WorldWideScience

Sample records for rabota komplexa phedex

  1. PhEDEx Data Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-01-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the 'SiteDB' service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  2. The PHEDEx next-gen website

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    PhEDEx is the data-transfer management solution written by CMS. It consists of agents running at each site, a website for presentation of information, and a web-based data-service for scripted access to information. The website allows users to monitor the progress of data-transfers, the status of site agents and links between sites, and the overall status and behaviour of everything about PhEDEx. It also allows uses to make and approve requests for data-transfers and for deletion of data. It is the main point-of-entry for all users wishing to interact with PhEDEx. For several years, the website has consisted of a single perl program with about 10K SLOC. This program has limited capabilities for exploring the data, with only coarse filtering capabilities and no context-sensitive awareness. Graphical information is presented as static images, generated on the server, with no interactivity. It is also not well connected to the rest of the PhEDEx codebase, since much of it was written before the data-service wa...

  3. Request for All - Generalized Request Framework for PhEDEx

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, C-H; Ratnikova, N.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Zhang, X.; Magini, N.

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx has been serving CMS community since 2004 as the data broker. Every PhEDEx operation is initiated by a request, such as request to move data, request to delete data, and so on. A request has it own life cycle, including creation, approval, notification, and book keeping and the details depend on its type. Currently, only two kinds of requests, transfer and deletion, are fully integrated in PhEDEx. They are tailored specifically to the operations workflows. To be able to serve a new type of request it generally means a fair amount of development work.After several years of operation, we have gathered enough experience to rethink the request handling in PhEDEx. Generalized Request Project is set to abstract such experience and come up with a request system which is not tied into current workflow yet it is general enough to accommodate current and future requests.The challenges are dealing with different stages in a requests life cycle, complexity of approval process and complexity of the ability and auth...

  4. The PhEDEx next-gen website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, R; Sundarrajan, P; Huang, C-H; Rossman, P; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    PhEDEx is the data-transfer management solution written by CMS. It consists of agents running at each site, a website for presentation of information, and a web-based data-service for scripted access to information. The website allows users to monitor the progress of data-transfers, the status of site agents and links between sites, and the overall status and behaviour of everything about PhEDEx. It also allows users to make and approve requests for data-transfers and for deletion of data. It is the main point-of-entry for all users wishing to interact with PhEDEx. For several years, the website has consisted of a single perl program with about 10K SLOC. This program has limited capabilities for exploring the data, with only coarse filtering capabilities and no context-sensitive awareness. Graphical information is presented as static images, generated on the server, with no interactivity. It is also not well connected to the rest of the PhEDEx codebase, since much of it was written before the data-service was developed. All this makes it hard to maintain and extend. We are re-implementing the website to address these issues. The UI is being rewritten in Javascript, replacing most of the server-side code. We are using the YUI toolkit to provide advanced features and context-sensitive interaction, and will adopt a Javascript charting library for generating graphical representations client-side. This relieves the server of much of its load, and automatically improves server-side security. The Javascript components can be re-used in many ways, allowing custom pages to be developed for specific uses. In particular, standalone test-cases using small numbers of components make it easier to debug the Javascript than it is to debug a large server program. Information about PhEDEx is accessed through the PhEDEx data-service, since direct SQL is not available from the clients’ browser. This provides consistent semantics with other, externally written monitoring tools, which

  5. Re-designing the PhEDEx security model

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    PhEDEx. the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model was designed to provide a safe working environment for site agents and operators, but provided little more protection than that. CMS data was not sufficiently protected against accidental loss caused by operator error or software bugs or from loss of data caused by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operations staff were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what should have been needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time.In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and r...

  6. Re-designing the PhEDEx Security Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-H, Huang; Wildish, T.; X, Zhang

    2014-06-01

    PhEDEx, the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model provided a safe environment for site agents and operators, but offerred little more protection than that. Data was not sufficiently protected against loss caused by operator error or software bugs or by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operators were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what was actually needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time. In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and re-implemented. Security was moved from the application layer into the database itself, fine-grained access roles were established, and tools and procedures created to control the evolution of the security model over time. In this paper we describe this work, we describe the deployment of the new security model, and we show how these enhancements improve security on several fronts simultaneously.

  7. Re-designing the PhEDEx security model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang C-H; Wildish, T; Zhang X

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx, the data-placement tool used by the CMS experiment at the LHC, was conceived in a more trusting time. The security model provided a safe environment for site agents and operators, but offerred little more protection than that. Data was not sufficiently protected against loss caused by operator error or software bugs or by deliberate manipulation of the database. Operators were given high levels of access to the database, beyond what was actually needed to accomplish their tasks. This exposed them to the risk of suspicion should an incident occur. Multiple implementations of the security model led to difficulties maintaining code, which can lead to degredation of security over time. In order to meet the simultaneous goals of protecting CMS data, protecting the operators from undue exposure to risk, increasing monitoring capabilities and improving maintainability of the security model, the PhEDEx security model was redesigned and re-implemented. Security was moved from the application layer into the database itself, fine-grained access roles were established, and tools and procedures created to control the evolution of the security model over time. In this paper we describe this work, we describe the deployment of the new security model, and we show how these enhancements improve security on several fronts simultaneously.

  8. Integration and validation testing for PhEDEx, DBS and DAS with the PhEDEx LifeCycle agent

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data handled by the CMS dataflow and workflow management tools poses new challenges for cross-validation among different systems within CMS experiment at LHC. To approach this problem we developed an integration test suite based on the LifeCycle agent, a tool originally conceived for stress-testing new releases of PhEDEx, the CMS data-placement tool. The LifeCycle agent provides a framework for customising the test workflow in arbitrary ways, and can scale to levels of activity well beyond those seen in normal running. This means we can run realistic performance tests at scales not likely to be seen by the experiment for some years, or with custom topologies to examine particular situations that may cause concern some time in the future.The LifeCycle agent has recently been enhanced to become a general purpose integration and validation testing tool for major CMS services (PhEDEx, DBS, DAS). It allows cross-system integration tests of all three components to be performed in contr...

  9. Integration and validation testing for PhEDEx, DBS and DAS with the PhEDEx LifeCycle agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeser, C.; Chwalek, T.; Giffels, M.; Kuznetsov, V.; Wildish, T.

    2014-06-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data handled by the CMS dataflow and workflow management tools poses new challenges for cross-validation among different systems within CMS experiment at LHC. To approach this problem we developed an integration test suite based on the LifeCycle agent, a tool originally conceived for stress-testing new releases of PhEDEx, the CMS data-placement tool. The LifeCycle agent provides a framework for customising the test workflow in arbitrary ways, and can scale to levels of activity well beyond those seen in normal running. This means we can run realistic performance tests at scales not likely to be seen by the experiment for some years, or with custom topologies to examine particular situations that may cause concern some time in the future. The LifeCycle agent has recently been enhanced to become a general purpose integration and validation testing tool for major CMS services. It allows cross-system integration tests of all three components to be performed in controlled environments, without interfering with production services. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of the LifeCycle agent. We describe how it is used for small-scale debugging and validation tests, and how we extend that to large-scale tests of whole groups of sub-systems. We show how the LifeCycle agent can emulate the action of operators, physicists, or software agents external to the system under test, and how it can be scaled to large and complex systems.

  10. Integration and validation testing for PhEDEx, DBS and DAS with the PhEDEx LifeCycle agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeser, C; Chwalek, T; Giffels, M; Kuznetsov, V; Wildish, T

    2014-01-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data handled by the CMS dataflow and workflow management tools poses new challenges for cross-validation among different systems within CMS experiment at LHC. To approach this problem we developed an integration test suite based on the LifeCycle agent, a tool originally conceived for stress-testing new releases of PhEDEx, the CMS data-placement tool. The LifeCycle agent provides a framework for customising the test workflow in arbitrary ways, and can scale to levels of activity well beyond those seen in normal running. This means we can run realistic performance tests at scales not likely to be seen by the experiment for some years, or with custom topologies to examine particular situations that may cause concern some time in the future. The LifeCycle agent has recently been enhanced to become a general purpose integration and validation testing tool for major CMS services. It allows cross-system integration tests of all three components to be performed in controlled environments, without interfering with production services. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of the LifeCycle agent. We describe how it is used for small-scale debugging and validation tests, and how we extend that to large-scale tests of whole groups of sub-systems. We show how the LifeCycle agent can emulate the action of operators, physicists, or software agents external to the system under test, and how it can be scaled to large and complex systems.

  11. From toolkit to framework: The past and future evolution of PhEDEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN; Egeland, R. [Argosy U., Eagan; Huang, C. H. [Fermilab; Ratnikova, N. [Moscow, ITEP; Magini, N. [CERN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2012-01-01

    PhEDEx is the data-movement solution for CMS at the LHC. Created in 2004, it is now one of the longest-lived components of the CMS dataflow/workflow world. As such, it has undergone significant evolution over time, and continues to evolve today, despite being a fully mature system. Originally a toolkit of agents and utilities dedicated to specific tasks, it is becoming a more open framework that can be used in several ways, both within and beyond its original problem domain. In this talk we describe how a combination of refactoring and adoption of new technologies that have become available over the years have made PhEDEx more flexible, maintainable, and scaleable.

  12. Kritisk självreflektion i komplexa frågor: Att hjälpa studenterna att ta makten över sitt tänkande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wolrath Söderberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Den här artikeln handlar om studenters kritiska självreflektion. Utgångspunkten är att de former av kritiskt tänkande som vi traditionellt odlar inom högskolan är otillräckliga när det gäller vår tids kritiska frågor, som exempelvis klimatfrågan. När det rör sig om komplexa och värdeladdade frågor där många perspektiv kan vara giltiga har vi att förhålla oss till olika mänskliga mekanismer som på olika vis hindrar oss från att tänka och agera klokt, exempelvis polarisering, bekräftelsebias, glapp mellan tanke och handling och olika former av legitimeringsstrategier för att låta blir att ta ansvar. Här diskuteras sådana hinder och hur vi kan förhålla oss till dem i högre utbildning.

  13. Komplexitet för kvalitet i lärande och undervisning: bedömning av komplexa problem och studenters resonemang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kjellström

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vi utbildar studenter för att de ska ha möjlighet att lösa mycket komplexa samhällsproblem,men hur vet vi att de har utvecklat de former av tänkande och handlande som krävs? Forskning visar att vuxna tänker, talar och handlar utifrån olika nivåer av komplexitet, och att utbildning i hög grad påverkar människors förmågor. Model of Hierarchical Complexity(MHC är en teori som beskriver hur komplext information sätts samman och hur komplext personer resonerar i en fråga, vanligtvis på någon av nivåerna konkret, abstrakt, formellt, systematiskt eller metasystematisk. Syftet med denna artikel är att introducera MHC och visa på dess relevans som verktyg inom högre utbildning. Med hjälp av teorin är det möjligt att analysera både hur komplex en uppgift är och hur studenter klarar av att lösa den, vilket speglar förståelse inom ett ämne. Med modellen som mått på komplexitet tydliggörs svårighetsgraden i det som ska läras och på vilken nivå studenterna klarar att ta till sig kunskapsinnehållet. Avslutningsvis diskuteras hur studenter kan stödjas att utvecklasina förmågor till komplext resonerande och därmed skapa kvalitet i både lärande och undervisningOne of the aims of higher education is to teach students to solve complex problems, but what is the complexity of problems and the reasoning of students? The Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC is a theory applicable to all domains in which information is organized and accounts for increases in behavioral complexity which includes cognitive or reasoning complexity. The paper is a theoretical introduction to MHC as a tool for teaching in higher education. The model clarifies and shows the gap between the complexity in the subject and the students understanding of the same subject. We also discuss how to support the development of more complex reasoning in students.

  14. Rutshnaja rabota dlja nog / Ele Praks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Praks, Ele

    2006-01-01

    Uusimaid trende põrandatekstiilides ja vaibakunstis. Argentiina disaineri Alfredo Häberli (šveitsi tehas Ruckstuhl) tõmblukuga ja augulised vaibad, Annike Laigo (Valley tehas Vändras) tuftitud vaibad ning istumisalusteks mõeldud vildist kivid, Einike Soosaare ja Merle Suurkase (Lumm Tekstiil) kangastelgedel kootud vaibad

  15. Krovavaja rabota / Quentin Tarantino ; interv. Damon Wise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarantino, Quentin

    2007-01-01

    Režissöör Cannes'i võistlusprogrammi valitud filmiprojektist "Grindhouse", mis koosneb Robert Rodrigueze retroõudukast "Planet Terror" ja Quentin Tarantino 70-ndatest inspireeritud õudusfilmist "Surmakindel" ("Death Proof") : peaosas Kurt Russell : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007

  16. Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ackesjö

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det bästa för det fortsatta lärandet samt av skolans tradition av att organisera för arbetet med övergångar.

  17. Large scale commissioning and operational experience with tier-2 to tier-2 data transfer links in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, J; Magini, N

    2011-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model, and already represents an important component of CMS PhEDEx data transfer volume. The experience, challenges and methods used to debug and commission the thousands of data transfers links between CMS Tier-2 sites world-wide are explained and summarized. The resulting operational experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 transfers is also presented.

  18. Large Scale Commissioning and Operational Experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 Data Transfer Links in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Letts, James

    2010-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model...

  19. Är vi där än? - BIM inom produktion och försäljning : En fallstudie om hur BIM kan utveckla byggföretaget

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Christoffer; Hansson, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Titania köpte hösten 2010 in programvaran Revit för att skapa möjligheten att kunna BIM-projektera sina ROT-projekt. En övergång från 2D-projektering har ännu inte skett då den allmänna synen inom företaget är att projekten innehåller för många komplexa delar i utförandet och därför bör lösas på plats. Idag säljer Titania sina råvindslägenheter när dessa står färdiga men de har som mål att tidigarelägga försäljningen av sina projekt, om detta ska kunna ske måste företaget ha mer material att ...

