Blanchett, Wanda J.; Klingner, Janette K.; Harry, Beth
To date, few researchers have sought to examine the effect of issues of race, culture, language, and disability, let alone to look specifically at the intersection of these issues, as it relates to special education identification, special education service delivery, and students of color's access to an equitable education. Thus, this article will…
While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…
Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.
This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…
In White Kids, Mary Bucholtz investigates how white teenagers use language to display identities based on race and youth culture. Focusing on three youth styles--preppies, hip hop fans, and nerds--Bucholtz shows how white youth use a wealth of linguistic resources, from social labels to slang, from Valley Girl speech to African American English,…
Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil
Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…
Vincent M. Sarich
Full Text Available Human populations would have been strongly encouraged, or forced, to move in response to the effects of glacial movements. Such movements would have resulted in markedly increased levels of gene flow, and, concomitantly, greatly reduced levels of interpopulational (racial variability. When the glaciers settled down, so did the people, and racial variability began to again increase. Given the date of the last glacial maximum − about 20 000 years ago − all this would mean that existing racial, cultural, and linguistic lineages are much too young to provide support for either the Garden of Eden or regional continuity models, and that there is little point in attempting to trace any of these lineages beyond the end of the last glacial cycle. The last Garden of Eden would then have been the home of the first Homo somewhere in Africa some 2 million years ago (and not that of Homo sapiens 100 000 years ago. By the same token, there would have been repeated periods of regional continuity, but their effects would have been obliterated each time there was a major glacial movement. The nature of the Upper Paleolithic fossil record, and the patterns and degrees of recent linguistic diversity, seem consistent with this scenario; but not with either the Garden of Eden or regional continuity models, nor with some combination of the two. Some serious rethinking of the scenario for recent human evolution would appear to be in order.
This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…
Full Text Available Learning a language means also the study of a different culture. This study focuses on the introduction of the topic of culture in language teaching into the curriculum of the subject Language Teaching Methodology for teacher trainees studying at Translation And Interpreting Studies, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş. This topic has not been treated separately so far, it has only been discussed implicitly, included in other topics. But we believe that future teachers should have a more thorough theoretical and practical training in terms of what incorporating culture into language teaching implies. For this purpose, we are going to examine and discuss some of the recommendations and principles stated in the specialized literature regarding culture in foreign language teaching and reflect on what the ideal content of a course related to the teaching of this skill should be.
In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…
kazem Lotfipour saedi
Full Text Available There are different views on the relationship between language and culture. Some consider them as separate entities one being a code-system and the other a system of beliefs and attitudes. Some believe in a cause and effect relationship between the two; and yet others argue for a co-evolutionary mode of interrelation. This paper will subscribe to the Hallidayan co-evolutionary view of the relationship (cf. Halliday 1991, presenting the view that language and culture are both integrated into a unique socio-semiotic system always interacting with one another for the successful functioning of the system. It will discuss some aspects of this interaction and the implications for ESL/EFL education programs.
Better strategies for teaching multicultural education and lessons about non-Anglo cultures are not what is needed in teacher education. Instead, generative ways are needed for teachers to explore their own assumptions and to construct pedagogy that takes into account the values and practices of cultures different from their own. (SLD)
ZTF, Pradana Boy
The discourse of language, culture and imperialism are closely intertwined. In this paper I will describe cultural imperialism through language by taking Indonesian case as an example. This essay will develop two main arguments. Firstly, it sets forth that language is a medium through which cultural imperialism could take place, since language is an important and even fundamental aspect of culture. The cultural imperialism through language starts to occur when a certain foreign...
Traylor, Ana H.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Uratsu, Connie S.; Mangione, Carol M.; Subramanian, Usha
BACKGROUND: Patient-physician race/ethnicity and language concordance may improve medication adherence and reduce disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) by fostering trust and improved patient-physician communication. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of patient race/ethnicity and language and patient-physician race/ethnicity and language concordance on medication adherence rates for a large cohort of diabetes patients in an integrated delivery system. DESIGN: We studied 131,277 adul...
It's important to master a foreign language, English in particular.But the problem is how students should learn in order to communicate well with the native speakers and even become members of the target language community.The author narrates two incidents related to the Chinese study and English study experiences, pointing out that language study can't be separated from culture study.In line with the research results by some language experts about culture, language is the carrier of culture as literature is accomplished through languages,therefore language learning and teaching in isolation from culture is impossible.The author argues that language should be taught and learnt in a cultural approach.But as a sword with double blades, cultural approach may lead to culture invasion, culture inequality and the loss of culture diversity.
What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of…
Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.
Pradana Boy ZTF
Full Text Available The discourse of language, culture and imperialism are closely intertwined. In this paper I will describe cultural imperialism through language by taking Indonesian case as an example. This essay will develop two main arguments. Firstly, it sets forth that language is a medium through which cultural imperialism could take place, since language is an important and even fundamental aspect of culture. The cultural imperialism through language starts to occur when a certain foreign language is arbitrarily and irresponsibly used in correspondence and combination with local languages within formal and colloquial contexts. Secondly, using Frantz Fannon’s theory as described in his Black Skin White Masks, Indonesian case of use of mixed language of Bahasa and English in any medium is an obvious example of how this language imperialism in contemporary setting arises.
Alter, Stephen G
Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Snitz, Beth E; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Bilt, Joni Vander; Gao, Sujuan; Saxton, Judith; Hall, Kathleen S; Ganguli, Mary
Neuropsychological tests, including tests of language ability, are frequently used to differentiate normal from pathological cognitive aging. However, language can be particularly difficult to assess in a standardized manner in cross-cultural studies and in patients from different educational and cultural backgrounds. This study examined the effects of age, gender, education and race on performance of two language tests: the animal fluency task (AFT) and the Indiana University Token Test (IUTT). We report population-based normative data on these tests from two combined ethnically divergent, cognitively normal, representative population samples of older adults. Participants aged > or =65 years from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) and from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging (ISHA) were selected based on (1) a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0; (2) non-missing baseline language test data; and (3) race self-reported as African-American or white. The combined sample (n = 1885) was 28.1% African-American. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of demographic characteristics on test scores. On both language tests, better performance was significantly associated with higher education, younger age, and white race. On the IUTT, better performance was also associated with female gender. We found no significant interactions between age and sex, and between race and education. Age and education are more potent variables than are race and gender influencing performance on these language tests. Demographically stratified normative tables for these measures can be used to guide test interpretation and aid clinical diagnosis of impaired cognition.
Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem
The topic of teaching and learning culture has been a matter of considerable interest to language educators and much has been written about the role of culture in foreign language instruction over the past two decades. ESL students whose success in a new environment is conditioned not only by their mastery of the new language, but also, and…
Barfield, Susan C.; Uzarski, Joelle
One of the most important components of a culture is its language. With language, people not only expeditiously communicate; they also express their values, beliefs, and world views. When a language becomes extinct, a part of the cultural patrimony of humanity is lost. For linguists, this also means the loss of an opportunity for a better…
Liem, Nguyen Dang
A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…
Gonzalez, Miigis B.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Kellar, Sidnee; Walls, Melissa L.; Greenfield, Brenna L.
Understanding culture as a means of preventing or treating health concerns is growing in popularity among social behavioral health scientists. Language is one component of culture and therefore may be a means to improve health among Indigenous populations. This study explores language as a unique aspect of culture through its relationship to other demographic and cultural variables. Participants (n = 218) were adults who self-identified as American Indian, had a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and were drawn from two Ojibwe communities using health clinic records. We used chi-squared tests to compare language proficiency by demographic groups and ANOVA tests to examine relationships between language and culture. A higher proportion of those living on reservation lands could use the Ojibwe language, and fluent speakers were most notably sixty-five years of age and older. Regarding culture, those with greater participation and value belief in cultural activities reported greater language proficiency. PMID:29782622
Neff, Peter; Rucynski, John, Jr.
This article discusses the role of culture in language teaching and provides activities for introducing culture in the classroom, focusing on teaching context and methodology to integrate culture. The authors outline five activities that can be adapted to the language level and interests of students. Instructions for each activity include language…
Shemshadsara, Zahra Ghorbani
Culture awareness has become an important focus of modern language education, a shift that reflects a greater awareness of the inseparability of language and culture, and the need to prepare students for intercultural communication. The paper reports on an ongoing study into the presence and status of cultural understanding in EFL teaching. In…
Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others
A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge);…
Language is an important tool in the human society. Apart from the fact that it makes communication and integration possible, it is an important aspect of the socio-cultural life of a people. To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper ...
biodiversity conservation because life in a particular human environment is ... communication ,by language, by word expression as cultural genes, stories, legends and ..... for expressing individual identity, preserve culture, understanding the ...
Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…
Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…
Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.
Imai, Mutsumi; Kanero, Junko; Masuda, Takahiko
The relationship between culture, language, and thought has long been one of the most important topics for those who wish to understand the nature of human cognition. This issue has been investigated for decades across a broad range of research disciplines. However, there has been scant communication across these different disciplines, a situation largely arising through differences in research interests and discrepancies in the definitions of key terms such as 'culture,' 'language,' and 'thought.' This article reviews recent trends in research on the relation between language, culture and thought to capture how cognitive psychology and cultural psychology have defined 'language' and 'culture,' and how this issue was addressed within each research discipline. We then review recent research conducted in interdisciplinary perspectives, which directly compared the roles of culture and language. Finally, we highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between culture and language to provide a comprehensive picture of how language and culture affect thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
that enables a human child to learn any language in about four years. Contrary views argue that there is no such faculty, since language derives from general purpose ..... Timber and Caliber”, “Juggernaut”,” political heavy weight” etc.
Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Bersamin, Melina; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Children from immigrant families often translate communication for parents, a process known as language brokering (LB). LB begins in childhood, but may continue through emerging adulthood, even when individuals are in college. We surveyed 1,222 university students with two immigrant parents and compared non-language brokers, infrequent language brokers, and frequent language brokers on a variety of ethnic, cultural, and identity measures. Significant differences emerged for cultural heritage value orientation, ethnic identity, and dimensions of acculturation with frequent language brokers scoring highest, infrequent language brokers scoring in the middle, and non-language brokers scoring the lowest on these measures. There were no significant differences on acculturative stress among these three groups. These results suggest that LB experiences may contribute to the development of psychological assets for ethnic minority, emerging adults from immigrant families.
(Summary)This paper is intended to raise the query of `What is culture?' and to represent my assumption that `culture' is equivalent to `the way of thinking / viewing which people in the same group, community, nation etc. have in common conceptually'. This definition of `culture' is proved to be right mainly through linguistic examples in different languages.
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica
Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…
The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking was first proposed by an American linguist and anthropologist, Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and his student, Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941). The Saphir-Whorf hypothesis stated that the way we think and view the world is determined by our language. This theory ...
Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner
This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need. 2012.
Elaine M. Walker
Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.
Full Text Available The article deals with interlingual phenomena that occur in the process of multiple language acquisition in a learning environment. The notions of language interference and transfer put forward by the theories of bilingualism, give useful insights when applied to the modern day educational trends. Language and culture interference is an important aspect to be considered with regard to teaching of plurilingual learners, whose communicative competence is formed on the basis of several linguistic and cultural systems that interact with each other and exert mutual influence.
Steele, Winifred H.
The results of a survey of cultural resources available to high school foreign language students in the Central New Jersey and New York City areas are presented in a listing of cultural and professional organizations, businesses, schools, government tourist offices, television and radio broadcasts, publications, religious groups, travel agents,…
Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy
This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.
Considers whether cultural capital, household educational resources, family structure, and race relate to participation in football, basketball, or other sports and whether the effects of participation on academic achievement differ by race and sport. Suggests that cultural disadvantage contributes to increased interest in basketball and football…
MEHMET, Sean Collin
This expository paper will begin by uncovering and examining some lesser known, Western journal articles, ones that deal specifically with the issue of cultural sensitivity in language classrooms. This opening discussion will attempt to reveal that cultural sensitivity in teaching materials is by no means an issue limited solely to the Western world. After this, the discussion will focus on Edward Said's widely-known Culture and Imperialism. Said's monograph will be used as a springboard to e...
Holland, Ann E
Some nursing scholars assert that race and racism require a more explicit focus in cultural nursing education if the profession is to positively impact health care disparities. This study explored what White BSN cultural educators think, believe, and teach about race, racism, and antiracism. Phenomenological methods were used to analyze interview data from 10 White BSN faculty members who taught cultural content. Four themes were identified: living and learning in White spaces, a personal journey toward antiracism, values transformed through personal relationship, and race at the margins. Whiteness obscured the participants' understanding and teaching of race; White nursing faculty were not well prepared to teach about race and racism; learning about these topics occurs best over time and through personal relationships. Faculty development regarding race and racism is needed to facilitate student, curricular, and institutional change. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.
No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi
People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.
Memis, Muhammet Rasit
Foreign language teaching is not to teach grammar and vocabulary of the target language and to gain basic language skills only. Foreign language teaching is teaching of the language's culture at the same time. Because of language and community develop and shape together, learning, understanding and speaking a foreign language literally requires…
Baker, David W; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Kandula, Namratha R; Thompson, Jason A; Brown, E Richard
Experts recommend that health care providers (HCPs) collect patients' race/ethnicity and language, but we know little about public attitudes towards this. To determine attitudes towards HCPs collecting race/ethnicity and language data. A telephone survey was held with 563 Californians, including 105 whites, 97 blacks, 199 Hispanics (162 Spanish-speaking), 129 Asians (73 Chinese-speaking), and 33 multiracial individuals. Attitudes towards HCPs asking patients their race/ethnicity and preferred language, concerns about providing their own information, reactions to statements explaining the rationale for data collection, and attitudes towards possible policies. Most (87.8%) somewhat or strongly agreed that HCPs should collect race/ethnicity information and use this to monitor disparities, and 73.6% supported state legislation requiring this. Support for collection of patients' preferred language was even higher. However, 17.2% were uncomfortable (score 1-4 on 10-point scale) reporting their own race/ethnicity, and 46.3% of participants were somewhat or very worried that providing information could be used to discriminate against them. In addition, 35.9% of Hispanics were uncomfortable reporting their English proficiency. All statements explaining the rationale for data collection modestly increased participants' comfort level; the statement that this would be used for staff training increased comfort the most. Although most surveyed believe that HCPs should collect information about race/ethnicity and language, many feel uncomfortable giving this information and worry it could be misused. Statements explaining the rationale for collecting data may assuage concerns, but community engagement and legislation to prevent misuse may be needed to gain more widespread trust and comfort.
Matluck, Joseph H.; Mace-Matluck, Betty J.
This paper discusses the sociolinguistic problems inherent in multilingual testing, and the accompanying dangers of cultural bias in either the visuals or the language used in a given test. The first section discusses English-speaking Americans' perception of foreign speakers in terms of: (1) physical features; (2) speech, specifically vocabulary,…
Dwyer, David; Folarin-Schleicher, Antonia; Moshi, Lioba
Discusses the role of culture in second language instruction; Examines properties of culture, culture as a product of human activity, culture as a shared product, culture as an artificial product, cultural diversity, cultural relativism, cultural sensitivity, and stages of cultural awareness. Focuses on how to teach cultural knowledge, and the…
Jenks, Christopher Joseph
This book examines racism and racialized discourses in the ELT profession in South Korea. The book argues that language teaching and learning is shaped by White normativity, an ideological commitment and a form of racialized discourse that comes from the social actions of those involved in the ELT profession.
Brainard, Sherri, Ed.
This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…
Language, cultural brokerage and informed consent - will technological terms impede telemedicine use? C Jack, Y Hlombe, M Mars. Abstract. Background. Telemedicine provides a solution to treatment of economically and geographically compromised patients and enhances the level of care. However, a problem has ...
Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others
A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6)…
Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others
One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…
Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W
Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as semantic knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online semantic processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.
Atwater, Mary M.; Lance, Jennifer; Woodard, UrLeaka; Johnson, Natasha Hillsman
This article addresses the impact of race and ethnicity on students' science learning in US schools. Specifically, it discusses (a) the constructs of race, ethnicity, and culture, and the racial and ethnic student composition in US public schools; (b) effective classroom practices for curriculum, instruction, and assessment related to race…
The extinction of language and culture in Canadian Aboriginal communities is closely linked to the historical experiences of families under past assimilation policies. Families must recover the language and culture to ward off the possibility of extinction. The revival of culture and languages, in effort not to lose our identity as First Nation…
Full Text Available This study investigates international students’ perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students’ learning of English in other ways, including international students’ isolation within their communities and America’s lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students’ learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country. Readers will find three main voices in addition to the international students who “speak” (in quotation marks throughout this article. Hong Li, a Chinese doctoral student in English Education at the University of Missouri-Columbia, authored the “regular” text. Second, Roy F. Fox’s voice appears in italics. Fox is Professor of English Education and Chair of the Department of Learning, Teaching, and Curriculum at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Third, Dario J. Almarza’s voice appears in boldface. Almarza, a native of Venezuela, is an Assistant Professor of Social Studies Education at the same institution.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.
Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Ortega, Alexander N
E-cigarette use among adolescents is on the rise in the U.S. However, limited attention has been given to examining the role of race, citizenship status and language spoken at home in shaping e-cigarette use behavior. Data are from the 2014 Adolescent California Health Interview Survey, which interviewed 1052 adolescents ages 12-17. Lifetime e-cigarette use was examined by sociodemographic characteristics. Separate logistic regression models predicted odds of ever-smoking e-cigarettes from race, citizenship status and language spoken at home. Sociodemographic characteristics were then added to these models as control variables and a model with all three predictors and controls was run. Similar models were run with conventional smoking as an outcome. 10.3% of adolescents ever used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was higher among ever-smokers of conventional cigarettes, individuals above 200% of the Federal Poverty Level, US citizens and those who spoke English-only at home. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that citizenship status and language spoken at home were associated with lifetime e-cigarette use, after accounting for control variables. Only citizenship status was associated with e-cigarette use, when controls variables race and language spoken at home were all in the same model. Ever use of e-cigarettes in this study was higher than previously reported national estimates. Action is needed to curb the use of e-cigarettes among adolescents. Differences in lifetime e-cigarette use by citizenship status and language spoken at home suggest that less acculturated individuals use e-cigarettes at lower rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Chang Whan
This language text is designed to introduce the Korean language and culture to Peace Corps trainees and volunteers who will be teachers of English as a second language to Korean students. The disciplines of language training, cross-cultural training, and TESL are combined in a single volume into one integrated curriculum. The text contains 100…
This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…
González-Espada, Wilson J.; Carrasquillo, Rosa E.
It was a pleasant surprise to see Gary White's call for papers on race and physics teaching. We definitely think that the physics teaching and learning of students from diverse and minority backgrounds is an important issue to discuss, especially given the fact that bias and discrimination are common experiences in the lives of many Latinx, including school-age children and college students.
Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia
Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…
Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore
Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.
This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.
Using Yoruba as a case study, this article demonstrates the fact that the languages of Africa and the cultures of its peoples are inseparable. Therefore, the study advocates that appropriate aspects of these cultures should form an integral part of African language teaching. This article discusses specifically how language teachers can transmit…
Language is not only part of culture, but also the carrier. The relationship between them decides the important role of culture teaching in language teaching. However, some problems still exist in college English teaching. For example, classroom English teaching time is not enough for culture teaching; English learners’native language thinking has negative transfer in the target language learning, etc.. In order to solve these problems, this paper tends to discuss whether English teaching should put an emphasis on Big-C Culture or Little-c Culture.
When learning two languages of the same language family, one will realize quickly that there are similarities. But how deep are language and culture related? For long time the hypothesis that languages are responsible for cultural development was held to be true, later the opposite was assumed, and today it is maybe somewhere in between. With the help of Geert Hofstede's dimensions, comparing cultures on a continuum of nonverbal aspects, a connection between linguistic and intercultural commu...
development and progress, and language and communication function as special cultural tools for .... become chaotic and insecure language can only promote a moral ideal by enhancing the .... tolerance and corporate existence. To put it the ...
Chan, Esther Yim Mei
Human development is a cultural process, and language serves as a cultural tool is closely related to virtually all the cognitive changes. The author addresses issues of language in education, and suggests that changing the medium of instruction should not be understood as purely a pedagogical decision. The connection between culture and language…
Chinh, Nguyen Duc
The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of teaching culture in the foreign language classes at all levels of education. Cultural studies should not be separated from the language syllabus and foreign language learning should not be limited to formal learning of systems of sounds, words, and syntactic structures, but should also include learning the culture of the target language. Success in intercultural communication depends greatly on the understanding of a number of cultural features. The article emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of cultural scripts and small talk in English, Russian and Polish languages. Understanding the cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural communication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to foreign language and ESP classes focusing on the improvement of both students’ language and cultural skills.
Kroteva, Marijana; Mirascieva, Snezana
The aim of this paper is to present the significance and introduction of cultural studies in the curricula for foreign language studies. Although the main focus in the paper is pointed to English as the most dominant language in the world today, the paper is primarily intended and refers to all the languages. Section two consists of the aspects and reasons for the necessity of introducing the cultural studies in the foreign language curricula. Section three is written upon the research result...
Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis
The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holloway, Karla F. C
... on cultural complexity as the origin of subjectivity. For bioethics, this means a primary and focused consideration of the habits, patterns, and practices in medicine and law that subsequently constitute the discipline's subjects. In other words, cultural ethics acknowledges that the discursive practices of the field- the complexities of history, instituti...
