control diet was used with approximately 500 g/kg of crude protein and 3,840 kcal/ kg of digestible energy. The AminoGut® was added to the control diet at a ratio of 5, 10, 15 and 20g/kg to replace L-alanine. Each diet was provided 10 times per day at intervals of one hour, from 8:00 until 17:00, for 30 days. No effect was observed on weight gain (p>0.05 in fish fed with increasing levels of Aminogut®. However, a positive linear effect (p<0.05 on feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and survival of the fish supplemented was verified. The inclusion of Aminogut® up to 20 g/kg improves the feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and survival, parameters of Nile tilapia during sex reversal.

  3. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  4. Body, sex and reproduction. Te notion of women autonomy questioned: abortion and other sensitive situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Leonor Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the sexual and reproductive health autonomy issues are crucial, personal and sometimes very problematic. Our interest is to research different conceptions of "being a patient," put into play as political and social issues of the first order, for example, having to do with the forms of autonomy and social relations of subordination. And issues that have to do with the social construction of the body, individuation and citizenship. Here we explore some empirical and conceptually ideal patient types, depending on their autonomy as an individual capable of judgment and action, and as a subject of rights and responsibilities. Analysis of different situations - some limit (such as the case of abortion - allow us to problematize what is meant by "autonomus person" in the field of health and disease. We present the results of analysis on one hand problematize the notion of autonomy of the liberal matrix separating it and putting it in relation to the body and emotions in the context of interpersonal relationships, and secondly, allow patient operationalize the typology defined according of autonomy from which we (taxpayer, consumer / user, and peer-citizen.

  5. Influences of sex, ontogeny and body size on the thermal ecology of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata, Liolaemidae) in a restinga remnant in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Variations in body temperature (Tb) of lizards can be partially explained by intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size. Liolaemus lutzae is a lizard species restricted to restingas in the Brazilian coast in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we studied sexual dimorphism and influences of sex, ontogeny, and body size to the Tb of L. lutzae. Adult males were larger than adult females, probably due to both intersexual selection and intra-sexual selection. There was intersexual difference in lizards' Tb (males hotter than females), but Tb did not differ after factored out for the effects of body size. The mean Tb of juvenile lizards was higher than that of adults after factored out for the effect of body mass. It is possible that adults may have excluded juveniles from microhabitats with better thermal regimes. Also, this might have occurred due to requirements of juveniles to maintain high growth rates. Forage searching for prey by juveniles also exposes them to high environmental temperatures. Juveniles also may have higher Tb than co-specific adults (relative to body mass) to favor prey capture. In absolute values, adult lizards tended to use microhabitats with lower temperatures than that used by juveniles, possibly to avoid risks of overheating and death. Body temperature and snout-vent length were positively related, as well as body temperature and body mass, presumably caused by the thermal inertia of the bodies (trend of a body to resist to changes in its temperature). Intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size can affect the thermal ecology of L. lutzae, despite coastal habitat features to which they are exposed also influences the body temperature of active lizards in restinga habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychometric evaluation and sex invariance of the Spanish version of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES; Castonguay et al., 2014) in a sample of university Spanish students. A total of 815 participants enrolled in two public universities located in Almería and Elche, Spain, completed the BASES along with measures of social physique anxiety and positive/negative affect. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that one item failed to load clearly on the hypothesized factor (guilt). Once it was removed, results supported the hypothesized four-factor structure. Evidence of invariance of the four-factor structure across sex was obtained. Scores on the BASES showed adequate internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher body and appearance-related guilt and shame, and significant lower authentic and hubristic pride. Preliminary evidence supporting the validity and reliability of the Spanish translation of the BASES is provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between age, sex and body mass index with fundamental motor skills among 3 to 6 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vameghi Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem. This problem is a multi-component disease and several factors are involved in its development. The childhood obesity led to poor mastery of fundamental motor skills (FMS and failure to develop in specialized skills that required in organized sports and activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, sex and body mass index (BMI with FMS in 3 to 6 years-old children. A total of 600 preschool children (300 boys and 300 girls between the ages of 3 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling in five regions in Tehran. Using the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA FMS were assess. Body mass index (BMI was directly measured from height (m2/weight (kg for each child. The results showed that the negative correlations between jumping, skipping, hopping and throwing skills and BMI in any 3 groups children were significant (P0.05. The boys were performed better than girls in all FMS except hopping and skipping skills. In these skills the girls were better performed in all ages. These results highlight the need to provide organized opportunities which facilitate FMS and decreased high BMI levels in preschool children.

  10. Technical characteristics of elite junior men and women race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, B; Bissas, A; Drake, A

    2014-12-01

    Successful coaching in race walking requires a thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles underlying this unique form of gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze elite male and female junior race walkers and identify key kinematic variables. Twenty junior men and 20 junior women were videoed as they competed over 10 km in the 8th European Cup Race Walking. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained using motion analysis software (SIMI, Munich). Step length and cadence were correlated with speed in both sexes, and greater step lengths were the kinematic reason for junior men's faster walking speeds. While cadence did not differ between junior men and junior women, there was a difference in proportion of step time spent in contact. There were some differences between genders for upper body joint angles (e.g., elbow) but there were few differences within lower limb joint angles. Although some technical aspects (e.g., pelvic and shoulder girdle rotation) appeared undeveloped, it was noteworthy that most athletes achieved full knee extension at initial contact in accordance with the rules. However, in many athletes flight times were evident that might present problems during the transition to the higher standards of senior competition. There was a large range of ability among both sexes and coaches are advised to ensure that technical development continues during the transition to senior competition.

  11. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  12. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  13. Predictor Variables for Marathon Race Time in Recreational Female Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Methods Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-varia...

  14. Sex differences in androgen receptors of the human mamillary bodies are related to endocrine status rather than to sexual orientation or transsexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, F. P.; Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fodor, M.; Kraan, E. M.; Swaab, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study we found androgen receptor (AR) sex differences in several regions throughout the human hypothalamus. Generally, men had stronger nuclear AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) than women. The strongest nuclear labeling was found in the caudal hypothalamus in the mamillary body complex

  15. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  16. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  17. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  18. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  19. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  20. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  1. Body Esteem as a Common Factor of a Tendency Toward Binge Eating and Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Women: The Role of Dissociation and Stress Response During Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ricca, Valdo; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a relevant overlap between eating disorders and sexual dysfunction involving the emotional component of body image esteem and dissociative experiences. To evaluate the common maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors and their relation to a physiologic stress response. In the present cross-sectional study, we evaluated a non-clinical sample of 60 heterosexual women (25-35 years old) for dissociation during sex with a partner, body image disturbance, and tendency toward pathologic eating behaviors. We also evaluated the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in response to a sexual stimulus and its association with binge eating and dissociation. Participants completed the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women, the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, and the Eating Attitudes Test Short Version. Furthermore, we assessed cortisol levels before, during, and after exposure to explicit sexual stimuli shown within a laboratory setting. Dysfunctional body image esteem and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors were associated with greater sexual distress in women. In particular, body esteem was significantly associated with greater dissociation during sex with a partner. Moreover, women who reported greater dissociation during sex with a partner and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors showed higher levels of cortisol in response to sexual stimuli. These results support further research based on trans-diagnostic treatments targeted to dissociation and body image esteem, which could lessen sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors. Despite the small sample and self-reported questionnaires, this is the first study to consider the association of the stress response during sexual stimuli with sexual distress and with pathologic eating behaviors adopting a dimensional approach. Body

  2. The role of sex and body weight on the metabolic effects of high-fat diet in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvorsen, C; Karp, N A; Lelliott, C J

    2017-04-10

    Metabolic disorders are commonly investigated using knockout and transgenic mouse models on the C57BL/6N genetic background due to its genetic susceptibility to the deleterious metabolic effects of high-fat diet (HFD). There is growing awareness of the need to consider sex in disease progression, but limited attention has been paid to sexual dimorphism in mouse models and its impact in metabolic phenotypes. We assessed the effect of HFD and the impact of sex on metabolic variables in this strain. We generated a reference data set encompassing glucose tolerance, body composition and plasma chemistry data from 586 C57BL/6N mice fed a standard chow and 733 fed a HFD collected as part of a high-throughput phenotyping pipeline. Linear mixed model regression analysis was used in a dual analysis to assess the effect of HFD as an absolute change in phenotype, but also as a relative change accounting for the potential confounding effect of body weight. HFD had a significant impact on all variables tested with an average absolute effect size of 29%. For the majority of variables (78%), the treatment effect was modified by sex and this was dominated by male-specific or a male stronger effect. On average, there was a 13.2% difference in the effect size between the male and female mice for sexually dimorphic variables. HFD led to a significant body weight phenotype (24% increase), which acts as a confounding effect on the other analysed variables. For 79% of the variables, body weight was found to be a significant source of variation, but even after accounting for this confounding effect, similar HFD-induced phenotypic changes were found to when not accounting for weight. HFD and sex are powerful modifiers of metabolic parameters in C57BL/6N mice. We also demonstrate the value of considering body size as a covariate to obtain a richer understanding of metabolic phenotypes.

  3. Effect of Corticosterone and Hen Body Mass on Primary Sex Ratio in Laying Hen (Gallusgallus), Using Unincubated Eggs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2014-01-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  4. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  5. Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zeyu; Guo, Bin; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to develop sex- and age-specific percentiles for lean mass index (LMI), appendicular LMI (aLMI), fat mass index (FMI), and body fat distribution indices in Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to compare those indices with those of other ethnicities using the US NHANES data. Whole-body and regional lean mass and fat mass (FM) were measured using DXA in 5688 healthy males (n = 1693) and females (n = 3995) aged 20-90 years. Body fat distribution indices were expressed as % fat trunk/% fat legs, trunk/appendicular FM ratio (FMR), and android/gynoid FMR. Percentile curves of LMI, aLMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices were obtained by the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method. The aLMI and LMI were negatively associated with age, decreasing from the fifth decade for males, but were not associated with age in females. Females had more total FM than males, whereas males had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio, trunk/appendicular FMR, and android/gynoid FMR) than females. Moreover, FMI and body fat distribution indices consistently increased with age in both sexes, especially in women. In comparison with white, black, and Mexican populations in the USA, Chinese adults had lower total FM, but had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio and trunk/appendicular FMR). Additionally, older white and Mexican populations showed greater decreases for aLMI and LMI than their Chinese counterparts. We present the sex- and age-specific percentiles for aLMI, LMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices by DXA in Chinese adults, which may refine the individual assessment of the nutritional status of Chinese adults.

  6. (How) Does Obesity Harm Academic Performance? Stratification at the Intersection of Race, Sex, and Body Size in Elementary and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study I hypothesize a larger penalty of obesity on teacher-assessed academic performance for white girls in English, where femininity is privileged, than in math, where stereotypical femininity is perceived to be a detriment. This pattern of associations would be expected if obesity largely influences academic performance through social…

  7. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  8. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C M; Baldauf, Sebastian A

    2012-08-07

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference.