  20. Scaling CMS data transfer system for LHC start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuura, L; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Egeland, R; Feichtinger, D; Metson, S; Rehn, J

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment will need to sustain uninterrupted high reliability, high throughput and very diverse data transfer activities as the LHC operations start. PhEDEx, the CMS data transfer system, will be responsible for the full range of the transfer needs of the experiment. Covering the entire spectrum is a demanding task: from the critical high-throughput transfers between CERN and the Tier-1 centres, to high-scale production transfers among the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centres, to managing the 24/7 transfers among all the 170 institutions in CMS and to providing straightforward access to handful of files to individual physicists. In order to produce the system with confirmed capability to meet the objectives, the PhEDEx data transfer system has undergone rigourous development and numerous demanding scale tests. We have sustained production transfers exceeding 1 PB/month for several months and have demonstrated core system capacity several orders of magnitude above expected LHC levels. We describe the level of scalability reached, and how we got there, with focus on the main insights into developing a robust, lock-free and scalable distributed database application, the validation stress test methods we have used, and the development and testing tools we found practically useful

  1. Improving CMS data transfers among its distributed computing facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Flix, J; Sartirana, A

    2001-01-01

    CMS computing needs reliable, stable and fast connections among multi-tiered computing infrastructures. For data distribution, the CMS experiment relies on a data placement and transfer system, PhEDEx, managing replication operations at each site in the distribution network. PhEDEx uses the File Transfer Service (FTS), a low level data movement service responsible for moving sets of files from one site to another, while allowing participating sites to control the network resource usage. FTS servers are provided by Tier-0 and Tier-1 centres and are used by all computing sites in CMS, according to the established policy. FTS needs to be set up according to the Grid site's policies, and properly configured to satisfy the requirements of all Virtual Organizations making use of the Grid resources at the site. Managing the service efficiently requires good knowledge of the CMS needs for all kinds of transfer workflows. This contribution deals with a revision of FTS servers used by CMS, collecting statistics on thei...

  2. Improving CMS data transfers among its distributed computing facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Flix, Jose

    2010-01-01

    CMS computing needs reliable, stable and fast connections among multi-tiered computing infrastructures. For data distribution, the CMS experiment relies on a data placement and transfer system, PhEDEx, managing replication operations at each site in the distribution network. PhEDEx uses the File Transfer Service (FTS), a low level data movement service responsible for moving sets of files from one site to another, while allowing participating sites to control the network resource usage. FTS servers are provided by Tier-0 and Tier-1 centres and are used by all computing sites in CMS, according to the established policy. FTS needs to be set up according to the Grid site's policies, and properly configured to satisfy the requirements of all Virtual Organizations making use of the Grid resources at the site. Managing the service efficiently requires good knowledge of the CMS needs for all kinds of transfer workflows. This contribution deals with a revision of FTS servers used by CMS, collecting statistics on the...

  3. Improving CMS data transfers among its distributed computing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flix, J; Magini, N; Sartirana, A

    2011-01-01

    CMS computing needs reliable, stable and fast connections among multi-tiered computing infrastructures. For data distribution, the CMS experiment relies on a data placement and transfer system, PhEDEx, managing replication operations at each site in the distribution network. PhEDEx uses the File Transfer Service (FTS), a low level data movement service responsible for moving sets of files from one site to another, while allowing participating sites to control the network resource usage. FTS servers are provided by Tier-0 and Tier-1 centres and are used by all computing sites in CMS, according to the established policy. FTS needs to be set up according to the Grid site's policies, and properly configured to satisfy the requirements of all Virtual Organizations making use of the Grid resources at the site. Managing the service efficiently requires good knowledge of the CMS needs for all kinds of transfer workflows. This contribution deals with a revision of FTS servers used by CMS, collecting statistics on their usage, customizing the topologies and improving their setup in order to keep CMS transferring data at the desired levels in a reliable and robust way.

  4. The CMS Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffels, M.; Guo, Y.; Kuznetsov, V.; Magini, N.; Wildish, T.

    2014-06-01

    The data management elements in CMS are scalable, modular, and designed to work together. The main components are PhEDEx, the data transfer and location system; the Data Booking Service (DBS), a metadata catalog; and the Data Aggregation Service (DAS), designed to aggregate views and provide them to users and services. Tens of thousands of samples have been cataloged and petabytes of data have been moved since the run began. The modular system has allowed the optimal use of appropriate underlying technologies. In this contribution we will discuss the use of both Oracle and NoSQL databases to implement the data management elements as well as the individual architectures chosen. We will discuss how the data management system functioned during the first run, and what improvements are planned in preparation for 2015.

  5. The CMS data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffels, M; Magini, N; Guo, Y; Kuznetsov, V; Wildish, T

    2014-01-01

    The data management elements in CMS are scalable, modular, and designed to work together. The main components are PhEDEx, the data transfer and location system; the Data Booking Service (DBS), a metadata catalog; and the Data Aggregation Service (DAS), designed to aggregate views and provide them to users and services. Tens of thousands of samples have been cataloged and petabytes of data have been moved since the run began. The modular system has allowed the optimal use of appropriate underlying technologies. In this contribution we will discuss the use of both Oracle and NoSQL databases to implement the data management elements as well as the individual architectures chosen. We will discuss how the data management system functioned during the first run, and what improvements are planned in preparation for 2015.

  6. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxa, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  7. CMS Space Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  8. CMS Space Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Huang, C.-H. [Fermilab; Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.; Zhang, X. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  9. Analysing CMS transfers using Machine Learning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Diotalevi, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    LHC experiments transfer more than 10 PB/week between all grid sites using the FTS transfer service. In particular, CMS manages almost 5 PB/week of FTS transfers with PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export). FTS sends metrics about each transfer (e.g. transfer rate, duration, size) to a central HDFS storage at CERN. The work done during these three months, here as a Summer Student, involved the usage of ML techniques, using a CMS framework called DCAFPilot, to process this new data and generate predictions of transfer latencies on all links between Grid sites. This analysis will provide, as a future service, the necessary information in order to proactively identify and maybe fix latency issued transfer over the WLCG.

  10. Powering physics data transfers with FDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxa, Zdenek; Kcira, Dorian; Legrand, Iosif; Mughal, Azher; Thomas, Michael; Voicu, Ramiro; Ahmed, Badar

    2011-01-01

    We present a data transfer system for the grid environment built on top of the open source FDT tool (Fast Data Transfer) developed by Caltech in collaboration with the National University of Science and Technology (Pakistan). The enhancement layer above FDT consists of a client program - fdtcp (FDT copy) and a fdtd service (FDT daemon). This pair of components allows for GSI authenticated data transfers and offers to the user (or data movement production service) interface analogous to grid middle-ware data transfer services - SRM (i.e. srmcp) or GridFTP (i.e. globus-url-copy). fdtcp/fdtd enables third-party, batched file transfers. An important aspect is monitoring by means of the MonALISA active monitoring light-weight library ApMon, providing real-time monitoring and arrival time estimates as well as powerful troubleshooting mechanism. The actual transfer is carried out by the FDT application, an efficient application capable of reading and writing at disk speed over wide area networks. FDT's excellent performance was demonstrated e.g. during SuperComputing 2009 Bandwidth Challenge. We also discuss the storage technology interface layer, specifically focusing on the open source Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS), presenting the recently developed FDT-HDFS sequential write adapter. The integration with CMS PhEDEx is described as well. The PhEDEx project (Physics Experiment Data Export) is responsible for facilitating large-scale CMS data transfers across the grid. Ongoing and future development involves interfacing with next generation network services developed by OGF NSI-WG, GLIF and DICE groups, allowing for network resource reservation and scheduling.

  11. Planering, progression, profession: hur studenter blir planerare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Larsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available De kunskaper som utvecklas med stöd i de nationella examensmålen för värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt är de som ligger närmast den professionella identiteten. Denna kunskapskategori ges begränsat utrymme i de förväntade studieresultat som examineras inom samhällsplanerarprogrammet vid Umeå universitet. Trots detta får studenterna anställning som planerare, ofta kort efter att de tagit sin kandidatexamen. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka hur kunskapsmässig progression underbyggs avseende värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt i en planerarutbildning med kulturgeografi som huvudområde. I denna artikel redovisas en analys av samhällsplanerarprogrammet.De kurser i kulturgeografi som ingår i programmet analyseras utifrån förväntade studieresultat, läraktiviteter och examinationsformer i syfte att spåra den planerade progressionen. Särskild uppmärksamhet ägnas kunskapskategorin värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån en modell för att förstå vilka typer av kunskaper som används vid avvägningar och beslut i planeringsprofessionen. Analysen visar att samhällsplanerarprogrammets planerade progression följer principen att först ge studenterna breda ämneskunskaper, därefter utveckla metodfärdigheter och mot slutet utveckla mer komplexa och handlingsinriktade kunskaper. Den visar också att den planerade progressionen är begränsad i att underbygga normativa aspekter av studenternas värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt.

  12. A flexible monitoring infrastructure for the simulation requests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoso, V; Missiato, M

    2014-01-01

    Running and monitoring simulations usually involves several different aspects of the entire workflow: the configuration of the job, the site issues, the software deployment at the site, the file catalogue, the transfers of the simulated data. In addition, the final product of the simulation is often the result of several sequential steps. This project tries a different approach to monitoring the simulation requests. All the necessary data are collected from the central services which lead the submission of the requests and the data management, and stored by a backend into a NoSQL-based data cache; those data can be queried through a Web Service interface, which returns JSON responses, and allows users, sites, physics groups to easily create their own web frontend, aggregating only the needed information. As an example, it will be shown how it is possible to monitor the CMS services (ReqMgr, DAS/DBS, PhEDEx) using a central backend and multiple customized cross-language frontends.

  13. A Flexible Monitoring Infrastructure for the Simulation Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoso, V.; Missiato, M.

    2014-06-01

    Running and monitoring simulations usually involves several different aspects of the entire workflow: the configuration of the job, the site issues, the software deployment at the site, the file catalogue, the transfers of the simulated data. In addition, the final product of the simulation is often the result of several sequential steps. This project tries a different approach to monitoring the simulation requests. All the necessary data are collected from the central services which lead the submission of the requests and the data management, and stored by a backend into a NoSQL-based data cache; those data can be queried through a Web Service interface, which returns JSON responses, and allows users, sites, physics groups to easily create their own web frontend, aggregating only the needed information. As an example, it will be shown how it is possible to monitor the CMS services (ReqMgr, DAS/DBS, PhEDEx) using a central backend and multiple customized cross-language frontends.

  14. AsyncStageOut: Distributed user data management for CMS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, H.; Wildish, T.; Ciangottini, D.; Hernández, J. M.; Andreeva, J.; Balcas, J.; Karavakis, E.; Mascheroni, M.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Vaandering, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is a new component of the distributed data analysis system of CMS, CRAB, designed for managing users' data. It addresses a major weakness of the previous model, namely that mass storage of output data was part of the job execution resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate at the end of the jobs. ASO foresees the management of up to 400k files per day of various sizes, spread worldwide across more than 60 sites. It must handle up to 1000 individual users per month, and work with minimal delay. This creates challenging requirements for system scalability, performance and monitoring. ASO uses FTS to schedule and execute the transfers between the storage elements of the source and destination sites. It has evolved from a limited prototype to a highly adaptable service, which manages and monitors the user file placement and bookkeeping. To ensure system scalability and data monitoring, it employs new technologies such as a NoSQL database and re-uses existing components of PhEDEx and the FTS Dashboard. We present the asynchronous stage-out strategy and the architecture of the solution we implemented to deal with those issues and challenges. The deployment model for the high availability and scalability of the service is discussed. The performance of the system during the commissioning and the first phase of production are also shown, along with results from simulations designed to explore the limits of scalability.

  15. Challenging data and workload management in CMS Computing with network-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Bonacorsi; T, Wildish

    2014-06-01

    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of Intelligent Network Services, including also bandwidth on demand concepts. In this paper, we will review the work done in CMS on this, and the next steps.

  16. Challenging data and workload management in CMS Computing with network-aware systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacorsi D; Wildish T

    2014-01-01

    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of Intelligent Network Services, including also bandwidth on demand concepts. In this paper, we will review the work done in CMS on this, and the next steps.

  17. Challenging data and workload management in CMS Computing with network-aware systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of "Intelligent Network Services", including also bandwidth on demand concepts. In this paper, we will ...

  18. SDN-NGenIA, a software defined next generation integrated architecture for HEP and data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Hendricks, T. W.; Kcira, D.; Mughal, A.; Newman, H.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The SDN Next Generation Integrated Architecture (SDN-NGeNIA) project addresses some of the key challenges facing the present and next generations of science programs in HEP, astrophysics, and other fields, whose potential discoveries depend on their ability to distribute, process and analyze globally distributed Petascale to Exascale datasets. The SDN-NGenIA system under development by Caltech and partner HEP and network teams is focused on the coordinated use of network, computing and storage infrastructures, through a set of developments that build on the experience gained in recently completed and previous projects that use dynamic circuits with bandwidth guarantees to support major network flows, as demonstrated across LHC Open Network Environment [1] and in large scale demonstrations over the last three years, and recently integrated with PhEDEx and Asynchronous Stage Out data management applications of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. In addition to the general program goals of supporting the network needs of the LHC and other science programs with similar needs, a recent focus is the use of the Leadership HPC facility at Argonne National Lab (ALCF) for data intensive applications.

  19. Grid Interoperation with ARC middleware for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, Erik; Groenager, Michael; Johansson, Daniel; Kleist, Josva; Field, Laurence; Qing, Di; Frey, Jaime; Happonen, Kalle; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaeki, Jesper; Linden, Tomas; Pirinen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). CMS computing relies on different grid infrastructures to provide computational and storage resources. The major grid middleware stacks used for CMS computing are gLite, Open Science Grid (OSG) and ARC (Advanced Resource Connector). Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP) hosts one of the Tier-2 centers for CMS computing. CMS Tier-2 centers operate software systems for data transfers (PhEDEx), Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and data analysis (CRAB). In order to provide the Tier-2 services for CMS, HIP uses tools and components from both ARC and gLite grid middleware stacks. Interoperation between grid systems is a challenging problem and HIP uses two different solutions to provide the needed services. The first solution is based on gLite-ARC grid level interoperability. This allows to use ARC resources in CMS without modifying the CMS application software. The second solution is based on developing specific ARC plugins in CMS software.

  20. Grid Interoperation with ARC middleware for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Erik; Groenager, Michael; Johansson, Daniel; Kleist, Josva [Nordic DataGrid Facility, Kastruplundgade 22, 1., DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Field, Laurence; Qing, Di [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Frey, Jaime [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1210 W. Dayton St., Madison, WI (United States); Happonen, Kalle; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaeki, Jesper; Linden, Tomas; Pirinen, Antti, E-mail: Jukka.Klem@cern.c [Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-04-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). CMS computing relies on different grid infrastructures to provide computational and storage resources. The major grid middleware stacks used for CMS computing are gLite, Open Science Grid (OSG) and ARC (Advanced Resource Connector). Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP) hosts one of the Tier-2 centers for CMS computing. CMS Tier-2 centers operate software systems for data transfers (PhEDEx), Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and data analysis (CRAB). In order to provide the Tier-2 services for CMS, HIP uses tools and components from both ARC and gLite grid middleware stacks. Interoperation between grid systems is a challenging problem and HIP uses two different solutions to provide the needed services. The first solution is based on gLite-ARC grid level interoperability. This allows to use ARC resources in CMS without modifying the CMS application software. The second solution is based on developing specific ARC plugins in CMS software.