This article advances a framework for early language and literacy development among young English language learners (ELLs). A dual-language book project undertaken in partnership with a local elementary school provides a context within which to address children's need to negotiate language, culture, and identity as they transition and make meaning…
"The price of culture is a Lie." 1 This Article advances a critical race approach to the health sciences by examining "culture talk" as a discursive repertoire that attributes distinct beliefs, behaviors, and dispositions to ethno-racialized groups. Culture talk entails a twofold process of obfuscation - concealing the social reality of the people it describes and hiding the positionality of those who employ cultural generalizations. After tracing how culture talk circulates and reproduces racist narratives in and beyond the health sciences, I examine how cultural competency training in medical schools and diversity initiatives in stem cell research use the idiom of culture to manage and manufacture group differences. From culturing cells in the lab to enculturing people in the clinic, I apply the concept of coproduction to argue that culture talk is a precondition and product of scientific knowledge construction.
to another. It means also overcoming the typical blindness to one’s own culture. The Spanish-Danish Legal Language course introduces Danish language students to a new world of cultural knowledge, as they generally have insignificant knowledge of Danish law and the Danish legal system. Furthermore, they have......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...
This article has two aims. Firstly, it challenges the assumption in both policy and media studies of race that increasing the number of minorities in the media will automatically lead to more diverse content. Secondly, it highlights how cultural distribution is a critical, yet under-researched, moment for racialised minorities working in the arts. Using a case study on ‘British Asian theatre’, the article problematises a particular cultural policy approach that emphasises the need to attract ...
A comparison of German and American advertising reveals differences in technique and structures. Persuasion is central in both, but the grammatical structures and illocutionary devices available in each language vary. The culture is also reflected in the type and degree to which each language uses techniques of persuasive language. The findings…
Bilingualism or multilingualism may imply socioeconomic advantages. But a further literature study indicates that this may also affect psychological and cultural viewpoints. The acquisition of second language would significantly influence the mentality or perceptual framework of the language users. Consequently, this finding may inspire to the appropriate pedagogical methods in language acquisition.
Carter, Prudence L.
Background/Context: One of the most critical functions of a well-integrated school is the development of "culturally flexible" students who, over the course of their social development, effectively navigate diverse social environs such as the workplace, communities, and neighborhoods. Most studies, albeit with some exceptions, have…
Mazzocca, Ann E.; Finn, John C.; Goetz, Evan; Gibson, Lisa
The first workshop in this series of institutes exploring the legacies of slavery in Virginia sponsored by the Virginia Geographic Alliance took place in Richmond, Virginia, and explored Africanist aesthetic legacies in contemporary culture and performance. In this workshop, the authors were specifically interested in pursuing the intersecting…
An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender
Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…
Fikes, Robert Jr.
A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…
Parada, Patricia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…
Elliott, Don; Lawton, Rachele
Portal: Your Door to World Languages and Cultures was a series of public cultural events, in a variety of formats, created through a new partnership between the credit and continuing education (noncredit) foreign language programs at the Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC). Portal was designed to cultivate interest in foreign languages…
Language as an important tool of cultural transmission, it can achieve the cross-culture development of film. With the strength of globalization, film cross-culture communication are increasing, and how to enhance the communication of film through language and culture and let more people enjoy the thought expressed in film is one of the most important content for cross-culture development of mant films. Different cultural backgrounds will produce large diversities in watching a same film, so it is helpful for the cross-culture development of film when making good use of culture and language, on the contrary, it will become a hindrance. This article do research on cross-culture development of film under the perspective of language and culture to find out the existing problems in present cross-culture development of film and put forward effective resolution strategy in order to promote certain reference for the internationalization of China’s film industry.
The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.
Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G; Adger, David
The papers in this special issue of Human Biology address recent research in the field of language evolution, both the genetic evolution of the language faculty and the cultural evolution of specific languages. While both of these areas have received increasing interest in recent years, there is also a need to integrate these somewhat separate efforts and explore the relevant gene-culture coevolutionary interactions. Here we summarize the individual contributions, set them in the context of the wider literature, and identify outstanding future research questions. The first set of papers concerns the comparative study of nonhuman communication in primates and birds from both a behavioral and neurobiological perspective, revealing evidence for several common language-related traits in various nonhuman species and providing clues as to the evolutionary origin and function of the human language faculty. The second set of papers discusses the consequences of viewing language as a culturally evolving system in its own right, including claims that this removes the need for strong genetic biases for language acquisition, and that phylogenetic evolutionary methods can be used to reconstruct language histories. We conclude by highlighting outstanding areas for future research, including identifying the precise selection pressures that gave rise to the language faculty in ancestral hominin species, and determining the strength, domain specificity, and origin of the cultural transmission biases that shape languages as they pass along successive generations of language learners.
Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina
The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc
Fiske, Susan T
Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.
Full Text Available This article presents some theoretical reflections about the concept of culture and its paramount importance in foreign language classrooms, as a basis for examining curriculum as inquiry, a facilitative tool to incorporate culture in courses in the Bachelor’s degree in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA. Feasible solutions to common problems that teachers face when trying to incorporate culture in their classrooms, are also discussed.
Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly
This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…
Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff
This research concentrates on Malaysian language policy and its impacts on the development of English language (regarded as a second language in Malaysia) specifically on reading culture. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the weaknesses and strengths of the policy and also to come out with recommendations to improve the…
Berg, Paul Conrad
Language differences peculiar to the disadvantaged are discussed as they relate to reading. Linguistic differences, including the interdependence among language, operant feedback, thought, and experience, and the power of these to reconstruct and reassociate through reading constitute one barrier. Another is the effects of language on the total…
Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W
Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.
Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.
Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien
Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…
Cultural difference is an important topic of discussion in second language education. Yet cultural difference is often conceptualized as fixed, objective, and apolitical based on an essentialist and normative understanding of culture. This article challenges such conceptualizations by examining and politicizing multiple and conflicting meanings of…
Joelton Duarte de Santana
Full Text Available Language as a social element is constitutive to every human being. Language gives each person, as well as to his or her own linguistic community, an individual and peculiar way to figure out the world and its surroundings. Language is influenced by several processes, including sociocultural and historical ones. If we say that each language may allow its speaker to do a very own world reading, a question about its language behavior in other continents arises. This way we were able to understand how sociocultural influences could improve the whole cultural identity construction process. Both defining linguistic communities and specifying social groups, language becomes a symbolic space of identification. The movie – Language- lives In Portuguese reunites Portuguese speakers reports around the world aiming to illustrate Portuguese language as a nations identity construction, autoafirmation and legitimation factor through social, cultural and historic processes. This study is based on the belief in such a kind of dialogism between Language and Culture. The sociolinguistic studies nowadays do not intend, as they used to, understanding or describing structural language aspects and very individuals ones, but especially to reflect upon relations among subject, language, identity, culture and history.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore issues of race and culture in health education in the secondary school health and physical education (HPE) curriculum in Ontario, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Using Ontario's secondary school curriculum as a point of analysis, this paper draws from critical race theory and a whiteness lens…
Roberts, Jane H; Sanders, Tom; Mann, Karen; Wass, Val
Although education about culture, race and ethnicity has increasingly been viewed as an important addition to the medical undergraduate curriculum, internationally the evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. Research to date fails to show why. We chose to explore how contrasting approaches to learning about cultural diversity impacted on medical students. The views of second year students towards teaching about cultural diversity at two UK medical schools, with differently structured curricula, were explored using a series of focus groups (7). The findings, using a methodology based on a combination of grounded theory and thematic analysis identified two potentially competing views espoused by the students at both sites. First, they claimed that although cultural diversity was important, their medical schools marginalised and failed to adequately support effective teaching. Second, in contrast, they claimed that the medical school was an 'inappropriate' setting for successful teaching about cultural diversity. Students did not consider the subject matter to be of central relevance to biomedicine. They felt it should be learnt experientially in the workplace and socially among peers. These narratives represent two potentially conflicting standpoints, which might be understood through the sociological concept of 'habitus', where students conform to the institution's dominant values in order to succeed. The tensions identified in this study cannot be ignored if effective learning about race, ethnicity and culture is to be achieved. Early introduction to understanding the delivery of health care to diverse populations is needed. This should be accompanied by more open collaborative debate between tutors and students on the issues raised.
Purser, Jennifer L
.... By promoting the acquisition of culture and language comprehension before individuals become commissioned, the Army can save both time and money in training officers to prepare for the COIN fight...
After describing a variety of compensatory programs that have not been very successful for children who enter school speaking nonstandard dialects, the author describes a bidialectal program that teaches standard usage as "school language" but accepts nonstandard dialects as "everyday language," and makes the differences…
Public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States has been growing since the early 1990s. As part of the argument against bilingual education, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as a monolithic group clinging to their own language and culture and reluctant to assimilate into American society. Proposition 227, which officially ended bilingual education programs in California public schools, was passed on June 2, 1998. Race and ethnicity were reflected in the ...
The present paper is a brief review of the theoretical concepts about learner autonomy focusing on highlighting the main themes on learner autonomy in foreign language education and in cultural context as a globalized construct. These themes are based on the concepts of learner responsibility and independence, the importance of the autonomy in foreign language education in both the Western and Eastern style and the role of the culture in the concept of learner independence. The present study ...
Language and culture, as conceptualized in traditional anthropology, may have an important influence on pain and brain-behavior relations. The paradigm case for the influence of language and culture on perception and cognition is stipulated in the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis which has been applied to phenomena “external” to the individual. In this paper, the paradigm is applied to information the person retrieves from “inside” his body; namely, “noxious” stimuli which get registered in consciousne...
Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe
We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…
Full Text Available English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing on the development of learners’ efficiency in communicating language through cultural context. However, the teaching of culture in communication has not been paid due importance in a number of academic and language settings of Pakistan and Iran. This assignment study indicates problems in view of teaching English as a medium of instruction in public sector colleges of interior Sindh, Pakistan and prescribed textbooks in Iranian schools. It also aims to identify drawbacks and shortcoming in prescribed textbooks for intermediate students at college level and schools. Therefore, the assignment study recommends integration of cultural awareness into a language teaching programme for an overall achievement of competence in intercultural communication.
Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been generating a lot of publicity in the past years largely due to new legislation promoting breastfeeding -friendly policies. However, the United States is far below many developed nations in regards to its populations’ breastfeeding prevalence and despite the unprecedented benefits of breastfeeding being documented, many are not breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in the U.S. varies dramatically by race, with individuals identifying as Black or African American breastfeeding much less at 6 months postpartum than Asian or Pacific Islander, White, or Hispanic. Overall, Individuals identifying as Asian or Pacific Islander have a higher breastfeeding rate 6 months postpartum with Hispanics coming in second. This study uses survey data to analyze the impact of race/ethnicity and cultural background on college students’ attitudes towards breastfeeding. This study found that respondents identifying as Hispanic had a more positive attitude towards breastfeeding than any other race or ethnicity. Also, respondents having at least one parent born outside of the United States had a more positive perception of breastfeeding than those who had parents born in the United States. These findings suggest that there are some cultural and racial influences on one’s perception and attitudes as it pertains to breastfeeding.
Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks...... and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the learner: the (inter)cultural learning, competence and identity of the learner or subject. The next dimension was context: the situation and role of language teaching and learning in society and in the world....
Full Text Available The article analyses the importance of language culture for transport experts. The analysis has been conducted on a questionnaire basis. Pursuant to the questionnaire, the obtained data were aimed at establishing if the use of a correct language might increase employment possibilities, if service suppliers talking correctly were stronger preferred, what sources designated for language culture were used in order to revise the accuracy of the employed terminol- ogy (or word, etc. The questionnaire also presents terms more relevant to transport staff and investigates the frequency of the used terminology both correct and incorrect. The researched data have been systemized and presented in the form of charts.
Hovsepian, Kristen B.
This report considers how the different departments of business administration and foreign languages can cooperate to create coursework that will benefit students in both areas of study. The ignorance many U.S. citizens have of the world is taken into consideration. Although foreign language majors have greater exposure to the world, this…
Ergeshali kyzy A.
Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.
Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.
Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.
Full Text Available The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is the largest general information repository created through collaborative efforts from all over the globe. Despite the project's goal being to achieve the sum of human knowledge, there are strong content imbalances across the language editions. In order to quantify and investigate these imbalances, we study the impact of cultural context in 40 language editions. To this purpose, we developed a computational method to identify articles that can be related to the editors' cultural context associated to each Wikipedia language edition. We employed a combination of strategies taking into account geolocated articles, specific keywords and categories, as well as links between articles. We verified the method's quality with manual assessment and found an average precision of 0.92 and an average recall of 0.95. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural context. Although a considerable part of this content was created during the first years of the project, its creation is sustained over time. An analysis of cross-language coverage of this content shows that most of it is unique in its original language, and reveals special links between cultural contexts; at the same time, it highlights gaps where the encyclopedia could extend its content. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The datasets produced are made available for further research.
Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E
The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab
This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…
Snodin, Navaporn S.
This article reports on perceptions and practices in relation to integrating culture into EFL teaching and how course material was designed within the Thai curriculum framework. Thai teachers' understanding of what constitutes culture, the role it plays in language learning and how such understanding is being translated into pedagogical practices…
Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao
This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…
Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,
From the beginning, preservation and continuity of tribal histories and cultures have been at the center of the strategic vision for tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) (Bordeaux, 1989). TCUs have developed the infrastructure and networks to support the revitalization, preservation, and teaching of Indigenous languages and cultures. But while…
English language education is in the process of change regarding teacher identity and the ownership of English. Cultural issues are implicated in this change. Critical cosmopolitan approaches in the social sciences are critiquing the primacy of national cultures which they consider a Western imposition on the emergent identities of the Periphery.…
Moncada Linares, Sthephanny
Due to the need of decentering language learners' conceptions and practices of "othering" against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus,…
Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,
Salient findings include that communication problems occur on construction sites due to languageand cultural diversity-related barriers; site managers are generally effective at communicating; the South African workforce is diversely cultured, which potentially leads to misunderstandings on sites, and language barriers ...
Reynolds, D Brice; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E
Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race.
Prospective foreign language teachers need to have an accurate knowledge and a positive perception of the target language and target culture so that they can help their students gain further insight on culture by and large. Hence, by means of a questionnaire, prospective English language teachers' (n= 412) perceptions of the target language and…
Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the types of cultural activities students at Çankaya University wanted to have during their study of the target language and the level at which students preferred to see those cultural components in language classrooms. A questionnaire was used by the researcher for the purpose of collecting data. The questionnaire that was adapted for the study included 13 multiple choice questions. Each question had the option of “other” to enable further comments on the part of the students. The first part of the questionnaire elicited demographic information of the students. The data-gathering instrument was implemented on 95 preparatory school intermediate students and the results were analyzed statistically in terms of frequency, percentage and average. The findings of the research clearly showed the types of cultural activities students would enjoy in language classrooms, at which level they would like to do them, their attitudes towards the target culture, the level of importance students attach to the target culture and their understanding of “culture”. From the results it can be seen that most of the students who took part in the study had positive attitudes towards the inclusion of cultural components during their study of the English language. The study revealed very important data for the language teachers as well. The outcomes of the study are important not only for teachers but also for textbook publishers. This study presents them with valuable suggestions.
Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga
It has been well recognized internationally that hospitals are not as safe as they should be. In order to redress this situation, health care services around the world have turned their attention to strategically implementing robust patient safety and quality care programmes to identify circumstances that put patients at risk of harm and then acting to prevent or control those risks. Despite the progress that has been made in improving hospital safety in recent years, there is emerging evidence that patients of minority cultural and language backgrounds are disproportionately at risk of experiencing preventable adverse events while in hospital compared with mainstream patient groups. One reason for this is that patient safety programmes have tended to underestimate and understate the critical relationship that exists between culture, language, and the safety and quality of care of patients from minority racial, ethno-cultural, and language backgrounds. This article suggests that the failure to recognize the critical link between culture and language (of both the providers and recipients of health care) and patient safety stands as a 'resident pathogen' within the health care system that, if not addressed, unacceptably exposes patients from minority ethno-cultural and language backgrounds to preventable adverse events in hospital contexts. It is further suggested that in order to ensure that minority as well as majority patient interests in receiving safe and quality care are properly protected, the culture-language-patient-safety link needs to be formally recognized and the vulnerabilities of patients from minority cultural and language backgrounds explicitly identified and actively addressed in patient safety systems and processes.
Full Text Available The focus in language education in the twenty-first century does no longer fall on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather on using language alongside with cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to other people all over the world. Our learners are going to become part of today’s intercultural communication network and they will need to use both their language and cultural skills for real life communication. Therefore, teachers themselves should be ready to assume the responsibility of teaching their learners how to become culturally competent. To do this properly and successfully, practitioners need to build and develop their own awareness of and motivation for an intercultural approach. The current paper will present and analyze some recent research findings on higher education practitioners’ motivation to adopt a cross-cultural approach in their classrooms.
favour of foreign language (and culture). They also ... native language, and children are unable to learn a language not spoken ... shielding them off their mother tongue”. ..... the effect endangered language has on the existence of the owners.
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to show that language can support social and intercultural competence of both students and teachers: one of the ways to do it is teaching cultural taboos and taboo language for intercultural awareness and understanding. The current state of the art in the field points to an increasing interest in the teaching of taboos. The material we analysed consisted in 238 offensive, vulgar and obscene English words that both students and teachers should know to attain social and intercultural competence. The method used is the descriptive one. The degree of novelty is rather high in our cultural area. Results show that there are 134 offensive (slang words and expressions (referring to the country of origin or to an ethnic group, to sex and sex-related issues (sexual orientation, to race, etc., 75 vulgar words and expressions (referring to sex and sex-related issues, to body parts, to people, etc., and 29 obscene words and expressions (referring to body secretions, to sex and sex-related issues, to people, etc.. There seems to be no research limitations given the lexicographic sources that we used. The implications of teaching cultural taboos and taboo language at tertiary level concern both the students and teachers and the organisation they belong to. The paper is original and relevant given the process of globalisation.
Significant, real-life instances of cross-cultural miscommunication or conflict are presented and categorized into verbal and non-verbal parts. each case is discussed and analyzed for the possible causes and feasible solutions. (Author/VWL)
In recent years, the importance of developing learner autonomy in language education hasbeen one of its more prominent themes in Japan as well as in the West. In spite of agreementconcerning its importance, there remains a good deal of uncertainty about its meaning inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This paper aims to consider theconcept of learner autonomy amongst different cultures. Autonomy has a social as well as anindividual dimension. The promotion of learner a...
Full Text Available MOOCs remain the buzzwords of the current landscape of higher education (HE provision. In the context of the ever growing use of technology through e - Learning and OpenCourseWare and of the new generation of tablet - toting, hyper - connected youth, the university will continue to extend its reach to students around the world, unbounded by geography and time zones, at a fast pace and at a fraction of the cost of a traditional college education. In this context, “To Mooc or not to Mooc” remains a question that several universities are beginning to con sider against more pressing critical reflections on issues pertaining to their language and culture. Our paper aims to examine the role of language and culture in online learning, particularly the hegemony of English and Western cultures against the rising “politics of marginality” that other languages are forced to adopt in a dominant, non - negotiable, disruptive online competition space.
Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri
"Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…
Full Text Available In the article the question of the existence of the Croatian literary language in the semiotic space, i.e. the system of culture, is taken into consideration. In order to affirm the idea of the justification of the very term Croatian language, and thus acceptance of the thesis of the existence of such a language, this argumentation is directed towards theoretical investigation in the semiotic field. There is an attempt to envisage that discussions in the post-Yugoslav linguistics are not the problem, conventionally speaking, ‘ontological’ but ‘epistemological’. Thus, it is not important the question whether the Croatian language or any other language, e.g. Montenegrin, exists but rather the following question: what does it mean that literary language exists or does not exist?
Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S
The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.
In this article, we will first review various perspectives on the teaching of culture and what effect this can have on intercultural interaction in language teaching. We then take a look at ways of using culture to teach a foreign language. The first example is how preparing to write a German Lebenslauf can serve as a means to get to know and better understand fellow classmates. In addition, we look at how preparing for a mock job interview can function as the basis for teaching German. Final...
Full Text Available Language and culture, as conceptualized in traditional anthropology, may have an important influence on pain and brain-behavior relations. The paradigm case for the influence of language and culture on perception and cognition is stipulated in the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis which has been applied to phenomena “external” to the individual. In this paper, the paradigm is applied to information the person retrieves from “inside” his body; namely, “noxious” stimuli which get registered in consciousness as pain.
Yesil, Seyma; Demiröz, Hakan
As the seamless connection between language and culture is commensurate with related research carried on language and culture; language is greatly affected and structured by cultural values, attitudes and beliefs. The goal of the present study is to investigate and analyse English language teachers' perceptions and opinions about the integration…
Nowadays,culture teaching is more emphasized in language teaching. But less attention is paid to the influence of pop culture in language teaching. The important role of pop culture in middle school English language teaching will be discussed in this thesis through its correlation with some factors in English language teaching.