  9. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundourakis, Nikolaos E; Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Malliaraki, Niki; Tsatsanis, Christos; Venihaki, Maria; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22), participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max) aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; pperiod resulted in a rapid loss of exercise performance adaptations and optimal body composition status, but did not affect sex steroid resting levels. The insignificant changes in sex steroid concentration indicate that these hormones were a non-contributing parameter for the observed negative effects of detraining on exercise performance and body composition.

  10. An examination of the factor structure and sex invariance of a French translation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertechian, Sevag; Swami, Viren

    2017-06-01

    The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a measure of positive body image that has been found that have a one-dimensional factor structure in a number of different cultural groups. Here, we examined the factor structure and sex-based measurement invariance of a French translation of the BAS-2. A total of 652 university students (age M=21.33, SD=3.18) completed a newly-translated French version of the BAS-2. Exploratory factor analyses with a randomly selected split-half subsample revealed that the BAS-2 had a one-dimensional factor structure in both sexes. Confirmatory factor analyses with a second split-half subsample indicated that the one-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following modifications and was invariant across sex. French BAS-2 scores had adequate internal consistency and men had significantly higher body appreciation than women (ds=.16-.23). These results provide preliminary support for the factorial validity of the French BAS-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association of Fat and Lean Tissue With Whole Body and Spine Bone Mineral Density Is Modified by HIV Status and Sex in Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Denise L; Lindsey, Jane C; Coull, Brent A; Mulligan, Kathleen; Bhagwat, Priya; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2018-01-01

    HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex. We used generalized estimating equations to simultaneously model the effect of fat/lean mass on multiple bone outcomes, including total body bone mineral density and bone mineral content and spine bone mineral density. We evaluated effect modification by HIV and sex. The analysis cohort consisted of 143 HIV-neg and 236 HIV-pos, of whom 55% were black non-Hispanic and 53% were male. Ages ranged from 7 to children/youth were at Tanner stage 1 and 20% at Tanner 5. Fat mass was more strongly positively correlated with bone mass in HIV-neg than HIV-pos children/youth and these relationships were more evident for total body bone than spine outcomes. Within HIV strata, fat mass and bone were more correlated in female than male children/youth. The relationship between lean mass and bone varied by sex, but not by HIV status. HIV disease diminishes the positive relationship of greater fat mass on bone mass in children/youth. Disruptions in body fat distribution, which are common in HIV disease, may have an impact on bone accretion during pubertal development.

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  13. A Comparison of Anthropometric and Training Characteristics between Female and Male Half-Marathoners and the Relationship to Race Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Miriam; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-03-01

    Lower limb skin-fold thicknesses have been differentially associated with sex in elite runners. Front thigh and medial calf skin-fold appear to be related to 1,500m and 10,000m time in men but 400m time in women. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric and training characteristics in recreational female and male half-marathoners. The association between both anthropometry and training characteristics and race time was investigated in 83 female and 147 male recreational half marathoners using bi- and multi-variate analyses. In men, body fat percentage (β=0.6), running speed during training (β=-3.7), and body mass index (β=1.9) were related to half-marathon race time after multi-variate analysis. After exclusion of body mass index, r (2) decreased from 0.51 to 0.49, but body fat percentage (β=0.8) and running speed during training (β=-4.1) remained predictive. In women, body fat percentage (β=0.75) and speed during training (β=-6.5) were related to race time (r (2) =0.73). For women, the exclusion of body mass index had no consequence on the predictive variables for half-marathon race time. To summarize, in both female and male recreational half-marathoners, both body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were related to half-marathon race times when corrected with co-variates after multi-variate regression analyses.

  14. Race and sex in a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Betty De Shong

    2010-04-01

    The Jungian analysts who participated in the writing of this paper(1) explicitly or implicitly address issues of social and political stasis, retrogression and change via their particular usages of the concept of the transcendent function. Singer proposes that the transcendent function is a term that is usually applied to individuals in whom symbolic material appears that suggests the reconciling of opposites, leading to psycho-spiritual growth. He also looks at the notion of the transcendent function as it can appear in a similar way in the collective psyche. In addition, he gives attention to the opposite phenomenon-what might be called the descendent function-as it appears in the collective psyche and its leadership, wherein symbolic material can create the division of groups of people into opposites, mobilizing destructive rather than transformative experience. Meador states that Jung designated the mediating process of assimilating unconscious images and ideas into consciousness as the transcendent function. Just as this synthesizing process can produce insight in the individual, it can also be applied to changes in collective society. Embedded collective assumptions tend to shift when opposites collide, as they did, for example, in the turmoils of the 1960s. Her contribution focuses on the recent revolution in racial and sexual attitudes as the product of a collective struggle between certain ingrained social mores from the past and conflicting new points of view. Samuels' conclusion is that the concept of the transcendent function has little value with respect to political problems. His contribution focuses on: (i) The limitations of using ideas (such as the transcendent function) derived from analysis with individuals in furtherance of an understanding of social and political phenomena. (ii) The specific problem of a lack of credible psycho-political models for social progress and regress-he argues that the transcendent function is not useful in this regard. (iii) The question of political aggression, violence and conflict in society is explored from the standpoint of the transcendent function so as to investigate its possible role in the management of political conflict. Samuels severely criticizes what he terms 'triangulation' and 'hyper-reflection' on the part of analysts who engage with political debates and issues. (iv) Leadership is examined from the standpoint of the transcendent function which, again, does not seem pertinent. Rather, new discoveries in family psychology about the role of the father have greater possibilities as a basis for new thinking about leadership.

  15. Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance : a cross-validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Weststrate, J A; Seidell, J C

    In 827 male and female subjects, with a large variation in body composition and an age range of 7-83 years, body composition was measured by densitometry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. The relationship between densitometrically determined fat free mass (FFM) with body impedance (R),

  16. Variation of sup 137 Cs levels between sexes, body sizes and collection localities of mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Girard 1859), inhabiting a reactor cooling reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.C.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined for 190 mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) collected in April 1987 from three locations in a former cooling reservoir which had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs from production reactor effluents between 1961 and 1964. Male fish collected near the point where the reactor effluent had entered the reservoir tended to have higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations than those from the other locations. Females did not differ in {sup 137}Cs concentrations between the three locations. Females at the site of contaminant entry tended to decrease in {sup 137}Cs concentration as body size increased. These results suggest that that radionuclide whole body concentrations may vary in unexpected ways between sex or size classes within a given species and that such differences may also vary within microgeographic scales. (author).

  17. critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study seeks to combine research from critical race theory, as applied to ... Two recurring strands from this body of academic work that are of particular ..... that the above exemplars stem from an online debate in which students.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Scheffers

    Full Text Available Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL in a non-clinical sample.The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses.Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory.Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the

  19. An evaluation of a body image intervention in adolescent girls delivered in single-sex versus co-educational classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Candice J; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2017-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction is now recognized as having considerable negative impact on social, psychological, and physical health, particularly in adolescent girls. Consequently, we have developed a six-session co-educational body image intervention (Happy Being Me Co-educational) designed to reduce body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in Grade 7 girls. In addition to evaluating the program's efficacy, we aimed to identify whether girls would benefit equally when it was delivered as a universal intervention to a whole class including both boys and girls (co-educational delivery), or delivered as a selective intervention to girls only (single-sex delivery). Participants were 200 Grade 7 girls from five schools in Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomly allocated to receive the intervention in single-sex classes (n=74), co-educational classes (n=73), or participate as a no-intervention control (n=53). Girls completed self-report assessments of body dissatisfaction, psychological (internalization of the thin ideal, appearance comparison, and self-esteem) and peer environment (weight-related teasing and appearance conversations) risk factors for body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in body dissatisfaction and psychological risk factors were observed in the intervention group at post-intervention and these were maintained at follow-up for psychological risk factors. Importantly, no significant differences between universal and selective delivery were observed, suggesting that the intervention is appropriate for dissemination in both modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the DBIQ-NL in a

  1. Sex-specific relationships of physical activity, body composition, and muscle quality with lower-extremity physical function in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to determine the sex-specific relationships of physical activity, body composition, and muscle quality with lower-extremity physical function in older men and women. Seventy-nine community-dwelling men (n = 39; mean [SD] age, 76.1 [6.2] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 27.3 [3.8] kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40; mean [SD] age, 75.8 [5.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 27.0 [3.8] kg/m(2)) were assessed for physical activity via questionnaire, body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, and muscle quality (W/kg; the ratio of leg extension power [W] to lower-body mineral-free lean mass [kg]). A composite measure of physical function was obtained by summing Z scores from the 6-minute walk, 8-ft up-and-go test, and 30-second chair-stand test. As expected, men had significantly greater levels of physical activity, lower adiposity, greater lean mass, higher leg extension power, and greater muscle quality compared with women (all P physical activity were the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in men and independently explained 42% and 29% of the variance, respectively. In women, muscle quality (16%) and percent body fat (12%) were independent predictors after adjustment for covariates. Muscle quality is the strongest predictor of lower-extremity physical function in men and women, but sex impacts the importance of physical activity and adiposity. These findings suggest that older men and women may benefit from different intervention strategies for preventing physical disability and also highlight the importance of weight management for older women to preserve physical function.

  2. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  3. Yacht Race Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  4. Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Sieweke, N.; Kampen, W.U.; Zuhayra, M.; Henze, E. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Validierung einer von uns neu entwickelten einfachen Methode zur Quantifizierung des Skelettuptake von Tc-99m-HDP im Rahmen der klinischen Routineanwendung und die Erstellung

  5. Joint loads resulting in ACL rupture: Effects of age, sex, and body mass on injury load and mode of failure in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaker, Carina L; Little, Christopher B; Clarke, Elizabeth C

    2017-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common knee injury with a known but poorly understood association with secondary joint injuries and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Female sex and age are known risk factors for ACL injury but these variables are rarely explored in mouse models of injury. This study aimed to further characterize a non-surgical ACL injury model to determine its clinical relevance across a wider range of mouse specifications. Cadaveric and anesthetized C57BL/6 mice (9-52 weeks of age) underwent joint loading to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass on ACL injury mechanisms. The ACL injury load (whole joint load required to rupture the ACL) was measured from force-displacement data, and mode of failure was assessed using micro-dissection and histology. ACL injury load was found to increase with body mass and age (p < 0.001) but age was not significant when controlling for mass. Sex had no effect. In contrast, the mode of ACL failure varied with both age and sex groups. Avulsion fractures (complete or mixed with mid-substance tears) were common in all age groups but the proportion of mixed and mid-substance failures increased with age. Females were more likely than males to have a major avulsion relative to a mid-substance tear (p < 0.01). This data compliments studies in human cadaveric knees, and provides a basis for determining the severity of joint injury relative to a major ACL tear in mice, and for selecting joint loading conditions in future experiments using this model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1754-1763, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jungert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI, or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects: This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results: The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion: Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  7. Effects of season, sex and body size on the feeding ecology of turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on IndoPacific inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiran, C.; Dubey, S.; Shine, R.