  1. Grid Interoperation with ARC Middleware for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Edelmann, Erik; Frey, Jaime; Gronager, Michael; Happonen, Kalle; Johansson, Daniel; Kleist, Josva; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Linden, Tomas; Pirinen, Antti; Qing, Di

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general purpose experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). CMS computing relies on different grid infrastructures to provide computational and storage resources. The major grid middleware stacks used for CMS computing are gLite, Open Science Grid (OSG) and ARC (Advanced Resource Connector). Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP) hosts one of the Tier-2 centers for CMS computing. CMS Tier-2 centers operate software systems for data transfers (PhEDEx), Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and data analysis (CRAB). In order to provide the Tier-2 services for CMS, HIP uses tools and components from both ARC and gLite grid middleware stacks. Interoperation between grid systems is a challenging problem and HIP uses two different solutions to provide the needed services. The first solution is based on gLite-ARC grid level interoperability. This allows to use ARC resources in CMS without modifying the CMS application software. The second solution is based on developi...

  2. Debugging Data Transfers in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, G; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernandez, J; D'Hondt, J; Kadastik, M; Klem, J; Kodolova, O; Kuo, C M; Letts, J; Maes, J; Magini, N; Metson, S; Piedra, J; Pukhaeva, N; Tuura, L; Sonajalg, S; Wu, Y; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wurthwein, F

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is preparing for LHC data taking in several computing preparation activities. In early 2007 a traffic load generator infrastructure for distributed data transfer tests called the LoadTest was designed and deployed to equip the WLCG sites that support CMS with a means for debugging, load-testing and commissioning data transfer routes among CMS computing centres. The LoadTest is based upon PhEDEx as a reliable, scalable data set replication system. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) task force was created to coordinate the debugging of the data transfer links. The task force aimed to commission most crucial transfer routes among CMS sites by designing and enforcing a clear procedure to debug problematic links. Such procedure aimed to move a link from a debugging phase in a separate and independent environment to a production environment when a set of agreed conditions are achieved for that link. The goal was to deliver one by one working transfer routes to the CMS data operations team...

  3. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, D; Magini, N; Sartirana, A; Taze, M; Wildish, T

    2015-01-01

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention.For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, and to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy.Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different fact...

  4. Challenging Data Management in CMS Computing with Network-aware Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    After a successful first run at the LHC, and during the Long Shutdown (LS1) of the accelerator, the workload and data management sectors of the CMS Computing Model are entering into an operational review phase in order to concretely assess area of possible improvements and paths to exploit new promising technology trends. In particular, since the preparation activities for the LHC start, the Networks have constantly been of paramount importance for the execution of CMS workflows, exceeding the original expectations - as from the MONARC model - in terms of performance, stability and reliability. The low-latency transfers of PetaBytes of CMS data among dozens of WLCG Tiers worldwide using the PhEDEx dataset replication system is an example of the importance of reliable Networks. Another example is the exploitation of WAN data access over data federations in CMS. A new emerging area of work is the exploitation of �?��??Intelligent Network Services�?��?�, including also bandwidt...

  5. CMS tier structure and operation of the experiment-specific tasks in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowack, A

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, several university institutes and research centres take part in the CMS experiment. Concerning the data analysis, a couple of computing centres at different Tier levels, ranging from Tier 1 to Tier 3, exists at these places. The German Tier 1 centre GridKa at the research centre at Karlsruhe serves all four LHC experiments as well as four non-LHC experiments. With respect to the CMS experiment, GridKa is mainly involved in central tasks. The Tier 2 centre in Germany consists of two sites, one at the research centre DESY at Hamburg and one at RWTH Aachen University, forming a federated Tier 2 centre. Both parts cover different aspects of a Tier 2 centre. The German Tier 3 centres are located at the research centre DESY at Hamburg, at RWTH Aachen University, and at the University of Karlsruhe. Furthermore the building of a German user analysis facility is planned. Since the CMS community in German is rather small, a good cooperation between the different sites is essential. This cooperation includes physical topics as well as technical and operational issues. All available communication channels such as email, phone, monthly video conferences, and regular personal meetings are used. For example, the distribution of data sets is coordinated globally within Germany. Also the CMS-specific services such as the data transfer tool PhEDEx or the Monte Carlo production are operated by people from different sites in order to spread the knowledge widely and increase the redundancy in terms of operators

  6. Debugging data transfers in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, G; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Hernandez, J; D'Hondt, J; Maes, J; Kadastik, M; Klem, J; Kodolova, O; Kuo, C-M; Letts, J; Magini, N; Metson, S; Piedra, J; Pukhaeva, N; Tuura, L

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is preparing for LHC data taking in several computing preparation activities. In early 2007 a traffic load generator infrastructure for distributed data transfer tests was designed and deployed to equip the WLCG tiers which support the CMS virtual organization with a means for debugging, load-testing and commissioning data transfer routes among CMS computing centres. The LoadTest is based upon PhEDEx as a reliable, scalable data set replication system. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) task force was created to coordinate the debugging of the data transfer links. The task force aimed to commission most crucial transfer routes among CMS tiers by designing and enforcing a clear procedure to debug problematic links. Such procedure aimed to move a link from a debugging phase in a separate and independent environment to a production environment when a set of agreed conditions are achieved for that link. The goal was to deliver one by one working transfer routes to the CMS data operations team. The preparation, activities and experience of the DDT task force within the CMS experiment are discussed. Common technical problems and challenges encountered during the lifetime of the taskforce in debugging data transfer links in CMS are explained and summarized.

  7. CMS Data Transfer operations after the first years of LHC collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CMS experiment possesses distributed computing infrastructure and its performance heavily depends on the fast and smooth distribution of data between different CMS sites. Data must be transferred from the Tier-0 (CERN) to the Tier-1 for storing and archiving, and time and good quality are vital to avoid overflowing CERN storage buffers. At the same time, processed data has to be distributed from Tier-1 sites to all Tier-2 sites for physics analysis while MonteCarlo simulations synchronized back to Tier-1 sites for further archival. At the core of all transferring machinery is PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export) data transfer system. It is very important to ensure reliable operation of the system, and the operational tasks comprise monitoring and debugging all transfer issues. Based on transfer quality information Site Readiness tool is used to create plans for resources utilization in the future. We review the operational procedures created to enforce reliable data delivery to CMS distributed sites all ov...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  9. AsyncStageOut: Distributed User Data Management for CMS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, H. [CERN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.; Ciangottini, D. [Perugia U.; Hernández, J. M. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Andreeva, J. [CERN; Balcas, J. [Vilnius U.; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Mascheroni, M. [INFN, Milan Bicocca; Tanasijczuk, A. J. [UC, San Diego; Vaandering, E. W. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    AsyncStageOut (ASO) is a new component of the distributed data analysis system of CMS, CRAB, designed for managing users' data. It addresses a major weakness of the previous model, namely that mass storage of output data was part of the job execution resulting in inefficient use of job slots and an unacceptable failure rate at the end of the jobs. ASO foresees the management of up to 400k files per day of various sizes, spread worldwide across more than 60 sites. It must handle up to 1000 individual users per month, and work with minimal delay. This creates challenging requirements for system scalability, performance and monitoring. ASO uses FTS to schedule and execute the transfers between the storage elements of the source and destination sites. It has evolved from a limited prototype to a highly adaptable service, which manages and monitors the user file placement and bookkeeping. To ensure system scalability and data monitoring, it employs new technologies such as a NoSQL database and re-uses existing components of PhEDEx and the FTS Dashboard. We present the asynchronous stage-out strategy and the architecture of the solution we implemented to deal with those issues and challenges. The deployment model for the high availability and scalability of the service is discussed. The performance of the system during the commissioning and the first phase of production are also shown, along with results from simulations designed to explore the limits of scalability.

  10. Commissioning Experience from the Agesta Nuclear Power Plant; Experience acquise lors des essais de mise en service de la centrale nucleaire d'Agesta; Opyt po vvedeniyu v ehkspluatatsiyu yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj ustanovki Agesta; Experiencia adquirida con la puesta en marcha de la central nucleoelectrica de Agesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydell, N. [Aagesta Kraftvarmewerk, Farsta (Sweden)

    1963-10-15

    ) rabota klapanov; c) povyshenie davleniya v pervichnom konture; d) utechka vody; e) ustanovka po zamene topliva; f) ispytanie na germetichnost'. (author)

  11. CMS offline web tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D; Belforte, S; Kavka, C; Bockelman, B; Dziedziniewicz, K; Egeland, R; Elmer, P; Eulisse, G; Tuura, L; Evans, D; Fanfani, A; Feichtinger, D; Kuznetsov, V; Lingen, F van; Wakefield, S

    2008-01-01

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools

  12. CMS offline web tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Belforte, S; Kavka, C [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bockelman, B [University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Dziedziniewicz, K [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Egeland, R [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Elmer, P [Princeton (United States); Eulisse, G; Tuura, L [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Evans, D [Fermilab MS234, Batavia, IL (United States); Fanfani, A [Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Feichtinger, D [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Kuznetsov, V [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Lingen, F van [California Institute of Technology, Pasedena, CA (United States); Wakefield, S [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools.

  13. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Spiga, D. [CERN; Grandi, C. [INFN, Bologna; Mancinelli, V. [CERN; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Pepe, F. [INFN, Bologna; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  14. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans; La centrale nucleaire de Shippingport, experience de son fonctionnement et plans pour l'avenir; Shippingportskaya atomnaya ehlektrostantsij, opyt ehkspluatatsii, usovershenstvovaniya i plany na budushchee; Central nucleoelectrica de Shippingport; experiencia adquirida con su explotacton y programa de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinroth, H. [Division of Reactor Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Oldham, G. M. [Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Duquesne Light Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stiefel, J. T. [Bettis Atomic Power.Labora Tory, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    elevada densidad de potencia, el denominado cuerpo No. 2. Con una potencia nominal bruta de 150 MW(e) y una duracion equivalente a 10 000 h de funcionamiento a plena potencia, el cuerpo No. 2 dara una produccion de energia 5,5 mayor que la del cuerpo No. 1 y su potencia especifica sera el doble de la de este ultimo. Se describen las caracteristicas de diseflo del cuerpo No. 2 y se resumen los principales adelantos en materia de fisica de reactores, metalurgia, transmision de calor, circulacion de fluidos, y elaboracion de elementos combustibles. Por ultimo, se describen los planes para la descontaminacion de la central nuclear y para introducir en la misma las modificaciones exigidas por la instalacion del cuerpo No. 2, de mayor potencia. (author) [Russian] Daetsya otsenka pyati godam ehkspluatatsii i ispytanie Shippingportskoj ehlektrostantsii, a takzhe rassmatrivayutsya poslednie tekhnicheskie usovershenstvovaniya i programma na budushchee. Ehta programma napravlena na usovershenstvovanie osnovnoj tekhnologii reaktorov na obychnoj vode s tem; chtoby sozdat' osnovu dlya umen'sheniya v budushchem stoimosti yadernoj ehlektroehnergii. Shippingportskaya reaktornaya ustanovka, ehkspluatirovavshayasya pyat' let, priznana godnoj dlya legkogo podklyucheniya k sisteme ehnergosnabzheniya v kachestve ustanovki dlya bazovoj ili pikovoj nagruzok. Rabota komponentov ustanovki byla nadezhnoj. Ne voznikalo problem, svyazannykh s zagryazneniem ili udaleniem otkhodov. Dostup k komponentam pervichnoj sistemy okhlazhdeniya dlya ikh obsluzhivaniya 'byl khoroshim, chto pokazyvaet tselostnost' toplivnykh ehlementov. Kazhdaya iz trekh operatsij po zamene topliva v reaktore s momenta ego puska trebovala vse men'she i men'she vremeni. Nedavno byla ustanovlena tret'ya zapal'naya sborka, na chto potrebovalos' 32 rabochikh dnya, t.e. okolo odnoj chetverti vremeni, potrachennogo na pervuyu zamenu topliva. Opisany ofitsial'nye trebovaniya v otnoshenii podgotovki personala, pis

  15. Zaštitno-maskirni uređaj/Protective camouflage cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ivanovich Golodyaev

    2014-10-01

    ' boepripasov, a takže analiz metodov bor'by so sredstvami napadenija. Opisan sposob bor'by s 'umnymi' boepripasami i rabota za- ščitno-maskirovočnogo sredstva. Privedeno opisanie patenta. / Uniformity of protective camouflage installations significantly increases survivability of tanks on the move. This installation prevents an enemy from distinguishing a tank from a car or an empty trailer. A camouflage cover made of multilayer water-resistant material makes anti-tank shaped charge projectiles pre-detonate. Since most projectiles are designed for attacking ERA, the first detonation hits the camouflage cover instead of the armour. When the second detonation hits the ERA, its explosion neutralizes the shaped charge jet. This structure is considerably cheaper and much more effective than rubber protection models. The article analyses anti-tank combat means, 'smart' missile guidance methods and methods of fighting means of attack. It also gives methods of fighting 'smart' projectiles and the applications of this protective camouflage structure.