Recent research has explored the complex, situated process by which students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds become socialized into academic discourses and practices. As part of a multiple case study involving seven international students, this study provides an in-depth analysis of the academic discourse socialization…
Sakai, Christina; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Flores, Glenn; Caronna, Elizabeth; Khandekar, Aasma; Augustyn, Marilyn
Satish is a 3 (1/2)-year-old boy you are seeing in your primary care office for a "sick visit" due to parental concerns about his language development. He is the only child of a couple who immigrated to the United States from India shortly before his birth. He received early intervention services for speech and language delays for a few months before he attained 2 years of age. However, services were discontinued when the family moved back to India for a year. After the family returned to the United States, they lived in a different state for several months before moving again recently to his current home, so he is relatively new to your practice. Satish's mother is concerned not only about his communication skills but also about his attention and social skills. She notes that he often plays alone or in parallel with other children. She was also told by his first pediatrician that Satish had "a limited imagination." His parents feel that he has pretend play, in that he will pretend to get his haircut, talk on the phone, or ride on a train. Satish was born at term without complications. He passed his newborn hearing screen and a repeat hearing test at the age of 2 years. He has had no medical problems and takes a daily multivitamin. His parents are both of Indian descent. Satish's father is an engineer and had a history of being a late talker. His mother graduated from high school and is a homemaker. They are expecting their second child. Satish's developmental history is significant for language delays. He babbled at 6 months but did not have single words until he was 2 years. When he was 2 (1/2) years, he had 2 to 3 word sentences. He responded to his name at 15 months and could follow single step commands by the age of 2 years. Currently, Satish is noted to have difficulty with "back and forth conversation." He sometimes repeats what others are saying.The family speaks Hindi, their native language, exclusively at home. When Satish speaks, he usually speaks in
Price, Rebecca Anhang; Haviland, Amelia M; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Dembosky, Jacob W; Gaillot, Sarah; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Williams, Malcolm V; Elliott, Marc N
Objective To examine whether care experiences and immunization for racial/ethnic/language minority Medicare beneficiaries vary with the proportion of same-group beneficiaries in Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts. Data Sources/Study Setting Exactly 492,495 Medicare beneficiaries responding to the 2008–2009 MA Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Survey. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mixed-effect regression models predicted eight CAHPS patient experience measures from self-reported race/ethnicity/language preference at individual and contract levels, beneficiary-level case-mix adjustors, along with contract and geographic random effects. Principal Findings As a contract's proportion of a given minority group increased, overall and non-Hispanic, white patient experiences were poorer on average; for the minority group in question, however, high-minority plans may score as well as low-minority plans. Spanish-preferring Hispanic beneficiaries also experience smaller disparities relative to non-Hispanic whites in plans with higher Spanish-preferring proportions. Conclusions The tendency for high-minority contracts to provide less positive patient experiences for others in the contract, but similar or even more positive patient experiences for concentrated minority group beneficiaries, may reflect cultural competency, particularly language services, that partially or fully counterbalance the poorer overall quality of these contracts. For some beneficiaries, experiences may be just as positive in some high-minority plans with low overall scores as in plans with higher overall scores. PMID:25752334
Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene
Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...
There is a very close association between language and culture. Thus, cultural values should be prioritized in language training and cultural knowledge should be concurrently instructed. Turkish culture should also be introduced to learners of Turkish as a foreign language. Therefore, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners of…
This thesis explored the role of culture in EIL teaching on the basis of CLT contexts by reviewing plentiful previous studies. Generally speaking, this thesis emphasized the relationship between language and culture, the necessity and importance of culture teaching in language teaching, what kind of culture should be included in cultural content for culture teaching and challenges of culture teaching in EIL teaching as well. In a word, Culture is correlated with language. Culture teaching plays a significant role in EIL teaching. In culture teaching, not only the target culture, but also various cultures related to EIL learners' daily life should be included.
Argynbayev, Arman; Kabylbekova, Dana; Yaylaci, Yusuf
This study reflects intermediate level learners' opinion about employing films in the EFL classroom for teaching culture and avoiding negative language transfer. A total of 63 participants, aged 21-23, took part in the experiment in the Faculty of Philology at Suleyman Demirel University in Almaty, Kazakhstan. During the experiment the subjects…
Questions the global validity of the autonomous method of language learning, which has origins in the European and North American traditions of individualism. Raises the question of appropriateness of the cultural content of educational materials that are alleged to be suitable for global dissemination, with special reference to the Yoruba world…
Through the interrelationship between language culture and history we have established homosexuality and other forms of perversions in Bessie Head's A Question of Power; Sethe's infanticide in Toni Morrison's Beloved, and Amoo's murder of his wife and his scarifying of his daughter in Sembéne Ousmane's Tribal Marks.
This curriculum guide offers materials designed to acquaint students with aspects of Hispanic culture and language. Situations, pattern practices, visual aids, dialogues, games, literary passages, and authentic media advertisements, all closely revolving around the concept of "El Dinero" (Money), are employed to this end. Suggestions for…
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Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple-ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural aspects of a single language are examined, the conclusions are valid for cultural aspects of all African languages.
Keywords: CONTEXT, CULTURE, CORPUS, EUPHEMISM, FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, HLONIPHA, KINSHIP TERMS, LEXICAL BORROWING, MULTILINGUALISM, SPEECH COM-MUNITY, STANDARD ZULU, TABOO
Opsomming: Die implikasies van kultuur vir woordeboeke van die Afri-katale. Hierdie artikel probeer om aan te toon hoe kultuur of aspekte daarvan gebruik kan word om taalkundige en ander inligting aan te vul by die samestelling van woordeboeke van die Afrika-tale. 'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor-stelle gemaak oor hoe om hulle te hanteer. Alhoewel slegs sommige kulturele aspekte van 'n enkele taal ondersoek word, is die gevolgtrekkings geldig vir kulturele aspekte van alle Afrikatale.
Sleutelwoorde: EUFEMISME, FIGUURLIKE TAAL, HLONIPHA, KONTEKS, KORPUS, KULTUUR, LEKSIKALE ONTLENING, TAALGEMEENSKAP, TABOE, STANDAARDZOELOE, VEELTALIGHEID, VERWANTSKAPSTERME
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
This is a guide to a realization and appreciation of the German culture, gained through the use of oral and written German. Four areas of language instruction are emphasized: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, and (4) writing. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) broad goals and performance objectives, which include a breakdown of…
Johnson, M; Noble, C; Matthews, C; Aguilar, N
The presence of diverse language skills within health staff provides opportunities to better meet the needs of a multicultural population. A cross-sectional survey of all staff within the South Western Sydney Area Health Service was undertaken to compare language skills with population needs and examine the context of language use. Thirty-one per cent of staff (n = 964) were bilingual or multilingual, with the predominant languages spoken being Tagalog (Filipino), Cantonese, Hindi, Spanish, Vietnamese and Italian. Thirty-seven per cent of bilingual staff used their language skills at least weekly, predominantly in situations of simple conversation and giving directions. Bilingual staff are a valuable resource for the organisation and the presence of a similar overall proportion of bilingual and bicultural staff may engender tolerance and adaptability in providing care to a diverse population. However, supply does not directly match community demand. This mismatch will continue unless recruitment is focused towards identified language groups. The high proportion of staff who rarely used their language skills (37%) may be due to lack of opportunity or limited need, and suggests that further research needs to examine service models that locate bilingual workers close to client need. This study takes a crucial first step towards realising equitable and culturally appropriate care utilising the principles of productive diversity.
Sturtevant, William C.
Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.
Preliminary results from the study show a difference in the language habits between older and younger generations on New Caledonians of Melanesian descent. Although French is perceived as the lingua franca by all, English is more valued than ancestral Melanesian languages by the younger generations. In terms of cultural representations and links with family history, there seems to be a discrepancy between the younger and the older generations. Whilst the older generations perceive the Centre Culturel Tjibaou as a traditional space for Melanesian art and culture their younger counterparts on the contrary view it as a place associated with contemporary art and music performances.
Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J
For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.
Zoreda, Margaret Lee
Foreign Language education will play an important role in the broadening and globalization of higher education for the 21st century. Where else will educators find the tools to "dialog" with--to engage--the "other" as part of the enriching process that accompanies cultural exchange, cultural broadening? This paper sheds light on these issues, and…
Scollan-Koliopoulos, Melissa; Rapp, Kenneth J; Bleich, David
The purpose of this study was to estimate the benefit of using a cultural characteristics scale to help diabetes educators understand how African Americans cope with diabetes. Illness representations are influenced by culture. Race and ethnicity as a proxy for culture provides an incomplete understanding of the mechanism by which cultural values influence representations of diabetes. A descriptive correlational design was employed by recruiting hospitalized adults with type 2 diabetes at 3 metropolitan northeast coast sites. The TRIOS Afrocentric cultural characteristics measure and the Illness perception Questionnaire were administered by paper-and-pencil to a diverse sample. Black race and African American ethnicity was used as a proxy for culture and compared to levels of agreement on an Afrocentric cultural scale to determine the relative ability to explain variance in illness representations of diabetes. The TRIOS measure adapted to diabetes care explained variance in illness representations of diabetes, while African American ethnicity/black race was not able to explain variance in illness representations. Clinicians would benefit from considering the degree to which a patient identifies with particular cultural characteristics when tailoring interventions to manipulate illness representations that are not concordant with biomedical representations.
Nardon, Luciara; Steers, Richard; Stone, Christian
It is well documented that communication styles and patterns vary across cultures. However, less is known about the process underlying these differences. Understanding why communication patterns vary is just as important as understanding how they vary because communication is by nature a dynamic and interactive process. Despite the importance of the transmission of meaning for successful communication, and the role that cognition plays in the assignment of meaning, little has been done to dra...
Sthephanny Moncada Linares
Full Text Available Due to the need of decentering language learners’ conceptions and practices of “othering” against the target culture, it has become necessary to help them grow in critical cultural understanding and positive appreciation towards the richness of difference and plurality, as a transversal dimension of their intercultural competence. Thus, this paper seeks to summarize the literature on the notion of othering and its pedagogical possibilities to promote critical cultural awareness raising in the language classroom. It initially presents some theoretical contributions on the concepts of the “Other” and the “Self” and its dialectical relation, and later, it proposes four pedagogical tools that could enable learners to achieve the already mentioned objective.
Raíssa Francisco Santos
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss studies on the production of children's cultures, highlighting the importance of the role of black girls in pre-school and show how affected they are by racist and sexist relationships in pre-school, legitimized by the capitalist system. From the studies of Kimberly Crenshaw (1989, Helena Hirata (2014, Angela Davis (1982, Lélia Gonzales (1984 and Fernandes (1989 we will provide the historical scope for the subject as inter-relations and processes of the interaction between power relations and categories such as class, race, gender and identity. Racial struggle, a class struggle, and gender equality must all come together in the struggle for the transformation of society.
Full Text Available The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students’ needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning strategies should be considered by the teachers to make teaching and learning become interesting, effective and not boring. Basic effectiveness of a language program was the factors of socio-culture, the style of teaching and learning, the students, and the characteristics of the program. This paper however focused on the socio-cultural factors (learning of cultures and the activities program that enable to generate excitement and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Malay language as a foreign language. In the teaching and learning process found that the more we gave the activities to the students, the more the students acquired the meaning of the lessons. In this study, the selected respondents were the two groups of students from TWG, Konstanz, Germany who have followed the Malay Language and Culture Program in the Languages, Literacies and Translation Center, University of Sains Malaysia, Penang, in 2011. The first group was started in March to June, and the second group in September to November. The research was based on formal and informal observations and interviews. This paper also discussed about the outdoor activities program used as curriculum in the teaching and learning process that gives an interesting environment to foreign students
Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.
Ji, Li-Jun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Nisbett, Richard E
Differences in reasoning styles between Chinese and European Americans held even when controlling for the language of testing. Bilingual Chinese organized objects in a more relational and less categorical way than European Americans, whether tested in English or in Chinese. Thus, culture affects categorization independent of the testing language. Nevertheless, language affected some Chinese bilinguals' categorization. The responses of Chinese from the Mainland and Taiwan were more relational when tested in Chinese than when tested in English. Responses of Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore were equally relational when tested in Chinese and in English. Age and context of learning English are discussed to explain the differential language effects among different Chinese groups. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association
Fitch, W Tecumseh
The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid.
Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...
James Duncan Hunter
Full Text Available Este trabalho examina a posição do Inglês como língua internacional em termos de forças políticas e econômicas que contribuíram para a posição dominante do inglês na arena mundial. O trabalho examina a acusação de que o ensino de inglês como segunda língua ou língua estrangeira contribui para o imperialismo lingüístico e cultural e desafia o pressuposto de que os falantes nativos de inglês são necessariamente os melhores professores. Recomenda- se aos profissionais de língua inglesa a adoção de uma filosofia de relativismo pragmático na sua avaliação das necessidades do aprendiz de forma a evitar tendências etnocêntricas em seus currículos.
Intersecting authority-language-and-symbolic power, this article tells the story of a group of continental Francophone African youth who find themselves in an urban French-language high school in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Through their narrative, one is confronted by the trauma of one's own language being declared an illegitimate child, hence…
Tuttle, Harry G.; Tuttle, Lori A.
World language teachers can transform how their students learn culture through the use of mobile devices. When world language students use their mobile devices to access authentic current culture, they go from being passive receivers of culture to active cultural investigators. These students go from learning thin surface culture to exploring…
Ruggiero, Diana M.
This study presents strategies for teaching highland Afro-Ecuadorian culture and for broaching the topic of race and racism through the documentary film "Más allá del fútbol." Produced in 2008 by the author, this film explores "afrochoteño" identity and culture as well as the issues of race and racism in Ecuador through a…
Full Text Available The article deals with the national and cultural features of zoonyms “cat” and “dog” in English and Chinese languages. The authors point out zoonyms’ main characteristics and their national cultural originality. Zoonyms represent the special features of national linguistic world view and values in the comparative analysis’ aspect The article represents interpretation of the language units in the monolingual explanatory dictionaries. The dictionary definitions of the terms phraseology and zoonym are given. The research is devoted to phraseology in the English and Chinese languages. The historical notes about the attitude toward cats and dogs in Britain and China are shown. Also some peculiarities of zoonyms function in English and Chinese animal fairy-tales are observed. Based on the differences the authors notice differences of phraseology between zoonyms “cat” and “dog”. Some examples in the English and Chinese languages are observed. The analysis represents universal and national specific semantic features of the present units in the languages so far as phraseology contains the most vivid representation of the national-cultural specificity of world view, connotative features and values peoples in Europe and Asia.
The author discusses the challenges of educating teachers to engage, rather than deny or repress, differences that emerge at the dynamic, context-specific intersections of race, culture, gender, and sexuality. Although multicultural education discourse is well established, stereotypic representations and repressive silences persist in the sphere…
Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly
The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…
Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree
The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…
Full Text Available In our study we examine teaching mother tongue through faire and folk tales from the perspectives of recognizing clichés in fairy tales and myths, idiomatic phrases which work as morals, proverbs and very specific phrases of traditional tales’. We suggest that formulaic language can be involved in children’s language games at school and become a methodological tool for innovative approaches in Language and Teaching especially at the primary education. We search the sources from Greek traditional tales that could serve as teaching material for this option of teaching formulaic language in mother tongue. Cultural and geographical implications of the examples applied are noted as a suggestion for further discussion.
Rafieyan, Vahid; Majid, Norazman Bin Abdul; Eng, Lin Siew
Familiarity with the cultural features of the target language society and interest in learning those cultural features are the key factors to determine language learners' level of pragmatic comprehension. To investigate this issue, this study attempted to assess the relationship between attitude toward incorporating target language culture into…
in TL Listen in TL Train or teach other in TL Conduct business negotiations in TL Use TL to maintain control Use TL to persuade people Use informal... teach what you’re going to do, you do a practical exercise where they’re integrating, the person’s integrating what you just taught them in a...1990). Investigating fluency in EFL : A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 3, 387– 417. Owens, W. (2010). Improving cultural education of Special
Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.
Joseph, John E.
Suggests that certain features of race as defined in the work of Gustave Le Bon and Leopold de Saussure (on the psychology of French colonization) may survive in Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of "langue," adapted and transformed by Saussure's more modernist concept of history. (Author/VWL)
Approaches to the concept of culture and teaching cultural competence in a foreign language classroom have been changing over the last decades. The paper summarises, compares, contrasts and evaluates four major approaches to teaching cultural competence in foreign language teaching, that is, knowledge-based approach, contrastive approach,…
aspects of Crawfurd et al’s knowledge production, its routes of transmission, receptions, and appropriations. The analytic focus is directed at the evaluative-descriptive qualities attributed to the terms civilization, race, and culture, and immanent in the concepts they refer to; on the surface claiming......In this dissertation I examine the uses of the notions of civilization, race, and culture within a set of British 19th century discourses on especially Southeast Asian societies, their present state and history. Taking the point of departure in John Crawfurd’s (1783-1868) publications, it contains...... a study of the many debates on economic, ethnological, historical, and linguistic issues in which he participated throughout six decades and to which he contributed significantly. Through this approach I aim at providing a densely contextualized analysis of the colonial, intellectual, political, and socio-cultural...
fluency in both the target language and English. In order to score well on the DLPT V you need to have an extensive vocabulary in both the target...environment IOT cement what you learned in Phase 1; Phase 3 = maintenance training which includes shorter periods of both classroom and immersion. Though
Morales, Marie Paz E.
The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…
S. M. Forkosh
Full Text Available Main research strategies in the humanitarian sphere, connected with the transformation-communicative approach by K.-O. Apel, have been studied in the article. This approach is based on I. Kant’s classic transcendental method, but has much wider sphere of application. Syncretic tendencies in humanitarian sciences cause the search of criteria or generalizing principles, which would allow not only combining basic research strategies, but also covering variable forms of the social-dynamics. Language in its various forms becomes the common ground, where it is possible not only to describe, but to explain disparate elements of the society’s functioning. These elements, when developed, cause the formation of culture. The basis for the analysis of the interdisciplinary communication features are relevant branches of philosophy. Specific realities of the research activity are understood by the methodologist as the deep interrelation of language tools and specific features of scientific knowledge’s changes. In fact, the researcher simultaneously performs double task: interprets scientific texts, improves his/her understanding of their structural characteristics, and also studies social, cultural, humanistic priorities of the available practices. Based on the characteristics of the modern culture (rapidity of development, lack of self-awareness and «maturation» vector, non-manifestation of methodological tools, sociological and linguistic sciences become to be a model in the humanitarian area. At the same time, awareness of the structural maturation of such knowledge is low. The development of linguistic sciences has more advanced conceptual design and it resonates with the evolution of the language philosophy. That’s why, considering the socio-cultural transformations of the globalization era, grounds of clarification of the specific methodological potential, which are accumulated in the contemporary linguistics, should be considered. In this
Iscan, Adem; Karagöz, Beytullah; Konyar, Merve
Culture and language are two phenomena that have existed by influencing each other for centuries. It is impossible to think independently of the culture on which the language is cultivated, nor on the language, which influences culture. One of the best signs of mastering a language is the ability to understand the cultural elements and the…
Galina T. Yedgina
Full Text Available After The Republic of Kazakhstan has got its independence we can observe intensive revival of the national culture and traditional religion as well as increasing of religiousness level of the population. So, studying of the Islamic development in our country is necessary nowadays, because it may help to comprehend specific character of social, political, historical and cultural features. The Koran is unique, it is the first written literary monument of the rise of Islam period and a code of moral, religious, civil, political and legal regulations. At the beginning of 8-th century Islam became the prevailing religion in our region due to its monotheism ideas. Since that time we can notice the development and prosperity of the Moslem Arabic culture which has influenced the social, economic, political and cultural life in Central Asia and Southern Kazakhstan. After Islam had been declared a new state religion, the Arabic language, script and literature became an integral part of the culture, and it is no doubt that the culture of local population was enriched greatly after the Arabic invasion
hours. Training must incorporate language, culture, norms, customs, etiquette , religion, etc as to how not offend the local ethnicities.” SOF Leader...consensus. The frequency of occurrence for each theme is presented in this report. Analysis of the focus group data followed the same protocol , except
James, Carl E.
Dr. Carl E. James is well known for his work in the area of the Sociology of Sport. Race in Play is on the continuum of his earlier research in the sociology of sport, and youth, race, and education. James takes the reader on an edifying walk through the structural, institutional community which supports and sustains sports, at the same time…
There is a need for a critical race analysis of Hmong American education that places race and racism at the center of analysis, highlights Whiteness as property and recognizes the fluid and situated racialization of Hmong American students. Majoritarian explanations of inequities in Hmong American education often describe Hmong American student…
SLA research on foreign language pedagogy has long demonstrated that culture is essential to language learning. However, presenting culture in the language classroom poses certain problems. For learners, there is a tendency to stereotype others and to rely excessively on the teacher. For teachers, there is a tendency to transmit isolated facts…
Full Text Available Development of target language pragmatic competence in language learners requires not only provision of cultural features of target language community in language classes but also language learner’s willingness to learn and use those cultural features. To investigate the relationship between language learners’ attitudes toward cultural instruction and their gains in comprehension and production aspects of pragmatic competence, the current study was conducted on 50 undergraduate Japanese students of English education at a university in Japan. The adapted version of the attitude questionnaire developed by Albirini (2009 was used to measure language learners’ attitudes toward cultural instruction. A 24-item pragmatic comprehension test developed by Taguchi (2007, 2008 was used to measure language learners’ pragmatic comprehension ability. Finally, a 32-item discourse completion task developed by Bardovi-Harlig (2009 was used to measure language learners’ pragmatic production ability. The analysis of Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient (r revealed a strong positive relationship between attitude toward cultural instruction and pragmatic comprehension ability as well as attitude toward cultural instruction and pragmatic production ability. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of interesting cultural features of the target language community in language classes and presenting them in interesting ways to attract language learners’ attention and interest. Keywords: Attitude, Cultural Instruction, Pragmatic Comprehension, Pragmatic Production
Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…
Akkermans, D.H.M.; Harzing, A.W.; van Witteloostuijn, A.