    2013-06-01

    In terrestrial snakes, many cases of intraspecific shifts in dietary habits as a function of predator sex and body size are driven by gape limitation and hence are most common in species that feed on relatively large prey and exhibit a wide body-size range. Our data on sea snakes reveal an alternative mechanism for intraspecific niche partitioning, based on sex-specific seasonal anorexia induced by reproductive activities. Turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on coral reefs in the New Caledonian Lagoon feed entirely on the eggs of demersal-spawning fishes. DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) on eggs that we palpated from stomachs of 37 snakes showed that despite this ontogenetic stage specialization, the prey comes from a taxonomically diverse array of species including damselfish (41 % of samples, at least 5 species), blennies (41 %, 4 species) and gobies (19 %, 5 species). The composition of snake diets shifted seasonally (with damselfish dominating in winter but not summer), presumably reflecting seasonality of fish reproduction. That seasonal shift affects male and female snakes differently, because reproduction is incompatible with foraging. Adult female sea snakes ceased feeding when they became heavily distended with developing embryos in late summer, and males ceased feeding while they were mate searching in winter. The sex divergence in foraging habits may be amplified by sexual size dimorphism; females grow larger than males, and larger snakes (of both sexes) feed more on damselfish (which often lay their eggs in exposed sites) than on blennies and gobies (whose eggs are hidden within narrow crevices). Specific features of reproductive biology of coral reef fish (seasonality and nest type) have generated intraspecific niche partitioning in these sea snakes, by mechanisms different from those that apply to terrestrial snakes.

  8. Seasonal dynamics in community structure, abundance, body size and sex ratio in two species of Neotropical annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanés, L. E. K.; Godoy, R. S.; Maltchik, L.; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2016), s. 2345-2364 ISSN 0022-1112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : coastal floodplain * coexistence * Lagoa do Peixe * life cycle * sex-biased mortality * temporary habitat Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2016

  9. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  10. Gender operations: the film XXY (2007 and the constitution of the body and sex as “natural”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fogaça Monteiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Foucault’s concept of the body as the surface of inscription of history, and on the work of Judith Butler, this article questions the way that binary and normative conceptions of gender operate in the constitution of a field of intelligibility for subjects and their bodies. We analyse the film XXY (2007 that tells the story of Alex, an intersexual adolescent. We use the main character's story to see how gender norms act to shape bodies and limit their pleasures. We argue that subjects and bodies that do not correspond to the normative ideal are seen as “abject bodies”, following Butler’s definition. The argument is that gender norms operate on all bodies: the normal and the abject.

  11. The influence of environment, sex, and innate timing mechanisms on body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Van Horne, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms that influence body temperature patterns in black-tailed prairie dogs are not well understood. Previous research on both free-ranging and laboratory populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has suggested that reductions in ambient temperature and food and water deprivation are the primary factors that stimulate torpor in this species. In other species, however, torpor has been shown to be influenced by a multitude of factors, including innate circadian and circannual timing mechanisms, energy status, and reproductive behaviors. Our objective was to clarify the influence of weather, sex, and intrinsic timing mechanisms on the body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs. We monitored body temperatures of eight adult (>1 yr) prairie dogs from November 1999 to June 2000. Prairie dogs showed distinct daily and seasonal body temperature patterns, which reflected changes in ambient temperatures that occurred during these periods. These patterns of daily and seasonal heterothermy suggest that body temperature patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs may be driven by an innate timing mechanism. All prairie dogs entered torpor intermittently throughout winter and spring. Torpor bouts appeared to be influenced by precipitation and reductions in ambient temperature. Our results also suggest that reproductive behaviors and circadian timing may influence torpor in this species.

  12. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  13. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Sex ratio and body size in Cobitis elongatoides and Sabanejewia balcanica (Cypriniformes; Cobitidae) from a thermal spring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Freyhof, J.; Nolte, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 191-197 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : environmental sex determination * Fisher's principle * cobitine loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  15. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  16. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  17. Sex work in Córdoba: Biopolitics, Sex and Bodies. Prophylaxis of Venereal Diseases Act: The Role of the Press and the State in the Construction of the Prostitutes’ Bodies in 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía María Busquier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the type of body built on the figure of prostitutes from the perspective of the role of the State and the discourse of the press, taking as a starting point the sanction of the National Act 12.331: Prophylaxis of venereal diseases in Cordoba in 1938. To do so, I study the regulations of that act, how the state control was applied to these bodies, what kind of institutions were created for that purpose, and what role the press played in complying with these regulations. As a methodological proposal, I implement a qualitative analysis of primary sources, centered on two newspapers: La Voz del Interior and Los Principios; and the National Act 12.331: Prophylaxis of venereal diseases. In a second instance, I expose the main points of debate on this activity today.

  18. Frequency of and risk factors for epistaxis associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses: 251,609 race starts (1992-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Hiraga, A; Ohmura, H; Kai, M; Jones, J H

    2001-05-01

    To determine the frequency of epistaxis during or after racing among racehorses and identify factors associated with development of epistaxis. Retrospective study. 247,564 Thoroughbred and 4,045 Anglo-Arab race starts. Race start information (breed, age, sex, racing distance, and race type) was obtained for Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab horses racing in Japan Racing Association-sanctioned races between 1992 and 1997. All horses that raced were examined by a veterinarian within 30 minutes of the conclusion of the race; any horse that had blood at the nostrils was examined with an endoscope. If blood was observed in the trachea, epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) was diagnosed. Epistaxis related to EIPH was identified following 369 race starts (0.15%). Frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis was significantly associated with race type, age, distance, and sex. Epistaxis was more common following steeplechase races than following flat races, in older horses than in horses that were 2 years old, following races horses that had an episode of epistaxis, the recurrence rate was 4.64%. Results suggested that frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis in racehorses is associated with the horse's age and sex, the type of race, and the distance raced. The higher frequency in shorter races suggests that higher intensity exercise of shorter duration may increase the probability of EIPH.

  19. Race: Deflate or pop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Race-ing Class Ladies: Lineages of Privilege in an Elite South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on fieldwork done in Greystone School in South Africa, a single sex girls' school. I explore how the legacy of coloniser and colonised is reconfigured through the history of the school and the particular racialised politics of South Africa, where race and class have always been imbricated in differently nuanced ways before, during…

  1. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  2. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  3. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. METHODS: Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22, participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. RESULTS: Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; p<0.001, and 60,47±4,13 vs 58,30±3,88; p<0.001 respectively, squat-jump (39,70±3,32 vs 37,30±3,08; p<0.001, and 41,05±3,34 vs 38,18±3,03; p<0.001 respectively, and countermovement-jump (41,04±3,99 vs 39,13±3,26; p<0.001 and 42,82±3,60 vs 40,09±2,79; p<0.001 respectively, and significant increases in 10-meters sprint (1,74±0,063 vs 1,79±0,064; p<0.001, and 1,73±0,065 vs 1,78±0,072; p<0.001 respectively, 20-meters sprint (3,02±0,05 vs 3,06±0,06; p<0.001, and 3,01±0,066 vs 3,06±0,063; p<0.001 respectively, body fat percentage (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001, and body weight (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001. Neither team displayed any significant changes in the resting concentrations of total-testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, Δ4-androstenedione, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Furthermore, sex steroids levels did not correlate with exercise performance parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the six-week detraining period resulted in a rapid loss of

  4. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  5. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  6. Swiss Canine Cancer Registry 1955-2008: Occurrence of the Most Common Tumour Diagnoses and Influence of Age, Breed, Body Size, Sex and Neutering Status on Tumour Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüntzig, K; Graf, R; Boo, G; Guscetti, F; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Folkers, G; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, comprising 121,963 diagnostic records of dogs compiled between 1955 and 2008, in which 63,214 (51.83%) animals were diagnosed with tumour lesions through microscopical investigation. Adenoma/adenocarcinoma (n = 12,293, 18.09%) was the most frequent tumour diagnosis. Other common tumour diagnoses were: mast cell tumour (n = 4,415, 6.50%), lymphoma (n = 2,955, 4.35%), melanocytic tumours (n = 2,466, 3.63%), fibroma/fibrosarcoma (n = 2,309, 3.40%), haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma (n = 1,904, 2.80%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,324, 1.95%) and osteoma/osteosarcoma (n = 842, 1.24%). The relative occurrence over time and the most common body locations of those tumour diagnoses are presented. Analyses of the influence of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on tumour development were carried out using multiple logistic regression. In certain breeds/breed categories the odds ratios (ORs) for particular tumours were outstandingly high: the boxer had higher ORs for mast cell tumour and haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, as did the shepherd group for haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, the schnauzer for squamous cell carcinoma and the rottweiler for osteoma/osteosarcoma. In small dogs, the risk of developing mammary tumours was three times higher than in large dogs. However, small dogs were less likely to be affected by many other tumour types (e.g. tumours of the skeletal system). Examination of the influence of sex and neutering status on tumour prevalence showed that the results depend on the examination method. In all sampling groups the risk for female dogs of developing adenoma/adenocarcinoma was higher than for male dogs. Females had a lower risk of developing haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma than males. Neutered animals were at higher risk of developing specific tumours outside the genital organs than intact animals. The sample size allows detailed insight into the

  7. Effect of Sex-linked Feathering Genes on Body Weight, Age At Sexual Maturity, Feed Intake and Subsequent Laying Performance of Baladi Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AI-Sobayel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 320 twenty week-old slow and rapid feathering Saudi Arabian Baladi pullers were used to assess the effect of sex-linked feathering genes on body weight, age at sexual maturity, feed intake and subsequent laying performance. Similar numbers of rapid feathering Leghorns pullets were included in the study for the purpose of comparison. The experimental birds of each genotypic group were randomly divided into four replicates and subjected to standard management practices. Slow feathering Baladi pullers had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight, rate of mortality, and feed intake and a similar age at sexual maturity but showed lower (P< 0.05 hen-day, and hen-housed egg production and feed conversion compared with rapid feathering Baladi pullets. Rapid feathering Leghorns had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight. age at sexual maturity, hen-day egg production, rate of mortality and feed intake and lower feed intake/kg eggs than rapid and slow feathering Baladi. However, rapid feathering Baladi and Leghorns had similar hen-housed egg production and feed intake per dozen eggs and had better (l’<0.05' performance than slow feathering Baladi.