  16. Present Status of Nitrogen Fixation by Reactor Radiation; Etat Actuel des Recherches sur l'oxydation directe de l'azote sous irradiation dans des reacteurs; Sovremennoe sostoyani opytov po okisleniyu azota izlucheniem iz reaktorov; Estado actual de las investigaciones sobre fijacion del nitrogeno por irradiacion en reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harteck, P; Dondes, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1960-07-15

    fision liberada en las fibras de vidrio y de la resistencia termica del circuito. Otro circuito, que habra de funcionar a 50 - 75 atmosferas y 600{sup o}C se encuentra en curso de construccion. Estos circuitos permitiran evaluar las caracteristicas de un sistema continuo, incluido el comportamient o de los productos de fision liberados en la corriente gaseosa. Los autores distinguen tres fases en la cinetica compleja de la oxidacion del nitrogeno: reacciones iniciales en el sistema;, reacciones subsiguientes a la fijacion de cierta cantidad de nitrogeno y, por ultimo, cinetica del equilibrio alcanzado en presencia de radiaciones. Se estudian las condiciones necesarias para la formacion de N{sub 2}0{sub 5}, N{sub 2}0{sub 4} y O{sub 3}, asi como los efectos que ejercen sobre el proceso en conjunto. (author) [Russian] Pri issledovaniyakh okisleniya azota izlucheniem iz reaktorov, kotorye proizvodilis ' v Rensselerovskom institute i v Brukkhejvenskoj natsional'noj laboratorii v techenie ryada let, byla ispol'zovana, v kachestve neposredstvennogo ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya, ehnergiya otdachi oskolkov deleniya putem rasseyaniya urana-235 v steklyannom volokne diametrom priblizitel'no v 5 mikronov. Bylo opredeleno vliyanie temperatury, davleniya i sootnosheniya mezhdu kolichestvom azota i kolichestvom kisloroda na velichinu radiatsionno-khimicheskogo vykhoda G na okislenie azota i rezul'taty byli soobshcheny v tekhnicheskoj literature. Nizhe daetsya kratkaya svodka ehtoj raboty. Upomyanutaya vyshe rabota proizvodilas' nad staticheskimi sistemami ; nedavno proizvedennaya rabota okhvatyvala kak staticheskie, tak i tsiklicheskie sistemy. V staticheskikh sistemakh glavnoe vnimanie obrashchalos' na vliyanie intensivnosti izlucheniya, v osobennosti v sostoyanii kineticheskogo ravnovesiya izlucheniya. Bylo ustanovleno, chto obrazovanie N0{sub 2}. i N{sub 2}0 V smesyakh azota i kisloroda v proportsiyakh 4:1 i 2: 1 proiskhodit do polnogo istoshcheniya yusloroda. TSiklicheskaya

  17. The Role of Non-Destructive Testing in Test-Reactor Operation at the National Reactor Testing Station; Role des Essais Non Destructifs dans l'Exploitation des Reacteurs d'Essai au Centre National d'Essais de Reacteurs; Rol' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij pri ehkspluatatsii ispytatel'nykh reaktorov na natsional'noj stantsii po ispytaniyam reaktorov; Papel de los Metodos No Destructivos en la Explotacion de los Reactores de la National Reactor Testing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, W. C.; Brown, E. S.; Burdick, E. E.; Gibson, G. W.; Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Division, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1965-10-15

    corrientes de Foucault. Otras tecnicas que han demostrado su utilidad son la inspeccion por penetracion de liquidos, los ensayos con nitrogeno liquido para detector grietas superficiales, los ensayos de recocido termico para determinar ampollas, y la exploracion gamma de placas irradiadas. Muestras de elementos combustibles tomadas estadisticamente se ensayan por metodos hidraulicos para confirmar su integridad estructural, especialmente la estabilidad de la union entre la placa combustible y la placa lateraL Constantemente se intenta mejorar las tecnicas actuales y perfeccionar nuevos procedimientos de inspeccion de caracter no destructivo. (author) [Russian] Bol'shie kapitalovlozhenija (bolee 100 mln. doll. ) v jadernye opytnye reaktory pri Nacional'noj labo- ratorii po ispytaniju reaktorov i neobhodimost' jekspluatirovat' ih bezopasno trebujut vyso- kokachestvennogo kontrolja za reaktorami i opytnymi komponentami v osobennosti za topli- vom i upravljajushhimi sterzhnjami. Pojetomu nedestruktivnye ispytanija igrajut ochen' vazhnuju rol' v opredelenii kachestva jetih komponentov do togo , kak oni ispol'zujutsja na opytnyh reaktorah. Hotja mnogie iz jetih opytov provodjatsja po horosho otrabotannym programmam, tem ne menee bylo razrabotano mnogo unikal'nyh sposobov i shiroko ispol'zuetsja obychnoe oborudovanie. Dolgoe vremja ispol'zovalis' ul'trazvukovye metody v celjah obnaruzhenija rakovin, nediffuzioznosti teplovydeljajushhih jelementov i vnutrennih treshhin. V poslednee vremja jeta rabota byla rasprostranena na avtomaticheskoe skennirovanie krivyh plastin i dlja o b - sledovanija obluchennyh toplivnyh plastin v kanalah dlja hranenija. Ves'ma interesnaja rabota byla provedena v dele primenenija ul'trazvuka dlja obnaruzhenija razryva hrupkih aktivnyh zon, kotoryj mozhet vozniknut' v prcesse izgotovlenija. Metod gamma-skennirovanija dlja opredelenija soderzhanija urana-235 v toplivnyh jele- mentah okazalsja nastol'ko nadezhnym, chto on javljaetsja osnovoj dlja podscheta

  18. Direct Measurement of Tritium in Biological Materials with the Liquid Scintillation Counter; Determination quantitative directe du tritium dans les substances biologiques, au moyen de compteurs a scintillations a liquides; Neposredstvennoe izmerenie kolichestva tritiya v biologicheskikh materialakh pri pomoshchi zhidkogo stsintillyatsionnogo schetchika; Determinacion cuantitativa directa del tritio en sustancias biologicas mediante contadores de centelleador liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, K [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller, Lillestroem (Norway)

    1962-01-15

    muestras de tejidos de raton a los que se habia inyectado previamente timidina marcada con tritio. Despues de inyectar al raton una dosis del orden de 1 {mu}c de timidina tritiada por gramo de peso corporal, se pudieron seguir durante un mes las transformaciones metabolicas de la timidina incorporada al acido desoxirribonucleico (DISIA) de los distintos tejidos. (author) [Russian] V literature uzhe soobshchalos' o sposobakh izmereniya kolichestva tritiya v tkanyakh zhivotnykh i v izolirovannykh srezakh tkanej. Odnako pri vsekh opisyvaemykh rabotakh dlya otscheta impul'sov obraztsov primenyalsya zhidkostnyj stsintillyatsionnyj spektrometr sovpadenij. Pri vypolnenii nastoyashchej raboty dlya izmerenij byl ispol'zovan zhidkostnyj stsintillyatsionnyj schetchik s odnim fotoehlementom. Issledovalis' glavnym obrazom neposredstvennoe rastvorenie tkanej zhivotnykh v giamine 10-KH i otschet impul'sov vzvesi liofilirovannoj tkani v stsintilliruyushchikh gelyakh. Razlichnye tkani, kak naprimer, pechen', kishechnik, krov' i kozha mogut byt' neposredstvenno rastvoreny v giamine i aktivnost' ikh izmerena s tochnost'yu do 10-15 protsentov. Budut obsuzhdeny metody vvedeniya popravki na gashenie i nekotorye yavleniya fosforestsentsii, poskol'ku oni vliyayut na otschet impul'sov v schetnom ustrojstve s edinym fotoehlementom. KHotya chuvstvitel'nost' ehtogo metoda predstavlyaetsya neskol'ko men'shej, chem pri ispol'zovanii schetchika sovpadenij, odnako ehtot metod udovletvoritelen dlya mnogikh vidov primenenij. Predstavlyaemaya rabota byla provedena na obraztsakh tkanej myshi posle predvaritel'noj in{sup e}ktsii mechennogo tritiem timidina. Pri vpryskivanii v mysh' dozy priblizitel'no v 1 mikrokyuri tritirovannogo timidina na gramm vesa ee tela, metabolicheskaya sud'ba timidina, pogloshchennogo deoksiribonukleinovoj kislotoj razlichnykh tkanej, mogla byt' proslezhena v techenie tselogo mesyatsa. (author)

  19. Fabrication and Testing of Prototype APM-Clad UO{sub 2} Fuel Elements; Fabrication et essai de prototypes de cartouches de combustible en bioxyde d'uranium gaine d'aluminium (APM); Izgotovlenie i ispytanie prototipa toplivnykh ehlementov na osnove UO{sub 2} s obolochkoj iz alyuminiya metodom poroshkovoj metallurgii; Elaboracion y ensayo de elementos combustibles prototipo de UO{sub 2} con revestimiento de aluminio sinterizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, III, J. L.; Friske, W. H.; Gordon, R. B. [Atomics International, Canoga Park, California (United States)

    1963-11-15

    los elementos combustibles se extrajeron del reactor a raiz de problemas suscitados por el instrumental utilizado para los ensayos. Los tres elementos restantes continuaban en el reactor. Todos los resultados de los experimentos realizados hasta la fecha parecen indicar que el sistema de combustible PMA-UO{sub 2} permitira alcanzar los objetivos fijados para el programa relativo al reactor POPR. (author) [Russian] V podderzhku Programmy prototipov organicheskikh ehnergoreaktorov (POPR) moshchnost'yu 50 mgvt (ehl.) byla provedena obshirnaya rabota po razrabotke poroshkovoj metallurgiej alyuminievykh materialov (APM) v kachestve obolochek dlya topliva iz UO{sub 2} . Kak chast' ehtoj raboty byli issledovany ehvteticheskoe soedinenie, svarke v styk oplavleniem i kholodnaya svarka. Kolduehlla pod davleniem kak metody dlya soedineniya stykov pri sborke toplivnykh ehlementov. Vibratsionnoe uplotnenie izuchalos' kak sredstvo zapolneniya trubok APM dvuokis'yu urana. Opyty vne reaktora provodilis' dlya.ogo, chtoby poluchit' informatsiyu o svomestimosti APM - UO{sub 2} . Ehta rabota pokazala, chto pri sushchestvuyushchikh usloviyakh ehvteticheskoe soedinenie yavlyaetsya naibolee podkhodyashchim sposobom dlya soedineniya stykov; vibratsionnoe uplotnenie davalo plotnost' topliva v predelakh ot 80 do 88% teoreticheskoj plotnosti, i ne nablyudalos' vzaimodejstvie APM -UO{sub 2} v diapazone ehkspluatatsionnykh temperatur POPR (temperatura poverkhnosti razdela toplivo - obolochka maksimum 850{sup o}F). V rezul'tate ehtoj raboty bylo izgotovleno 5 prototipov UO{sub 2}-APM toplivnykh ehlementov s tsel'yu ispytaniya na opytnom reaktore s organicheskim zamedlitelem. Kazhdyj ehlement sostoyal iz 24 ili 25 toplivnykh sterzhnej v obolochke iz APM i sgruppirovannykh v sistemu 5 x 5 v stal'noj korobke, pokrytoj nikelem, ili toplivnoj korobke ieh APM. Dlya togo, chtoby uvelichit' poverkhnost' ehlementa i tem samym znachitel'no uluchshit' teploperedachu, izgotovlennaya ehkstruziej obolochka ieh

  20. Reactor Radiation Loops as Large Gamma Sources; Boucles d'irradiation des reacteurs nucleaires utilisees comme sources gamma intenses; Radiatsionnye kontury yadernykh reaktorov kak moshchnye gamma-istochniki; Empleo de circuitos de irradiacion de los reactores como fuentes gamma de gran intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhina, Yu. S.

    1963-11-15

    vybrany kontury na zhidkikh pri komnatnoj temperature splavakh indiya. Bylo izucheno povedenie dvukh ehvtekticheskikh splavov indiya po otnosheniyu k nekotorym konstruktivnym materialam, i v nachale 1960 g. byl zapushchen pervyj stendovyj indij-gallievyj kontur. V rezul'tate dal'nejshikh rabot byli zapushcheny model'nyj indij-galdievyj kontur s aktivnost'yu v obluchatele do {approx} 100 g. eh k v radiya pri reaktore IRT AN Gruzinskoj SSR i stendovyj indij-gallij-olovyannyj kontur v kanale reaktora IRT IAEH AN SSSR. Nakonets, v 1962 g. byl zapushen rabochij indij-gallij-olovyannyj kontur pri reaktore IRT AN Latvijskoj SSR dlya provedeniya polupromyshlennykh radiatsionnykh protsessov. Maksimal'naya aktivnost' obluchatelya kontura 30 000 g. eh k v radiya. Doklad sostoit iz 4 razdelov: 1. Raschety radiatsionnykh konturov. Obobshchaetsya prodelannaya rabota po metodam rascheta radiatsionnykh konturov. 2. Model' radiatsionnogo indij-gallievogo kontura reaktora IRT-2000 v Tbilisi. Opisyvaetsya dejstvuyushchij kontur. 3. Indij-gallij-olovyannyj radiatsionnyj kontur yadernogo reaktora IRT AN Latvijskoj SSR. Opisyvaetsya dejstvuyushchij kontur. 4. Perspektivy dal'nejshego razvitiya radiatsionnykh konturov. Opisyvayutsya ehksperimenty, skhemy i privodyatsya raschety, na osnovanii kotorykh predstavlyaetsya vozmozhnym sozdanie konturov na tverdom margantse i mobil'nykh konturov na zhidkikh splavakh indiya. (author)

  1. Catalytic Activity and Nuclear Radiation; L'activite catalytique et les rayonnements nucleaires; Kataliticheskaya aktivnost' i yadernoe izluchenie; La actividad catalitica y las radiaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkevich, J.; Ikawa, T.; Nozaki, F.; Stamires, D. [Princeton University, N.J (United States)

    1963-11-15

    que se crean sitios desprovistos de cationes en el tamiz. Se ha preparado una serie graduada de estos catalizadores que poseen numeros regularmente crecientes de tales sitios desde cero hasta un ciento por ciento con respecto al contenido original de sodio. Los autores determinaron la actividad catalitica de esas dos series de catalizadores antes y despues de someterlos a irradiacion gamma, estudiando la cinetica de la descomposicion del eumeno en benceno y propileno, la isomerizacion del butano-1 en butano-2 por desplazamiento del doble enlace y la reaccion de intercambio hydrogenodeuterio. Se determino el numero de sitios activos recurriendo al envenenamiento progresivo por medio de quinolei'na, lo que permite establecer la actividad por cada sitio. Tambien se estudiaron los materiales midiendo la resonancia del espin electronico de agentes de transferencia de electrones adsorbidos tales como la trifenilamina, el perileno y el difeniletileno simetrico. Se comprobo que la capacidad de transferencia de electrones era paralela a la actividad catalitica. Para determinar la naturaleza de los sitios cataliticos, se utilizo la resonancia protonica del agua adsorbida. (author) [Russian] Predstavlena' novaya rabota po issledovaniyu dejstviya gamma-izlucheniya na kataliticheskuyu aktivnost' alyumosilikagelya i dekationirovannykh molekulyarnykh sit .gida Linde Y. Metodom sooavzhdeniya prigotovlen rnd obraztsov katalizatorov alyumosilikagelya, prichem atomnoe otnoshenie alyuminiya k kremniyu v kazhdom iz okisnykh katalizatorov bylo raznym, i takim obrazom poluchilos' desyat' razlichnykh obraztsov razlichnykh sostavov. Drugaya seriya obraztsov katalizatorov poluchena pri nepolnom zameshchenii natriya v molekulyarnom site tipa Linde Y (Na{sub 56}(AlO{sub 2}){sub 56}(SiO{sub 2} ){sub 126} na ion ammoniya) i pri posleduyushchem razlozhenii ego dlya udaleniya kak ammiaka, tak i vody. Pri ehtom v site obrazovyvalis' vakansii kationov. Prigotovlena tselaya seriya takikh katalizatorov