This paper explores three arguments. First, cultural accommodation by living in another culture for a while may have a long-lasting but partially dormant influence on behavior. Second, foreign language is a prime, activating behavior associated with this language. Third, a foreign language is
Afzal, Khalid I; Khan, Farhan M; Mulla, Zuber; Akins, Ralista; Ledger, Elizabeth; Giordano, Frank L
The aim of this study was to identify the degree of burnout among resident physicians enrolled in seven postgraduate training programs at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC), Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, as it related to residents' age, gender, marital status, number of hours worked per week, primary language, race/ethnicity, and cultural background. : The Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI) was administered to measure the level of burnout according to the prevalence of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). : Eighty-one percent of the residents at TTUHSC participated in the study. Residents raised in the United States or Canada comprised 28% and 35% of the study, and all reported English as their primary language. The EE scale was significant for obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) residents (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 13.55, P = 0.02) and psychiatry (PSY) residents (POR = 6.50, P = 0.03). Emergency medicine (EM) residents (POR = 23.35, P = 0.002), OB/GYN (POR = 10.89, P = 0.02), and general surgery (GS) (POR = 6.24, P = 0.03) residents had high DP. Internal medicine (IM) residents (primarily Spanish-speaking) reported significantly low EE (POR = 0.22, P = 0.03) and PA (POR = 0.09, P = 0.001) scores. Residents from the United States or Canada who reported English as their primary language and noted their race as white, had high EE (POR = 3.06, P = 0.03; POR = 5.61, P = 0.0001; POR = 2.91, P = 0.004), DP (POR = 3.19, P = 0.02; POR = 8.34, P burnout and residents' race/ethnicity, primary language, and cultural background. Larger studies with similar focus would be necessary to generalize these findings. At-risk residents in bilingual locations should be provided with cultural awareness workshops, language assistance programs, as well as senior resident and faculty mentors.
This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.
Liu, Yi-Fen Cecilia
This reflective study explores a different perspective of intercultural communicative competency (ICC) by focusing on the speech acts that nonnative speakers of Spanish from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds find difficult to perform competently in various contexts in Colombia. This article covers a qualitative case study using…
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of cultural background knowledge on learning English Language. It also aims to investigate if there are significant differences between subjects' performance in reading comprehension according to sex and general ability in English (GAE. The study aims at answering the following questions: 1 . To what extent is the effect of cultural background knowledge on subjects' performance in reading comprehension? 2 . What is the difference in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge? 3. What is the differenc e between subjects' performance in reading comprehension texts which are loaded with American culture and their general ability in English. ? The population of th is study consisted of all first - year students majoring in English at Hebron University in th e first semester of the academic year 2011/2012. They were 600. The sample of the study consisted of 60 subjects, males and females divided into four groups, two experimental and two controlled. The researcher followed the experimental method. Means, stand ard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were calculated by using SPSS program. The study revealed the following results: 1. There are statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cu ltural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge . 2 . There are no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. 3. Subjects' GAE revealed that there are significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. In the light of the results of th e study, the researcher recommends the
Full Text Available In the present paper, I aim to shed light on the importance of cultural competence from three perspectives. First, in my capacity as a sociolinguist, I will talk about how Hungarian culture is incorporated in the textbook "Colloquial Hungarian" (Rounds and Sólyom 2011, providing particular examples from various dialogues and cultural notes from the book. I believe that linguistic competence, communicative competence, and cultural competence are equally important parts of foreign language teaching and foreign language learning. Second, as a foreign language instructor at U.S. study abroad programs, I plan to discuss the importance of cultural norms of the speakers of the local language in the host country. Third, as a director of an American cultural and resource center in Budapest, I will talk about the importance of building bridges between two cultures, describing the goals and missions of the center as well as giving specific examples of the activities of the American Corner Budapest.
Guerrettaz, Anne Marie; Zahler, Tara
As racial tensions and reports of violence have become prominent in news and social media, U.S. society has been responding, struggling, and changing. This complex political and social situation can be particularly confusing for international students studying at U.S. universities. English language teachers are especially well positioned to create…
Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole
Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted.
Lavrenteva, Evgenia; Orland-Barak, Lily
Teaching culture in the foreign language classroom has been widely debated ever since its importance was recognized. Current research suggests that centralized "top down" curricular policies can become potential constraints to teaching culture and points to the need for adapting curricula for culture-integrated language learning. This…
The fading phase of Igbo language and culture: path to its revitalisation. ... philosophy of the Igbo man towards himself, his environment and his personal effects, and has discovered that the bane of Igbo language and culture is the Igbo man's attitude towards that which is his, and his easy enchantment with foreign cultures.
Carla Mereu Keating
Full Text Available In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical research in AVT has revealed how film versions have frequently been cut and dialogues ideologically manipulated to suit political agendas, commercial interests and dominant sexual and religious moralities. Indeed the translation of films has often served too many masters, suffering direct or indirect censorship intervention whenever a film defied existing societal taboos. My contribution aims to offer a diachronic perspective on the reception of Scarface lo sfregiato in Italy. It will look at the film’s Italian-language translation and re-translations for cinema, television and DVD, prepared by different hands and re-voiced by different actors during a span of fifty years (1940-90s. From the textual and contextual analysis of the film’s different Italian editions, it will be possible to trace significant ideological shifts in the reception of Italian-American crime iconography and in the language used to communicate it.
The Scientific Psychology that was founded by Wilhelm Wundt appeared in China in the late nineteenth century. The scholars translated the name of psychology into Chinese as Xin-Li-Xue, for which the meaning of the words looks like "heartology," i.e., "the study of the heart." In Chinese, the same core structure related to "heart" (Xin) is found in most of the terms of psychology, such as emotion, thinking, will, forgetting, and memory. By translating Xin as "heart" instead of "mind," we maintain an embodied approach to understanding the "principles of the heart." Through a historical approach to the influence of Western psychology, a cultural analysis of the meaning of the term psychology in Chinese, and a focus on the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, we can witness the significance of psychology in the Chinese language and cultural context. I will use three parts to present psychology in the Chinese cultural context: the origins of Chinese psychology, from a historical approach; the meaning of "psychology" in Chinese, using a cultural analysis; and the meeting of Eastern and Western psychology, focusing on the development and future.
Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang
Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.
Rumberger, Russell W.
One of the most important indicators of educational performance is the high school dropout rate. Reducing dropout rates and improving high school graduation rates are important goals for both educators and policymakers. Yet there is a great deal of controversy about how best to measure dropout and graduation rates. This issue of EL Facts provides estimates of dropout rates for language minority students, racial and ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups.
Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A.; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T.; Heuer, Loretta J.; Mee Lee, Sang; Solomon, Marla C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.
Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76–100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients. PMID:24858866
Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Campbell, Amanda; Schaefer, Cynthia T; Heuer, Loretta J; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H
Many community health center providers and staff care for Latinos with diabetes, but their Spanish language ability and awareness of Latino culture are unknown. We surveyed 512 Midwestern health center providers and staff who managed Latino patients with diabetes. Few respondents had high Spanish language (13%) or cultural awareness scores (22%). Of respondents who self-reported 76-100% of their patients were Latino, 48% had moderate/low Spanish language and 49% had moderate/low cultural competency scores. Among these respondents, 3% lacked access to interpreters and 27% had neither received cultural competency training nor had access to training. Among all respondents, Spanish skills and Latino cultural awareness were low. Respondents who saw a significant number of Latinos had good access to interpretation services but not cultural competency training. Improved Spanish-language skills and increased access to cultural competency training and Latino cultural knowledge are needed to provide linguistically and culturally tailored care to Latino patients.
.... After examining some situations in which United States and British forces carried out counterinsurgency operations, the author reveals that ground troops with foreign-language skills and cultural...
Alimi, Modupe M.
Many African countries exhibit complex patterns of language use because of linguistic pluralism. The situation is often compounded by the presence of at least one foreign language that is either the official or second language. The language situation in Botswana depicts this complex pattern. Out of the 26 languages spoken in the country, including…
Seabrook, Roberta; Valdes, Berardo
A study of the attitudes and practices in multinational corporations concerning second language and intercultural skills as criteria for employment of international managers consisted of three elements: (1) a survey of corporations; (2) followup interviews with respondents and with commercial language schools and cross-cultural training…
Full Text Available The culture of a society is closely related to the language used by the speakers. Moreover, there are opinions saying that in a language there will be patterns of behavior, materials, ideas (beliefs and knowledge, and sentiments (attitudes and norms of a society that are formed and exposed. This fact is in accordance with the opinion that a language is more than just a communion; it is the relation between individual and sociocultural values. Among all characteristics of culture, language is the most prominent distinguishing feature, since each social group feel themselves as a different entity from other groups. For certain social groups, language is used as the social identity/symbol. Close relation between language and culture is reflected in words used by the society. A concept or way of life in a society can be supported by words and language. Someone’s language behavior generally follows the culture of a society where he/she lives, including how the cultural elements appear in the equipment of human life, livelihood, social system, language (and literature system either written or oral, various of arts, knowledge system, and religious system. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that there is a close relation between the language used by people and how they understand the world and behave in it. Based on 17th Century French fairytales, this article will review the moral values contained in the cultural elements and the implications in learning French as a foreign language.
Full Text Available While mass media communications can be an important source of health information, there are substantial social disparities in health knowledge that may be related to media use. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of cancer-related health communications is patterned by race, ethnicity, language, and social class.In a nationally-representative cross-sectional telephone survey, 5,187 U.S. adults provided information about demographic characteristics, cancer information seeking, and attention to and trust in health information from television, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet. Cancer information seeking was lowest among Spanish-speaking Hispanics (odds ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.63 compared to non-Hispanic whites. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.07-4.66 and trust (odds ratio: 2.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-4.47 health messages from the radio. Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.04 and trust (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.90 health messages on television. Those who were college graduates tended to pay more attention to health information from newspapers (odds ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.75, magazines (odds ratio: 1.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.60, and the Internet (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 2.70-8.31 and had less trust in cancer-related health information from television (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.62 and radio (odds ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.86 compared to those who were not high school graduates.Health media use is patterned by race, ethnicity, language and social class. Providing greater access to and enhancing the quality of health media by taking into account factors associated with social
Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton
.... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...
De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace
Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available This paper discusses encyclopedic module of definitions in language dictionaries as a source of historical and cultural information. The main aim of the study is to reveal and compare the encyclopedic modules of definitions in early dictionaries of Australian and Indian English. The method applied consists in the analysis of the definitions and in the review of citation. The data was selected from two dictionaries on historical principles – Austral English (Morris, 1898 and Hobson-Jobson (Yule and Burnell, 1886. The corpus consists of 320 and 292 articles respectively. The study showed that in both dictionaries encyclopedic module of the definitions overshadows the linguistic one. At the same time, specificity of the nascent varieties of English and particularities of the linguistic situation in Australia and India determined the framework of these dictionaries, mainly the criteria of the entries’ selection and, as a consequence, the lexical domains covered by encyclopedic modules of the definitions.
Khudgir Agha, Taha Hammad Ameen
This thesis presents a study of Iraqi (Kurdish and Arabic) undergraduate students’ motivation to learn English, using Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self-System and Gardner's (1985a) Socio-educational model as the main theoretical frameworks, while also including some social contextual factors...... in Sulaymaniyah university (Kurdistan Region-Northern Iraq) and Arabic students in AL-Mustansiriya university (Baghdad city) on their motivation to learn English as a foreign language in Iraq; secondly to determine their motivational orientation (instrumental and/or integrative orientation); and finally to get...... insight into how the concepts of ethnic identity and culture have influenced their motivation to learn English. The study applies a mixed method approach. A structured questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 576 undergraduates in twelve scientific departments divided into two major fields...
White-Davis, Tanya; Stein, Emma; Karasz, Alison
For centuries, the concept of race, a uniquely pervasive social construct, has often complicated dialogue and interactions between groups of people. This study assessed perceptions and attitudes of faculty and trainees with varied racial backgrounds within graduate medical and psychology programs. Self-reported responses addressed potential barriers and facilitating factors required for meaningful conversations about race. A brief 18-question survey was developed and administered electronically to three professional and academic Listservs within a large metropolitan city in northeast United States. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were conducted using SPSS Statistical Software and Text analyzer. Results revealed that among participants (N = 57) a majority experienced cross-racial supervision, and more than half indicated engaging in conversations about race within supervision. Respondents endorsed lack of comfort and lack of opportunity/time as significant barriers to discussing race within supervision. When race-related dialogues occurred, a majority of supervisees and supervisors found it beneficial. Most Supervisors of Color(a) actively initiated these conversations in supervision, while White supervisees endorsed the least benefit from these conversations. Contrary to our expectations, few respondents endorsed limited training as a barrier. The current study revealed cross-racial dialogues about race may be occurring frequently in supervisory relationships. Supervisees of Color reported benefiting from these dialogues, in contrast to their White counterparts, who endorsed the least benefit. Lack of comfort in supervisory relationships appears to be a significant barrier to having these conversations. Therefore, it is important for supervisors to create supervisory relationships emphasizing safety and comfort. Directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity.
Full Text Available This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native- speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL are being implemented in teachers’ classrooms. Two non-native-speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers from a selective secondary school in NSW were interviewed and their classes observed over three days. Analysis of interview and observation data shows that these teachers teach culture as determined by language content, integrate language and culture teaching and teach culture as observable and factual. The study shows that both teachers view culture teaching as easier than language teaching, however their views on the influence of the syllabus differ. The study explores the teachers’ past experiences and how these affect how they feel towards, and teach culture. Finally, this study looks at how the teachers’ practices reflect concepts of IcLL such as integrating language and culture, student-centered learning and how their status as NNS teachers affects their culture teaching.
Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne
Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…
The "multilingual turn" brings questions of language ownership to the forefront of debates about linguistic minority governance. Acadian minority cultural producers construct language ownership using multiple languages and targeting multilingual publics, but use ideologies of monolingualism to situate Acadian authenticity in place and…
This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…
In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. (MSE)
Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Banaji, Mahzarin R.
This study examined the development of implicit race attitudes in American and Japanese children and adults. Implicit ingroup bias was present early in both populations, and remained stable at each age tested (age 6, 10, and adult). Similarity in magnitude and developmental course across these 2 populations suggests that implicit intergroup bias…
Siddiqui, Z.A.; Mahmood, I.
#Bacillus subtilis$ et des filtrats de culture des champignons #Aspergillus niger, Curvularia tuberculata$ et #Penicillium coryophilum$ ont été utilisés, seuls ou en combinaison, comme traitement de semences pour protéger le pois chiche contre une maladie racinaire complexe associant le nématode "Meloidogyne incognita$ race 3 et le champignon #Macrophomina phaseolina$. D'une manière générale, les traitements à l'aide de ces quatre agents, seuls ou en combinaison, accroissent le poids sec et l...
Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Nash, Afaf; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich
This study examines how language and culture brokering (translating and interpreting language and culture for others) influences the acculturative experiences and self-perceptions of young adults from immigrant Arab, Asian, and Latino American backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 10 participants suggest that mediating information for…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…
This article examines the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in Taiwan based on Vygotsky's (1978) socio-cultural framework. The historical context is provided after some delineations of the educational system in Taiwan with regard to its foreign language instruction policy and development. Based upon the proposed socio-cultural framework,…
Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan
This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…
de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others
Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot,…
Ever since the respectable Prague School of Linguistics the issues of standard language have been getting serious treatment in linguistics. These issues are addressed in sociolinguistics, language policy and language planning - domains that are receiving the treatment of specific scientific disciplines today. This paper deals with one segment of the language standard functioning, and that is its cultivation. This segment of the functioning of the language standard begins with its codification...
It is believed that attitudes to languages and culture tend to affect achievement in foreign language learning (Baker, 1997). Thus, this factor may be seen as crucial when it comes to the discrepancies in attainment in different languages learnt by the same students. Therefore, it seems vital to investigate variation in attitudes towards both learning L2 together with the approach to the L2 culture and the corresponding issues with respect to L3. Nevertheless, the general at...
Dr. Jennifer Nichols
Full Text Available This article describes research into Iraq War Veterans studying Arabic at the college level post-deployment. What is it about their exposure to the language and culture that motivates them to study the language after serving in Iraq? Few research studies exist in the area of Veterans’ education, a federally recognized minority. The study’s purpose was to explore Iraq war veterans’ language learning motivations and described their experiences, through the use of qualitative research methodology and the development of case study narratives. Results indicate that understanding the Veteran experience can foster a diversity-friendly, inclusive environment in the critical language classroom. There are broader implications for veteran higher education, other Less Commonly Taught Languages, alternative pedagogies, non-traditional student education, K-12, foreign language education policy, foreign relations, diversity & equity in the classroom, and national security.
Muntean, Valentin; Calinici, Tudor; Tigan, Stefan; Fors, Uno G H
Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs, especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010 of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011 of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results We found no significant differences between the students’ performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students’ performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students’ activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students’ ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)......Positive review of Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use (2014)...
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'.......Positive review of 'Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Social and Cultural Variation in Cognition and Language Use'....
Full Text Available Panama disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is considered a destructive disease of economic importance in the genus Musa. The culture filtrates of the pathogen have been used to differentiate cultivars, but have not been identified metabolites involved in the differential response. The aim of this study was to purify phytotoxic metabolites present in the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense GCV  Race 1 for further chemical characterization. We used a culture filtrate of 15 days of incubation. The phytotoxic activity was tested with a leaf bioassay on the susceptible cultivar ‘Gros Michel’ and resistant ‘FHIA 01’. The organic extract was extracted and fractionated. It was partitioned with organic solvents of rising polarity and found the complexity of each of the fractions by TLC. The metabolites were purified by flash column chromatography. Two compounds were purified from the culture filtrate of the pathogen which not only differed in color (blue and pale yellow, but also in polarity. Fractions B (containing blue compound and E (containing yellow compound produced significant differences in lesion area between resistant and susceptible cultivar. These results are not conclusive but, it is the basis for the identification of compounds involved in the differential response of Musa spp. cultivars to the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Key Words: phytotoxic activity, chromatography, organic extract, Panama disease, plantains and bananas
Leung, Peggy; Lo, Terence
This paper focuses on English language teaching for the hospitality industry in Hong Kong, presenting a brief statement on the concept of transfer and its relevance to teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for the world of work. The observable changes in the nature of language in the world of work in a service-oriented economy are…
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…
Bickley, Verner C.
This paper distinguishes Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language) and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language) according to type and function and summarizes their development as the national languages of Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. It presents a short, historical account of the spread, through religious and educational activities, of the English…
Giri, Ram Ashish
Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a "foreign" language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and…
Full Text Available This article describes a cross-cultural study comparing bicultural identity of first generation Poles and high school students in the Rhône Alpes region (France, as well as French language university students in Poland. Studies show that two components, language and identity, are related. This article intends to answer questions regarding the relationship between the migrant’s bicultural identity and language proficiency. Bilingualism is operationalized as (i listening comprehension and (ii bidirectional translation. The results do not confirm that there is a relation between bilingual skills and identification with shared French and Polish values. Cultural identity appears to be inversely related to country of residence: Polish identity is strongest amongst immigrant youth in France and French identity is strongest amongst Polish students of French language and culture. These identities run in opposite direction to language competencies. The results suggest internalization of one of the cultures' negative stereotypes towards the other or towards itself.
Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan
Language evolves in a socio-cultural environment. Apart from biological evolution and individual learning, cultural transmission also casts important influence on many aspects of language evolution. In this paper, based on the lexicon-syntax coevolution model, we extend the acquisition framework in our previous work to examine the roles of three forms of cultural transmission spanning the offspring, parent, and grandparent generations in language change. These transmissions are: those between the parent and offspring generations (PO), those within the offspring generation (OO), and those between the grandparent and offspring generations (GO). The simulation results of the considered model and relevant analyses illustrate not only the necessity of PO and OO transmissions for language change, thus echoing our previous findings, but also the importance of GO transmission, a form of cross-generational cultural transmission, on preserving the mutual understandability of the communal language across generations of individuals.
Mergenfel A. Vaz Ferreira
Full Text Available This article aims to present a comparative study of the perception of multimodal texts, more specifically, advertisements printed in Brazilian and German magazines, by Brazilian learners of GFL(German as a Foreign Language and German learners of PFL (Portuguese as a Foreign Language , with special attention to the intercultural dimension involved in this process. Through the analysis developed in the study, it was possible to identify not only cultural aspects strictly related to language phenomena (as the use of personal pronouns and forms of treatment, for instance, but also more subjective cultural aspects (such as emotional states, the view about work, among others. This study also discusses the implications of the link between culture and language choices for the area of teaching and learning foreign languages / cultures.