  8. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  9. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  10. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  11. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  12. Age and sex dependence in tumorigenesis in mice by continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Furuse, Takeshi; Noda, Yuko; Shiragai, Akihiro; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the dependency of sex and age in mice in the induction of neoplasms by gamma-rays from cesium-137 at a low dose rate of 0.375Gy/22h/day. Thymic lymphomas occurred significantly at the same incidence in both sexes, and more frequently when younger mice were exposed to radiation. Strain C57BL/6J mice were divided into 8 groups, which were whole-body irradiated with a total dose of 39Gy for 105 days each. The exposure was begun at 28 days of age (male:AM1, female:AF1), and then stepwise increasing the starting age by 105 days, i.e., from 133 days (AM2 and AF2), from 238 days (AM3 and AF3), and from 343 days (AM4 and AF4), respectively. Unirradiated mice served as control (UM and UF). The incidence of thymic lymphomas was about 60 % in AM1, AM2, AF1 and AF2, 40 % in AM3 and AF3 and 20 % in AF4 and AF4, demonstrating no sex dependency, but a distinct age dependency, for lymphomogenesis. It was proven that mice showed a tendency to become less susceptible to radiation induced thymic lymphoma with increasing age. Concomitantly, life-shortening also was caused, and the greater the degree of life-shortening was, the younger the mice were the start of exposure. Life-shortening was attributed to thymic lymphoma, and hemorrhage and infectious diseases due to the depletion of bone marrow cells. (author)

  13. Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency intensifies deterioration of risk factors, such as male sex and absence of vision, leading to increased postural body sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthias; Anschütz, Wilma; Vettorazzi, Eik; Breer, Stefan; Amling, Michael; Barvencik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Due to inconsistent findings, the influence of vitamin D on postural body sway (PBS) is currently under debate. This study evaluated the impact of vitamin D on PBS with regards to different foot positions and eye opening states in community-dwelling older individuals. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed PBS in 342 older individuals (264 females [average age (± SD): 68.3 ± 9.0 years], 78 males [65.7 ± 9.6 years]). A detailed medical history and vitamin D level were obtained for each individual. Fall risk was evaluated using the New York-Presbyterian Fall Risk Assessment Tool (NY PFRA). PBS parameters (area, distance, velocity, frequency) were evaluated on a pressure plate with feet in closed stance (CS) or hip-width stance (HWS), open eyes and closed eyes. Statistical analysis included logarithmic mixed models for repeated measures with the MIXED model procedure to test the influence of vitamin D (categorized in 30 μg/l), foot position, eye opening state, age, sex and frequency of physical activity on PBS. Vitamin D was not an independent risk factor for falls experienced in the last 12 months. Nonetheless, PBS was higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (risk factors for increased PBS like male sex and absence of vision are additionally compromised by vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex Differences in the Cerebellum and its Correlates with Some Body Traits in the African Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus – Temminck, 1827: Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadiah Byanet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual dimorphisms in biological structures such as brain and behaviour have been widely recognized in animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are sex differences in the size of the cerebellum with other body traits, such as the head, tail and brain.Methods:Twelve grasscutters comprising of 6 males and 6 females were used in this study. Each brain was extracted from the skull by standard procedures and the mean values of the weights, dimensions and volumes of the brain, cerebellum, head and tail were compared in male and female using quantitative analytical statistical method.Results:The results showed that the absolute mean brain weight and volume obtained in the male was slightly higher than that of the female, while the cerebellar mean weight was slightly higher in the female; although these values were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean cerebellar lengths and widths did not differ between the two sexes (> 0.05, but the mean cerebellar circumference in the male was statistically higher than in the female (P< 0.05. The female cerebellar length was positively correlated with the length of the brain, head, body and tail.Discussion:In conclusion, the brain weight was slightly higher in the male than female, while the cerebellar weight was higher in the female than male. The significantly higher value of the cerebellar circumference in the male may partly be responsible for the big round head seen in the live male grasscutter.

  16. Changes in Body Composition According to Age and Sex among Young Non-Diabetic Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yu Hyun; Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Park, Se Eun; Oh, Hyung Geun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2017-12-01

    Age-related decreases in lean mass represent a serious health problem. We aimed to analyze the risks of rapid decreases in lean mass by age and sex in relatively young Korean adults during a 4-year follow-up study. A total of 65,856 non-diabetic participants (59.5% men, mean age 39.1 years) in a health screening program were subjected to bioimpedance body composition analyses and metabolic parameter analyses at baseline and after 4 years. The participants were sub-divided according to age, and additionally to six groups by age and the degree of body weight change over the 4-year period. The actual changes in body weight, lean mass, and fat mass and the percent changes over the 4-year period were assessed. The percent change in lean mass decreased and the percent change of fat mass increased with increasing age in every age and sex group. However, the annual percent decrease in lean mass and percent increase in fat mass were significantly higher among women than among men (-0.26% vs. -0.15% and 0.34% vs. 0.42%, respectively; P<0.01). Participants who were older than 50 years and had a weight loss <-5% during the 4 years had significantly greater decreases in lean mass and smaller decreases in fat mass, compared to those who were younger than 50 years. An odds ratio analysis to determine the lowest quartile of the percent change in lean mass according to age group revealed that participants older than 60 years had a significantly increased risk of a rapid decrease in the lean mass percentage (2.081; 95% confidence interval, 1.678 to 2.581). Even in this relatively young study population, the lean mass decreased significantly with age, and the risk of a rapid decrease in lean mass was higher among women than among men. Furthermore, the elderly exhibited a significantly more rapid decrease in lean mass, compared with younger participants. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  17. Changes in Body Composition According to Age and Sex among Young Non-Diabetic Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAge-related decreases in lean mass represent a serious health problem. We aimed to analyze the risks of rapid decreases in lean mass by age and sex in relatively young Korean adults during a 4-year follow-up study.MethodsA total of 65,856 non-diabetic participants (59.5% men, mean age 39.1 years in a health screening program were subjected to bioimpedance body composition analyses and metabolic parameter analyses at baseline and after 4 years. The participants were sub-divided according to age, and additionally to six groups by age and the degree of body weight change over the 4-year period. The actual changes in body weight, lean mass, and fat mass and the percent changes over the 4-year period were assessed.ResultsThe percent change in lean mass decreased and the percent change of fat mass increased with increasing age in every age and sex group. However, the annual percent decrease in lean mass and percent increase in fat mass were significantly higher among women than among men (−0.26% vs. −0.15% and 0.34% vs. 0.42%, respectively; P<0.01. Participants who were older than 50 years and had a weight loss <−5% during the 4 years had significantly greater decreases in lean mass and smaller decreases in fat mass, compared to those who were younger than 50 years. An odds ratio analysis to determine the lowest quartile of the percent change in lean mass according to age group revealed that participants older than 60 years had a significantly increased risk of a rapid decrease in the lean mass percentage (2.081; 95% confidence interval, 1.678 to 2.581.ConclusionEven in this relatively young study population, the lean mass decreased significantly with age, and the risk of a rapid decrease in lean mass was higher among women than among men. Furthermore, the elderly exhibited a significantly more rapid decrease in lean mass, compared with younger participants.

  18. Sex Education with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  19. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  20. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  1. BODY SIZE AND HAREM SIZE IN MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: MANIPULATING SELECTION WITH SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Langston, Nancy; Gori, Dave

    1996-10-01

    We experimentally manipulated the strength of selection in the field on red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to test hypotheses about contrasting selective forces that favor either large or small males in sexually size dimorphic birds. Selander (1972) argued that sexual selection favors larger males, while survival selection eventually stabilizes male size because larger males do not survive as well as smaller males during harsh winters. Searcy (1979a) proposed instead that sexual selection may be self limiting: male size might be stabilized not by overwinter mortality, but by breeding-season sexual selection that favors smaller males. Under conditions of energetic stress, smaller males should be able to display more and thus achieve higher reproductive success. Using feeders that provisioned males or females but not both, we produced conditions that mimicked the extremes of natural conditions. We found experimental support for the hypothesis that when food is abundant, sexual selection favors larger males. But even under conditions of severe energetic stress, smaller males did not gain larger harems, as the self-limiting hypothesis predicted. Larger males were more energetically stressed than smaller males, but in ways that affected their future reproductive output rather than their current reproductive performance. Stressed males that returned had smaller wings and tails than those that did not return; among returning stressed males, relative harem sizes were inversely related to wing and tail length. Thus, male body size may be stabilized not by survival costs during the non-breeding season, nor by energetic costs during the breeding season, but by costs of future reproduction that larger males pay for their increased breeding-season effort. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  3. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  4. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  5. America's Churning Races: Race and Ethnicity Response Changes Between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Porter, Sonya R; Fernandez, Leticia E; Noon, James M; Ennis, Sharon R

    2017-02-01

    A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.

  6. Race, money and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  7. Impact of race on male predisposition to birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M A; Aly, H

    2014-06-01

    To examine the associations of: (a) neonatal sex with mild-to-moderate and severe birth asphyxia, (b) fetal sex with mortality due to birth asphyxia and (c) neonatal race with severe birth asphyxia. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database including the years 1993 to 2008 or its pediatric sub portion Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. NIS database is collected annually from more than 1000 hospitals across the United States for millions of inpatient discharge summaries. We included newborns older than 36 weeks gestational age or more than 2500 g at birth. We excluded newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital anomalies and chromosomal disorders. We compared birth asphyxia in males to females, and in each race compared with whites, and examined effect of sex in association with birth asphyxia within each race/ethnicity. There were 9 708 251 term infants (51.8% males) included in the study. There were 15 569 newborns diagnosed with severe birth asphyxia (1.6 in 1000); of them 56.1% were males. Odds ratio (OR)to have severe birth asphyxia in male newborns was 1.16 (confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.20, Psex was associated with increased birth asphyxia in all races but Native American. Male sex and African-American race were associated with increased prevalence of birth asphyxia.

  8. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  9. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014 and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations. Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  10. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  11. Human Performance in Motorcycle Road Racing: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Artibale, Emanuele; Laursen, Paul B; Cronin, John B

    2018-03-13

    Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research. In this sport, riders are exposed to a complex interaction of physiological, mechanical, and psychological stresses, alongside the ever-present potential for injury from crashes or localized muscular overload (i.e., chronic exertional forearm compartmental syndrome). The reviewed literature shows that riders involved in competitive road racing should develop proper levels of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, specific flexibility, and heat tolerance in addition to their all-important technical riding skills. Furthermore, specific resistance to inertial stresses, visual acuity, mental and physical resilience, psychological strategies, and behavioral awareness all appear to be meaningful contributors to successful performance. Further work is needed to profile riders according to their level to create evidence-based methodologies that improve performance. Additionally, future research should aim to improve safety for these athletes and deepen the understanding about the magnitude of metabolic, mental, technical, biomechanical, and muscular demands in relation to anthropometric characteristics, sex, categories of competition, and success rate.

  12. Organ doses as a function of body weight for environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    The organ doses for γ rays from typical environmental sources were determined with Monte Carlo calculations using anthropomorphic phantoms having different body sizes. It has been suggested that body weight is the predominant factor influencing organ doses for environmental γ rays, regardless of sex and age. A weight function expressing organ doses for environmental γ rays was introduced. This function fitted well with the organ doses calculated using the different phantoms. The function coefficients were determined mathematically with the least squares method. On the assumption that this function was applicable to organ doses for human bodies with diverse characteristics, the variances in organ doses due to race, sex, age and difference in body weight of adults were investigated. The variations of organ doses due to race and sex were not significant. Differences in body weight were found to alter organ doses by a maximum of 10% for γ rays over 100 keV, and 20% for low-energy γ rays. The doses for organs located deep inside a body, such as ovaries, differed between a newborn baby and an adult by a maximum factor of 2 to 3. For γ rays over 100 keV, the variation was within a factor of 2 for all organs. The organ doses for adolescents more than 12 years agreed within 15% with those of the average adult. (author)

  13. Talk to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...

  14. Effect of Sex and Body Mass Index on Children's Physical Activity Intensity during Free Play at an Indoor Soft Play Center: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle A

    2017-09-12

    Background : Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods : Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results : Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% ( n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly ( p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions : Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities.