  2. Theoretical Interpretation of Pulsed Neutron Phenomena; Interpretation Theorique des Phenomenes dus aux Neutrons Pulses; Teoreticheskaya interpretatsiya yavlenij, svyazannykh s impul'snymi nejtronami; Interpretacion Teorica de los Fenomenos Debidos a Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corngold, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-08-15

    . Osoboe vnimanie obrashhaetsja na jeksperiment s impul'snymi nejtronami v nerazmnozhajushhih sredah i na ego interpretaciju s tochki zrenija prostranstvenno-energeticheskih raspredelenij i postojannyh spada (vo vremeni). Teoreticheskie issledovanija v jetoj oblasti, bol'shuju chast' kotoryh provodit Bruk- hejvenskaja nacional'naja la''rratorija, osnovany na tochnom reshenii neskol'kih special'nyh problem, a takzhe na priblizhennyh chislennyh reshenijah v bolee real'nyh situacijah. Ne- davno predlozhena edinaja tochka zrenija, osnovannaja na teorii Van Hov-Glaubera o rassejanii medlennyh nejtronov. Vyjasneno, chto vremennaja zavisimost' parno-korreljacionnoj funk- cii, kotoraja pozvoljaet provodit' raznicu mezhdu razlichnymi zamedliteljami, takzhe regu- liruet obnaruzhivaemyj spektr postojannoj spada. V rabote podcherkivaetsja sluchaj reshenija dlja beskonechnoj sredy, hotorye proporcional'ny jeksponente (iB * r), v sredah s pogloshheniem, podchinennym zakonu 1/v. Analiticheskaja rabota svjazana s naibolee verojatnymi reshenijami, proporcional'nymi takzhe jeksponente ({lambda}t), a chislennyj raschet napravlen na reshenie, uchi- tyvajushhee polnuju ''istoriju processa'', a takzhe na modal'nye reshenija. Zatragivajutsja takzhe javlenija, s kotorymi stalkivalis', kogda pogloshhenie ne podchinjaetsja zakonu 1/v i kogda ob- razec zamedlitelja nastol'ko mal, chto vremennye reshenija ne razdeljajutsja bol'she v pro- stranstvenno energeticheskom otnoshenii. Nakonec, obsuzhdaetsja znachenie jetih rezul'tatov dlja interpretacii impul'snyh jeks- perimentov. V chastnosti, avtory imejut v vidu izmerenie diffuzii, kojefficienty dif- fuzionnogo ohlazhdenija, a takzhe, v zavisimosti ot haraktera podhoda, asimptoticheskoe ras- predelenie . (author)

  3. Industrial Sterilization st the Electron Linear-Accelerator Facility at Risoe; Sterilisation industrielle a l'aide de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de Riso; Promyshlennaya sterilizatsiya oblucheniem na linejnom uskoritele ehlektronov v Rizo; Esterilizacion industrial con ayuda del acelerador lineal de electrones de Riso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynjolfsson, A.; Holm, N. W.; Tharup, G.; Sehested, K. [Accelerator Section, Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment Risoe (Denmark)

    1963-11-15

    cherez pryamo pered nim nakhodyashcheesya okoshko ili cherez ustrojstvo dlya izmeneniya napravleniya i razvertyvaniya puchka. Izmenivshij napravlenie i razvernutyj puchok primenyaetsya dlya obrabotki oblucheniem. Podlezhashchie oblucheniyu pakety peremeshchayutsya v pole oblucheniya s pomoshch'yu konvejernoj sistemy s polnym diapazonom skorostej ot 0,2 do 600 mm/sek, chem dostigaetsya poluchenie shirokogo diapazona doz pri fiksirovannoj naladke uskoritelya. Ustanovka ehkspluatiruetsya s oseni 1960 goda, obsluzhivaya nauchnoissledovatel'skie instituty Danii, a s 1961 goda - takzhe i radiatsionnuyu promyshlennuyu sterilizatsiyu meditsinskikh priborov, naprimer shpritsev, kateterov, ustanovok po perelivaniyu i vnutrivennomu vlivaniyu krovi i legochno- serdechnye apparaty. Ob{sup e}m obrabotki postoyanno vozrastaet, kolichestvo paketov, obrabotannykh v techenie pervykh trekh mesyatsev 1963 goda, sostavlyaet priblizitel'no 3000. V odnom pakete mogut pomeshchat'sya, naprimer, 900 shpritsev, kazhdyj ob{sup e}mom 2 cm{sup 3}. Provedena bol'shaya rabota po usovershenstvovaniyu metodov oblucheniya, v tom'chisle po primeneniyu reflektornykh sistem, avtomaticheskogo regulirovaniya dozy, obychnoj dozimetrii i vizual'nym tsvetnym indikatoram. Laetsya kratkij obzor ehtikh vazhnykh v tekhnicheskom otnoshenii detalej, i opisyvaetsya sam protsess sterilizatsii, v tom chisle obrabotka, upravlenie i dozimetriya. Nakonets,daetsya informatsiya otnositel'no stoimosti ehkspluatatsii. (author)

  4. Dispersions of Oxides in Oxide Matrices as High-Temperature Reactor Fuels; Dispersions d'oxyde dans des matrices d'oxyde, utilisees comme combustibles dans des reacteurs a haute temperature; Dispersiya okisej v okislovykh matritsakh v kachestve topliva dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora; Empleo de dispersiones de oxidos en matrices de oxidos, como combustibles para reactores de elevada temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    delyashchikhsya veshchestv/vosproizvodyashchikh materialov, dlya ikh pokrytiya i dlya ikh vklyucheniya v matritsy bol'shoj plotnosti imeetsya bol'shoe raznoobrazie metodov. Rabota po vyrabotke tekhnologicheskikh protsessov izgotovleniya v laboratornom masshtabe uzhe dostatochno podvinulas'. (author)

  5. Design Experience on a Multi-Mecacurie Radiation Facility; Etudes et experiences concernant un emetteur de rayonnements de plusieurs megacuries; Opytnoe proektirovani e ustanovki, obladayushchej sverkhmoshchnym izlucheniem; Estudios sobre el proyecto de un dispositivo de irradiacion de varios megacuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunton, D C; Donovan, J; Voyvodic, L [Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Armour Research Foundation, 10 W. 35th Street, Chicago 10, IL (United States)

    1960-07-15

    tipo placa. Los autores examinan los requisitos tecnicos en lo referente a los dispositivos de transporte de las sustancias en relacion con la estructura de la fuente y con sus efectos sobre el rendimiento. De igual modo estudian los metodos de manipulacion de la fuente, las sistemas de seguridad y los dispositivos de regulacion. Por ultimo, describen la preparacion de la sustancia radiactiva propiamente dicha, comprendida su medicion, introduccion en la capsula y prueba de estanqueidad. (author) [Russian] V dannom dokumente opisyvaetsya rabota po issledovaniyu i razrabotke proekta i stroitel'stva izluchatelya, kotoraya provodilas' v svyazi s proektom ''Vysokointensivnyj izluchatel' dlya pishchevykh produktov''. Obsuzhdaemye problemy yavlyayutsya obshchimi dlya vsekh bol'shikh i malogabaritnykh izluchatelej. Pervaya stadiya raboty po issledovaniyu i razrabotke proekta kasalas' uyasneniya roli diskovogo tipa izluchatelej, a takzhe vliyaniya izmenenij v parametrakh pri sooruzhenii takoj ustanovki. Vnachale sooruzhenie odnogo diskovogo izluchatelya bylo izucheno putem provedeniya teoreticheskogo ehksperimental'nogo i raschetnogo analizov. Izuchennye parametry kasalis' kolichestva iskhodnykh materialov, konkretnoj aktivnosti, tolshchiny istochnika i ego pokrytiya, plotnosti misheni i geometricheskikh faktorov, vklyuchaya vysotu, dlinu i shirinu istochnika, a takzhe razmer vozdushnogo promezhutka mezhdu istochnikom i mishen'yu. Bylo provedeno izuchenie voprosov stroitel'stva , kotorye kasalis' moshchnosti, vremeni prebyvaniya produktov v ustanovke, edinoobraziya dozy, ehffektivnosti i obshchej stoimosti. Byli razrabotany i provereny na opyte uproshchennye sposoby sooruzheniya izluchatelya. Byl razrabotan trekhrazmernyj printsip dlya primeneniya k stroitel'stvu izluchatelya tipa Monte Karlo. EHtot printsip primenyalsya v dannoj probleme s provedeniem sootvetstvuyushchikh ehksperimental'nykh izmerenij. Programma proektirovaniya izluchatelya byla rasshirena dlya vklyucheniya

  6. The Hanford Emergency Dosimetry System; Le Systeme de Dosimetrie pour les Cas d'Urgence a Hanford; 0421 0418 0421 0422 0414 ; El Sistema Dosimetrico de Hanford para Casos de Urgencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H. V.; Keene, A. R. [Radiation Protection Operation, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-06-15

    sotrudnikov. Dozimetricheskij personal s pomoshh'ju perenosnoj apparatury osushhestvljaet izmerenija Na{sup 24} in vivo na meste ili izmerenija aktivirovannoj indievoj fol'gi v plenochnom dozimetre s cel'ju predvaritel'noj ocenki dozy. Preduprezhdenie personala i rabota centrov avarijnogo kontrolja obespechivajut tehnicheskoe rukovodstvo i peredvizhnoe vspomogatel'noe oborudovanie, v tom chisle perenosnoj schetchik dlja izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma. S pomoshh'ju dublirujushhih laboratornyh ustrojstv osushhestvljaetsja vspomogatel'nyj dozimetricheskij kontrol' v rezul'tate provedenija analiza krovi na predmet opredelenija stepeni aktivacii Na{sup 24}, soderzhanija R{sup 32} v volosah, mnogoizotopnogo analiza vydelenij organizma, izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma i vyjavlenija zarazhennyh ran. Hjenfordskie dozimetry kritichnosti, ustanavlivaemye povsjudu na ustanovke v legkodostupnyh mestah, udaljajutsja i ocenivajutsja. V jetih dozimetrah imejutsja takie zhe jelementarnye fol'gi, kak i v plenochnom dozimetre, oni obespechivajut vtorichnye sredstva dlja ocenki dozy, poluchaemoj otdel'nymi licami. (author)

  7. Sample Preparations Used in Biomedical Research and Training at the Special Training Division of the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies; Methodes de Preparation d'Echantillons Employees dans la Recherche et la Formation Biologiques et Medicales a la Division de Formation Speciale de l'Institut d'Etudes Nucleaires d'Oak Ridge; Prigotovlenie obraztsov dlya biomeditsinskikh issledovanij i dlya uchebnykh tselej v otdele spetsial'noj podgotovki okridzhskogo instituta yadernykh issledovanii; Metodos de Preparacion de Muestras Aplicados en las Investigaciones Biomedicas y en la Capacitacion Profesional de la Division de Formacion Especial del Instituto de Estudios Nucleares de Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, L. K. [Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-10-15

    ambientales lleva a cabo una labor considerable de preparacion de muestras muy delgadas que permiten alcanzar una resolucion mas elevada de los espectros alfa. Para ello se utilizan procedimientos de deposito electrolitico a partir de mezclas disolventes. Se efectuan mediciones con una bateria especial de contadores Fairstein-Frisch de rejilla conectados a un analizador de 512 canales para el registro simultaneo de mas de un espectro. Tambien se utilizan detectores de estado solido y se comparan los resultados obtenidos con detectores de rejilla y de semiconductores. (author) [Russian] Pri osushhestvlenii issledovatel'skih i uchebnyh programm Otdela special'noj podgotovki ispol'zujut samye raznoobraznye metody prigotovlenija obrazcov. Oni vkljuchajut kak prostye derzhateli istochnikov, naprimer metallicheskie, kartonnye i plastmassovye, tak i ustrojstva dlja osazhdenija, v kotoryh ispol'zujutsja derzhateli iz nerzhavejushhej stali i steklovolokna, a takzhe special'nye derzhateli istochnikov dlja izmerenija obrazcov v zhidkostnyh schetchikah. Krome jetih metodov, razrabotan rjad metodov, predstavljajushhih osobyj interes pri izuchenii biomedicinskih problem. Odnim iz naibolee vazhnyh iz jetih metodov javljaetsja ispol'zovanie kataliticheskogo sinteza benzola, kotoryj razrabotan do takoj stepeni, chto obshhij vyhod sostavljaet bolee 90% . Jetot sintez mozhno ispol'zovat' dlja uglerodnyh soedinenij, predstavljajushhih interes pri provedenii jeksperimentov s indikatornymi kolichestvami i izuchenii problem opredelenija vozrasta. Poskol'ku sintez svjazan s polucheniem dvuokisi ugleroda na odnoj stadii i s gidrataciej metallicheskogo karbida na drugoj stadii, ego mozhno ispol'zovat' libo dlja izmerenija ugleroda-14 ili tritija, libo ih odnovremennogo izmerenija vo vremja jeksperimentov s dvojnym mecheniem. Znachitel'naja rabota prodelana v oblasti aktivacionnogo analiza biologicheskih materialov, v chastnosti, po osushhestvleniju radiojekologicheskih programm Otdela. Opisyvajutsja

  8. Design of a Chemical Processing Apparatus for Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life; Projet d'une Installation de Traitement Chimique de Radioelements a Courtes Periodes; ПРОЕКТ УСТАНОВКИ ДЛЯ ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ ОБРАБОТКИ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ РАДИОЭЛЕМЕНТОВ; Proyecto para una Instalacion de Tratamiento Quimico de Radioelementos de Periodo Corto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, M.; Valade, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1963-03-15