Full Text Available Agreement on word-object pairing in communication depends on the intensity of the beliefs that gradually emerge in a society of agents, on the condition that no one was born with embedded knowledge. The agents search and exchange ideas about unknown word-object pairings, until they meet a consensus about what the object should be named. A language game is a social process of finding agreement on word-object pairings through communication in a multi-agent system. In this paper, a technique is proposed to discover the association between a word and the agents’ beliefs on an object using self-organizing maps and a cultural algorithm in a multi-hearer environment. A conceptual space is implemented, which stores the agent’s beliefs in three dimensions, represented by colors. The technique was evaluated for a variety of scenarios using four significant measures: coherence, specificity, success rate, and word size. The results showed that with the proposed method social agents can reach agreement fast and that their communication is effective.
Hills, Laura Sachs
The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.
Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue
Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.
Full Text Available Translation is an activity of transferring information from one language into another. In transferring the message, a translator not only renders a language form but also replaces a cultural content. Practically it is because translation itself an activity that involves at least two languages and two cultures (Toury in James: 2000. Translating the text that contains a cultural content and message is more difficult than translating an ordinary text that only has literal meanings. Cultural aspects that include in stereotypes, speech levels, pronouns, idioms, even in proverbs are things that can lead difficulties for translators to translate. He or she sometimes should look for the closest meaning in order the translation products can be accepted in the target language culture.
This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…
Cole, Mikel Walker
This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.
Cole, Mikel Walker
This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…
Full Text Available Formal language planning is inevitably a top-down, highly technical process. Success for such planning would seem to depend on engaging productively with existing or readily developed social motivation within the society. This article reports on an informal investigation into how ordinary language practitioners and cultural workers in South Africa view the possibilities of contributing to the country's emerging language dispensation, what they regard as their most useful possible contributions, and what they expect from the language planners and 'government' in support of South Africa's Language Policy and Plan.
Morales, Marie Paz E.
The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.
Morales, Marie Paz E.
"Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science. Their cultural preference or profile defined their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning processes. The culture- and language-influenced curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by Pangasinan learners' cultural preference or profile. Results of the experimental participants' pretest and posttest on science attitude measure, when compared, showed significant statistical difference. Assessment of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data gathered from postimplementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries indicated the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study yielded that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning processes of physics concepts allowed students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.
Lysaker, Judith; Sedberry, Tiffany
In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not…
Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E; Alarcón, Renato D; Oquendo, María A; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N; Jacobsen, Frederick M; Foulks, Edward F; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E
Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-item GAP-REACH checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article.
Slatinská, Anna; Pecníková, Jana
The focal point of the article is Irish language teaching in the Republic of Ireland. Firstly, we deal with the most significant documents where the status of the Irish language is being defined. In this respect, for the purposes of analysis, we have chosen the document titled "20 Year Strategy for the Irish language" which plays a…
Brown, Bryan A.; Edouard, Kareem
The technology education movement includes the introduction and application of digital books into science classrooms. These digital books are attractive alternatives to traditional texts because they can be customized for students. This qualitative study examined 35 students as they customized their own digital books. Using a variety of digital…
The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…
Abrate, Jane E.
French cuisine offers a valuable resource for creating culture-based contexts for language use in the classroom. Suggestions and ideas are presented for incorporating food-related activities in the French class. (VWL)
Stephen D. Luft
While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA) is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Th...
Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.
Many UK universities offer degree programmes in English Language specifically for non-native speakers of English. Such programmes typically include not only language development but also development in various areas of content knowledge. A challenge that arises is to design courses in different areas that mutually support each other, thus…
This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…
In this article the author explores the seeming contradictions between the successful teaching practices of an English as a Second Language teacher and the deficit beliefs she expressed toward her students' home languages and cultures. This teacher believed her students were smart and capable, and she held herself accountable for her students…
Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin
Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…
Using multiliteracies and sociocultural perspectives on language and literacy learning, this article describes three Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) students' literacy development through involvement with Japanese popular culture. As part of a larger qualitative ethnographic study, the author interviewed JFL learners who have a particular…
Alberta Education, 2008
This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…
Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi
Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…
Shows how culture is encoded in the everyday conceptual metaphors speakers take for granted. Describes the way these encodings differ across languages as "semantic relativism" and argues that language teachers need to be aware of this phenomenon to understand their learners' interlanguage and to help them recognize the internal structure of the…
Ivey, Pauline S.
Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…
In "True to the Language Game", Keith Gilyard, one of the major African American figures to emerge in language and cultural studies, makes his most seminal work available in one volume. This collection of new and previously published essays contains Gilyard's most relevant scholarly contributions to deliberations about linguistic diversity,…
Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline
This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…
Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline
This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…
Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick
Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.
VanTyle, W Kent; Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A; Hancock, Bruce
To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates.
This study explores the experiences of internationally educated nurses using English as a second language, recruited by advanced economies to supplement diminishing local workforces, as they progress from language learning programs to clinical settings. Understanding the journey these nurses experience as language learners and professionals highlights ways in which they could be better supported in their adaptation and integration into the Australian workforce. By means of semi-structured interviews, the nurses' narratives were explored and documented. Thematic analysis was used to interpret their experiences as they move from the English language classroom to the clinical setting. The participants had all completed studies in English as a second language in Australia and had experienced working in Australian as part of a competency based assessment program. At the time of the study, conducted in South Australia, six of the nurses had met the English language requirements of the Nurses Board of South Australia and had started working as Registered Nurses in Australia. Four participants were still to reach the mandatory English requirements, among whom three were to return to their home countries due to visa restrictions, and continue their efforts to attain the English language proficiency requirement. There were six female participants and four male. Five participants were Indian, four Chinese, and one, Nepalese. In exploring their experiences, themes of identity and belonging, safety and competence and adapting to new roles and ways of communicating are revealed. In their own words, these nurses reveal the challenges they face as they concurrently manage the roles of language learners and professionals. The journey from language classroom to clinical setting is a process that goes beyond the notions of language proficiency; these nurses are constructing new cultural and professional identities. Bridging the gap between preparation and practice involves making
Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna
To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately
Full Text Available This paper is in fact an extensive summary of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on the immigrant children’s life in migratory existence in Norway. The dissertation is divided into two main parts: Part I – Cultures in Contact and Part II – Languages in contact. The main purpose of this dissertation was to find out what happened with the first language of the former Yugoslav immigrant youth in Norway, while under the influence of the Norwegian environment and language. It has been an aim to understand and analyse these immigrant children’s bilingual and bicultural lives as immigrants in Norway. The term immigrant children are here defined as children of first generation of immigrants where both parents are ex-Yugoslavians. Among these immigrant children were those who were born in Norway, and those who arrived in Norway as babies, as preschoolers, and as school age children. Research on immigrants’ language and culture indicates that it is possible for immigrant children to identify themselves with two cultures and two languages. The dissertation tries to give answer to what extent the immigrant children in this study have become bilingual and bicultural.
As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope
Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.
Freud's self-analysed dreams between 1895 and 1900 point out: His attachment to his German mother tongue and the use of its peculiarities to represent certain polymorphous perverse fantasies of childhood (voyeurism, masochistic mostly); the recourse to living foreign languages (English and French mostly) to name the parts of the self both left alive and foreign to the consciousness; the use of Latin and Greek words to constitute one scientific universal language fitting to the knowledge of the unconscious. For Freud, the German culture is the culture to which he belongs; the antique Mediterranean culture being the culture of reference. It allows him to get free from the motherly symbiosis and to discover the Oedipus complex. The variety of languages and cultures is necessary to the preconscious activity of the psychoanalyst to whom it provides 'intermediate ideas'.
Giselda dos Santos Costa
Full Text Available The internationalization of higher education has been dramatically intensified over the last fifteen years in Brazil, creating wide-ranging opportunities as well as threats and limitations in relation to foreign language teaching practices and the teaching of culture. Many linguists and anthropologists (BYRAM, 1997; KRAMSCH, 1993; MCKAY, 2003; JENKINS, 2005 have stated that for communication to be successful the use of language must be associated with other culturally appropriated behavior, not just linguistic rules in the strict sense. In this article, we discuss the problems related to internationalization, more specifically, the discussion revolves around the sociocultural challenges faced by some students of the Federal Institute of Piauí (IFPI regarding their experiences in the Science without Borders program spread through five countries. By using qualitative interviews, the results revealed that students had sociocultural problems which could be avoided if English teachers had worked in the language classroom before the execution of the exchange program.
Stephen D. Luft
Full Text Available While several studies have investigated the role of risk-taking in language learning, the findings of these studies may not be generalizable to language learning where the performed culture approach (PCA is used. This study describes the relationship between language learning and risk-taking in PCA, and the relationship between risk-taking and personal study habits, teaching style, daily grading, and classroom dynamics. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. This study finds that risk-taking behavior has a moderate positive relationship with student performance in PCA. While questionnaire items related to teaching style and classroom dynamics are not found to significantly correlate with students’ risk-taking behavior, some items related to daily grading and personal study habits are found to have a moderate positive relationship with risk-taking behavior. Based on these findings, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between assessment and risktaking in language learning. As second language acquisition researchers have investigated the role of affective variables in language learning, risk-taking has frequently been identified as a variable linked with success (Beebe, 1983; Ely, 1986; Naiman, Frolich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Rubin, 1975; Samimy & Pardin, 1994; Samimy & Tabuse, 1992. However, it is difficult to apply these findings to language classrooms that use the performed culture approach (PCA, an approach to the teaching of East Asian languages, for two reasons: (a PCA’s focus on the learning of a foreign culture could mean that greater risk is involved in 106 Luft language learning than in a typical language classroom; (b PCA creates a language learning experience for which the risks involved are different than those in language classrooms where other approaches are used.
Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai
Full Text Available There is a growing awareness and interest in the development of culturally competent health knowledge. Drawing on experience using a qualitative approach to elicit information from Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking participants for a colorectal cancer prevention study, the authors describe lessons learned through the analysis process. These lessons include benefits and drawbacks of the use of coders from the studied culture group, challenges posed by using translated data for analysis, and suitable analytic approaches and research methods for cross-cultural, cross-language qualitative research. The authors also discuss the implications of these lessons for the development of culturally competent health knowledge.
culture have on communication in the workplace and to emphasise the importance of .... resource for innovation and adaptability (Ely & Thomas 2001: 269). ... African workplace. In addition to these groups, there are others that are intermingled, causing a greater diversity of cultures influenced by other 'primary' cultures.
Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos
Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.
In this historical study, the author traces the evolution of Dewey's vision for a democratic curriculum. Prior to 1916, Dewey was a linear historicist, meaning that he conceptualized culture as moving linearly through three distinct stages--savagery, barbarianism, civilization--that corresponded with stages of child development. Dewey's suggested…
This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child's human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault's notion of "dispositifs" and the "elements of history," encircling a complex transformation of continuity and discontinuity of…
From the relationship between culture and language, we know language is a carrier of culture; each nation has its own distinctive culture. Through comparing cultural connotation between Chinese characters and English words, we know it is more important for us to master the cultural connotation of words than just knowing their spelling and pronouncing. Only under this condition, we can use English properly and freely.
Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Reynolds, Katherine J; Irons, Jessica L; McKone, Elinor
Competing approaches to the other-race effect (ORE) see its primary cause as either a lack of motivation to individuate social outgroup members, or a lack of perceptual experience with other-race faces. Here, we argue that the evidence supporting the social-motivational approach derives from a particular cultural setting: a high socio-economic status group (typically US Whites) looking at the faces of a lower status group (US Blacks) with whom observers typically have at least moderate perceptual experience. In contrast, we test motivation-to-individuate instructions across five studies covering an extremely wide range of perceptual experience, in a cultural setting of more equal socio-economic status, namely Asian and Caucasian participants (N = 480) tested on Asian and Caucasian faces. We find no social-motivational component at all to the ORE, specifically: no reduction in the ORE with motivation instructions, including for novel images of the faces, and at all experience levels; no increase in correlation between own- and other-race face recognition, implying no increase in shared processes; and greater (not the predicted less) effort applied to distinguishing other-race faces than own-race faces under normal ("no instructions") conditions. Instead, the ORE was predicted by level of contact with the other-race. Our results reject both pure social-motivational theories and also the recent Categorization-Individuation model of Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, and Sacco (2010). We propose a new dual-route approach to the ORE, in which there are two causes of the ORE-lack of motivation, and lack of experience--that contribute differently across varying world locations and cultural settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kozelka, Paul R.
This handbook, concerning the Ewe language and culture of Togo, presents classroom activities that require the learner to exchange messages in a way that is appropriate to the cultural context. These activities are presented in 30 lessons containing both basic and supplementary material that deal with situations and topics which will be useful to…
Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.
The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…
Morales, Marie Paz E.
"Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science.…
Broomans, Pieternella; Jensma, Goffe; Jiresch, Esther; Klok, Janna; van Elswijk, Roald
Battles and Borders. Perspectives on Cultural Transmission and Literature in Minor Language Areas is about literature on the fringes of Europe. The authors all discuss the often unique ways in which literary history and cultural transfer function in peripheral and central regions against the
Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh
Although many EFL learners have a command of internalized foreign language knowledge, they may have difficulty using this knowledge in different contexts. This is due to many interacting factors affecting their performance, mainly lack of target culture awareness. This study intended to identify the cultural aspects suitable to be integrated into…
This dissertation is a sociolinguistic study of the ideologies about language, culture and ethnicity among Japanese immigrants and descendants in Brazil (hereafter, Nikkeis) who gather at a local Japanese cultural association, searching for what it means to be "Japanese" in Brazil. This study focuses on how linguistic behaviors are…
Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.
This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…
In this article, the author shares how she uses Chinese film in her Chinese language and culture classes. She demonstrates how Chinese films can help students "navigate the uncharted universe of Chinese culture" with reference to several contemporary Chinese films. She describes how intensive viewing of films can develop a deeper and…
Full Text Available this research focuses on a dialectic interrelation between language and culture perceived as existential manifestations of the national spirit. Identity of the national linguistic world perception is defined by its social-historic development, geographic and climatic conditions of living and distinctiveness of the national linguo-cultural heritage.
Furstenberg, Gilberte; Levet, Sabine; English, Kathryn; Maillet, Katherine
Presents a Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled, "Cultura," designed to develop foreign language students' understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world. Focuses on the pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways the Web can be used to…
Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna
The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…
Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor; Tašner, Veronika
This study examines the effect of certain socio-cultural factors of the family environment on the language of toddlers and children in early childhood. The sample included 86 families with one- to six-year-old children. The data on the social, economic, and cultural factors of the family environment, parental reading literacy, parental knowledge…
Christensen, Matthew; Warnick, Paul
This book is a general introduction to the performed culture approach, which trains students how to express themselves in a way that native speakers of the target culture feel appropriate in given situations. Target readership includes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean language teachers and graduate students. Chapters of this book include: (1)…
Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baharudin, Mazlina; Ikhsan, Siti Ajar
The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students' needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning…
Juceli Aparecida Silva
Full Text Available This article contextualizes a profile of Gramscian contributions presented from the perspective of Stuart Hall. It uses the themes of racism and cultural identity, comparing them to the phenomenon of aging. It presents a dialog between theories, concepts and their contemporary importance. The study concludes that aging is not a homogeneous process and that its general characteristics are specifically defined by the historic moments in which it occurs.
Aleksandr V. Gura
Folk culture considers sexual intercourse unclean and dangerous and therefore applies many restrictions to it. Usually coitus is referred to with euphemisms and other substitutes that can be both neutral and expressive, or even humorous. Symbols of coitus in popular culture are numerous and diverse. Coitus is one of the most important objects of allegory among different types of human activity. In traditional popular culture it corresponds to a wide paradigm of behavioural symbols. The ...
Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Johnson, Valerie E
The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the use of curriculum-based language assessment (CBLA) with students who are English language learners and students who speak nonmainstream varieties of English, such as African American English. The article begins with a discussion of the discourse of mathematics and the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP), followed by a review of studies that includes those that examined the performance of English language learner and nonmainstream dialect-speaking students on word-based math items. The literature review highlights the linguistic and content biases associated with word-based math problems. Useful strategies that SLPs and educators can incorporate in culturally and linguistically appropriate assessments are discussed. The tutorial ends with a discussion of CBLA as a viable assessment approach to use with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Tests used at national, state, and school levels to assess students' math abilities have associated linguistic bias and content bias often leading to an inaccurate depiction of culturally and linguistically diverse students' math skills. CBLA as an assessment method can be used by school-based SLPs to gather valid and useful information about culturally and linguistically diverse students' language for learning math. By using CBLA, SLPs can help modify curricular tasks in broader contexts in an effort to make math, including high-level math, "accessible and achievable for all" students (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017).
In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…
Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie
For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…
Ali, Sheeraz; Kazemian, Bahram; Mahar, Israr Hussain
English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing…
Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne
Examines developing cultural and linguistic identities of three French/English bilingual children reared in two linguistic cultures: American and Quebecois. Results indicate the adolescent boy, who speaks more English than French, identifies with his American peers, from whom he conceals his bilingualism. The twin girls, in a French-immersion…
Real Bird, Lanny
The purpose of this essay is to introduce nativist expression, historic practices, and perceptions in describing an important approach to exercising language revitalization based on traditional fundamentals and operational ownership in Native organizations of these reflections. Information is presented to enhance the understanding of how Native…
In the increasingly competitive world of English language teaching and learning, the tourism attractiveness of the destination is certain to feature more prominently in the decision making of those who want to learn English, but need to decide where. South Africa can create competitive advantage by packaging its English ...
Hummon, David M.
Analysis of 642 slang terms that college students use to characterize peers at Holy Cross College (Massachusetts) and University of California, Davis suggests that undergraduate slang usage is socially complex, the language is reflective of campus and academic life, and that it portrays undergraduate life from the perspective of dominant student…
Zuccala, Alesia Ann
The chapter takes an external view of the Italian evaluation experience in SSH, as described in various chapters of this volume. It compares the choices made by the Italian Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca (ANVUR) to those of other countries, in light of ......-country differences rooted in language and history....
O'Reilly, Laurie M.
In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…
Plough, India C.
The role of world languages in the internationalization of college campuses in the United States (U.S.) has become a recurring theme of discussions in academic, government, and private sectors. Topics have ranged from the lack of a common definition of internationalization to a review of college curricula. Klee (2009) and Bettencourt (2011) have…
Argues against the thesis put forth in Phillipson's "Linguistic Imperialism," that the relationship between core English-speaking countries and periphery-English countries is one of dominant and dominated languages, as it applies to Nigeria. It is maintained that the sociolinguistic and sociocultural realities of the country have not…
Y. V. Orlova
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the communicative competence approach in professional training of physicians on the undergraduate level. The main emphasis is on developing linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences while teaching the Russian language and the culture of speech. The paper is aimed at analyzing the requirements of federal state educational standards of the 3rd generation concerning the competences in the humanities which should be developed by medical students in the course of the Russian language and the culture of speech; defining the contents of the «communicative competence» term based on consideration of general European competences in mastering the language and the analysis of lingua-didactic works of modern Russian scientists; identifying the component content of linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences of the Russian language and the culture of speech course for medical schools. The research results regarding the analysis and component content of linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences of the Russian language and the culture of speech course have been applied while designing the Russian and the culture of speech curriculum, as well as electronic textbooks and manuals for medical students.
Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.
This is the teacher's guide accompanying a reader and a workbook that are part of an ungraded language arts and reading program that can be used in classes from upper elementary through high school. The program is designed around reading selections which present aspects of history, culture, and present-day experiences of special relevance to the…
Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine; Heller, Daniel; Rafaeli, Eshkol
This study explored the within-person dynamic organization of emotion in East-Asian Canadian bicultural individuals as they function in two cultural worlds. Using a diary design, we examined under what conditions their emotional structure resembles that of Westerners or that of East Asians. As predicted, when these bicultural individuals identified with a Western culture or had recently spoken a non-Asian language, their positive and negative affect were inversely associated. When they identified with an Asian culture or interacted in an Asian language, this inverse association disappeared. This study shows that as bicultural individuals identify and communicate with members of one or the other cultural group, they may adopt a culturally congruent phenomenology, including a distinct affective pattern.
Full Text Available The linguistic situations and conditions in Indonesia are quite complex by their own natures as more than seven hundred vernaculars with their various dialects from a great number of ethnic groups have been used as media of communication in the country.Â Accordingly, the success of English teaching in Indonesia cannot be freed from the students' cultural backgrounds, values, customs, and beliefs as well as the political standpoint of the government regarding this foreign language. English language teaching has then undergone more than four changes in its curriculum since the country's independence and brought no significant impact upon the learning outcomes. This study reveals the substantial unconstructive influence of the students' cultures and the non-conducive language environment affecting their language acquisition.Â Other aspects related to the teachers' performance and class preparations equally contribute to the ineffective classroom interactions.Â This study offers some practical suggestions to cope with those problems.
Purser, Jennifer L
As the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE) has shifted away from a necessity to apply conventional tactics towards a counterinsurgency fight, culture has become increasingly important to the U.S. Army...
Louise O. Vasvári
As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2013-2014, covering the period since the publication in Fall of 2013 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items that were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. ...
Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke
into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...
