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Sample records for rabbits 90-day dermal

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Mu Yeb Seo,2,* Sung Kyu Jung,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Seung-Young Lee,2 Dong-Hyouk Jang,2 Taek-Jin Lee,2 Ki-Yeon Jo,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Beom Jun Lee,5 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggido, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work and both should be considered first authors Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there

  2. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  3. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... test, the number of animals showing lesions, the types of lesions and the percentage of animals displaying each type of lesion. (ii) When applicable, all observed results, qualitative and quantitative... possible, throughout the duration of the study, and the research sample should be stored under conditions...

  4. Dermal toxicity of Colloidal Nanosilver in Albino Rabbit: A New Approach to Physicochemical Properties

    Anoushe Raesian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Silver nanoparticles have been widely used as new potent antimicrobial agents in cosmetic and hygienic products, as well as in new medical devices. Serious concerns have been expressed on the potential health risks of dermal applications of nanosilver containing consumer products (AgNPs, therefore regulatory health risk assessment has become necessary for the safe usage of AgNPs in biomedical products with special emphasis to their dermal toxicity potentials. We aimed in the present study to compare the dermal toxicity of three different AgNP containing disinfectantsin an albino rabbit model and tried to determine the role of size and other physicochemical properties on their possible dermal toxicity. Methods: After the characterization of all three samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS , corrosive and irritant potentials  of AgNPs in three different sizes of three colloidal AgNPs were scored by the OECD 404 guideline with necessary modifications and were applied under the specified concentrations via nanosilver skin patches on the shaved skin of young female albino rabbits. All skin reactions were recorded in 3 min as well as in 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours from the application and compared with the control group and followed up for 14 days. Results: Although short-term observations didn’t show any significant changes in the weight of animals and macroscopic  variables, long-term histopathological abnormalities were seen in the skin of all test groups, which was not associated with the size and other physicochemical properties of AgNP samples. The toxicity manifestations were dry skin, scaling in doses lower than 100 ppm and erythema in higher doses up to 4000 ppm which was reversed. Conclusions: This finding creates a new issue in the possible dermal effects of all colloidal AgNPs, containing nano health products, which should be considered in future studies by

  5. The cytolethal distending toxin of Haemophilus ducreyi aggravates dermal lesions in a rabbit model of chancroid.

    Wising, Catharina; Mölne, Lena; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2005-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and persistence of infection. A non-toxin producing H. ducreyi strain, and for comparison purposes a non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae strain, were inoculated intradermally, with and without co-administration of purified HdCDT. Co-administration of HdCDT resulted in significant aggravation of H. ducreyi-induced inflammatory lesions, and development of ulcers in rabbit skin. Less pronounced inflammatory lesions and lack of epithelial eruption were observed after inoculation with H. influenzae. Histopathological sections of the H. ducreyi-induced lesions, in both the presence and absence of HdCDT, showed dense infiltrates of the same type inflammatory cells, with the exception of a prominent endothelial cell proliferation noted in sections from lesions caused by H. ducreyi and toxin. Signs of chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells, macrophages, eosinophils, and granuloma formation were observed after H. ducreyi inoculation both with and without toxin. In conclusion, H. ducreyi causes a pronounced, chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells and macrophages, and in combination with HdCDT production of ulcers in the rabbit model. These pathogenic mechanisms may promote the development and persistence of chancroid ulcers.

  6. Dermal Wound Transcriptomic Responses to Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Rabbit Ear Wound Model

    2014-05-02

    intradermally with 1% lidocaine /1:100,000 epinephrine at the wound sites. A total of 18 rabbits were used. Four, 6-mm diameter, full-thickness dermal wounds...based on literature compiled in the Ingenuity® Knowledge Base, to include: ‘adhesion of immune cells’, ‘ synthesis of reactive oxygen species... synthesis of specific transcription factors and their target genes that support recovery from the stress (e.g., ER chaperones, oxidoreductases, and ERAD

  7. Intravitreal bevacizumab in pigmented rabbit eyes: histological analysis 90 days after injection Bevacizumabe intravítreo em olhos de coelhos não albinos: análise histológica 90 dias após a injeção