    : Disolucion de los radioelementos destinados a fines diversos y preparacion del mercurio-197. (author) [Russian] Predstavilos' interesnym pokazat' radiohimikam, imejushhim v svoem rasporjazhenii nebol'shoj reaktor (naprimer, s potokom 10{sup 12}g n/cm{sup 2}/sek), vozmozhnosti poluchenija rjada radiojelementov minimal'nymi sredstvami. Jeta rabota sostoit iz treh osnovnyh chastej: 1. Vozmozhnye radiojelementy ; podrazdeljajutsja na dve kategorii: a) radiojelementy dlja primenenija v medicine, k kotorym otnosjatsja: natrij-24, kalij-42,brom-82, med' 64, mysh'jak-76, rtut'-197 i kolloidal'noe zoloto-190; b) radiojelementy dlja nauchnogo ili promyshlennogo primenenija, k kotorym, pomimo vysheukazannyh, otnosjatsja: sur'ma-122, mysh'jak-77, marganec-56, zoloto-196 (hloristoe). 2. Himicheskaja obrabotka; podrazdeljaetsja na dve gruppy: a) perevedenie v istinnye rastvory, chto trebuet znachitel'nogo kolichestva vremeni dlja rastvorenija v vode, razbavlennoj kislote na holodu, libo rastvorenija v koncentrirovannyh kislotah pri nagrevanii; v jetu gruppu vhodjat: natrij-24, kadij-42, brom-82, rtut'-197, sur'ma-122, marganec-56 i zoloto-196 (hloristoe); b) processy vydelenija ili slozhnyh prevrashhenij, kuda otnosjatsja metody vydelenija, osnovannye na jeffekte Scilarda-Chalmersa, reakcii (n, p), (p, {gamma}) s posledujushhim beta-raspadom idi obrazovaniem kolloidov; sjuda vhodjat: med'-64, mysh'jak-76, mysh'jak-77 i kolloidal'noe zoloto-198; 3. Zashhitnye kamery dlja predvaritel'noj obrabotki, gruppirujutsja soglasno ih svojstvam. Predlagaetsja ustanovka, sostojashhaja iz treh kamer dlinoj 2 i glubinoj v 1 m, kotorye soedineny mezhdu soboj konvejerom i igrajut rol' : 1-ja kamera: vvedenie kontejnerov, vyemka i prigotovlenie natrija-24, kalija-42 i broma-62; 2-ja kamera: prigotovlenie dvuh iz treh sledujushhih radiojelementov: med'-64, mysh'jak-76 i kolloidal'noe zoloto-198; 3-ja kamera: rastvorenie radiojelementov dlja razlichnogo primenenija i prigotovlenie rtuti-197. (author)

  9. Radiation Synthesis of Stannous Dibromodibutyl; Synthese radiochimique de l'etain dibromopibutyle; Radiatsionno-khimicheskij sintez dibromdibutilolova; Sintesis radioquimica del dffiromodibutilestano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramova, L. V.; Vereshchinskij, I. V.; Kocheshkov, K. A.; Miretskij, V. Yu.; Pozdneev, V. V.; Ryabukhin, Yu. S.; Sheverdina, N. I.

    1963-11-15

    dosimetro de sulfato de hierro es de {approx}50 rad/s. Se utilizaron diversas proporciones de estafio metalico en polvo y bromuro de butilo de distintos grados de pureza. Se comprobo que en tales condiciones se desarrolla una reaccion radioquimica orientada en virtud de la cual se produce basicamente dibromodibutilestaflo con elevado rendimiento. Se demostro que el proceso tiene un periodo de induccion cuya duracion depende de la pureza del bromuro de butilo inicial. Este mismo factor influye tambien notablemente en la velocidad de formacion del producto final. Se comprobo que el estafio que no interviene en la reaccion puede volver a utilizarse para obtener dibromodibutilestaflo, pero en ese caso se anula por completo el periodo de induccion. Estas propiedades satisfacen los requisitos para la realizacion de un proceso continuo. Los autores proponen un mecanismo de reaccion, para explicar las leyes de este proceso que se desarrolla con un elevado rendimiento radioquimico. (author) [Russian] Printsipial'naya vozmozhnost' sinteza olovoorganicheskikh soedinenij pri dejstvii {gamma}-izlucheniya Co{sup 60} na smesi metallicheskogo olova i sootvetstvuyushchikh galoidalkilov vpervye byla ustanovlena Abramovoj, Kocheshkovym i SHeverdinoj v 1956 g. Usloviya provedeniya opytov v steklyannoj apparature bez peremeshivaniya ne pozvolyali vyyavit' kineticheskie zakonomernosti obrazovaniya ehtogo klassa metalloorganicheskikh soedinenij. Nastoyashchaya rabota byla postavlena dlya vyyasneniya vliyaniya ryada faktorov na skorost' radiatsionno-khimicheskogo sinteza olovoorganicheskikh soedinenij na primere dibromdibutilolova. S ehtoj tsel'yu byla skonstruirovana i izgotovlena spetsial'naya ustanovka s periodicheskoj zagruzkoj komponentov i vygruzkoj produktov reaktsii. Otlichitel'nymi osobennostyami ustanovki yavlyalis' vozmozhnost' ee termostatirovaniya, osushchestvlenie ehffektivnogo peremeshivaniya i periodicheskogo otbora prob dlya analizov. Osnovnoj uzel ustanovki (reaktsionnyj sosud iz

  10. Recent Advances in Food Irradiation Research in Japan; Recents Progres de l'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires au Japon; Poslednie dostizheniya v issledovaniyakh po oblucheniyu produktov pitaniya v Yaponii; Progresos Recientes de las Investigaciones Sobre Irradiacion de Alimentos Realizadas en el Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, A. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1966-11-15

    'zovaniem himicheskogo vozdejstvija obluchenija. Naprimer, issledovalos' obluchenie morskih vodoroslej dozami v 0,5 -0,7 Mrad dlja uluchshenija kachestva i vyhoda jekstragirovannogo agara i radiacionnoe uskorenie starenija alkogol'nyh napitkov, osobenno ochishhennyh likerov, dozami do 0,5 Mrad. Krome jetih prakticheskih issledovanij provodilas' shirokaja rabota po fundamental'nym aspektam, vkljuchaja radiochuvstvitel'nost' mikroorganizmov, inaktivaciju fermentov oblucheniem i drugie problemy radiacionnoj himii, svjazannoj s oblucheniem produktov, pitanija. (author)

  11. Studies on the Utilization, Metabolism and Function of Sterols in the House-Fly, Musca Domestica; Utilisation. Metabolisme et fonctions des sterols chez la mouche domestique (Musca Domestica); Izuchenie usvoeniya, metabolizma i funktsii sterinov v organizme domashnej mukhi Musca Domestica; Estudios sobre la asimilacion, el metabolismo y la funcion de los esteroles in la mosca comun (Musca Domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, W. E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Entomology Research Division, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1963-09-15

    ambos casos el proceso de asimilacion y metabolismo de estos esteroles. Sin embargo, no hubo transformacion apreciable de {beta}-sitosterol en colesterol. En las dietas de las larvas se utilizaron tambien cantidades de colesterol inferiores al minimo necesario, combinadas con ''esteroles de ahorro''', como el colestanol, que pueden suministrar solo una parte del esterol que necesita el insecto. La asimilacion y el destino final del ''esterol de ahorro'' se han estudiado empleando colestanol-{sup 14}C; tambien se esta estudiando el metabolismo de la-minuscula cantidad de colesterol esencial, empleando para ello colesterol-{sup 14}C de elevada actividad especifica. Se han utilizado tambienotrasespeciesdeinsectos, entre ellos la cucaracha alemana (Blattella germanica), para completar el estudio de los modos de asimilacion y los esquemas metabolicos de los esteroles en la mosca comun. (author) [Russian] Bydo obnaruzheno, chto bol'shinstvu nasekomykh nuzhen dieticheskij istochnik sterinov dlya normal'nogo rosta i metamorfozy lichinki. Rabota posvyashchena dvum dopolnitel'nym fiziologicheskim funktsiyam sterinov v organizme domashnej mukhi Musca domestica L . : 1) Istochnik sterinovogo pitaniya sovershenno neobkhodim dlya obrazovaniya vynoslivykh zhiznesposobnykh yaits u zhenskikh osobej mukhi; pri nedostatochnom sterinovom pitanii yajtsa obrazuyutsya, no ikh vynoslivost' i zhiznesposobnost' yavlyayutsya nizkimi. 2) KHolesterin takzhe igraet rol' v mobilizatsii i ispol'zovanii rezervov pitaniya pri sozrevanii yaichnikov u samok domashnikh mukh. Izuchalas' kolichestvennaya potrebnost' v sterine pri vysheukazannykh fiziologicheskikh protsessakh i metabolicheskikh prevrashcheniyakh, proiskhodyashchikh vo vremya rosta, metamorfozy i razmnozheniya u ehtikh nasekomykh. Issledovaniya provodilis' s pomoshch'yu mechennykh uglerodom-14 i tritiem sterinov v sochetanii s razlichnymi analiticheskimi metodami, vklyuchaya obratnoe izotopnoe razbavlenie, gazovo-zhidkostnuyu khromatografiyu

  12. Analysis of Scan Records with a Recording Densitometer - The ''Re-Scanner''; Etude d'un Grand Collimateur a Focalisation et Fort Pouvoir de Resolution: Resultats; Analiz skenogramm s pomoshch'yu registriruyushchego densitometra - ''re-skenner''; Diseno y Funcionamiento de un Gran Colimador Enfocado de Alto Poder de Resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. C.; Bell, P. R.; Satterfield, M. M.; Ross, D. A.; Jordan, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    kontrastnosti. Porogovyj kontrol' d a et ljuboj ''sokrashhennyj uroven'' vybora. Rabota provoditsja bystro, i diagramma mozhet byt' reskennirovana v techenie nebol'shogo promezhutka vremeni, neobhodim ogo dlja poluchenija pervonachal'nogo izobrazhenija. Issledovanija v oblasti klinicheskogo skennirovanija pochti ljubogo organa ili rajona., predstavljajushhego interes, pokazyvajut, chto rerazvertyvatel' daet informaciju, ne vidimuju snachala na di agram mah pri pervonachal'nom skennirovanii. Jeto bylo osobenno poleznym pri opredelenii st atisticheskogo znachenija nebol'shih izmenenij v kojefficiente scheta pri skennirujushhem izobrazhenii. . Pri diagrammah, poluchennyh metodom skennirovanija, bol'shogo dinamicheskogo diapazo n a , gle nikakoj otdel'nyj sokrashhennyj urov en' udovletv orit el'no ne pokazy vaet vse rajony, predstavljajushhie interes, vnov' byli neobhodimy rerazvertyvateli na nekotoryh sokrashhennyh urovnjah. V popytke preodolet' je t u trudnost' ispol'zovalsja dvuhdiapazonnyj chuvstvitel'nyj jel em en t , kotoryj ohvatyvaet rajon registracii vokrug o bl a sti nabljudenija glavnogo chuvstvitel'nogo jel em en t a . Po krajnej m er e , vozmozhny tri vida jek s pluatacii pribora s dvuhdiapazonnym chuvstvitel'nym jelemen tom: 1) ''normal'naja'' je k s pluatacija; 2) ignorirovanie obshhej plotnosti izobrazhenija i reakcija tol'ko na nebol'shie izmenenija, ustanavlivaja takim obrazom svoj sobstvennyj sokrashhennyj uroven'; 3) soobshhenie tol'ko o vnezapnyh izmenenijah v plotnosti registracii. Po-vidimomu, vozmozhny takzhe drugie vidy. Jeto sravnitel'no prostoj i nedorogostojashhij pribor obespechivaet okazanie cennoj pomoshhi v interpretacii diagramm, proizvedennyh metodom skennirovanija. (author)

  13. Physical and Chemical Analysis of the Germinating and Nutritional Properties of Irradiated Wheat; Analyse Physico-Chimique des Caracteristiques Germinatives et Nutritives du Ble Irradie; Fizicheskie i khimicheskie analizy svojstv rosta i pitatel'nykh kachestv obluchennoj pshenitsy; Analisis Fisicoquimico de Trigo Irradiado: Estudio de sus Caracteristicas Germinativas y Nutricionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahissa Campa, J.; Gabarain, R. V.A.; De Pahissa, M. H.H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bassa, L. [Junta Nacional de Granos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1966-11-15

    transcurridos diversos lapsos. Se apreciaron distintas variaciones en los valores analiticos determinados, variaciones que dependian de la dosis. En cuanto a la textura, olor, color y sabor del pan, se observaron diferencias sumamente marcadas respecto al testigo, para las dosis mas elevadas. Para evaluar el valor alimenticio del grano irradiado, se emplearon ratas a las cuales se les incluyo en la dieta dicho material. La incorporacion se realizo inmediatamente despues de la irradiacion, y con posterioridad a lapsos variables. Se controlo la evolucion de los animales y fundamentalmente el cuadro hematico y medula osea. (author) [Russian] Pshenicu obluchali razlichnymi dozami s cel'ju opredelit' himicheskoe i fizicheskoe vlijanie obluchenija na celoe zerno (ego povedenie kak semeni) i muku (pishhevaja cennost'). V opyte ispol'zovali raznovidnost' pshenicy Surena M. A. G., kul'tiviruemoj v Argentine, ona byla postavlena Nacional'noj organizaciej po pshenice. Byl primenen pribor kanadskaja gamma-kamera 220 s istochnikom kobal't-60 moshhnost'ju 13 000 kjuri, sposobnym davat' dozu priblizitel'no 1 mrad/chas. Pshenicu obluchali dozami 10, 15, 20, 50,100,150, 200,-300, 500,1000, 1500 i 2000 kilorad. Byli opredeleny sledujushhie analiticheskie velichiny: a) po celomu zernu - ves 1 gektolitra, vlazhnost', procent proteina (soderzhanie azota h 13,5), cifra Zeleny, soderzhanie zoly, sposobnost' k prorastaniju (2 i 3 dnja); b) po muke - vlazhnost', procent proteina (soderzhanie azota h 13,5), cifra Zeleny, soderzhanie zoly, alkogol'naja kislotnost', soderzhanie solodovogo sahara, soderzhanie zhidkoj klejkoviny, soderzhanie suhoj klejkoviny, farintrafi- cheskie velichiny (pogloshhenie vody, vremja razvitija, stepen' poristosti, shhup dlja izmerenija vlazhnosti Brabendera), al'veograficheskie velichiny (soprotivlenie testa raskatyvaniju, rastjagivanie, stepen' i skorost' deformacii, sootnoshenie soprotivlenija na raskatyvanie'i raskatyvanija), velichiny rasshirenija (rabota, trebuemaja dlja