Mihailovna Olga Komornikova
Full Text Available The article discusses the mechanisms and activities for promotion of the Russian language and culture of the Urals. Special attention is paid to one of the most promising directions of this activity is to attract students from other countries to obtain education in Russian language. The authors analyze a number of factors that determine the attractiveness of Russian education for students from post-Soviet States, as well as difficulties arising in the process of integration into the social and cultural environment of the host community. Presents the experience of the educational organization’s involvement in the work with foreign students volunteers at the example of club of international friendship Shadrinsk state pedagogical University and volunteers of the school “Dobroslava”. The article concluded that direct contact of volunteers from different countries contribute to the production practices of intercultural interaction, creating a favorable atmosphere for the promotion of Russian language and culture abroad.
Full Text Available Improving student understanding of a foreign language culture is anything but a peripheral issue in the teaching of a foreign language. This pilot study reports on a second year required English course in a university in Japan that took a Literature Circles approach, where students were asked to read short stories out of class and then discuss these stories in class. Although students reported that they did not gain any special insights into the target language culture presented, they did report that reading fiction as source material for classroom activity helps with the acquisition of a vocabulary set that is more closely associated with lifestyle and culture. The results suggest that further study is warranted. Procedures of this pilot study are described and interpreted in the context of the English education system in Japan.
Full Text Available Intercultural communication is applied for communicating with each other among the different cultures and traditions. It highlighted the problems which faced by different communities and organizations, the problems which are natural to the person like when the people face to new culture or tradition even the religious issues. So intercultural communication here is seeking for an answer between the different nations that how they communicate with each other when they face some problems in their tradition and culture. This one highlights how the people encode a message and how they interpret a message to each other. So here in this paper interaction is between students of Arabs and Malays from National University of Malaysia and it deals with their body language especially hand gestures. This paper is based on the Micheal Byram theory of language. In this quantitative research some questions will distribute among the students and the similarities and differences between their sign languages will be highlighted.
Nelde, Peter Hans
Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)
Mereu Keating, Carla
In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks) stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical ...
Andrijević Maja M.
Full Text Available The paper outlines the effectiveness of the formative approach in the adoption of cultural content as part of intercultural foreign language teaching. In contrast to the informative, the formative approach is based on a constructivist approach to foreign language acquisition; in other words, it is a process of tertiary socialization through the construction of an intercultural identity, by means of experiential acquisition, interaction and cognitive conflict with previously adopted patterns. Byram's (1997 propositions about the importance of acquiring intercultural competence in foreign language teaching represent a complete shift towards a formative approach since they formulate general educational goals according to which it is impossible to have an insight into the language reality of a different culture unless an individual is aware of their own and the relative nature of both, which is vital to the development of critical intercultural awareness. Thus the focus of teaching shifts to the integration of the target and the source cultures through participatory tasks and constructive analysis, and to the construction of the learner's identity as intercultural speaker with a range of affective, cognitive and behavioral competences enabling successful contact with difference. The formative approach enables the foreign language teacher, whose role has also been redefined, to use appropriate materials in order to develop critical thinking and intercultural competence in students through their active involvement in the process of target language acquisition.
Yiu, Edwin M-L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly; Ho, Elaine Mandy
Perceptual voice evaluation is a common clinical tool. However, to date, there is no consensus yet as to which common quality should be measured. Some available evidence shows that voice quality is a language-specific property which may be different across different languages. The familiarity of a language may affect the perception and reliability in rating voice quality. The present study set out to investigate the effects of listeners' cultural and language backgrounds on the perception of voice qualities. Forty speech pathology students from Australia and Hong Kong were asked to rate the breathy and rough qualities of synthesized voice signals in Cantonese and English. Results showed that the English stimulus sets as a whole were rated less severely than the Cantonese stimuli by both groups of listeners. In addition, the male Cantonese and English breathy stimuli were rated differently by the Australian and Hong Kong listeners. These results provided some evidence to support the claim that cultural and language backgrounds of the listeners would affect the perception for some voice quality types. Thus, the cultural and language backgrounds of judges should be taken into consideration in clinical voice evaluation. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Writing is a skill derived from a long way of learning and exercises. Different from other language skills, writing is considered the difficult language skill to acquire since it involves many aspects of linguistics, social, and writing knowledge and conventions. There are at least three important elements of writing useful to produce a good piece of composition, language competence, writing competence and cultural competence. This paper shows the influence of these three elements in order to produce good, readable, communicative, and successful writing
... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...
... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...
Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.
This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…
cultural awareness and the opportunity to examine cultural and moral relativism in the context of how others perceive us, with a special focus on...Learning Concept for 2015, 20 January 2011, TRADOC PAM 525-8-2, p. 11 10 Discussed at the DoD “Language and Culture Summit: A Strategic Imperative...Function. The Air Force’s approach to LRC emphasizes the concept of “Cross- Cultural Competence” (3C). In the Flight Plan, 3C is defined as “the
Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro
Many dictionaries covering the cultural and social sciences are monolingual, but bi- and polylingual dictionaries should also be included in this category, in particular bilingual dictionaries with a monolingual dimension. These are culture-dependent dictionaries that can only be analysed...... and designed with a view to their genuine purpose. First, this concerns the components of the dictionary, as the inclusion of an encyclopaedic section may facilitate cross-references from individual articles to a systematic and general presentation of a specialist field. Second, it concerns the lemma selection...
Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis
The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients' encounters with mental health services. To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Two themes were identified:(I) Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about.Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants' lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami. Sami patients' language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients.
Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin
Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.
Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Wall, Whitney; Tucker, Carolyn M
Disparities in treatment adherence based on race and ethnicity are well documented but poorly understood. Specifically, the causes of treatment nonadherence among Latino patients living in the USA are complex and include cultural and language barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patients' perceptions in patient-provider interactions (i.e., trust in provider, patient satisfaction, and patient sense of interpersonal control in patient-provider interactions) mediate any found association between patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity (PCS) and treatment adherence among English-preferred Latino (EPL) and Spanish-preferred Latino (SPL) patients. Data from 194 EPL patients and 361 SPL patients were obtained using questionnaires. A series of language-specific structural equation models were conducted to test the relationship between patient-perceived PCS and patient treatment adherence and the examined mediators of this relationship among the Latino patients. No significant direct effects of patient-perceived PCS on general treatment adherence were found. However, as hypothesized, several significant indirect effects emerged. Preferred language appeared to have moderating effects on the relationships between patient-perceived PCS and general treatment adherence. These results suggest that interventions to promote treatment adherence among Latino patients should likely include provider training to foster patient-defined PCS, trust in provider, and patient satisfaction with care. Furthermore, this training needs to be customized to be suitable for providing care to Latino patients who prefer speaking Spanish and Latino patients who prefer speaking English.
Pierson-Smith, Anne; Chik, Alice; Miller, Lindsay
This article examines an established course on Popular Culture which is framed within the general educational model in an English-medium university. The article is organized into three parts: the underlining educational rationale for general educational courses, the course description, and the students' perspectives of their learning experience.…
Thomas J. Gallagher
Many of the Aleuts, Inuits, and Indians of Alaska continue to live a traditional lifestyle. Eighty-eight percent of the land they use for subsistence activities, however, is managed by federal or state agencies. Clear communication across cultures is essential if Native people are to be represented in agency land management decisions. Problems in communication relate...
This article examines how "Nisei," the second generation of Japanese immigrants, in Hilo on the island of Hawai'i have maintained their Japanese cultural and linguistic skills. In this article, the author first provides a history of these Japanese immigrant communities in Hilo. This article describes the author's research findings. The…
Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin's theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of "counting as" and "standing for." I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by reflecting on
Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of “counting as” and “standing for.” I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude by
Full Text Available Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of counting as and standing for. I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world, but also grounds a sub-class of artifacts of particular significance in the cultural history of human cognition. Symbolic cognitive artifacts materially and semiotically mediate human cognition, and are not merely informational repositories, but co-agentively constitutive of culturally and historically emergent cognitive domains. I provide examples of the constitutive cognitive role of symbolic cognitive artifacts drawn from my research with my colleagues on cultural and linguistic conceptualizations of time, and their cultural variability. I conclude
Smala, Simone; Paz, Jesus Bergas; Lingard, Bob
This paper argues that languages, increasingly marginalised in schools in English-speaking countries, are gaining "elitist" ground as part of the "value-added" marketisation of schools and parents' desire for their children to gain "positional goods" through schooling. In arguing our case, the paper draws on survey…
Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje
The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of
Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin
Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…
Shin, Sarah J.
This study investigates how parents of international adoptees explain their decision to pursue birth-language education for their children and how they go about achieving their goals. It focuses on the perspectives of 16 White U.S. parents who have at least one adopted school-aged child (ages 5 to 18) either currently or previously enrolled in a…
Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S
The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.
Tabari, Saloomeh; Wilson, Jonathan; Ingram, Hadyn
Purpose:\\ud The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and definitions of culture and its relationship to language and cultural sensitivity in hospitality management services. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of a critical literature review followed by a phenomenological exploratory pilot study, using template analysis.\\ud \\ud Findings:\\ud Previous studies indicate that the more individuals understand and embrace notions of intercultural sensitivity, then...
Loo, C M
This US study tested the validity of assumptions made regarding multilingual electoral ballot provisions. Rationale for language assistance was found to exist on the basis of number and proportion of recent immigrants, proportion of foreign born, lag of biliterate skill behind bilingual ability, linguistic differences between the Chinese language and English, and the discriminatory structure of the labor market. In California, where close to 1/2 the population is an ethnic minority, the issue is particularly relevant. Bilingual advocates view English-only advocates as "un-American" on legal and ideological grounds, while English-only advocates consider it "un-American" to be non-English speaking. In addition to census data and the existing literature, this study relies on the structured interview survey data of a representative sample of the Chinese adult population of San Francisco's Chinatown. 2/3 of the immigrants believed an immigrant should make some cultural changes, and 1/2 of the immigrants had done so. Data failed to support the claim that immigrants are uninformed that English is necessary for sociopolitical participation. Their more recent pattern of immigration, the linguistic differences between Asian languages and the English language, and structural constraints of US society make successive language acquisition difficult for Chinese migrant adults. Policy recommendations include: 1) changing language assistance criteria in the electoral process, 2) adding Vietnamese as a single language minority, 3) not considering Asian language minorities as 1 generic category, 4) justifying electoral assistance on several grounds, 5) disseminating data bearing directly on misguided assumptions related to language and cultural shift factors, and 6) renaming the "bilingual ballots" to "biliterate ballots."
Emma E. Patterson
Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral
Full Text Available This article addresses the topic “Commodification of the Russian language”. The author examines the process of commodification in the Norwegian city of Kirkenes and connects this phenomenon with the rise of the new economy and the current cooperation between Russia and Norway. The paper pre-sents an analysis of the linguistic landscape of Kirkenes, newspaper publications devoted to the “Russian Kirkenes” and interviews with Russian tourists and residents of the city. According to the author, the situation in Kirkenes illustrates the transition of the old economy into a new one: the former mining city turned into a tourist Mecca of the North, a center of cooperation of the Nordic countries. In such conditions, know-ledge of the Russian language becomes beneficial for the city's residents.
Abd Rashid Ruzai Syarilili Aiyu
Full Text Available Research has shown that there is a need to use materials that are cultural sensitive and context-appropriate in the EFL classroom. It is imperative that teaching materials match with the goals, objectives and philosophy of the programme. This is to ensure that the materials are congruent with the learners’ attitudes, religious beliefs and preferences. Thus, this study aims to find out if there were materials that are not in harmony with Islam. The sampling of this study was taken from 5 textbooks that were being used in an intensive English course. The findings from this study showed that in general the contents of the ELT textbooks could be categorised into three categories of neutral, positive and negative. Additionally, it was also discovered that these themes fall under community knowledge, beliefs and values of the western culture in Byram’s (1993 cultural content checklist. This study has strong implications for the use of ready-made textbooks in the EFL context.
It has been suggested that the learning of a second language is not only a practical matter, as is commonly emphasized in discussion about language teaching, but is equally an experience of cultural initiation, particularly through the appreciation of literary texts in that language. The first part of this paper reviews educators' ideas about…
Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N
Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Edith Hernández Méndez
Full Text Available In the case of Mexico, until recently, many universities focused mainly on teaching, but recent changes have led to new appointments in research, administration, and community service. There now seems to be, however, a view of the predominance of research in the academic environment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine and identify, through the lens of organizational theory and a current model of research culture in an academic setting, some characteristics of the research culture in the Department of Languages and Education at a public university in Southeast Mexico. Following the international tendencies and models in higher education, we see that the research culture observed in this university resembles more a market culture than other types of culture, although some traits of hierarchy culture provide cohesion in the organization.
Roychoudhuri, Kesaban S; Prasad, Seema G; Mishra, Ramesh K
We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image. These data suggest that native language culture cues lead to activation of the L1 lexicon that competed against L2 words creating an interference. These results provide further support to earlier observations where such culture related interference has been observed in bilingual language production. We discuss the results in the context of cultural influence on the psycholinguistic processes in bilingual object naming.
Eom, Young-Ho; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Vigna, Sebastiano; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network. PMID:25738291
Full Text Available Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network.
Cumming, Joy; Mawdsley, Ralph
In a companion article, we considered legal issues in language and culture in private schooling in two U.S. contexts: "Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools". In this article, we consider the facts and findings of these two cases under the human rights and antidiscrimination legal frameworks of…
Mitchell, Deborah J.
The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…
This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…
This study aimed to determine the views of the Syrian refugees migrating to Kilis, Turkey on the Turkish language and culture, as well as the impact of this situation on their daily life. For that purpose, this study was done in accordance with a mixed design, using quantitative and qualitative research methods together. The target population of…
This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help missionaries…
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Rapold, Christian J.; Janzen, Gabriele; Levinson, Stephen C.
The present paper explores cross-cultural variation in spatial cognition by comparing spatial reconstruction tasks by Dutch and Namibian elementary school children. These two communities differ in the way they predominantly express spatial relations in language. Four experiments investigate cognitive strategy preferences across different levels of…
Alberta Education, 2008
This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program (the program of studies). It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Chinese…
Podcasts provide a straightforward opportunity to stay connected with language, culture, and recent events of German-speaking countries. Podcasts offer clearly articulated, authentic material that can be automatically and regularly delivered to your computer and classrooms; continuously exposing students and teachers to German. This article…
This article examines an ESL English language arts teacher's conceptions of linguistic diversity, literacy learning and her role as teacher in a culturally and linguistically complex classroom. It further examines her processes of learning about, and developing curricular and pedagogical innovations to meet, her students' learning needs. The…
Motivational characteristics of students learning Japanese as a foreign language at universities in Australia were investigated to find out what affecting factors are closely related to their intentions for continuing/discontinuing their study. The results showed that students' cultural/linguistic backgrounds have a significant impact on their…
Buescher, Eileen M.
This dissertation explores the experiences of middle childhood pre-service teachers (PST) across two academic years as they learn to teach English language arts to diverse students from conflicting sociocultural contexts. To help PSTs navigate the tensions across contexts, this study introduced culturally relevant (Ladson-Billings, 1995; 2014) and…
This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological…
Della Chiesa, Bruno
For potential consideration by the Mind, Brain, and Education community, here is a modest but provocative hypothesis regarding the relationships between acquisition of languages, awareness of cultures, and development of ethics in human beings. Starting from the basic idea according to which "a fish does not know what water is," and using both…
Guiberson, Mark; Atkins, Jenny
This study describes the backgrounds, diversity training, and professional perspectives reported by 154 Colorado speech-language pathologists in serving children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. The authors compare the results of the current survey to those of a similar survey collected in 1996. Respondents reported…
Schneider, Jeffrey; von der Emde, Silke
Describes an online approach through using a MOO, a computer program that allows students to share text-based virtual reality. The goal of the program was to build an environment that both enabled practice in the target language and sustained reflection on the processes of cultural production and reception. (Author/VWL)
A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…
Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin
Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion…
Alberta Education, 2008
This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-Year Program (the program of studies.) It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Punjabi…
This study investigates how international visitor students studying temporarily at a public university in Turkey perceive teaching, language and culture. Qualitative explanatory single case study method was employed in the study. The data were obtained through face to face interview with 10 participants, and a focus group interview with 3…
Recent research has produced evidence to suggest a strong reciprocal link between school context-specific language constructions that reflect a school's vision and schoolwide pedagogy, and the way that meaning making occurs, and a school's culture is characterized. This research was conducted within three diverse settings: one school in the Sydney…
This study investigates the identity and interculturality development of English-language teaching assistants through their perceptions of their experiences living and working in France. The study is framed using Bourdieu's (1979, 2000) notions of habitus and cultural capital, and draws from Byram's (2000) "intercultural mediator" and…
Maul, Christine A.
The purpose of this research was to identify specific clinical skills in speech-language pathologists (SLPs) that may constitute cultural competency, a term which currently lacks operational definition. Through qualitative interview methods, the following research questions were addressed: (1) What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLPs'…
Lwin, Soe Marlar
With the global spread, the English language has become a lingua franca and a component of basic education in many Asian countries, making Asia one of the regions in the world with the largest number of English speakers. However, due to the rich cultural diversities of Asian societies, using English as a lingua franca in Asia implies that speakers…
Brittin, Ruth V.
Listeners ("N" = 543) in grades 4, 5, and 6 rated their preference for 10 instrumental and vocal selections from various styles, including four popular music selections with versions performed in English, Spanish, or an Asian language. Participants estimated their identification with Spanish/Hispanic/Latino and Asian cultures, the number…
Littlebear, Richard E.
In 1995, the Montana Office of Public Instruction supported the Class 7 Indian language and culture specialist license to allow experts in Indigenous languages/cultures identified and certified by their respective tribal nations, to teach in K-12 public schools. This article uses the example of a Class 7 certification process on the Northern…
Ivanna V. Otroshenko
Full Text Available Article is devoted to the role of the Mongolian language in Tuvan official sphere, education and mass-media during the initial years of Tuvan People’s Republic. Author investigates into the disputes of language choice for the Tuvan educational institutions and the issue of the Tuvan written language creation (1920’s. It proves that the lingual and educational spheres’ modernization had been influenced by the trends in the USSR language policy as well as the decision of Soviet diplomacy and Comintern to lead Tuva gradually out of the Mongolian influence. Article reveals the unknown and little-known facts of cultural and educational development of the Tuvan People’s Republic.
The international literature suggests the use of indigenous knowledge (IK) and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) contexts in science education to provide motivation and self-esteem for indigenous students is widespread. However, the danger of alienating culture (as knowledge) from the language in which the worldview is embedded seems to have been left out of the philosophical and pedagogical debates surrounding research and comment in the field. This paper argues that one of the main ways in which indigenous knowledge systems will survive and thrive is through the establishment of programmes taught through indigenous languages so that a dialectal relationship between language and knowledge is established that continues to act as the wellspring. The article concludes by reviewing the situation in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous population, Maori, and the recent science education initiatives in te reo Maori (Maori language).
The recent Bayesian approaches to language evolution and change seem to suggest that genetic biases can impact on the characteristics of language, but, at the same time, that its cultural transmission can partially free it from these same genetic constraints. One of the current debates centres on the striking differences between sampling and a posteriori maximising Bayesian learners, with the first converging on the prior bias while the latter allows a certain freedom to language evolution. The present paper shows that this difference disappears if populations more complex than a single teacher and a single learner are considered, with the resulting behaviours more similar to the sampler. This suggests that generalisations based on the language produced by Bayesian agents in such homogeneous single agent chains are not warranted. It is not clear which of the assumptions in such models are responsible, but these findings seem to support the rising concerns on the validity of the "acquisitionist" assumption, whereby the locus of language change and evolution is taken to be the first language acquirers (children) as opposed to the competent language users (the adults).
Krogh, Marianne T; Vaever, Mette S
The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural differences between Danish and American children at 2 and 3 years as measured with the developmental test Bayley-III, and to investigate the Bayley-III Language Scale validity. The Danish children (N = 43) were tested with the Bayley-III and their parents completed an additional language questionnaire (the MacArthur-Bates CDI). Results showed that scores from the Danish children did not differ significantly from the American norms on the Cognitive or Motor Scale, but the Danish sample scored significantly higher on the Language Scale. A comparison of the Bayley-III Language subtests with the CDI showed that the two measures correlated significantly, but the percentile score from the CDI was significantly higher than the percentile score from the Bayley-III Language subtests. This could be because the two instruments measure slightly different areas of language development, or because the Bayley-III overestimates language development in Danish children. However, due to the limitations of the current study, further research is needed to clarify this issue. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In this autoethnographic tale, I tell the story of my own family's experience with race, class, and language privilege. In particular, I focus on my children's experience with elementary schooling in the United States and Hungary. Their intercultural education experience vividly illuminates the socially and culturally constructed nature of race,…
Genc, Zubeyde Sinem; Armagan, Kiymet Selin
The aim of the study is to investigate gender-bound language use in Turkish and English languages and to identify the differences and similarities across cultures and genders in the plays with family and social themes. Four English and five Turkish plays were chosen randomly for comparison. The number of words in the plays were taken into…
Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric
Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we suggest that a fundamental issue has received insufficient exploration: the fact that in science, we don't just use math, we make meaning with it in a different way than mathematicians do. In this reflective essay, we explore math as a language and consider the language of math in physics through the lens of cognitive linguistics. We begin by offering a number of examples that show how the use of math in physics differs from the use of math as typically found in math classes. We then explore basic concepts in cognitive semantics to show how humans make meaning with language in general. The critical elements are the roles of embodied cognition and interpretation in context. Then, we show how a theoretical framework commonly used in physics education research, resources, is coherent with and extends the ideas of cognitive semantics by connecting embodiment to phenomenological primitives and contextual interpretation to the dynamics of meaning-making with conceptual resources, epistemological resources, and affect. We present these ideas with illustrative case studies of students working on physics problems with math and demonstrate the dynamical nature of student reasoning with math in physics. We conclude with some thoughts about the implications for instruction.