  15. Effect of Sex and Body Mass Index on Children’s Physical Activity Intensity during Free Play at an Indoor Soft Play Center: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indoor soft play can provide a safe but exciting physical activity opportunity regardless of environmental conditions. Relatively little is known about the quality or quantity of physical activity engaged in by children during indoor free soft play. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution indoor free soft play can make in enabling children to meet physical activity guidelines and to evaluate the effects of sex and body mass index category. Methods: Seventy-two boys and girls aged five to 10 years engaged in un-controlled indoor free soft play with a mean duration of 120.7 (27.1) min, during which physical activity was monitored using Actigraph accelerometers. Results: Children spent an average of 61.7 (24.2) min engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 51.4% (n = 37) achieved the recommended 60 min of MVPA through the single visit to the indoor soft play center. Boys (68.3 (25.7) min) engaged in significantly (p < 0.05) more MVPA than girls (55.8 (21.4) min). Normal weight (65.7 (23.3) min) children engaged in significantly more MVPA than overweight children (48.0 (18.9) min). Conclusions: Attendance at a soft play indoor center has the potential to support children to engage in sufficient MVPA and overcome environmental factors that can restrict physical activity opportunities. PMID:28895904

  16. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  17. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  18. America's Cup yacht racing: race analysis and physical characteristics of the athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Calefato, Julian; Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Rodilla-Sala, Enrique; Rada-Ruiz, Sergio; Dorochenko, Paul; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-07-01

    The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity pattern of "grinding". Anthropometric data were collected from 92 professional male America's Cup sailors, and fitness data from a top-4 and a lower-7 ranking team during the 32nd America's Cup. Over the 135 races, mean race duration was 82 min (s = 9), with 20 tacks (s = 10) and 8 gybes (s = 3) per race. Grinding bouts were 5.5 s (s = 5.4; range: 2.2-66.3) long, with 143 exercise bouts per race and an exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:6. Mean and peak heart rate was 64% and 92% of maximum for all positions, with bowmen highest (71% and 96%). Grinders were taller, heavier, and stronger than all other positions. Body fat was similar between positions (13%, s = 4). The higher-standard team was stronger and had greater strength endurance, which probably contributed to their quicker manoeuvres. Intensity of exercise was dependent on the similarity of competing boats and the role of the athlete. The short duration and intermittent nature of grinding is indicative of predominantly anaerobic energy provision.

  19. Moderate association of anthropometry, but not training volume, with race performance in male ultraendurance cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body fat. In addition, participants, using a training diary, recorded their training volume in hours and kilometers in the 3 months before the race. The influence of anthropometry and training volume on speed in the race as the dependent variable was investigated in a multiple linear regression model. Anthropometry showed a moderate association with speed in the race (r2 = .178, p .05). We concluded that anthropometry had a greater influence on race performance than training volume in recreational ultraendurance cyclists.

  20. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  1. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  2. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  3. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  4. Teamwork in adventure racing

    OpenAIRE

    Šavrňák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  5. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  6. The impact of age and sex adjusted body mass index (ISO-BMI) in obese versus non-obese children and adolescents with cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Eveliina; Kokki, Hannu; Juvonen, Petri; Lintula, Hannu; Paajanen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eskelinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the age and sex adjusted body mass index (ISO-BMI) in the obese vs. non-obese children and adolescents with cholecystectomy for cholelithias is rarely reported. The national database was searched for cholecystectomies performed in paediatric patients between 1997 and 2011, and the 59 paediatric and adolescent patients having cholecystectomy in the Kuopio University Hospital district were divided in two groups by age and sex adjusted BMI (ISO-BMI) using the cut-off point of overweight (ISO-BMI 25 kg/m(2)) based on the Finnish growth standards. Nationwide a total of 840 cholecystectomies were performed during the 15 years study period in Finland, most of which included females (77%), resulting in a mean of annual frequency of 4.8 (range: 3.9-6.1) procedures/100,000 population. In the study sample, most of the patients with the cholelithiasis were female (50/59, 85%). The gender distribution was equal among the younger patients, but among adolescents 6/52 (12%) of the patients with cholelithiasis were boys and 46/52 (88%) of the patients with cholelithiasis were girls. Obesity did not affect on operative parameters. The median operative time was 70 min (range, 30-155) and 66 min (44-130) in the high ISO-BMI-group. The recovery was similar in the two groups: the median length of hospital stay was 4 days in both groups. The patients in the low ISO-BMI-group vs. high ISO-BMI-group had a trend of higher serum bilirubin (p=0.16) and serum AFOS values (p=0.19). In the histological examination of the gallbladders 19/28 (68%) patients in the low ISO-BMI-group had inflammation vs. 26/31 (84%) patients in the high ISO-BMI-group (p=0.15). Our results between obese and non-obese children and adolescents with cholelithiasis are not statistically significant. The obese adolescents with female gender are in greater risk for cholelithiasis. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Race on Self-Esteem and Depression in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patricia D.; And Others

    This study examined relationships between self-esteem, depression, and race in 70 learning disabled high school students (39 white and 31 black). Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and the Children's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis indicated a significant sex by race interaction. Both white females and…

  8. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight during growth of Thoroughbred racehorses during their athletic career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-18

    Domesticated horses adapt to environmental conditions through seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate. The seasonal change of metabolic rates of domesticated horses in pastures is documented. However, there are few investigations on seasonal body weight change of domesticated horses housed in stables, which are provided constant energy intake throughout the year. Both seasonal changes and gain in body weight of racehorses during their athletic career is known to a lesser extent because their body weight are not measured in most countries. Here, we used a seasonal-trend decomposition method to conduct a time series analysis of body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat races held by the Japan Racing Association from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2014. We acquired 640,431 body weight measurements for race starts and included 632,540 of these in the time series analysis. Based on seasonal component analysis, the body weight of male and gelding horses peaked in autumn and winter and reached its nadir in summer. In contrast, the body weight of female horses peaked in autumn and reached the nadir in spring. Based on trend component analysis, most of the increase in body weight was observed when all sexes approached 5 years of age. The slope of the body weight gain was smaller after that, and an approximately 30 kg gain was observed during their careers. These results indicate that the body weight of a Thoroughbred racehorse fluctuates seasonally, and that there may be sex differences in energy balance mechanisms. Moreover, the present results suggest that the physiological development of Thoroughbred racehorses is completed just before they reach 5 years of age.

  9. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  10. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  11. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  12. Race Car Rally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  13. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 19 May between 12.15 and 12.35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  14. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday May 21st between 12h15 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  15. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May between 12:20 and 12:35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please stop until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  16. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 22 May between 12h20 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  17. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  18. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  20. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1992-01-01

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  1. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  2. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  3. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  4. Multiculturalism and inconsistency in the perception of sex education in Australian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2012-01-01

    A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies across the globe. Many studies have found that in a traditional society with a homogeneous culture, the foremost reason for the different approaches to sex education is related to traditional values, in addition to other factors such as religion and political belief. In order to improve sex education, and consequently, sexual health in a modern multicultural society such as Australia, it becomes imperative to identify the inconsistency in beliefs about sex education among individuals with different cultural backgrounds in the Australian population. In this report, the author highlights similarities and differences in the methods employed by certain cultures of the Australian population. The report considers the different cultural environments of specific societies, the prevalence of sex education in these societies and how culture influences the prevalence. The concluding thoughts reflect on the success of the education programs in Australia, based on the idea that resolving the problems of sex education needs support from a number of bodies within Australian society.

  5. America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A.; Porter, Sonya R.; Fernandez, Leticia E.; Noon, James M.; Ennis, Sharon R.

    2017-01-01

    Race and ethnicity responses can change over time and across contexts – a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the U.S. and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). About 9.8 million people (6.1 percent) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3%, 6% and 9% of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13% and 1% changed). There were a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, there is population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across race/ethnic categories. Researchers should think through and discuss the implications of race and Hispanic origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results. PMID:28105578

  6. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p < 0.001). Longer ground contact times, shorter flight times, longer midstance sub-phase and shorter propulsive sub-phase during stance were related to a better race walking economy (moderate effect, p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, the fastest race walkers were more economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  7. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  8. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother.

  9. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  10. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  12. Predictor variables for marathon race time in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-06-01

    We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=- 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=- 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= - 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r(2)=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) -11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners.

  13. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  14. Moffies, artists, and queens: race and the production of South African gay male drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarr, Amanda Lock

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.

  15. When Sex and Power Collide: An Argument for Critical Sexuality Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne; McClelland, Sara I

    2016-01-01

    Attentive to the collision of sex and power, we add momentum to the ongoing development of the subfield of critical sexuality studies. We argue that this body of work is defined by its critical orientation toward the study of sexuality, along with a clear allegiance to critical modalities of thought, particularly feminist thought. Critical sexuality studies takes its cues from several other critical moments in related fields, including critical psychology, critical race theory, critical public health, and critical youth studies. Across these varied critical stances is a shared investment in examining how power and privilege operate, understanding the role of historical and epistemological violence in research, and generating new models and paradigms to guide empirical and theoretical research. With this guiding framework, we propose three central characteristics of critical sexuality studies: (a) conceptual analysis, with particular attention to how we define key terms and conceptually organize our research (e.g., attraction, sexually active, consent, agency, embodiment, sexual subjectivity); (b) attention to the material qualities of abject bodies, particularly bodies that are ignored, overlooked, or pushed out of bounds (e.g., viscous bodies, fat bodies, bodies in pain); and (c) heteronormativity and heterosexual privilege, particularly how assumptions about heterosexuality and heteronormativity circulate in sexuality research. Through these three critical practices, we argue that critical sexuality studies showcases how sex and power collide and recognizes (and tries to subvert) the various power imbalances that are deployed and replicated in sex research.

  16. Arms Races and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom

    2003-01-01

    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  18. CERN Relay Race 2018

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: http://runningclub.web.cern.ch/content/cern-relay-race. A video of the previous edition is also available here : http://cern.ch/go/Nk7C. As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  20. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  1. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  2. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  3. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  4. The role of sex and body weight on the metabolic effects of high-fat diet in C57BL/6N mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvorsen, C; Karp, N A; Lelliott, C J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic disorders are commonly investigated using knockout and transgenic mouse models on the C57BL/6N genetic background due to its genetic susceptibility to the deleterious metabolic effects of high-fat diet (HFD). There is growing awareness of the need to consider sex in disease progression, but limited attention has been paid to sexual dimorphism in mouse models and its impact in metabolic phenotypes. We assessed the effect of HFD and the impact of sex on metabolic variables...

  5. No improvement in race performance by naps in male ultra-endurance cyclists in a 600-km ultra-cycling race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-04-30

    Ultra-endurance performance is of increasing popularity. We investigated the associations between anthropometry, training and support during racing, with race performance in 67 male recreational ultra-endurance cyclists participating in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' over 600 kilometres, an official qualifier for the cycling ultra-marathon 'Paris-Brest-Paris'. The 54 finishers showed no differences in anthropometry and did not train differently compared to the 13 non-finishers. During the race, the finishers were significantly more frequently racing alone than being followed by a support crew. After bivariate analysis, percent body fat (r = 0.43), the cycling distance per training unit (r = -0.36), the duration per training unit (r = -0.31) and the sleep time during the race (r = 0.50) were related to overall race time. The 23 non-sleepers in the finisher group completed the race within (mean and IQR) 1,567 (1,453-1,606) min, highly significantly faster than the 31 sleepers with 1,934 (1,615-2,033) min (P = 0.0003). No variable of support during the race was associated with race time. After multivariate analysis, percent body fat (P = 0.026) and duration per training unit (P = 0.005) remained predictor variables for race time. To summarize, for a successful finish in a cycling ultra-marathon over 600 kilometres such as the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', percent body fat and duration per training unit were related to race time whereas equipment and support during the race showed no association. Athletes with naps were highly significantly slower than athletes without naps.