  14. Aspects of Reactor Physics Research at the Victoria University of Manchester; Quelques Aspects des Experiences de Physique des Reacteurs a l'Universite Victoria de Manchester; Aspekty ehksperimental'nykh issledovanij po fizike reaktorov v universitete viktorii v manchestere; Trabajos de Fisica Experimental con Reactores Efectuados en la Universidad Victoria de Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M. J.; Walton, D. G. [Victoria University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    fiziki reaktorov s ogranichennymi sredstvami. Postroena nedorogaja jeksponencial'naja ustanovka prirodnyj uran-obychnaja voda. Ee mehanicheskaja konstrukcija daet vozmozhnost' dobit'sja znachitel'noj gibkosti, tak chto, naprimer, znachitel'no oblegchajutsja izmerenija v napravlenii, parallel'nom i perpendikuljarnom toplivnym sterzhnjam. Osushhestvljaetsja programma stacionarnyh izmerenij. Namechaetsja v obshhih chertah rabota na budushhee, vkljuchajushhaja izmerenija tonkoj struktury, vlijanie pustot i issljodovanija impul'snyh nejtronov. (author)

  15. Studies on radiation-image detectors; Etudes sur les detecteurs a images de rayonnements; Izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii; Estudios sobre detectores de radiaciones productores de imagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiffel, L [Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-04-15

    expone datos relativos a sus caracteristicas opticas, que son tambien aplicables a la tecnologia de la camara de centelleo. Examina brevemente algunos tipos de detectores productores de imagenes, que podrian construirse empleando gruesos bloques de sustancias capaces de acumular energia en cantidad considerable y de producir fosforescencia estimulada cuando se someten a irradiacion, asi como algunos metodos de lectura en los que se emplean haces opticos de exploracion para evitar la disminucion de poder de resolucion debida al espesor finito del fosforo. (author) [Russian] Opisana provodimaya v nastoyashchee vremya rabota po izucheniyu detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii, sposobnykh sokhranyat' informatsiyu o prostranstvennom raspredelenii. My zanimaemsya, glavnym obrazom, izucheniem problem, svyazannykh s opredeleniem raspredeleniya intensivnosti radiatsii na ploskosti, a vozmozhno, i na tsilindricheskoj poverkhnosti. V ehtu kategoriyu problem vkhodyat diffraktsiya nejtronov i radiografiya, a takzhe radiografiya rentgenovskikh luchej i gamma-izluchenij, ili zhe issledovanie rasseyaniya s pomoshch'yu takikh vidov izluchenij. Osobyj upor delaetsya na izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii, osnovannykh na razrushenii iskr, i na lyuminestsentsii ili navedennoj fosforestsentsii. My vyrabotali schetchiki iskr ochen' bol'shikh razmerov, vesom bolee 100 funtov, imeyushchie svetochuvstvitel'nye poverkhnosti poryadka 2000 kv. sm., kotorye snabzheny sistemoj ustupchatykh ploskostej pochti s 400 anodnykh i katodnykh provodov. Primenenie schetchikov, napolnennykh VOZDUKHOM ili gazovoj smes'yu argona s metanom dlya izmereniya potoka, sozdaet ustrojstvo, chuvstvitel'noe k al'fa-chastitsam, a obnaruzhenie medlennykh nejtronov dostigaetsya plastinami preobrazovatelya, obogashchennogo B{sup 10}. S drugimi zapolnyayushchimi gazami obnaruzhivalas' chuvstvitel'nost' k protonam i ehlektronam. Registratsiya raspredeleniya intensivnosti dostigaetsya fotograficheskoj s{sup e

  16. A Multi-Scaler Recording System and its Application to Radiometric ''Off-Line'' Analysis; Systeme d'Enregistrement a Echelles de Comptage Multiples et son Appucation aux Analyses Radlometriques Hors Circuit; Mul'tiskalyarnaya registriruyushchaya sistema i ee primenenie k radiometricheskim i ''vnelinejnym'' analizam; Un Sistema de Registro de Multiples Escalimetros y su Aplicacion al Analisis Radiometrico Discontinuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisby, H. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-02-15

    (escalimetros). En una planta de gran capacidad se necesitan muchos instrumentos de recuento de este tipo controlados independientemente y, por lo tanto, sin correlacion alguna de tiempo entre ellos. El sistema de registro automatico descrito en la memoria esta dotado de un dispositivo comun de lectura para mas de 50 instrumentos independientes de recuento; registra los datos de los escalimetros, identifica la muestra y el instrumento e indica el tiempo absoluto en que se produce cada lectura. Los datos pueden registrarse con una gran variedad de cintas y fichas perforadas, con impresiones seriadas o paralelas, o con cinta magnetica, para su ulterior sistematizacion mediante una calculadora electronica. Ademas, el funcionamiento de toda la instalacion de registro, incluidos los escalimetros de cualquiera de los sistemas, puede verificarse automaticamente sin interferir en el funcionamiento de otros instrumentos de recuento. Los autores llegan a la conclusion de que la eficacia del control cuantitativo de una planta reside en el analisis rapido y eficaz de las muestras en un laboratorio. Es probable que el desarrollo de instalaciones para el analisis discontinuo resulte mas factible y conveniente que el de un sistema de analisis continuo. En la memoria se examinan las caracteristicas que deberian tener los instrumentos de un laboratorio para ese tipo de analisis y se demuestra con un ejemplo la utilidad de la unificacion de los instrumentos y de un sistema amplio y flexible de registro de datos. Se menciona la posibilidad de llegar a un servicio totalmente automatico de elaboracion de los datos. (author) [Russian] Za poslednie neskol'ko let na krupnyh kompleksnyh zavodah po pererabotke jadernogo topliva prodelana bol'shaja rabota s cel'ju ih obespechenija kontrol'nymi priborami dlja sovremennyh analizov tehnologicheskih potokov i harakteristik. Odnako jeti pribory igrali bol'she kachestvennuju, chem kolichestvennuju rol' v obshhem kontrole zavoda. Kolichestvennaja informacija

  17. Reactor Physics Development for Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors; Recherches en Physique des Reacteurs, pour des Reacteurs Perfectionnes Refroidis par un Gaz; Razrabotka metodov v oblasti reaktornoj fiziki dlya usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Progresos de la Fisica de los Reactores de Tipo Avanzado Refrigerados por Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    metodos de medicion de los efectos de la reactividad en APEX, HERO y AGR, y para determinar los datos relativos a la estructura fina y a la distribucion de la potencia en los conjuntos combustibles complejos. Los trabajos se concentran principalmente en el desarrollo de un metodo capaz de sustituir al 'hetrecontrol' y al 'FTD2' , para los cuerpos de reactor cuando el combustible haya alcanzado un grado de combustion considerable. La finalidad del programa experimental con la instalacion HERO es precisamente comprobar estos metodos con cuerpos complejos, inclusive con combustible que contenga plutonio. La explotacion del reactor AGR y las mediciones fisicas que se realicen con el combustible despues de la irradiacion permitiran obtener datos adicionales sobre el efecto del plutonio. (author) [Russian] Rassmatrivaetsja tshhatel'naja jeksperimental'naja i teoreticheskaja rabota, provedennaja pri konstruirovanii, stroitel'stve i vvode v jekspluataciju Uindskejlskogo usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym ohlazhdeniem i pri okazanii obshhej pomoshhi pri razrabotke usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym ohlazhdeniem (AGR) dla proizvodstva jenergii dlja grazhdanskih celej. Daetsja opisanie znachitel'nogo ob{sup e}ma rabot, kotorye byli neobhodimy dlja razrabotki prigodnyh teoreticheskih metodov rascheta: 1) raspredelenija potoka i balansa reaktivnosti v slozhnoj aktivnoj zone reaktora; 2) raspredelenija jenergii v toplive so slozhnoj geometriej i 3) vlijanija obluchenija na toplivnye cikly i raspredelenie jenergii. V kachestve vvedenija delaetsja ssylka na jeksperimental'nye dannye i teoreticheskie metody, poluchennye v rezul'tate rabot nad uranovo-magnoksovymi sistemami, i na jeksperimental'nye dannye, poluchennye v rezul'tate Sovmestnoj jeksperimental'noj programmy Britanskoj promyshlennosti (BICEP), kotorye javilis' otpravnym momentom v razrabotke teoreticheskih metodov, primenimyh k usovershenstvovannym reaktoram s gazovym ohlazhdeniem. Dlja opredelenija parametrov

  18. Survey of Pulsed Neutron Source Methods for Multiplying Media; Methodes des Neutrons Pulses Pour l'Etude des Milieux Multiplicateurs; Obzor metodov s ispol'zovaniem istochnikov impul'snykh nejtronov dlya razmnozhayushchej sredy; Estudio Panoramico de los Metodos de Empleo de Fuentes de Neutrons Pulsados en Medios Multiplicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garelis, E. [General Electric Company, Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    . Jeksponencial'nyj raspad, jeksp (-{alpha}t) , funkcii Grina daet prostranst- venno nezavisimuju postojannuju raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov. Obsuzhdajutsja metody, s pomoshh'ju kotoryh vyvoditsja reaktivnost' iz al'fa-izmerenija, naprimer izmerenie zapaz- dyvajushhej kriticheskoj al'fa i poslednij metod (k{beta}/ Script-Small-L ). Izuchajutsja osnovnye vidy obrabotki modeli v svete teorii s istochnikom impul'snyh nejtronov, kotorye razrabotany dlja modeli (k{beta}/ Script-Small-L ). Rassmatrivajutsja oslozhnenija, svjazannye s teoriej istochnika impul'snyh nejtronov dlja poluchenija tochnyh postojannyh raspada i sootvetstvujushhih dannyh dlja analiza impul'snyh sistem. Rassmatrivaetsja jeksperimental'naja rabota, kotoraja pokazyvaet preimushhestva, a takzhe nedostatki metoda (k{beta}/ Script-Small-L ). Obsuzhdaetsja takzhe ispol'zovanie metoda psevdosluchajnogo otveta impul'sa s kor- reljaciej mezhdu vhodom i vyhodom dlja opredelenija funkcii Grina na razmnozhajushhej sborke. Pokazano, chto informacija, poluchennaja psevdosluchajnym metodom, javljaetsja identichnoj toj, kotoraja poluchena v rezul'tate povtornogo impul'snogo metoda. Takim obrazom, jeto delaet vozmozhnym primenjat' metodiku, razrabotannuju dlja povtorenija metoda psevdo-sluchajnosti. (author)

  19. Analyser for fast single events; Analyseur d'evenements rapides simples; Analizator bystrykh odnokratnykh yavlenij; Analizador de sucesos rapidos no recurrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlmeyer, J W; Patten, R B; Fussell, L Jr [Edgerton, Germeshausen And Grier, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1962-04-15

    pomoshch'yu metoda izmereniya vremeni proleta mozhno provodit' nejtronnuyu spektrometriyu. Mozhno provodit' bystrye i tochnye izomericheskie issledovaniya v otnoshenii izomerov s poluperiodom raspada v intervale ot 10 do 1000 nanosekund, a takzhe bystro i tochno opredelyat' rasseyanie. EHta rabota vypolnyalas' pri sodejstvii Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA. (author)

  20. Research with a Natural-Uranium Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Recherches au Moyen d'un Ensemble Sous-Critique a Uranium Naturel et a Eau Ordinaire; Issledovaniya na podkriticheskoj sborke,rabotayushchej na prirodnom urane i obychnoj vode; Investigaciones con un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Natural y Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, H. [Institute of Technical Physics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1964-02-15

    novym. Chast' ego nosit predvaritel'nyj harakter, poskol'ku jeksperimenty i obrabotka dannyh eshhe ne zakoncheny. Rabota na sborke koncentriruetsja na dvuh osnovnyh zadachah, a imenno: 1. Jeksperimental'noe izuchenie prigodnosti metodov rascheta, ispol'zuemyh,v chastnosti, v sluchajah osoboj geometrii (neravnomernoe raspredelenie topliva, konfiguracii podkriticheskoj sborki, granicy osoboj formy i t.d.). Teoreticheskoe issledovanie zdes' zachastuju privodit k nekotorym trudnostjam, svjazannym s konvergenciej. Pojetomu neobhodimo sravnenie s raspredelenijami izmerennyh potokov. 2. Izuchenie osobyh svojstv reshetok, zagruzhennyh prirodnym uranom i obychnoj vodoj, i v osobennosti prigodnosti neskol'kih gruppovyh modelej zamedlenija dlja odnorodnyh i neodnorodnyh struktur aktivnoj zony . Schitaetsja, chto sborka s odnim tol'ko istochnikom spontannogo delenija osobenno pri- go'dna dlja provedenija issledovanij takogo tipa, esli my prenebregaem plohoj statistikoj. Ob{sup j}asnjaetsja jeto dvumja prichinami: 1. Spektr pervichnogo istochnika mozhno schitat' identichnym so spektrom vyzvannogo delenija, pojetomu otsutstvujut perehodnye izmenenija jenergii, podobnye tem, kotorye nabljudajutsja v sluchae ispol'zovanija istochnika bystryh nejtronov. 2. Prostranstvennaja moshhnost' pervichnogo istochnika proporcional'na poperechnomu secheniju delenija topliva, kogda reshetka takzhe raschityvaetsja kak funkcija prostranstvennyh koordinat. Takaja harakternaja cherta takzhe pridaet prostotu forme uravnenij potoka i vo mnogih sluchajah shodstvo s kriticheskimi sistemami. V rezul'tate provedenija tshhatel'nogo analiza raspredelenija potokov v takoj sisteme mozhno poluchit' informaciju otnositel'no prigodnosti special'nyh modelej zamedlenija. Vozmozhno takzhe poluchit' raz{sup j}asnenie takih voprosov, kak delenie pod dejstviem bystryh nejtronov vzaimodejstvija i verojatnost' rezonansnoj utechki, zavisimoj ot prostranstva. Po mneniju avtora, podkriticheskaja sborka s zhidkim zamedlitelem