    João Carlos Diniz Arraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate bevacizumab toxicity in neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium in pigmented rabbit eyes by means of histological studies. METHODS: Thirty eyes of fifteen rabbits were distributed into three groups: sham group (S, that received a 0.1 ml balanced saline solution (BSS intravitreal injection (10 eyes; group 1, that received a 1.25 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes; and group 2, that received a 2.5 mg (0.1 ml bevacizumab intravitreal injection (10 eyes. Rabbits were sacrificed 90 days after the procedure and both eyes of each rabbit were enucleated. A histological examination of neurosensorial retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE was performed. Its morphological features and layer thickness were also analyzed. RESULTS: No histological differences in neurosensorial retina or in retinal pigmented epithelium were found and layer thickness did not differ significantly between balanced saline solution-injected eyes and bevacizumab-injected eyes. CONCLUSION: After a 90-day follow-up period, a single 1.25 or 2.5 mg bevacizumab intravitreal injection did not lead to toxic damage in the neurosensorial retina and retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbit eyes, and it appears to be a safe procedure for retinal neovascular diseases.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade do bevacizumabe na retina neurossensorial e epitélio pigmentado da retina (EPR em olhos de coelhos não albinos pelos estudos histológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta olhos de 15 coelhos foram distribuídos em três grupos: 10 olhos no grupo placebo (P, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 0,1 ml de solução salina balanceada (SSB; 10 olhos no grupo 1, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 1,25 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe; e 10 olhos no grupo 2, que recebeu uma injeção intravítrea de 2,5 mg (0,1 ml de bevacizumabe. Os coelhos tiveram seus dois olhos enucleados sob anestesia geral e submetidos à eutanásia 90 dias após a inje

  8. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad training plan

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) team training plan for the 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad of Hazardous Waste. It is intended to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. Training unrelated to compliance with WAC 173-303-330 is not addressed in this training plan. WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(ii, v, vi) requires that personnel be familiarized, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, response to ground-water contamination incidents, and shutdown of operations. These are not applicable to 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad, and are therefore not covered in this training plan

  10. Unplanned readmission within 90 days after pediatric neurosurgery.

    Chotai, Silky; Guidry, Bradley S; Chan, Emily W; Sborov, Katherine D; Gannon, Stephen; Shannon, Chevis; Bonfield, Christopher M; Wellons, John C; Naftel, Robert P

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Readmission and return to operating room after surgery are increasingly being used as a proxy for quality of care. Nearly 60% of these readmissions are unplanned, which translates into billions of dollars in health care costs. The authors set out to analyze the incidence of readmission at their center, to define causes of unplanned readmission, and to determine the preoperative and surgical variables associated with readmissions following pediatric neurosurgery. METHODS A total of 536 children who underwent operations for neurosurgical diagnoses between 2012 and 2015 and who were later readmitted were included in the final analysis. Unplanned readmissions were defined to have occurred as a result of complications within 90 days after index surgery. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed to determine the primary diagnosis, surgery indication, and cause of readmission and return to operating room. The cost for index hospitalization, readmission episode, and total cost were derived based on the charges obtained from administrative data. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. RESULTS Of 536 patients readmitted in total, 17.9% (n = 96) were readmitted within 90 days. Of the overall readmissions, 11.9% (n = 64) were readmitted within 30 days, and 5.97% (n = 32) were readmitted between 31 and 90 days. The median duration between discharge and readmission was 20 days (first quartile [Q1]: 9 days, third quartile [Q3]: 36 days). The most common reason for readmission was shunt related (8.2%, n = 44), followed by wound infection (4.7%, n = 25). In the risk-adjusted multivariable logistic regression model for total 90-day readmission, patients with the following characteristics: younger age (p = 0.001, OR 0.886, 95% CI 0.824-0.952); "other" (nonwhite, nonblack) race (p = 0.024, OR 5.49, 95% CI 1.246-24.2); and those born preterm (p = 0.032, OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.12) had higher odds of being readmitted within 90 days after discharge. The total

  11. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  12. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    kazem Koohi, Mohammad; Hejazy, Marzie; Asadi, Farzad; Asadian, Peyman

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  13. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    Koohi, Mohammad kazem; Hejazy, Marzie [Toxicology division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, Farzad [Biochemistry division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadian, Peyman, E-mail: mkkoohi@ut.ac.ir [Clinical pathology department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  14. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  15. Distribution and Determinants of 90-Day Payments for Multilevel Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Medicare Analysis.