  6. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  7. Beyond race and place: distal sociological determinants of HIV disparities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max-Louis G Buot

    Full Text Available Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM. Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws. HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration. Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond.

  8. Beyond Race and Place: Distal Sociological Determinants of HIV Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Max-Louis G.; Bittner, Matthew J.; Burlew, Jacob T.; Nuritdinov, Aziz R.; Robbins, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Informed behavior change as an HIV prevention tool has yielded unequal successes across populations. Despite decades of HIV education, some individuals remain at high risk. The mainstream media often portrays these risk factors as products of race and national borders; however, a rich body of recent literature proposes a host of complex social factors that influence behavior, including, but not limited to: poverty, income inequality, stigmatizing social institutions and health care access. We examined the relationship between numerous social indicators and HIV incidence across eighty large U.S. cities in 1990 and 2000. During this time, major correlating factors included income inequality, poverty, educational attainment, residential segregation and marriage rates. However, these ecological factors were weighted differentially across risk groups (e.g. heterosexual, intravenous drug use, men who have sex with men (MSM)). Heterosexual risk rose significantly with poor economic indicators, while MSM risk depended more heavily on anti-homosexual stigma (as measured by same-sex marriage laws). HIV incidence among black individuals correlated significantly with numerous economic factors but also with segregation and imbalances in the male:female ratio (often an effect of mass incarceration). Our results support an overall model of HIV ecology where poverty, income inequality and social inequality (in the form of institutionalized racism and anti-homosexual stigma) have over time developed into synergistic drivers of disease transmission in the U.S., inhibiting information-based prevention efforts. The relative weights of these distal factors vary over time and by HIV risk group. Our testable model may be more generally applicable within the U.S. and beyond. PMID:24743728

  9. Cross-sectional relations of race and poverty status to cardiovascular risk factors in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Moody, Danielle L Beatty; McNeely, Jessica M; Allen, Allyssa J; Sprung, Mollie R; Shah, Mauli T; Al'Najjar, Elias; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-03-14

    Examine interactive relations of race and poverty status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a socioeconomically diverse sample of urban-dwelling African American (AA) and White adults. Participants were 2,270 AAs and Whites (57% AA; 57% female; ages 30-64 years) who completed the first wave of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. CVD risk factors assessed included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP). Interactive and independent relations of race, poverty status, and sex were examined for each outcome via ordinary least squares regression adjusted for age, education, literacy, substance use, depressive symptoms, perceived health care barriers, medical co-morbidities, and medications. Significant interactions of race and poverty status (p's poverty had lower BMI and WC and higher HDL-C than non-poverty AAs, whereas Whites living in poverty had higher BMI and WC and lower HDL-C than non-poverty Whites. Main effects of race revealed that AAs had higher levels of HbA1c, SBP, and PP, and Whites had higher levels of TC, LDL-C and TG (p's Poverty status moderated race differences for BMI, WC, and HDL-C, conveying increased risk among Whites living in poverty, but reduced risk in their AA counterparts. Race differences for six additional risk factors withstood extensive statistical adjustments including SES indicators.

  10. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  11. Logical empiricists on race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-10-01

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  13. Doing gender in sex and sex research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-12-01

    Gender is central to sexuality, and vice versa, but there are a number of difficulties with the treatment of gender in sex research. Apparently, it is hard to find a balance between two conflicting needs. First, obviously, it is necessary to make distinctions between women and men, for political as well as research-technical and theoretical reasons. A second requirement, at odds with the first one, is the necessity to understand gender and its relation to sexuality and the body as much more complex than simplistically referring to two sets of individuals. This is all the more necessary when one realizes the possible drawbacks of exaggerating the differences between the sexes (in particular when they are biologically explained), because of stereotyping, stigmatizing, and expectancy confirmatory processes. This essay identifies and discusses 10 difficulties in the treatment of gender in sex research, reflects on their origins, and reviews theory and evidence with the aim to (1) consider the relative strength of gender/sex as an explanatory variable compared to other factors and processes explaining differences between men and women on a number of sexual aspects, (2) inform an understanding of gender and its relation to sexuality as an ongoing, open-ended, multi-determined, situated, interactional process, with the body as a third player, and (3) argue in favor of a nuanced, well-balanced treatment of gender in sex research.

  14. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  15. Sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status are associated with body composition among tuberculosis patients in a Deuterium Dilution Cross-Sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    /m(2) [(95% CI = 0.02, 1.5); P= 0.045] lower fat mass index, but smoking did not affect fat-free mass. High socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with higher fat as well as fat-free mass. HIV infection, cluster of differentiation 4 count, and antiretroviral therapy were not correlates. Sex, smoking...

  16. Variation in levels of reactive oxygen species is explained by maternal identity, sex and body-size-corrected clutch size in a lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Uller, Tobias; Mott, Beth; Isaksson, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms show differences between males and females in growth rate and crucial life history parameters, such as longevity. Considering this, we may expect levels of toxic metabolic by-products of the respiratory chain, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), to vary with age and sex. Here, we analyse ROS levels in female Australian painted dragon lizards ( Ctenophorus pictus) and their offspring using fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. Basal level of four ROS species (singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, superoxide and H2O2) measured with a combined marker, and superoxide measured specifically, varied significantly among families but not between the sexes. When blood cells from offspring were chemically encouraged to accelerate the electron transport chain by mitochondrial uncoupling, net superoxide levels were three times higher in daughters than sons (resulting in levels outside of the normal ROS range) and varied among mothers depending on offspring sex (significant interaction between maternal identity and offspring sex). In offspring, there were depressive effects on ROS of size-controlled relative clutch size, which relies directly on circulating levels of vitellogenin, a confirmed antioxidant in some species. Thus, levels of reactive oxygen species varies among females, offspring and in relation to reproductive investment in a manner that makes its regulatory processes likely targets of selection.

  17. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; Schuit, Albertine J.; van der Palen, Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein I.; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer

  18. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, W.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; van der Palen, J.; May, A.M.; Iestra, J.A.; Wittink, H.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer

  19. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A M; Schuit, Albertine J.; van der Palen, Job; May, Anne M.; Iestra, Jolein A; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer

  20. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO 2 max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO 2 max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO 2 max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO 2 max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO 2 max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO 2 max more than men, while men lost more fat than women.

  1. Sex differences in the effects of 12 weeks sprint interval training on body fat mass and the rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Slevin, Mark; Bradburn, Steven; Liu, Donghui; Murgatroyd, Chris; Morrissey, George; Carroll, Michael; Piasecki, Mathew; Gilmore, William S; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO2max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. Methods A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual emission x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood lipid, glucose and insulin profiles were assessed before and after training. SIT consisted of 4×20 s sprints on a cycle ergometer at approximately 175% VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. Results Fat mass decreased by 1.0 kg, although men lost statistically significantly more fat than women both when expressed in Kg and as % body fat. VO2max increased by around 9%, but women improved VO2max significantly more than men. FATmax improved by around 13%, but fasting plasma glucose, insulin, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change after training, while low-density lipoprotein decreased by 8% (p=0.028) and the HDL:Total Cholesterol ratio improved by 6%. There were no sex differences in these metabolic responses to training. Conclusions These results show lower body fat %, and higher rates of fatty acid oxidation and VO2max after 12 weeks of training for just 4 min per week. Notably, women improved VO2max more than men, while men lost more fat than women. PMID:27900150

  2. Sex allocation and sex-dependent selection for body size in Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae Alocação sexual e seleção sexo-dependente para tamanho de corpo em Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carlos Peruquetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two populations of the wasp Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl, 1884 from São Carlos and Luís Antônio, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were observed and sampled from May 1999 to February 2001 using trap-nests. This mass-provisioning wasp was used to test some aspects of optimal sex allocation theory. Both populations fit all the predictions of the models of Green and Brockmann and Grafen. Maternal provisions determined the size of each offspring, and females allocated well-stocked brood cells to daughters, the sex that benefits most being large. This strategy resulted in a difference in size between the sexes. In São Carlos, female weight at emergence was 1.18 times that of males, in Luís Antônio this value was 1.13. The brood cell volume was correlated with both wing length and weight at emergence in both sexes, and the chance that a given brood cell contained a male offspring decreased with increased brood cell volume. In T. rogenhoferi female body size was related to fitness. Larger females were able to collect more mass of spiders per day, the spiders they captured were heavier, and they provisioned more brood cells per day. They also produced larger daughters. For males, no relationship between body size and fitness was found, but the data were scarce. Since the patterns of provisioning were variable among different females in both study sites, it is possible that the females not follow a unique strategy for sex allocation. The sex ratio and/or investment ratio in the São Carlos population was female-biased and in Luís Antônio, male-biased. In spite of the influence of trap-nests diameters on male production in Luís Antônio, there is some evidence that in São Carlos population the local availability of prey and/or lower rate of parasitism may be major forces in determining the observed sex ratio, but further studies are necessary to verify such hypothesis.

  3. Association between parental history of diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus differs according to the sex of the parent and offspring's body weight: A finding from a Japanese worksite-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaochen; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Wada, Keiko; Li, Yuanying; Hilawe, Esayas Haregot; Uemura, Mayu; Chiang, Chifa; Zhang, Yan; Otsuka, Rei; Ota, Atsuhiko; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences in the association of parental history of diabetes with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the offspring according to the sex of the parent and the offspring's body weight. A prospective cohort study of 4446 middle-aged non-diabetic Japanese men and women were followed in Aichi Prefecture, central Japan, from 2002 to 2011. Subjects were categorized by their self-reported parental history of diabetes ("no parental history," "father only," "mother only," and "both"). The association of parental history of diabetes and incidence in the offspring was examined according to overweight status adjusted for age, sex, birth weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, total energy intake, body mass index, and number of metabolic syndrome components. During follow-up (median 8.9 years), 277 subjects developed T2DM. Parental history of diabetes was positively associated with T2DM incidence. However, stratified analysis by overweight status revealed that only maternal history was associated with increased T2DM incidence in non-overweight subjects (hazard ratio=2.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.41-3.91). While in overweight subjects, paternal history was significantly associated with higher T2DM incidence (hazard ratio=1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.28). Our results suggest that parental history of diabetes mellitus is associated with the incidence of T2DM in offspring differently according to the sex of the affected parent and the offspring's body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire : A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that

  5. Race and Class on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  6. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  7. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  9. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  10. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  11. Means of Transportation to Work by Race

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Except where noted, 'race' refers to people reporting only one race. 'Hispanic' refers to an ethnic category; Hispanics may be of any race. An entry of '+/-0' in...