The marketing of education in South East Asia has become big business for Australian Universities. Physiotherapy programs are not exempt from this marketing push, with increases in foreign student enrollment becoming commonplace. This raises numerous opportunities and dilemmas for those involved in physiotherapy clinical education. This action research project investigated the influence of language and culture on clinical education practices. Nine South East Asian undergraduate physiotherapy students and 11 clinical instructors were involved in this qualitative research project. A variety of issues were identified which have important ramifications for academics and clinical instructors. Cultural membership, issues of authority and respect, and language proficiency were identified as having a direct influence on the clinical education process. Strategies for dealing with these cross cultural teaching and learning challenges are discussed.
Full Text Available Th e thesis which is undertaken in this article applies to a native language (the language of the family and home as the leading (primary value of creating a crosscultural identity. To justify this argument, the author refers to his own research and literature in this area. Th ere are many references to the theory of cultural relativism by Sapir-Whorf and the theory of core values by Jerzy Smolicz. Th e author demonstrates, notices, and highlights that the personal and group identity, analysed in terms of evolutionary (processual, based on the values which are recognised and respected in the family, are shaping and developing cross-cultural identity. Th e more we recognize, respect and accept your native (family and home identity, the more we are likely to make an eff ort to get to know the Other and his culture.
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts
Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.
Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.
Full Text Available This work is the result of an ended research about the Spanish foreign language teaching for specific purposes, that contains a proposal of theoretic methodological model based on interactive communicative tasks for speaking skills development in the students academic discourse, who are preparing as future professionals of Physical Culture. The model is derived of the dialectical materialistic interpretations of the interaction and the communication from diverse dimensions (philosophical, psychological, sociological, pedagogic and linguistic and it constitutes a theoretical contribution. In making of this work were used procedures and research techniques like oral records that facilitated to know the students' interlanguage and it was directed to check in what measure a correct use of the language was made. The contribution to Spanish's teaching as a foreign language for professional goals in the physical culture area, reflected in this work, precise the components of the teaching learning process and the teachers' and students' functions in an interactive process. It allows the students to express their ideas with correction and property making use of the scientific style and transactional functions of the language to be able to define, to describe, to argue, to synthesize, to narrate, to debate, among others. The making of a tasks program used in Spanish's teaching as foreign language, constitutes the practical contribution of the research carried out, as well as the application of the model in other courses of foreign languages for professional goals. The work in general sense is a professional experience directed to solve educational problems, particularly those related with the abilities of the Physical Culture professional of the country and the institution in question, where its results were applied during several courses.
Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez
Full Text Available The individual and social need to preserve and defend our mother tongue as part of a holistic culture, requires as an essential condition to learn about the responsibility for society as a whole and particularly for each speaking subject, which presupposes a language policy to disseminate whose essence is not there behind the doors of the Royal Academy of Language, voice of the rapid development of communication as a linguistic phenomenon par excellence. In this regard, this study focuses, with the certainty that in the hands of all is "to secure" the part that corresponds to each one.
The typology of Yiddish and the name Ashkenaz cannot serve as arguments to support the theory put forward by Das et al. (2016) (Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient Iranian lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol 8:1132-1149.) that the origin of Ashkenazic Jews can be located in ancient Iran. Yiddish is a Germanic, not a Slavic language. The history of the use of the term Ashkenaz from the Middle Ages onward is well documented. Ashkenazic Jewry is named for the Hebrew and Yiddish designation for Germany, originally a Biblical term. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of the “Speech technology integrated learning modules for Intercultural Dialogue” project. The project objective was to increase the availability and quality of e-learning opportunities for less widely-used and less taught European languages using a user-friendly and highly accessible learning environment. The integration of new Text-to-Speech developments into web-based authoring software for tutorial CALL had a double goal: on the one hand increase the accessibility of e-learning packages, also for learners having difficulty reading (e.g. dyslexic learners or preferring auditory learning; on the other hand exploiting some didactic possibilities of this technology.
IntroductionFood culture is the sum of human dietary behavior,conception,technology and its products.It shows human natural choiceand dietary way of life that is suited to special geographical environment and humane environment through common practice.Cultural differences between
Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean
Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212
Full Text Available Background: The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives: To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods: Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings: Two themes were identified:(I Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about.Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami.(II Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom.However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion: Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients.
Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis
Background The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (I) Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about. Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami. (II) Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom. However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients. PMID:25976741
L. M. Andryukhina
Full Text Available Introduction. High level of ecological culture in modern society is the most important condition of self-preservation and sustainable development of a human civilization. The processes of globalization force to consider environmental problems with a support on polycultural practice, to take into account national and regional peculiarities in their integrity. Thus, there is the need of the international cooperation not only at the government level, but also at the levels of expert communities, separate groups of society and citizens of the country. Moreover, ecological culture is constantly highlighted in numerous studies, materials and documents of the international forums, summits and conferences of the UN and UNESCO. The aim of this publication is to present the authors’ didactic complex of development tools of ecological culture of students, and to show the potential of teaching foreign languages (on the example of French for students’ ecological culture formation by means of development of cross-cultural communicative competence. Methodology and research methods. Culturological approach has been chosen as a key approach for creation of integrative model of development of ecological culture. The methods involve: the system-based analysis of the content of ecological education; generalization of the theory and practice of implementation of the international strategies of ecological culture development and the analysis of efficiency of the pedagogical technologies intended for this purpose; modeling of the process of formation of ecological culture of students. The diagnostics of components of students’ ecological culture has been performed by means of internal questioning, observation, and comparative analysis of group interactions. Also, pedagogical ascertaining experiments, methods of pedagogical design for forms of the educational environment organization, design of the educational programmes, and methods of graphical
Southwood, Frenette; Van Dulm, Ondene
South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children(monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African
Southwood, Frenette; van Dulm, Ondene
Background South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? Aims To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn: 71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). Results The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children (monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. Conclusion More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African
Full Text Available Literature is not generally considered as a coherent branch of the curriculum in relation to language – development in either mother tongue or foreign language – teaching. As teachers of English in Multi cultural Indian class rooms we come across students with varying degree of competence in English language learning. Though, language learning is a natural process for natives but the Students of other languages put in colossal efforts to learn it. Despite their sincere efforts they face challenges regarding Pronunciation, Spelling and Vocabulary. The Indian class rooms are a microcosm of the larger society, so teaching English language in a manner which equips the students to face the cut-throat competition has become a necessity and a challenge for English language Teachers. English today has become the key determinant for getting success in their career. The hackneyed and stereotypical methods of teaching are not acceptable now. Teachers have no longer remained arbitrary dispensers of knowledge but they are playing the role of a guide and facilitator for the students. Teachers of English are using innovative ideas to make English language teaching and learning interesting and simple. Teachers have started using the literary texts and their analysis to explore and ignite the imagination and creative skills of the students. One needs to think and rethink the contribution of literature to intelligent thinking as well as its role in the process of teaching – learning. My paper would, therefore, be an attempt at exploring the nature of the literary experience in the present day class rooms; and the broader role of literature in life.
Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.
A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…
Irina Ivanovna Skachkova
Full Text Available In the context of globalization and increasing international cooperation in different spheres of life the issue of national security and economic prosperity of nations is becoming increasingly urgent.Purpose: Consideration of sociolinguistic and cultural characteristics of the functioning of foreign languages in a multinational state, the example of the United States.Methodology: We used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: It is concluded that foreign languages in a multinational state, such as the U.S., are studied through active actions of government, public and educational institutions, and the main purpose of language learning is to maintain national security and economic competitiveness in the international arena.Practical implications: The results of the work may be used both in linguistic theory, and sociolinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-51
Mackey, William F.
Second-language and native-language methodologies are equally inappropriate as a foundation for the language training of cultural minorities. Second-language methodologies are based on the assumption that the language is to be acquired in school, as either a subject or a school activity. The relationship between teaching and learning is taken for…
If sexism, inherent in the fabric of the culture of human society, produced sexist language, then sexist language no doubt helps reinforce and teach sexism to the users of that language. Language feeds back the sexism, sexism feeds back through language. Treating symptoms of disease alone will not eliminate the disease, but may help, while…
Full Text Available Along with the increasing pace of globalization, recent decades faced a dramatically increase in international migrant flows as well. Compared to the flows of trade, capital and knowledge, we observe that contemporaneous complex institutional differences, historical backgrounds, and individuals' diverse socio-demographic characteristics make the migrant workers' choice of destination arguably much more uncontrollable. This study shows that migration is in a complex way intertwined with culture, networks and language, (i by reviewing related studies on the barriers of culture, networks and language in international labor mobility, and (ii by exploring missing gaps and prospective avenues for research. Nowadays, the migration pressure on Europe and the United states has created substantial challenges, leading to an urgent need to address the economic assimilation and social integration of migrants. Against this background, we emphasize that these non-economic factors have played an increasingly critical role in shaping international migration and its future socio-economic consequences for destination countries.
Louise O. Vasvari
Full Text Available As the above title indicates, because of the publication schedule of Hungarian Cultural Studies this bibliography straddles 2014-2015, covering the period since the publication in the fall of 2014 of last year’s bibliography in this journal. Each year’s bibliography is supplemented by earlier items, which were only retrieved recently. Although this bibliography series can only concentrate on English-language items, occasional items of particular interest in other languages may be included. For a more extensive bibliography of Hungarian Studies from about 2000 to 2010, for which this is a continuing update, see Louise O. Vasvári, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. “Bibliography for Work in Hungarian Studies as Comparative Central European Studies.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library (2011: http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/clcweblibrary/hungarianstudiesbibliography.
Robert K. Logan
Full Text Available Logan  in his book The Extended Mind developed the hypothesis that language, culture, technology and science can be treated as organisms that evolve and reproduce themselves. This idea is extended by making use of the notion of teleodynamics that Deacon  introduced and developed in his book Incomplete Nature to explain the nature of life, sentience, mind and a self that acts in its own interest. It is suggested that language, culture, technology and science (LCT&S like living organisms also act in their own self-interest, are self-correcting and are to a certain degree autonomous even though they are obligate symbionts with their human hosts. Specifically, it will be argued that LCT&S are essentially teleodynamic systems, which Deacon defines as “self-creating, self-maintaining, self-reproducing, individuated systems  (p. 325”.
Williams, Joanna L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.
In this article, we explore how researchers can more fully consider and conceptualize the role of race and ethnicity in studies of youth development programs, with an emphasis on positive youth development (PYD). Such a focus can be integrated in a more meaningful way through the application of a theoretical model that provides a framework for…
Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L
We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.
Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Stenner, A. J.
The self-conscious awareness of language and its use is arguably nowhere more intense than in metrology. The careful and deliberate coordination and alignment of shared metrological frames of reference for theory, experiment, and practical application have been characteristics of scientific culture at least since the origins of the SI units in revolutionary France. Though close attention has been focused on the logical and analytical aspects of language use in science, little concern has been shown for understanding how the social and historical aspects of everyday language may have foreshadowed and influenced the development and character of metrological language, especially relative to the inevitably partial knowledge possessed by any given stakeholder participating in the scientific enterprise. Insight in this regard may be helpful in discerning how and if an analogous role for metrology might be created in psychology and the social sciences. It may be that the success of psychology as a science will depend less on taking physics as the relevant model than on attending to the interplay of concepts, models, and social organization that make any culture effective.
De Maesschalck, Stéphanie; Deveugele, Myriam; Willems, Sara
This study explores ethnic minority patients' expression of emotional cues and concerns in primary healthcare, and examines relationships with patient, provider and consultation attributes. 191 video-recorded consultations were analyzed using the VR-CoDES. Patients were interviewed before the consultation. Generalized Estimating Equations models (GEE) were used to test for associations. Psychosocial versus bio-medically oriented encounters contained significantly more cues (p≤0.05). Patients with poor versus good language proficiency expressed significantly less cues (p≤0.001). No significant correlations were found with patients' cultural values, patients' or physicians' gender or the presence of an interpreter. Female patients express more concerns (p≤0.05), female physicians have a higher number of concerns expressed by patients (p≤0.02). This study shows that independent of physician and diagnosis, patients' language proficiency has a more important impact on the number of cues expressed by the patient than cultural difference. Medical schools and Continuing Medical Education should focus on training programs for recognizing and handling linguistic barriers between physicians and patients. Patient education programs should encourage patients who experience language barriers to open up to physicians. In situations where language is a barrier, physicians and patients should be encouraged to use interpreters to enhance the expression of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The linguistic situations and conditions in Indonesia are quite complex by their own natures as more than seven hundred vernaculars with their various dialects from a great number of ethnic groups have been used as media of communication in the country. Accordingly, the success of English teaching in Indonesia cannot be freed from the studentsâ€™ cultural backgrounds, values, customs, and beliefs as well as the political standpoint of the government regarding this foreign language. English language teaching has then undergone more than four changes in its curriculum since the countryâ€™s independence and brought no significant impact upon the learning outcomes. This study reveals the substantial unconstructive influence of the studentsâ€™ cultures and the non-conducive language environment affecting their language acquisition. Other aspects related to the teachersâ€™ performance and class preparations equally contribute to the ineffective classroom interactions. This study offers some practical suggestions to cope with those problems.
Matt Tomlinson; Kāwika Tengan, Ty P.
‘Mana’, a term denoting spiritual power, is found in many Pacific Islands languages. In recent decades, the term has been taken up in New Age movements and online fantasy gaming. In this book, 16 contributors examine mana through ethnographic, linguistic, and historical lenses to understand its transformations in past and present. The authors consider a range of contexts including Indigenous sovereignty movements, Christian missions and Bible translations, the commodification of cultural heri...
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...
Is it a Practical Strategy of Foreign Language Teaching? Unpacking the Integrated Language and Culture Instruction (ILCI Method in its Application to Learning of German as a Foreign Language in Zimbabwe
Full Text Available It is without doubt, that most contemporary methods of language teaching are based on the Communicative language Teaching (CLT model. The principle that these methods share is that language can only be considered meaningful when it is not taught separately from its context, which is the context of the target language speakers. In other words, second and foreign language teachers are encouraged to pursue methods of instruction that seek to simultaneously improve not only the linguistic knowledge of the L2/foreign language learners (such as vocabulary and grammar but also their learning of the “appropriate” contextual meaning of this knowledge. To mention a few, these methods include the integrated content and language learning instruction (ICLI, theme based language instruction (TBI, Task based instruction (TBI and the integrated language and culture Instruction (ILCI. The last method of instruction which is the central subject of discussion in this study is not commonly addressed by most researchers despite its growing popularity in most foreign language teaching classrooms. It is mainly related to the theme based language instruction since it advocates for the teaching of language in tandem with topics in culture and civilisation and realises the importance of both culture (as content and language (as a medium of communication. This study unpacks this method, looking at its benefits and limitations when it comes to its application to the foreign language classroom. The major concern of this study therefore, is pedagogical implications of this method in actual foreign language teaching. To illustrate this, the study gives insights into learning of German in Zimbabwe, with the University of Zimbabwe as a close example. The underlying position in this study is that, while the integrated language and culture Instruction (ILCI method is a very attractive method on paper, there are a number of obstacles that can censor its practical application
Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T
Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Stephens, Julie L.
Explores the role of a course on Spanish cinema in an undergraduate, university-level curriculum in terms of its potential to acquaint students with significant cultural issues and to develop language skills. (Author/VWL)
The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.
Full Text Available Javanese cultural words are the linguistic units which are very specific to Javanese culture and society. This article aims at describing what Javanese cultural words that are found in the local newspapers, what they represent, and why they are used in the local newspapers in Central Java. Non-participant observation is used to present the data for analysis, continued with page-filing and note-taking techniques. Referential, reflective-introspective, and abductive inferential methods are used to analyze the data. The result indicates that the Javanese cultural words found in the local newspapers represent festivals, rituals, Javanese ways of life, social activities, actions, feelings, thoughts, behavior, and experiences. The words become the indicators that the journalists of the local newspapers in Cental Java have positive attitudes toward Javanese words. This becomes a model for language maintenance of Javanese. This implies that the words are stored in the long-term memory, that become mental image, which are used when needed by the user for communication. The existence of the concepts residing in the mind will make the Javanese language maintenance possible, which is supported by the attitudes of the Javanese.
Guadarrama, Irma N.
This paper describes a program that brings bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers from the United States to a Mexican ESL school to teach in the Tetiz (Yucatan, Mexico) field school and in exchange, learn Mayan language and culture. The theoretical base for the project is drawn from the work of major theorists in second language…
Davidson Devall, Kelly
The framework of perspective transformation (Mezirow, 1994) provides a rich context for the conceptualization of technology use in language and culture learning. Although others have focused on the processes of becoming interculturally competent (Taylor, 1994) and changing language structures (Foster, 1997), more exploration of how technology aids…
The study explores the complexities associated with graduate language instructors' NS/NNS identities and teaching of culture. Researchers, who work mainly in the English as a Second/Foreign Language field, have been discussing this divide and have examined the advantages and disadvantages each group brings to the profession, but not the influence…
This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…
Lee, Boh Young
This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…
This article explores how Confucius Institute teachers and U.S. students use language to index qualities of Chinese people and culture. The study draws on the model of "linguistic fact" to argue that students' and teachers' contextualized use of language occurs in relation to their different yet naturalized assumptions about a commonly…
Sacco, Steven J.
This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…
Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh
This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…
Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.
Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…
Tan, Kian Lam; Lim, Chen Kim
With the explosive growth of online information such as email messages, news articles, and scientific literature, many institutions and museums are converting their cultural collections from physical data to digital format. However, this conversion resulted in the issues of inconsistency and incompleteness. Besides, the usage of inaccurate keywords also resulted in short query problem. Most of the time, the inconsistency and incompleteness are caused by the aggregation fault in annotating a document itself while the short query problem is caused by naive user who has prior knowledge and experience in cultural heritage domain. In this paper, we presented an approach to solve the problem of inconsistency, incompleteness and short query by incorporating the Term Similarity Matrix into the Language Model. Our approach is tested on the Cultural Heritage in CLEF (CHiC) collection which consists of short queries and documents. The results show that the proposed approach is effective and has improved the accuracy in retrieval time.
Full Text Available Article discussed how native speakers of Indonesian observed Grice’s maxims. One hundred conversations contributed in live talk show from varied Indonesia television channels were analysed. The results show that Grice’s maxims are fulfilled in many conversations. Nevertheless, in other situations, two kinds of non-fulfilment of the maxims are observed. First, the speaker deliberately exploits a maxim, which is suitable to Grice’s theory. Second, the speaker fails to observe but does not exploit a maxim, which leads to some interpretations of the cultural patterns of the Indonesian language: communicative politeness, high context culture and the needs of harmony in communication that are considered as the manifesting of Indonesian culture.
Ebert, Kerry Danahy
Parent report is commonly used to assess language and attention in children for research and clinical purposes. It is therefore important to understand the convergent validity of parent-report tools in comparison to direct assessments of language and attention. In particular, cultural and linguistic background may influence this convergence. In this study a group of six- to eight-year old children (N = 110) completed direct assessments of language and attention and their parents reported on the same areas. Convergence between assessment types was explored using correlations. Possible influences of ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic) and of parent report language (English or Spanish) were explored using hierarchical linear regression. Correlations between parent report and direct child assessments were significant for both language and attention, suggesting convergence between assessment types. Ethnicity and parent report language did not moderate the relationships between direct child assessments and parent report tools for either attention or language.
Roberts, Gareth; Fedzechkina, Maryia
According to the competitive exclusion principle (Gause, 1934), competition for the same niche must eventually lead one competitor to extinction or the occupation of a new niche. This principle applies in both biology and the cultural evolution of language, where different words and structures compete for the same function or meaning (Aronoff, 2016). Across languages, for example, word order trades off with case marking as a means of indicating who did what to whom in a sentence. Previous experimental work has shed light on how such trade-offs come about as languages adapt to human biases through learning and production, with biases becoming amplified through iterated learning over generations. At the same time, a large body of work has documented the impact of social biases on language change. However, little work has investigated how social biases interact with learning and production biases. In particular, the social dimension of language may provide alternative niches for otherwise redundant forms, preventing or slowing their extinction. We tested this hypothesis in an iterated-learning experiment in which participants were exposed to a language with two dialects, both of which had fixed word order, but differed in whether they employed case markers. In one condition, we biased participants socially towards speakers of the dialect that employed case; in other conditions we provided no bias, or biased participants for or against the dialect without case. As expected under our hypothesis, the use of case markers declined over time in all conditions, but the social bias in favor of case-dialect speakers slowed the decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The cultural background in language teaching has, for a number of reasons, recently moved to the foreground. Broadly speaking, there has been a shift in emphasis in course design from a pre-occupation with form to an interest in content. This article describes the results of a survey designed to elicit the views of students on what language teaching should be about. 400 students learning English in Kish-Language Institute, Kashan branch were chosen as participants of the study based on their proficiency level (Starter, Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced in order to answer the questionnaire. Each question was designed in the form of a five point Likert Scale. The results were analysed using Binomial and MANOVA Tests. The obtained Results in this study indicate that except for Elementary level, other levels favoured bilingual/bicultural teacher. In relation to varieties of English, American English was liked most by Intermediate and Advanced students. All students had an overall positive attitude towards the native speaker pronunciation and finally the most favoured course contents were revealed to be science and social facts, students’ past experiences, English/American Literature along with culture of other countries.