    Jain, Nikhil; Phillips, Frank M; Khan, Safdar N

    2018-04-01

    A retrospective, economic analysis. The objective of this article is to analyze the distribution of 90-day payments, sources of variation, and reimbursement for complications and readmissions for primary ≥3-level posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) from Medicare data. A secondary objective was to identify risk factors for complications. Bundled payments represent a single payment system to cover all costs associated with a single episode of care, typically over 90 days. The dollar amount spent on different health service providers and the variation in payments for ≥3-level PLF have not been analyzed from a bundled perspective. Administrative claims data were used to study 90-day Medicare (2005-2012) reimbursements for primary ≥3-level PLF for deformity and degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Distribution of payments, sources of variation, and reimbursements for managing complications were studied using linear regression models. Risk factors for complications were studied by stepwise multiple-variable logistic regression analysis. Hospital payments comprised 73.8% share of total 90-day payment. Adjusted analysis identified several factors for variation in index hospital payments. The average 90-day Medicare payment for all multilevel PLFs without complications was $35,878 per patient. The additional average cost of treating complications with/without revision surgery within 90 days period ranged from $17,284 to $68,963. A 90-day bundle for ≥3-level PLF with readmission ranges from $88,648 (3 levels) to $117,215 (8+ levels). Rates and risk factors for complications were also identified. The average 90-day payment per patient from Medicare was $35,878 with several factors such as levels of surgery, comorbidities, and development of complications influencing the cost. The study also identifies the risks and costs associated with complications and readmissions and emphasize the significant effect these would have on bundled payments (additional burden of up

  16. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  17. Peritoneal dialysis technique success during the initial 90 days of therapy.

    Guest, Steven; Hayes, Andrew C; Story, Kenneth; Davis, Ira D

    2012-01-01

    Comparisons of technique success by peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality have typically excluded the initial 90 days of therapy. We analyzed a database of 51,469 new PD starts from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The analysis concentrated on the initial 90 days of therapy to determine technique success and the impact of the continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD) modalities. Overall, 13.3% of patients stopped PD within 90 days. Of patients starting directly on APD, 14.3% stopped PD within 90 days. Of patients starting on CAPD, 12.6% stopped PD within 90 days, and 63.4% changed to APD within 90 days. Only 3.3% of the latter patients failed to reach 90 days of therapy. By comparison, technique failure occurred in 28.8% of those initiating with and remaining on CAPD. We conclude that initial training to perform CAPD, with timely transfer to APD within the first 3 months, was associated with the greatest technique success at 90 days. The reasons for that success are unclear, and further research should be directed to determining factors responsible. It is possible that patients trained initially to CAPD but converted to APD have a greater understanding of the total therapy, which improves confidence. Those converted to APD may be more appreciative of the lifestyle benefits of APD, which translates into improved compliance; alternatively, technical factors associated with APD may be responsible. Those technical factors may include improved catheter function in the recumbent position during APD or the reduced infection risk associated with just 2 connect/disconnect procedures in APD compared with 8 in CAPD.

  18. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  19. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome After Paternal Exposure to Methotrexate Within 90 Days Before Pregnancy

    Eck, Lasse Karlsen; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within the 90-day period before pregnancy and congenital malformations and stillbirth in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register study. Our cohort consisted of all live births in Denmark between 1997...... group and no increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.66-2.59) among the children from exposed fathers. CONCLUSION: We found no association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within 90 days before pregnancy and congenital malformations, stillbirths, or preterm birth. Available...

  20. PREDICE score as a predictor of 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Purba, D. P. S.; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in chronic heart failure patients associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. The 90 days post-discharge period following hospitalization in heart failure patients is known as the vulnerable phase, it carries the high risk of poor outcomes. Identification of high-risk individuals by using prognostic evaluation was intended to do a closer follow up and more intensive to decreasing the morbidity and mortality rate of heart failure.To determine whether PREDICE score could predict mortality within 90 days in patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study in patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were in following-up for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death.We found a difference of the significantstatistical between PREDICE score in survival and mortality group (p=0.001) of 84% (95% CI: 60.9% - 97.4%).In conclusion, PREDICE score has a good ability to predict mortality within 90 days in patients with heart failure.