  12. "European" race-specific metacentrics in East Siberian common shrews (Sorex araneus): a description of two new chromosomal races, Irkutsk and Zima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Svetlana V; Borisov, Sergei A; Timoshenko, Alexander F; Sheftel, Boris I

    2017-01-01

    Karyotype studies of common shrews in the vicinity of Lake Baikal (Irkutsk Region, Eastern Siberia) resulted in the description of two new chromosomal races of Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Lypotyphla, Mammalia), additional to 5 races formerly found in Siberia. In the karyotypes of 12 specimens from 3 locations, the polymorphism of metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes of the Robertsonian type was recorded and two distinct groups of karyotypes interpreted as the chromosomal races were revealed. They are geographically distant and described under the racial names Irkutsk (Ir) and Zima (Zi). Karyotypes of both races were characterized by species-specific (the same for all 74 races known so far) metacentric autosomes af, bc, tu and jl , and the typical sex chromosome system - XX/XY 1 Y 2 . The race-specific arm chromosome combinations include three metacentrics and four acrocentrics in the Irkutsk race ( gk, hi, nq, m, o, p, r ) and four metacentrics and two acrocentrics in the Zima race ( gm, hi, ko, nq, p, r ). Within the races, individuals with polymorphic chromosomes were detected ( g/m, k/o, n/q, p/r ). The presence of the specific metacentric gk allowed us to include the Irkutsk race into the Siberian Karyotypic Group (SKG), distributed in surrounding regions. The Zima race karyotype contained two metacentrics, gm and ko , which have been never found in the Siberian part of the species range, but appear as the common feature of chromosomal races belonging to the West European Karyotypic Group (WEKG). Moreover, the metacentrics of that karyotype are almost identical to the Åkarp race (except the heterozygous pair p/r ) locally found in the southern Sweden. One of two Siberian races described here for the first time, the Zima race, occurs in an area considerably distant from Europe and shares the common metacentrics ( gm, hi, ko ) with races included in WEKG. This fact may support a hypothesis of independent formation of identical arm chromosome combinations

  13. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  14. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  16. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  17. Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J P

    1996-02-01

    The international literature on racial differences is reviewed, novel data are reported, and a distinct pattern is found. People of east Asian ancestry and people of African ancestry average at opposite ends of a continuum, with people of European ancestry averaging intermediately, albeit with much variability within each major race. The racial matrix emerges from measures taken of reproductive behavior, sex hormones, twinning rate, speed of physical maturation, personality, family stability, brain size, intelligence, law abidingness, and social organization. An evolutionary theory of human reproduction is proposed, familiar to biologists as the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies, which emphasize high reproductive rates; at the other end are K-strategies, which emphasize high levels of parental investment. This scale is generally used to compare the life histories of widely disparate species, but here it is used to describe the immensely smaller variations among human races. It is hypothesized that, again on average, Mongoloid people are more K-selected than Caucasoids, who are more K-selected than Negroids. The r-K scale of reproductive strategies is also mapped on to human evolution. Genetic distances indicate that Africans emerged from the ancestral hominid line about 200,000 years ago, with an African/non-African split about 110,000 years ago, and a Caucasoid/Mongoloid split about 41,000 years ago. Such an ordering fits with and explains how and why the variables cluster.

  18. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  20. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  1. Non-catastrophic and catastrophic fractures in racing Thoroughbreds at the Hong Kong Jockey Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T C; Riggs, C M; Cogger, N; Wright, J; Al-Alawneh, J I

    2018-04-19

    Reports of fractures in racehorses have predominantly focused on catastrophic injuries, and there is limited data identifying the location and incidence of fractures that did not result in a fatal outcome. To describe the nature and the incidence of non-catastrophic and catastrophic fractures in Thoroughbreds racing at the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC) over seven racing seasons. Retrospective cohort study. Data of fractures sustained in horses while racing and of race characteristics were extracted from the HKJC Veterinary Management Information System (VMIS) and Racing Information System (RIS) respectively. The fracture event was determined from the first clinical entry for each specific injury. The incidence rates of non-catastrophic and catastrophic fractures were calculated per 1000 racing starts for racetrack, age, racing season, sex and trainer. 179 first fracture events occurred in 64,807 racing starts. The incidence rate of non-catastrophic fractures was 2.2 per 1000 racing starts and of catastrophic fractures was 0.6 per 1000 racing starts. Fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones represented 55% of all catastrophic fractures while the most common non-catastrophic fractures involved the carpus and the first phalanx. Significant associations were detected between the incidence of non-catastrophic fractures and sex, trainer and racing season. The first fracture event was used to calculate the incidence rate in this study and may have resulted in underestimation of the true incidence rate of fractures in this population. However, given the low number of recorded fracture events compared to the size of the study population, this underestimation is likely to be small. There were 3.6 times as many non-catastrophic fractures as catastrophic fractures in Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2011. Non-catastrophic fractures interfere with race training schedules and may predispose to catastrophic fracture. Future analytical studies on non

  2. On-the-job Training: Differences by Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.

    1981-01-01

    A recent national survey suggests that women and Blacks receive less on-the-job training and training opportunities in their jobs than White males. This is especially true of young Black men. The factor of low wage does not seem to play a large part in this discrepancy. (CT)

  3. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the 'Half Marathon Basel' completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD) 103.9 (16.5) min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9) km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56), suprailiacal (r = 0.36) and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53) were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = -0.54) were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150) and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045) were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.44): Race time (min) = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m(2)) -3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable.

  4. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  5. Gender profiling: a gendered race perspective on person-position fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erika V; Galinsky, Adam D; Phillips, Katherine W

    2015-06-01

    The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person-position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the "gender" of a person's biological sex and the "gender" of a person's race (Asians are perceived as feminine and Blacks as masculine) help comprise an individual's gender profile-the overall femininity or masculinity associated with their demographic characteristics. We also propose that occupational positions have gender profiles. Finally, we argue that the overall gender profile of one's demographics, rather than just one's biological sex, determines one's fit and hirability for feminine or masculine occupational roles. The current five studies establish the gender profiles of different races and sexes, and then demonstrate that individuals with feminine-typed and masculine-typed gender profiles are selected for feminine and masculine positions, respectively. These studies provide new insights on who gets ahead in different environments. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-11-01

    Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Phorse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Prediction of half-marathon race time in recreational female and male runners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Patrizia; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Half-marathon running is of high popularity. Recent studies tried to find predictor variables for half-marathon race time for recreational female and male runners and to present equations to predict race time. The actual equations included running speed during training for both women and men as training variable but midaxillary skinfold for women and body mass index for men as anthropometric variable. An actual study found that percent body fat and running speed during training sessions were ...

  8. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  9. When Does Race Matter? Race, Sex, and Dating at an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2010-01-01

    This paper unites quantitative and qualitative data from the College Social Life Survey (n = 732) to describe and explain patterns of racial homophily in undergraduate sexual/romantic relationships at an elite university, a closed social setting. It expands the literature on interracial romantic unions by comparing homophily in hookups…

  10. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  11. Race and Raceness: A Theoretical Perspective of the Black American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jacqueline E.

    1987-01-01

    Gives a theoretical perspective of the multidimensional nature of Black-race/White-race consciousness. American perceptions of race are expressed in White race centeredness. Blacks face the dilemma of adhering to two sets of values: a positive valuation of their race and a necessity of passing in White society. (PS)

  12. Recognition of Own-Race and Other-Race Faces by Three-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrigoli, Sandy; De Schonen, Scania

    2004-01-01

    Background: People are better at recognizing faces of their own race than faces of another race. Such race specificity may be due to differential expertise in the two races. Method: In order to find out whether this other-race effect develops as early as face-recognition skills or whether it is a long-term effect of acquired expertise, we tested…

  13. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  14. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  15. Age- and sex-tailored serum phosphate thresholds do not improve cardiovascular risk estimation in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Bonello, Monica; Gambaro, Alessia; Sturniolo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Disordered metabolism of phosphorus is one of the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Age and sex may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and subsequently its serum level. We evaluated if age- and sex-specific cutoffs for hyperphosphatemia may define cardiovascular risk better than the current guideline cutoffs. We used data from 16,834 subjects participating in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality rates were analyzed in CKD patients for both the classic definitions (CH; i.e., NKF-KDOQI and K-DIGO) and a tailored definition (TH) of hyperphosphatemia by means of regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. The cutoffs for TH were represented by the 95th percentile of an age- and sex-matched non-CKD population. Serum phosphorus levels showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.12; pdefinition and CVD was marginally better compared with the CH definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.13; p=0.030 vs. OR=1.55, 95% CI, 0.98-2.44; p = 0.059), the TH model was not superior in predicting CVD or mortality. Our data suggest that a tailored, age- and sex-specific definition of hyperphosphatemia is not superior to conventional definitions in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.

  16. Prediction of half-marathon race time in recreational female and male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Patrizia; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Half-marathon running is of high popularity. Recent studies tried to find predictor variables for half-marathon race time for recreational female and male runners and to present equations to predict race time. The actual equations included running speed during training for both women and men as training variable but midaxillary skinfold for women and body mass index for men as anthropometric variable. An actual study found that percent body fat and running speed during training sessions were the best predictor variables for half-marathon race times in both women and men. The aim of the present study was to improve the existing equations to predict half-marathon race time in a larger sample of male and female half-marathoners by using percent body fat and running speed during training sessions as predictor variables. In a sample of 147 men and 83 women, multiple linear regression analysis including percent body fat and running speed during training units as independent variables and race time as dependent variable were performed and an equation was evolved to predict half-marathon race time. For men, half-marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.42, adjusted r(2) = 0.41, SE = 13.3) half-marathon race time (min) = 142.7 + 1.158 × percent body fat (%) - 5.223 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.71, p marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.68, adjusted r(2) = 0.68, SE = 9.8) race time (min) = 168.7 + 1.077 × percent body fat (%) - 7.556 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001) to the achieved race time. The coefficients of determination of the models were slightly higher than for the existing equations. Future studies might include physiological variables to increase the coefficients of determination of the

  17. Indicators of age, body size and sex in goat kid calls revealed using the source-filter theory. 133, 175-185.

    OpenAIRE

    Briefer E McElligott EG

    2011-01-01

    The source–filter theory is an important framework recently applied to the study of animal vocalisations which links the mode of vocal production to call parameters. Vocalisations can be good indicators of a sender’s characteristics such as identity body size age and even hormonal status and affective states. For these reasons applied vocal communication research would greatly benefit from adopting the source–filter theory approach to identify key call parameters linked to physical and physio...