  1. Some Measurements of Thermal Neutron Spectra; Mesure de Spectres de Neutrons Thermiques; Nekotorye izmereniya spektrov teplovykh nejtronov; Algunas Mediciones de Espectros de Neutrones Termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, M. J.; Schofield, P.; Sinclair, R. N. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Research Group, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    gomogennyh zamedliteljah. Jeta rabota osushhestvljaetsja paralell'no i v prodolzhenie bolee rannej raboty avtora, sluzhit dlja proverki prigodnosti poperechnyh sechenij perehoda jenergii afE'-E), vyvodimyh iz primenjaemogo zakona rassejanija. Odnako takoj opyt absoljutno nechuvstvitelen k uglovoj zavisimosti rassejanija i sootvetstvujushhej chasti poperechnogo sechenija rassejanija, ne vyzyvajushhej obmena jenergiej s nejtronom rassejanija, prichem oba jeti momenta igrajut vazhnuju rol' v reshenii ljuboj problemy prostranstvennoj zavisimosti. Sootvetstvenno osushhestvljalis' drugie opyty, v kotoryh narochno vvodilis' razryvy prostranstvennoj i teplovoj nepreryvnosti, chtoby postavit' spektr v zavisimost' ot polnogo zakona rassejanija. Pervym iz takih opytov javljaetsja tak nazyvaemyj {sup o}pyt s dvumja blokami{sup ,} v kotorom teplovye nejtrony diffundirujut iz grafitovogo bloka pri komnatnoj temperature vo vtoroj blok, temperatura kotorogo mozhet podnimat'sja do 400 Degree-Sign S. Spektry nejtronov izmerjajutsja v razlichnyh polozhenijah okolo razryva temperaturnoj nepreryvnosti putem vydelenija puchka nejtronov iz kazhdogo polozhenija i propuskanija ego cherez spektrometr po vremeni proleta s selektorom nejtronov. V kachestve predvaritel'nogo analiza iz opyta, kotoryj mozhet byt' sravnen s analogichnymi opytami Benneta i dr. kotorye primenili de- dektory, chuvstvitel'nye k jenergii, vyvodjatsja {sup p}operechnye sechenija retermalizacii{sup .} V celjah poluchenija bolee podrobnyh sravnitel'nyh dannyh v nastojashhee vremja provodjatsja raschety po mnogogruppovoj teorii diffuzii s ispol'zovaniem poluchennyh v Chok-River dannyh po zakonu rassejanija s popytkoj predugadat' formu jenergeticheskogo spektra v polozhenijah v oboih blokah. Vo vtorom opyte vmesto razryva teplovoj nepreryvnosti vvoditsja razryv prostranstvennoj nepreryvnosti. Kadmievyj disk dostatochnoj tolshhiny, chtoby schitat'sja ''chernym'' dlja vseh nejtronov s jenergiej men'she 0,4 jev, zakrepljaetsja v centre

  2. Fixation of Simulated Highly Radioactive Wastes in Glassy Solids; Fixation de Dechets Simules de Haute Activite dans des Soudes Vitreux; 0424 0418 041a 0421 0410 0426 0418 042f 0418 041c 0418 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 0410 041d 041d 042b 0425 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 042b 0425 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 041e 0412 0412 042b 0421 041e 041a 041e 0419 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 041e 0421 0422 0418 0421 0422 0415 041a 041b 041e 041e 0411 0420 0410 0417 041d 042b 041c 0418 0422 0412 0415 0420 0414 042b 041c 0418 0412 0415 0429 0415 0421 0422 0412 0410 041c 0418 ; Fijacion de Desechos Simulados de Elevada Radiactividad en Solidos Vitreos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W. E.; Godbee, H. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-02-15

    pri maksimal'noj temperature udaljajutsja poslednie ostatki kislot i vody. Obrazovanie rasplavlennoj massy uvelichivaet korroziju nerzhavejushhej stali sorta 304L s 5 do 42 tysjachnyh djujma v mesjah dlja 24-chasovogo cikla uparivanija i fiksacii dlja othodov ''TBF-25-processa'' i s 8 do 140 tysjachnyh djujma v mesjac dlja othoda, ''Pureks-processa''. Rabota pri temperature svyshe 900 Degree-Sign C s othodami 'Pureks-processa' i s dobavleniem fljusov mozhet privesti k katastroficheskoj mestnoj korrozii. (author)

  3. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursel, C. A. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1963-10-15

    mezhdu okonchaniem stroitel'stva (sooruzhenie ehdakij i ustanovka oborudovaniya) i nachalom ehkspluatatsii na moshchnosti (proizvodstvo znachitel'nogo kolichestva ehlektricheskoj ehnergii netto). Ispytaniya presledovali sleduyushchie tseli: 1) proverit' rabochie kharakteristiki ustanovlennogo oborudovaniya; 2) opredelit' nachal'nuyu kritichnost' i koehffitsient reaktivnosti i 3) opredelit' fizicheskie kharakteristiki reaktora i rabochie kharakteristiki ustanovki po mere uvelicheniya moshchnosti. Nakoplennyj opyt mokhet byt' izlozhen v shesti otdel'nykh, no vzaimosvyazannykh razdelakh: 11 programma; 2) stoimost'; 3) potrebnosti v kadrakh; 4) tekhnologiya provedeniya ispytanij; 5) rabota oborudovaniya (vklyuchaya nepoladki) i 6) fakticheskie (po sravneniyu s raschetnymi) kharakteristiki raboty sistemy. Srednyaya proektnaya chislennost' personala, vklyuchaya rabochikh, operatorov, dozimetristov, vspomogatel'nyj tekhnicheskij personal i stazherov, sostavlyaet: dlya ERR - 50, dlya HNPF - 115 i dlya PNPF - 60 chelovek. Podrobnaya tekhnologiya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij v pis'mennom vide byla podgotovlenv dlya kazhdogo vazhnogo komponenta i kazhdoj sistemy ustanovki. Naskol'ko ehto bylo vozmozhno, vse ispytaniya byli provedeny do zagruzki topliva i nachala ehkspluatatsii vsej ustanovki. Oformlenie razreshenij na ehkpluatatsiyu ustanovok (dublikaty litsenzij na neprinadlezhashchie KAEH SSHA ustanovki) zanyalo pochti vse vremya provedeniya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij. Vremya, potrebovavsheesya dlya provedeniya predehkspluatatsionnykh ispytanij kazhdoj iz ehtikh ustanovok, znachitel'no prevysilo pervonachal'no namechennoe vremya. Ispytaniya vskryli ryad yavnykh i predpolagaemykh neispravnostej komponentov, v rezul'tate chego potrebovalos' provesti dopolnitel'nye ispytaniya i analizy. V ryade sluchaev dlya ispravleniya oshibok, dopushchennykh pri izgotovlenii ili konstruirovanii oborudovaniya, komponenty prishlos' remontirovat' ili vidoizmenyat'. Osnovnymi nepoladkami

  4. The Proportional Counter. Some Aspects of Operation; Le compteur proportionnel. Ses caracteristiques de fonctionnement; Proportsional'nyj schetchik. Nekotorye aspekty raboty; El contador proportional. Sus caracteristicas de funcionamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, S C [Awre, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1960-06-15

    sistematica de las propriedades de los gases y mezclas utilizadas en el recuento proporcional. Cabe esperar que las mediciones efectuadas con este dispositivo permitan ampliar el campo de aplicacion de los contadores. (author) [Russian] I. Rabota nad schetnoj sistemoj, prednaznachenno j dlya izucheniya zakhvata ehlektronov, pokazala, chto diametr anoidnogo provoda v proportsional'no m schetchike s vysokim' davleniem mozhet okazyvat' bol'shoe vliyanie na razreshenie po ehnergii, poluchaemoe pri izmereniyakh radiatsii nizkoj ehnergii. V schetchike, rabotayushchem pri davlenii v 12 atmosfer, shirina raspredeleniya impul'sov pri radiatsii v 13,5 kehv K-zakhvata mozhet byt' izmenena ot 65% do 17% posredstvom izmeneniya diametra provoda ot 0,0076 do 0,0025 millimetra. EHto yavlenie ob{sup y}asnyaetsya kak dejstvie polozhitel'nogo prostranstvennog o zaryada iona v lavine. Dlya opredelennogo usileniya gaza i osnovnoj radiatsii plotnost' polozhitel'ny kh ionov v lavine bystro uvelichivaetsya vmeste s davleniem napolnyayushchego gaza, i kogda soputstvuyushchie ehlektricheskie polya stanovyatsya dostatochno bol'shimi, chtoby povliyat' na poslednie stadii protsessa umnozheniya, razreshenie po ehnergii schetchika ukhudshaetsya. Umen'shenie diametra anodnogo provoda uvelichivaet poyavlyayushcheesya izvne pole v tom meste, gde proiskhodit umnozhenie, i tem samym stremitsya protivodejstvovat ' dejstviyu prostranstvennogo zaryada. Ispol'zovanie 0,0025-millimetrovy kh anodnykh provodov okazalos' udovletvoritel'ny m pri novykh izmereniyakh koehffitsient a zakhvata L/K, provodimogo s mnogoprovodno j schetnoj sistemoj s Davleniem do 12 atmosfer. Rezul'taty, poluchennye dlya koehffitsienta zakhvata L/K s Ge{sup 71} i Kg{sup 79} ravny 0,115 i 0,112 sootvetstvenno . Tazhe schetnaya sistema ispol'zovalas' pri issledovanii M-zakhvata v ehtikh dvukh izotopakh. Nizkaya ehnergiya radiatsii M-zakhvata, 180 ehv v Ge{sup 71}, 260 ehv v Kg{sup 79} i ee nizkaya intensivnost' po po sravneniyu s intensivnost

  5. Plasma-Column Equilibrium in Tokamak-5; L'Equilibre d'une Colonne de Plasma dans l'Installation Tokamak-5; Issledovanie ravnovesiya plazmennogo shnura na ustanovke Tokamak-5; El Equilibrio de una Columna de Plasma en la Instalacion 'Tokamak-5'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhovatov, V. S. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    . Se preparo un experimento para estimar la importancia de la contribucion al mantenimiento del equilibrio de la columna de plasma en el Tokamak, que es debido al mecanismo de cortocircuito de las corrientes de deriva por el diafragma conductor. A este fin, se dividio el diafragma en seis segmentos, aislados unos de otros. En el proceso de la descarga, con B{sub z} = 0, entre los segmentos superiores y los inferiores se observo una diferencia de potencial unipolar, casi de un orden de magnitud mayor que la temperatura electronica, calculada a partir de la conductividad electrica media del plasma. Para el valor optimo de B{sub z}, la diferencia de potencial era casi nula y, con un aumento posterior de B{sub z}, cambiaba de signo. Se observo una dependencia analoga, respecto de B{sub z}, en el caso de las corrientes que circulaban entre los segmentos al cerrar el circuito mediante resistencias de algunos ohmios. El contacto electrico de todos los segmentos entre sf, no producia una variacion apreciable de la magnitud del desplazamiento de la columna de plasma, ni de otras caracteristicas de la descarga. El valor, que se ha medido, de la corriente entre segmentos, no es suficiente para explicar la disparidad antes mencionada, tanto mas cuanto que se observa tambien estando los segmentos aislados. Se examinan las causas posibles de dicha discrepancia y los motivos de la aparicion de la gran diferencia de potencial entre los segmentos. (author) [Russian] Rabota posvjashhena issledovaniju uslovij ravnovesija plazmennogo shnura v ustanovke Toka- mak-5. Jeta ustanovka imeet sledujushhie parametry: bol'shoj radius mednogo kozhuha V = 62,5 sm, ego malyj radius b = 25 sm, malyj radius lajnera -20 sm, radius otverstija diafragmy - 15 sm (centr otverstija diafragmy i centr poperechnogo sechenija kozhuha sovpadajut), naprjazhennost' prodol'nogo magnitnogo polja B{sub 0} =6 Division-Sign 12 kje, velichina toka v plazme J = 15 Division-Sign 20 ka. Opyty provodilis' pri nachal

  6. Thermodynamic Behaviour of Hypostoichiometric UO{sub 2}; Comportement Thermodynamique de UO{sub 2} HypostoeChiometrique; Termodinamicheskoe povedenie gipostekhiometricheskoj UO{sub 2}; Comportamiento Termodinamico del UO{sub 2} Subestequiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, E. A.; Brassfield, H. C.; Fryxell, R. E. [General Electric Company, Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1966-02-15

    concuerdan con un modelo estadistico. El modelo supone que la desviacion respecto de la composicion estequiometrica se produce por un exceso de atomos de oxigeno en posiciones intersticiales, o bion por un defecto de oxigeno en el subreticulo de este elemento. El orden de los atomos intersticiales y de los huecos de oxigeno se altera. La energia de Frenkel es de 60 kcal/atomo gramo para el oxigeno, lo que concuerda satisfactoriamente con evaluaciones anteriores basadas en datos de autodifusion del oxigeno. Los autores analizan en la memoria la relacion existente entre G(O{sub 2}) y la presion parcial de los oxidos gaseosos UO y UO{sub 2}, y formulan algunas observaciones generales sobre los resultados obtenidos al aplicar estos metodos experimentales a otros compuestos, tales como el ThO{sub 2}. (author) [Russian] Sposob- nost' struktury tipa UO{sub 2} razmeshhat' izbytok kisloroda horosho izvestna. Nedavnij opyt pokazal, chto jeta struktura stabil'na takzhe v stehiometricheskom sostojanii pri vysokih temperaturah i parcial'nyh nizkih davlenijah kisloroda, no ona projavljaet sebja, kogda metal- licheskij uran osedaet v okisi posle ostyvanija ot vysokih temperatur, Jeta rabota opisy- vaet dal'nejshie dokazatel'stva sushhestvovanija pri vysokih temperaturah stabil'noj gipo- stehiometricheskoj okisi urana i chastichno opisyvaet izmenenie termodinamicheskih svojstv v oblasti ee gomogennosti. Gipostehiometricheskaja UO{sub 2} kongrujentno vyparivaetsja v hode svobodnogo isparenija v medlenno tekushhem vodorode (tochka rosy - 40 Degree-Sign S) pri 2 400 Degree-Sign S pri sosta- ve s otnosheniem kislorod-uran, ravnym l;sli temperatura umen'shaetsja ili soderzhanie vlagi (chastichnoe davlenie kisloroda) uvelichivaetsja, to uvelichivaetsja i kongrujentnyj sostav. Soderzhanie vody v vodorode pri 2 400 Degree-Sign S dolzhno sostavljat' po men'shej mere odin procent dlja podderzhanija stehiometricheskoj dvuokisi urana. Kogda tabletki UO{sub 2} germetizirujutsja v tantalovyh obolochkah i