  1. Risk factors of significant pain syndrome 90 days after minor thoracic injury: trajectory analysis.

    Daoust, Raoul; Emond, Marcel; Bergeron, Eric; LeSage, Natalie; Camden, Stéphanie; Guimont, Chantal; Vanier, Laurent; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to identify the risk factors of clinically significant pain at 90 days in patients with minor thoracic injury (MTI) discharged from the emergency department (ED). A prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted in four Canadian EDs from November 2006 to November 2010. All consecutive patients aged 16 years or older with MTI were eligible at discharge from EDs. They underwent standardized clinical and radiologic evaluations at 1 and 2 weeks, followed by standardized telephone interviews at 30 and 90 days. A pain trajectory model characterized groups of patients with different pain evolutions and ascertained specific risk factors in each group through multivariate analysis. In this cohort of 1,132 patients, 734 were eligible for study inclusion. The authors identified a pain trajectory that characterized 18.2% of the study population experiencing clinically significant pain (>3 of 10) at 90 days after a MTI. Multivariate modeling found two or more rib fractures, smoking, and initial oxygen saturation below 95% to be predictors of this group of patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first prospective study of trajectory modeling to detect risk factors associated with significant pain at 90 days after MTI. These factors may help in planning specific treatment strategies and should be validated in another prospective cohort. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Unplanned emergency department consultations and readmissions within 30 and 90 days of bariatric surgery.

    Iskra, María P; Ramón, José M; Martínez-Serrano, Andrés; Serra, Carmen; Goday, Albert; Trillo, Lourdes; Lanzarini, Enrique; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Hospital readmission is used as a measure of quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, causes, and risk factors related to emergency consultations and readmissions within 30 and 90 days in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Retrospective study of 429 patients operated on from January 2004 to July 2015 from a prospectively maintained database and electronic medical records. Demographic data, type of intervention, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and records of emergency visits and readmissions were analyzed. Within the first 90 days postoperative, a total of 117 (27%) patients consulted the Emergency Department and 24 (6%) were readmitted. The most common reasons for emergency consultation were noninfectious problems related to the surgical wound (n=40, 34%) and abdominal pain (n=28, 24%), which was also the first cause of readmission (n=9, 37%). Postoperative complications, reintervention, associated surgery in the same operation and depression were risk factors for emergency consultation within the first 90 days of the postoperative period. Despite the high number of patients who visit the Emergency Department in the first 90 days of the postoperative period, few require readmission and none surgical reoperation. It is important to know the reasons for emergency consultation to establish preventive measures and improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Time course and reasons for 90-day mortality in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    : Prospective observational study in 13,775 consecutive THA/TKAs with similar fast-track protocols and a median length of stay of 2 days. Complete 90-days follow-up through national registries, followed by review of medical records and death certificates. Relation between mortality and surgically induced organ...

  4. Community pharmacy and mail order cost and utilization for 90-day maintenance medication prescriptions.

    Khandelwal, Nikhil; Duncan, Ian; Rubinstein, Elan; Ahmed, Tamim; Pegus, Cheryl

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies promote mail order programs that typically dispense 90-day quantities of maintenance medications, marketing this feature as a key cost containment strategy to address plan sponsors' rising prescription drug expenditures. In recent years, community pharmacies have introduced 90-day programs that provide similar cost advantages, while allowing these prescriptions to be dispensed at the same pharmacies that patients frequent for 30-day quantities. To compare utilization rates and corresponding costs associated with obtaining 90-day prescriptions at community and mail order pharmacies for payers that offer equivalent benefits in different 90-day dispensing channels. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional investigation using pharmacy claims and eligibility data from employer group clients of a large PBM between January 2008 and September 2010. We excluded the following client types: government, third-party administrators, schools, hospitals, 340B (federal drug pricing), employers in Puerto Rico, and miscellaneous clients for which the PBM provided billing services (e.g., the pharmacy's loyalty card program members). All employer groups in the sample offered 90-day community pharmacy and mail order dispensing and received benefits management services, such as formulary management and mail order pharmacy, from the PBM. We further limited the sample to employer groups that offered equivalent benefits for community pharmacy and mail order, defined as groups in which the mean and median copayments per claim for community and mail order pharmacy, by tier, differed by no more than 5%. Enrollees in the sample were required to have a minimum of 6 months of eligibility in each calendar year but were not required to have filled a prescription in any year. We evaluated pharmacy costs and utilization for a market basket of 14 frequently dispensed therapeutic classes of maintenance medications. The proportional share of claims for