Currie, Thomas E; Meade, Andrew; Guillon, Myrtille; Mace, Ruth
There is disagreement about the routes taken by populations speaking Bantu languages as they expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we build phylogenetic trees of Bantu languages and map them onto geographical space in order to assess the likely pathway of expansion and test between dispersal scenarios. The results clearly support a scenario in which groups first moved south through the rainforest from a homeland somewhere near the Nigeria-Cameroon border. Emerging on the south side of the rainforest, one branch moved south and west. Another branch moved towards the Great Lakes, eventually giving rise to the monophyletic clade of East Bantu languages that inhabit East and Southeastern Africa. These phylogenies also reveal information about more general processes involved in the diversification of human populations into distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Our study reveals that Bantu languages show a latitudinal gradient in covering greater areas with increasing distance from the equator. Analyses suggest that this pattern reflects a true ecological relationship rather than merely being an artefact of shared history. The study shows how a phylogeographic approach can address questions relating to the specific histories of certain groups, as well as general cultural evolutionary processes.
William Franklin Hanes
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n1p230 The medical literature consumed and produced by the Oswaldo Cruz Institute and the circulation of its personnel in foreign institutions from its beginnings in 1900 through the Vargas coup d’état in Brazil in 1930 testify to the complex, multilingual and international nature of scientific networking in and beyond the belle époque and challenge notions of behavior associated with colonial economic models. To explore the parameters of the Institute’s early organizational culture with respect to language, three of its publications from this period will be examined: a 1911 promotional booklet in German, which details the Institute’s journal holdings and the publications of its researchers; a 1929 English-language travelogue of leprosy treatment centers worldwide; and the journal Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1909-, which published articles in five languages during this period. The results indicate that the Institute’s flexible, avidly multilingual language policy, partially the result of Brazil’s peripheral, neutral political situation, led to a very strong multilateral position in the scientific community that provided both visibility and recognition as a full peer in the then-internationally emerging field of Tropical Medicine.
breeding was quickly understood. In vitro techniques for crop improvement first consisted of micropropagation and plant regeneration, and then in vitro methods were also found to be useful for eliminating disease and selecting for resistant cells or explants. In vitro selection using specific chemical compounds and pathogens is another useful aspect of tissue culture. More recently, in vitro techniques were combined to mutation induction for generating genetic variation, including novel disease resistant mutants. Mutation induction can be caused by chemical or physical mutagens that alter the structure of the DNA. Treatment of in vitro tissues with physical or chemical mutagens may increase the frequency of genetic variation considerably. The physical mutagens most commonly used are X-rays, gamma rays and UV light, whereas Ethyl Methane- Sulphonate (EMS) is the chemical mutagen most used in crop improvement. Irradiation treatments may be a suitable choice of mutagen for a number of reasons because the application is fast and, in contrast to chemical mutagens, there is no risk that residues remain in the medium. In this research we are going to determine the resistant cells, which will come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants by using races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis culture filtrates in vitro conditions. If we will get successful results by this method we will be able to develop new melon cultivars, which will be resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. The present work was performed with in vitro plantlets obtained from seeds of melon cv. Yuva which is an important commercial cultivar in Turkey. According to our observations filtrate and gamma ray treatment have an important effect on tolerant plantlet and callus formation. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of
Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.
The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759
Ardal, Frida; Sulman, Joanne; Fuller-Thomson, Esme
(1) To explore the experience of non-English-speaking mothers with preterm, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (,1,500 g); and (2) to examine mothers' assessment of a peer support program matching them with linguistically and culturally similar parent-buddies. An exploratory, qualitative analysis based on grounded theory. A convenience sample of eight mothers from four of the most prevalent non-English-speaking cultures (Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Tamil) in an urban Canadian-teaching hospital. Non-Anglophone mothers' experience and support in the NICU. Study mothers experienced intense role disequilibrium during the unanticipated crisis of preterm birth of a VLBW infant; situational crises owing to the high-tech NI CU environment and their infant's condition; and developmental crises with feelings of loss, guilt, helplessness, and anxiety. Language barriers compounded the difficulties. Parent-buddies helped non-English-speaking mothers mobilize their strengths. Culture and language are important determinants of service satisfaction for non-English-speaking mothers. Linguistically congruent parent-to-parent matching increases access to service.
Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse
The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (pfamily caused by children's oral conditions. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.
Fong, Chan Suet; DeWitt, Dorothy; Leng, Chin Hai
Language cannot be taught outside the culture of the society. A foreign language learner needs to learn the context and the cultural elements to avoid conflicts and misunderstanding arising from differing values, beliefs, and customs. Hence, foreign language instruction needs to emphasise intercultural communicative competence and include cultural…
Bloche, M Gregg
Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.
Chin, Nancy P.; Cuculick, Jess; Starr, Matthew; Panko, Tiffany; Widanka, Holly; Dozier, Ann
Background Deaf mothers who use American Sign Language (ASL) consider themselves a linguistic minority group, with specific cultural practices. Rarely has this group been engaged in infant-feeding research. Objectives To understand how ASL-using Deaf mothers learn about infant feeding and to identify their breastfeeding challenges. Methods Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach we conducted four focus groups with Deaf mothers who had at least one child 0–5 years. A script was developed using a social ecological model (SEM) to capture multiple levels of influence. All groups were conducted in ASL, filmed, and transcribed into English. Deaf and hearing researchers analyzed data by coding themes within each SEM level. Results Fifteen mothers participated. All had initiated breastfeeding with their most recent child. Breastfeeding duration for eight of the mothers was three weeks to 12 months. Seven of the mothers were still breastfeeding, the longest for 19 months. Those mothers who breastfed longer described a supportive social environment and the ability to surmount challenges. Participants described characteristics of Deaf culture such as direct communication, sharing information, use of technologies, language access through interpreters and ASL-using providers, and strong self-advocacy skills. Finally, mothers used the sign ‘struggle’ to describe their breastfeeding experience. The sign implies a sustained effort over time which leads to success. Conclusions In a setting with a large population of Deaf women and ASL-using providers, we identified several aspects of Deaf culture and language which support BF mothers across institutional, community, and interpersonal levels of the SEM. PMID:23492762
Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo
Despite the important use of pop culture in many instructional settings, its use in the heritage language (HL) classroom remains largely unexplored. Thus, this article reports findings from classroom-based qualitative research that examined the use and role of pop culture in advanced Korean HL learners' literacy engagement and identity…
This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…
Baudot, Alain; And Others
These papers, given at five general sessions and fifteen workshops, discuss the relationship between cultural identity and the French language in the Americas, and deal with the following topics: (1) French speech in Canada; (2) anthropology and cultural identity; (3) translation; (4) French in Ontario and New England; (5) sociology; (6)…
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
Existing research indicates that there is a disproportionate number of students with cultural and linguistic differences, English Language Learners (ELL), who are misidentified as learning disabled when their problems are due to cultural and/or linguistic differences. As a consequence, these students do not receive appropriate services. With the…
Guided by symbolic interactionism and cultural historical activity theory this study investigated how four bilingual Latina/o pre-service teachers use language (Spanish and English) and culture, defined as social practices, as instructional resources in mathematics. The setting of the study was an after-school bilingual mathematics program, namely…
Full Text Available Communication and socialization skills are a necessity in contemporary business community. If business professionals are not able to express their ideas clearly, concisely, and appropriately, it will be challenging for them to close international business deals and agreements. In this context, bilateral trade and economic relations between Kazakhstan and other countries have been growing steadily over the past years. This paper focuses on the first language influences that may lead to communication breakdown and cross-cultural pragmatic failure as seen in the corpora of 200 business letters written in English by Kazakhstani business professionals to their international partners.
Full Text Available This paper will describe the results of analyses carried out on multilingual chat sessions that took place in the context of LITERALIA, a 24-months long project funded by the European Union’s Grundtvig initiative to support: “Learning In Tandem to Encourage Reciprocal Autonomous Learning In Adults - LITERALIA”. An online workspace was created for the project that allowed learners to communicate with others in four different countries and to enhance their linguistic and cultural competence in four European languages: English, German, Italian, and Polish. Participation in the chat was voluntary and took place in an integrated Moodle workspace.
Full Text Available Analysis of 119 English-language cookbooks (1890-1997 published in or having to do with the Caribbean. This study of the history of cookbooks indicates what it means to be Caribbean or to identify with some smaller territory or grouping and how this meaning has changed in response to social and political developments. Concludes that cookbook-writers have not been successful in creating a single account of the Caribbean past or a single, unitary definition of Caribbean cuisine or culture.
Robert K. Logan
Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.
Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo
Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…
Lucía Ramallo Cuesta
This article proposes solutions to put theory into practice in the classroom of Spanish as a foreign language. Key words: interculturality, intercultural skill, social consciousness, cultural shock, foreign language acquisition
Almutairi, Khalid M
To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory's criteria. The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available The paper presents results from language testing of 70 Roma children from Bulgaria - pupils of grade 1, studying in one of the biggest Roma settlement’s schools in Sofia, “Fakulteta” district. The children were tested using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. The test measures language comprehension and language production of the children at the beginning and end of the school year. Between the first and second testing, the teaching methodology in instruction for the children was changed - a Roma assistant teacher whose task was to use the mother tongue of the children as a communicative tool was introduced to the classes. The results of the children during the second testing were substantially better and they are discussed in the light of the theory of the American anthropologist J. Ogbu, who developed his cultural-ecological theory (CE in the 1980s. The results of the children are analyzed via dispersion analysis using ANOVA. According to Ogbu’s CE theory, the school success of minority children depends on the attitudes of the society at large and the level of community support. The paper also briefly discusses the reason why the de-segregation of the Roma children and their integration into mainstream schools in Bulgaria has largely proved to be a failure.
Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Lindau, Tâmara de Andrade; Gillam, Ronald Bradley; Giacheti, Célia Maria
To accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation of the Test of Narrative Language (TNL) into Brazilian Portuguese. The TNL is a formal instrument which assesses narrative comprehension and oral narration of children between the ages of 5-0 and 11-11 (years-months). The TNL translation and adaptation process had the following steps: (1) translation into the target language; (2) summary of the translated versions; (3) back-translation; (4) checking of the conceptual, semantics and cultural equivalence process and (5) pilot study (56 children within the test age range and from both genders). The adapted version maintained the same structure as the original version: number of tasks (both, three comprehension and oral narration), narrative formats (no picture, sequenced pictures and single picture) and scoring system. There were no adjustments to the pictures. The "McDonald's Story" was replaced by the "Snack Bar History" to meet the semantic and experiential equivalence of the target population. The other stories had semantic and grammatical adjustments. Statistically significant difference was found when comparing the raw score (comprehension, narration and total) of age groups from the adapted version. Adjustments were required to meet the equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The adapted version showed it has the potential to identify differences in oral narratives of children in the age range provided by the test. Measurement equivalence for validation and test standardization are in progress and will be able to supplement the study outcomes.
One dimension of early Canadian education is the attempt of the government to use the education system as an assimilative tool to integrate the First Nations and Me´tis people into Euro-Canadian society. Despite these attempts, many First Nations and Me´tis people retained their culture and their indigenous language. Few science educators have examined First Nations and Western scientific worldviews and the impact they may have on science learning. This study explored the views some First Nations (Cree) and Euro-Canadian Grade-7-level students in Manitoba had about the nature of science. Both qualitative (open-ended questions and interviews) and quantitative (a Likert-scale questionnaire) instruments were used to explore student views. A central hypothesis to this research programme is the possibility that the different world-views of two student populations, Cree and Euro-Canadian, are likely to influence their perceptions of science. This preliminary study explored a range of methodologies to probe the perceptions of the nature of science in these two student populations. It was found that the two cultural groups differed significantly between some of the tenets in a Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Cree students significantly differed from Euro-Canadian students on the developmental, testable and unified tenets of the nature of scientific knowledge scale. No significant differences were found in NSKS scores between language groups (Cree students who speak English in the home and those who speak English and Cree or Cree only). The differences found between language groups were primarily in the open-ended questions where preformulated responses were absent. Interviews about critical incidents provided more detailed accounts of the Cree students' perception of the nature of science. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed in relation to the challenges related to research methodology, further areas for investigation, science
Full Text Available Culture and language are connected in a myriad ways. Proverbs, rules of turn-taking in conversations, pronouns of power and solidarity, background knowledge to the understanding of conversations, politeness, linguistic relativity, the principle of cooperation, metaphor, metonymy, context, semantic change, discourse, ideology, print culture, oral culture, literacy, sociolinguistics, speech acts, and so forth, are just some of the concepts in which we find obvious connections between culture and language. Several disciplines within the language sciences attempt to analyze, describe, and explain the complex interrelations between the two broad areas. (For a brief and clear survey, see Kramsch 1998. Can we approach this vast variety of topics from a more unified perspective than it is traditionally done and currently available? The present paper focus on such possibilities.A cultura e a língua estão conectadas numa miríade de formas. Provérbios, regras de tomada de turnos na conversação, pronomes indicativos de poder e solidariedade, conhecimento prévio para o entendimento de conversas, polidez, relativismo linguístico, o princípio a cooperação, metáforas, metonímias, contexto, mudança semântica, discurso, ideologia, cultura impressa, cultura oral, letramento, sociolinguística, atos de fala, além de outros, são apenas alguns dos conceitos nos quais encontramos conexões óbvias entre cultura e língua. Várias disciplinas das ciências linguísticas tentam analisar, descrever e explicar as interrelações complexas entre estas duas grandes áreas. (Para uma revisão breve e clara, consultar Kramsch 1998. Será que podemos abordar esta vasta variedade de tópicos de uma perspectiva mais unificada do que tem sido tradicionalmente feito e está geralmente disponível? O presente artigo enfoca tais possibilidades.
There is a strong claim that culture learning affects students' linguistic ability positively in foreign language learning. Others claim that culture can be used as an instrument in the process of communication. This study hopes to expand previous understandings by analyzing the attitudes of Turkish students studying at the department of English Language and Literature towards cultural aspects in language teaching and learning. The data were collected through a Likert type questionnaire ...
Lechuga, Julia; Wiebe, John S
The highly influential theory of planned behavior suggests that norms and attitudes predict an important antecedent of behavior: intention. Cross-cultural research suggests that culturally influenced self-construals can be primed and differentially affect behaviors that are influenced by norms and attitudes. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (1) To investigate whether language functions as a prime for culture in Hispanics, and (2) if so, if norms and attitudes differentially predict condom use intention. Fluent English-Spanish bilingual participants (N = 145) of Mexican descent were randomly assigned to answer questionnaires in English and Spanish. Subjective norms and private evaluations towards condom use were assessed and their relative strength in predicting condom use intention was evaluated. Results suggest that language can prime culture and affect the relative accessibility of culture-relevant norms and self-construals in Hispanics. Moreover, consistent with our expectations, norms and attitudes differentially predicted condom use intention.
Pals Svendsen, Lisbet; Mondahl, Margrethe; Faizi, Ahmad Zaki
Foreign language and culture learning suffers from a bad image in Danish Upper Secondary schools and German is not an exception. It means that the majority of Danish Upper Secondary school students are not particularly interested in learning the language. Therefore, intrinsic motivation plays...... which was conducted on the basis of semi-structured focus group interviews with n=50 high school students and n=2 high school teachers shows that the ICT tools Photostory, MovieMaker and Voki indeed have an influence on students’ perceived intrinsic motivation in connection with German language...... a pivotal role in German language and culture learning in Denmark. One didactic initiative proposed to remedy the lack of intrinsic motivation is the introduction of various ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools. This is the background for the research described in this article. Our study...
Andrulis, Dennis P.; Duchon, Lisa M.; Reidj, Hailey M.
This report profiles the 2000 status of and changes (since 1990) in rates of health and health-related measures for racially and culturally diverse populations living in the 100 largest U.S. cities and their suburbs. Data came from the U.S. Census Bureau and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to identify patterns in race/ethnicity, foreign…
Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas
Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain the requirements that forged the School Culture around the vernacular language teaching in the Brazilian secondary education through historical analysis of the process of constitution of the Portuguese course, which begins with the imposition of the Portuguese language as the national mother tongue – 1759 – until the beginning of the school democratization process that will modify it significantly – 1960. We will see that the birth of the subject is linked to the formation of the Brazilian nation and the nationalist sentiment, which will reverberate in the way of seeing and thinking vernacular language teaching until today.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation of cross-cultural competence of foreign students in the process of learning Ukrainian as a foreign language. Theoretical and pragmatic ways of intercultural communication methods for speakers of a foreign language in four types of speech activity have been substantiated. There have been determined linguistic and didactic principles of learning the Ukrainian language as a foreign language using authorial technology of interaction of different approaches that promotes the development of effective cross-cultural competence of foreign students. The main components of the innovative technology of work with foreign language audience have been characterized; a system of tasks and exercises aimed at mastering linguistic, socio-cultural and pragmatic competences has been set. There have been determined linguistic and methodical problems of comparative methodology, which authoring technology LTIRP with the usage of authentic texts is based on. Traditional and new forms, methods and techniques of teaching foreign students in the process of formation of cross-cultural competence have been considered.
Caminha, Guilherme Pilla; Melo Junior, José Tavares de; Hopkins, Claire; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes
Rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of high medical costs. It has been proven to have an impact on the quality of life through generic health-related quality of life assessments. However, generic instruments may not be able to factor in the effects of interventions and treatments. SNOT-22 is a major disease-specific instrument to assess quality of life for patients with rhinosinusitis. Nevertheless, there is still no validated SNOT-22 version in our country. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Brazilian Portuguese and assessment of its psychometric properties. The Brazilian version of the SNOT-22 was developed according to international guidelines and was broken down into nine stages: 1) Preparation 2) Translation 3) Reconciliation 4) Back-translation 5) Comparison 6) Evaluation by the author of the SNOT-22 7) Revision by committee of experts 8) Cognitive debriefing 9) Final version. Second phase: prospective study consisting of a verification of the psychometric properties, by analyzing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Cultural adaptation showed adequate understanding, acceptability and psychometric properties. We followed the recommended steps for the cultural adaptation of the SNOT-22 into Portuguese language, producing a tool for the assessment of patients with sinonasal disorders of clinical importance and for scientific studies.
Full Text Available The role of language and culture in rural development projects is investigated. Examples taken from the context of Northern Iran, the significance of which is not confined to its agricultural and forestry resources and extends beyond national borders, are presented. A starting point of the analysis is an appreciation of diversity, not only in the biological, but also in the cultural sense, as an asset and viewing development endeavors as sense making acts. It is further argued that new intangible forms of capital are increasingly gaining in importance in the contemporary world. Capital is considered not merely as an asset, but as a relation having accumulation moment as well, and impact on the regeneration of cultural and economic divides. A central concern is enhancing social inclusion and promoting conditions for making voices of otherness heard. It is deemed that vernacular voices encompass valuable indigenous knowledge and modes of perception, the negligence of which can undermine the success of rural development projects.
Quinteros-Reyes, C; Marcionelli-Sandhaus, T; Mayta-Tristán, P
In order to reduce salt consumption in Spanish speaking countries it is necessary to know the level of salt knowledge in the population. However, there are no tools in Spanish to measure salt knowledge, but the only valid tool of measurement is the 'Salt Knowledge Questionnaire' (SKQ) developed in Australia, in English. A validation study was conducted in three phases: (Phase1) Translation of the original Australian version into Spanish; (Phase2) Cultural adaptation based on a Spanish-speaking population such as Peru and following criteria used in the development of the original questionnaire which was evaluated by a panel of experts; (Phase3) Construct validity by comparing the scores of three groups (experts, medical students and non-experts) and reliability by performing a test retest. The translation of the SKQ into Spanish maintained a semantic equivalence with the original questionnaire and a panel of experts accepted the cultural adaptation. The SKQ enables discrimination between those who know and those who do not because differences of scores were found between the group of experts, students and non-experts (P.05). The SKQ questionnaire in Spanish is valid, reliable and is a suitable first tool to measure knowledge about salt in the Spanish language. It is considered possible to adapt it culturally to the Spanish-speaking country that wishes to use it. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.
Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri
Full Text Available Hobbes' education in the literary culture of English Renaissance humanism has been overlooked as an important tradition in understanding his position in Early Modern Philosophy. Against the traditional readings of Hobbes' conception of language as a sequel to Medieval nominalism, I will argue that Hobbes' education in the literary culture of Renaissance humanism and his subsequent developments in this tradition would have allowed him to consider philosophical problems raised by new science in an original way and, thus, to introduce his innovative conception of language as the core of his solution to the problem of social and natural orders.
Childs, David Jason
Imagery and sounds from television, film, music, the Internet, and other media bombard American youth; dictating to them how they should act, think, or what they should believe. They often do not realize that they find much of their identity and belief systems in messages put forth to them by popular culture (Du Gay 1997; Hall 1997). Young people…