  18. Effects of oxytocin on behavioral and ERP measures of recognition memory for own-race and other-race faces in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Bird, Christopher W; Freeman, Megan; Curran, Tim

    2013-10-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to affect human social information processing including recognition memory for faces. Here we investigated the neural processes underlying the effect of oxytocin on memorizing own-race and other-race faces in men and women. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subject study, participants received either oxytocin or placebo before studying own-race and other-race faces. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during both the study and recognition phase to investigate neural correlates of oxytocin's effect on memory encoding, memory retrieval, and perception. Oxytocin increased the accuracy of familiarity judgments in the recognition test. Neural correlates for this effect were found in ERPs related to memory encoding and retrieval but not perception. In contrast to its facilitating effects on familiarity, oxytocin impaired recollection judgments, but in men only. Oxytocin did not differentially affect own-race and other-race faces. This study shows that oxytocin influences memory, but not perceptual processes, in a face recognition task and is the first to reveal sex differences in the effect of oxytocin on face memory. Contrary to recent findings in oxytocin and moral decision making, oxytocin did not preferentially improve memory for own-race faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  20. Study of intake manifold for Universiti Malaysia Perlis automotive racing team formula student race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizan, A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Basha, M. H.; Ismail, M. H. N.; Hamid, A. F. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the design differences between the intake manifold and restrictor used in racing cars that participate in the Formula Student (FSAE) competition. To fulfil the criteria of rules and regulation of the race, each race car must have a restriction device that has a maximum diameter of 20 mm installed between the throttle body and intake manifold. To overcome these problems, a restrictor has been designed and analysed using the steady state analysis, to reduce the loss of pressure in the restrictor. Design of the restrictor has a fixed parameter of the maximum diameter of 20mm. There are some differences that have been taken to make the comparison between the design of the restrictor, the diameter of the inlet and outlet, the curvature of the surface, convergence and divergence angle and length of the restrictor. Intake manifold was designed based on the design of the chassis, which shall not exceed the envelope defined by the FSAE competition. A good intake manifold design will affect the performance of the engine. Each design have made an analysis designed to ensure that each cylinder engine gets its air evenly. To verify the design, steady state analysis was made for a total mass flow rate and the velocity of air leaving a runner in each engine. Data such as the engine MAP reading was recorded by using Haltech ECU Management Software as reference purposes.

  1. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    Catholic Church. As in 1973, committees were formed but no action was taken. Sex education activity increased nonetheless - the first FPA document on school education prepared. In 1986 Personal and Social Education was approved by parliament providing an alternative (due to the Catholic Church) to Religious Education, but even with FPA support documents, the implementation did not begin until the end of 1990. In brief the FPA's emphasis was on the body, sexuality, sex and interpersonal relationships, and sexual reproduction. The role of FPA continues at the grass roots level in stimulating discussion; cooperating with schools, students and parents; and acting as a resource center.

  2. “Knaller-Sex für alle”: Popfeminist Body Politics in Lady Bitch Ray, Charlotte Roche, and Sarah Kuttner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Smith-Prei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany has seen a recent upsurge in publications proclaiming that feminism is again an urgent matter for a new generation of women. Faced with the reactionary demography debate and the hegemony of second-wave feminism, young writers, musicians, journalists, and critics call for new models of feminism relevant to women today. As one of these viable models, popfeminism draws on dominant trends in mass culture, on pop’s forty-year history as a cultural prefix in Germany, and on traditional feminism in order to create a new, ostensibly apolitical, feminist subculture based in self-stylization and individual autonomy. Shared by many popfeminist sources is the depiction of negatively coded female corporeality. This article begins with a theoretical analysis of writings on sexuality and the body in recent (popfeminist nonfiction. It then examines the negative corporeal self-stylizations in Turkish-German rapper Lady Bitch Ray’s performances since 2006, in former music video host Charlotte Roche’s novel Feuchtgebiete (2008, and in media personality Sarah Kuttner’s novel Mängelexemplar (2009. Ultimately, these negatively coded bodies are shown to uncover popfeminism’s political intent.

  3. Anthropometric characteristics of top-class Olympic race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Tam, Nicholas; Torres-Unda, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-04-20

    Typical training programmes in elite race walkers involve high training volumes at low and moderate intensities, which have been reported to induce functional and structural adaptations at an anthropometric level. Since anthropometrical variables are closely related to movement efficiency and performance in endurance events, the aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric profile of world-class race walkers. Twenty-nine world-class race walkers (21 men & 8 women) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics, including height, body mass, eight skinfolds, five girths and four bone breadths were measured. Body composition, somatotype, somatotype dispersion mean, somatotype attitudinal mean and height to weight ratio, as well as skinfolds extremity to trunk ratio were also calculated. Mean height, body mass and body mass index were 177.1 ± 7.1 cm, 66.4 ± 5.8 kg, and21.2±1.3kg·m2 formenand165.6±4.5cm,53.6±3.7kg,and19.6±1.6kg·m2for women, respectively. Women presented greater body fat content (6.7 ± 0.6 vs. 12.2 ± 0.8%; very large effect), less muscle mass (65.6 ± 4.6 vs. 61.6 ± 2.6 kg; large effect), and were more endomorphic (large effect) than men. Men specialists in 20-km showed greater muscle mass (66.7 ± 4.9 vs. 64.4 ± 4.3 kg; moderate effect), and slightly higher skinfolds, girths, body fat content and were more mesomorphic than 50-km specialists (moderate effect). The present study expands the limited knowledge on the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype elements of elite top-class race walkers. The characterisation of the morphology of elite race walkers provides coaches a reference values to control the training development of the race walker, as well as providing reference values to improve talent identification.

  4. "The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschukat, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-century culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth century. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments.

  5. A Black Theological Response to Race-Based Medicine: Reconciliation in Minority Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A

    2017-06-01

    The harm race-based medicine inflicts on minority bodies through race-based experimentation and the false solutions a race-based drug ensues within minority communities provokes concern. Such areas analyze the minority patient in a physical proxy. Though the mind and body are important entities, we cannot forget about the spirit. Healing is not just a physical practice; it includes spiritual practice. Efficient medicine includes the holistic elements of the mind, body, and spirit. Therefore, the spiritual discipline of black theology can be used as a tool to mend the harms of race-based medicine. It can be an avenue of research to further particular concerns for justice in medical care . Such theology contributes to the discussion of race-based medicine indicating the need for the voice, participation, and interdependence of minorities. Black theology can be used as a tool of healing and empowerment for health equity and awareness by exploring black theology's response to race-based medicine, analyzing race in biblical literature, using biblical literature as a tool for minority patient empowerment, building on past and current black church health advocacy with personal leadership in health advocacy.

  6. Predictive Modeling in Race Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wiktorowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to support training process of race walkers. These models are calculated using data collected from race walkers’ training events and they are used to predict the result over a 3 km race based on training loads. The material consists of 122 training plans for 21 athletes. In order to choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation method is used. The main contribution of the paper is to propose the nonlinear modifications for linear models in order to achieve smaller prediction error. It is shown that the best model is a modified LASSO regression with quadratic terms in the nonlinear part. This model has the smallest prediction error and simplified structure by eliminating some of the predictors.

  7. Social Influence on Observed Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Boda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a novel theoretical approach for understanding racial fluidity, emphasizing the social embeddedness of racial classifications. We propose that social ties affect racial perceptions through within-group micromechanisms, resulting in discrepancies between racial self-identifications and race as classified by others. We demonstrate this empirically on data from 12 Hungarian high school classes with one minority group (the Roma using stochastic actor-oriented models for the analysis of social network panel data. We find strong evidence for social influence: individuals tend to accept their peers' judgement about another student’s racial category; opinions of friends have a larger effect than those of nonfriends. Perceived social position also matters: those well-accepted among majority-race peers are likely to be classified as majority students themselves. We argue that similar analyses in other social contexts shall lead to a better understanding of race and interracial processes.

  8. Impact of Race Versus Education and Race Versus Income on Patients' Motivation to Participate in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Anita; Kincaid, Hope; Semler, Lauren; Jacoby, Jeanne L; Johnson, Melanie B; Careyva, Beth A; Stello, Brian; Friel, Timothy; Smulian, John C; Knouse, Mark C

    2017-12-26

    Our study investigates whether levels of motivation and barriers to participation in clinical trials vary with patients' education and income. A self-administered survey asked outpatients to rank potential influential factors on a "0" to "4" significance scale for their motivation to participate in clinical trials. Principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests analyzed the impact of race, education, and income on their motivation to participate. Analysis included 1841 surveys; most respondents had a high school education or some college, and listed annual income motivation scale 1 scores (p = .0261). Compared with their counterparts, subjects with less education/lower income ranked monetary compensation (p = .0420 and p motivator. Minorities and patients with less education and lower income appear to be more influenced by their desire to please the doctor, the race and sex of the doctor, and the language spoken by the doctor being the same as theirs. For all races, education appeared to have a direct relationship with motivation to participate, except for African-Americans, whose motivation appeared to decline with more education. Income appeared to have an inverse relationship with motivation to participate for all races.

  9. The examination of biophysical parameters of skin (transepidermal water loss, skin hydration and pH value) in different body regions of normal cats of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Lukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and skin pH in normal cats. Twenty shorthaired European cats of both sexes were examined in the study. Measurements were taken from five different sites: the lumbar region, the axillary fossa, the inguinal region, the ventral abdominal region and the left thoracic region. In each of the regions, TEWL, skin hydration and skin pH were measured. The highest TEWL value was observed in the axillary fossa (18.22g/h/m(2)) and the lowest in the lumbar region (10.53g/h/m(2)). The highest skin hydration was found in the inguinal region (18.29CU) and the lowest in the lumbar region (4.62CU). The highest skin pH was observed in the inguinal region (6.64) and the lowest in the lumbar region (6.39). Statistically significant differences in TEWL were observed between the lumbar region and the left side of the thorax region (P=0.016), the axillary fossa (P=0.0004), the ventral region (P=0.005), and the inguinal region (P=0.009). There were significant differences in skin hydration between the lumbar region and the left thorax (P=0.000003), the axillary fossa (P=0.002), the ventral abdomen (P=0.03), and the inguinal region (P=0.0003) as well as between the thorax and the ventral abdomen (P=0.005). TEWL was higher in females (15g/h/m(2)) than in males (4.57g/h/m(2)). Skin hydration was higher in females (13.89CU) than in males (12.28CU). Significant differences were not found between males and females for TEWL and skin hydration. Skin pH was higher in males (6.94) than in females (6.54), which was significant (P=0.004). Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  11. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  12. Men who advertise for sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, M E

    1978-01-01

    This content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in the Advocate identifies 17 self-descriptive categories in the "Personals" (PER) and "Models, Masseurs, and Escorts" (MME) sections of the "Trader Dick" supplement. Advertisers place primary emphases on sex and masculinity. Among MME, youthfulness, handsomeness, and sexiness are important, promoting versatility in place of specificity when mentioning sexual acts. PER advertisers, however, indicate concerns about age, race, and finding lovers. They also detail specific sexual interests and reject a variety of unacceptable behaviors.

  13. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  14. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  15. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  16. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  18. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  19. The Impact of Urban US Policing Practices on Black Men Who Have Sex with Men's HIV Vulnerability: Ethnographic Findings and a Conceptual Model for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Parker, Richard G; Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2018-04-01

    This paper advances research on racism and health by presenting a conceptual model that delineates pathways linking policing practices to HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men in the urban USA. Pathways include perceived discrimination based on race, sexuality and gender performance, mental health, and condom-carrying behaviors. The model, intended to stimulate future empirical work, is based on a review of the literature and on ethnographic data collected in 2014 in New York City. This paper contributes to a growing body of work that examines policing practices as drivers of racial health disparities extending far beyond violence-related deaths.

  20. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2013-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...