  5. 30-Day, 90-day and 1-year mortality after emergency colonic surgery

    Pedersen, T; Watt, S K; Tolstrup, M-B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Emergency surgery is an independent risk factor in colonic surgery resulting in high 30-day mortality. The primary aim of this study was to report 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality rates after emergency colonic surgery, and to report factors associated with 30-day, 90-day and 1-year...... mortality. Second, the aim was to report 30-day postoperative complications and their relation to in-hospital mortality. METHODS: All patients undergoing acute colonic surgery in the period from May 2009 to April 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark, were identified. Perioperative data...... postoperative deaths. CONCLUSION: Mortality and complication rates after emergency colonic surgery are high and associated with patient related risk factors that cannot be modified, but also treatment related outcomes that are modifiable. An increased focus on medical and other preventive measures should...

  6. Clinical Outcomes and 90-Day Costs Following Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Arthroplasty for Hip Fracture.

    Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2017-09-01

    In the era of bundled payments, many hospitals are responsible for costs from admission through 90 days postdischarge. Although bundled episodes for hip fracture will have a separate target price for the bundle, little is known about the 90-day resource use burden for this patient population. Using Medicare 100% Standard Analytic Files (2010-2014), we identified patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients were aged 65 and older with admitting diagnosis of closed hip fracture, no concurrent fractures of the lower limb, and no history of hip surgery in the prior 12 months baseline. Continuous Medicare-only enrollment was required. Complications, resource use, and mortality from admission through 90 days following discharge (follow-up) were summarized. Four cohorts met selection criteria for analysis: (1) hemiarthroplasty diagnosis-related group (DRG) 469 (N = 19,634), (2) hemiarthroplasty DRG 470 (N = 77,744), (3) THA DRG 469 (N = 1686), and (4) THA DRG 470 (N = 9314). All-cause mortality during the study period was 51.6%, 29.5%, 48.1%, and 24.9% with mean 90-day costs of $28,952, $19,243, $29,763, and $18,561, respectively. Most of the patients waited 1 day from admission to surgery (41%-51%). Incidence of an all-cause complication was approximately 70% in each DRG 469 cohort and 14%-16% in each DRG 470 cohort. This study confirms patients with hip fracture are a costly subpopulation. Tailored care pathways to minimize post-acute care resource use are warranted for these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Infants 1-90 days old hospitalized with human rhinovirus infection.

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Charla S; Cumpio, Joven; Novak, Susan M; She, Rosemary C; Steinberg, Evan A; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2014-09-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in children. The impact of HRV infection on 1- to 90-day-old infants is unclear. We hypothesized that HRV infection would be clinically similar to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the hospitalized infants. We conducted a retrospective study of hospitalized infants, who were 1-90 days old, with HRV or RSV within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente network over a 1-year period (August 2010 to October 2011). We identified 245 hospitalized infants who underwent respiratory virus testing. HRV was found in 52 infants (21%) compared to 79 infants (32%) with RSV (P = 0.008). Infants with HRV infection experienced longer hospital stays compared to those with RSV (median length of stay 4 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.009) and had fewer short hospital stays ≤3 days (P = 0.029). There was a trend in infants with HRV infection to be younger (P = 0.071) and have more fevers (P = 0.052). Recent advances in diagnostics allow for identification of a broad range of viral pathogens in infants. Compared to RSV, HRV was associated with longer hospital stays. Additional studies and improved, more specific testing, methods are needed to further define the effects of HRV infection in infants 1-90 days old. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors Predictive of 90-Day Morbidity, Readmission, and Costs in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Exenteration.

    Bogani, Giorgio; Signorelli, Mauro; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Casarin, Jvan; Mosca, Lavinia; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Pelvic exenteration for recurrent gynecological malignancies is characterized by a high rate of severe complications. Factors predictive of morbidity, readmission, and cost were analyzed. Data of consecutive patients undergoing pelvic exenteration between January 2007 and December 2016 were prospectively evaluated. Fifty-eight patients were included in the analysis. Anterior, posterior, and total exenterations were executed in 39 (67%), 9 (16%), and 10 (17%) patients, respectively. Ten (15.5%) severe complications occurred: 8 (20.5%), 0 (0%), and 1 (10%) after anterior, posterior, and total exenterations, respectively. Radiotherapy dosage, time between radiotherapy and surgery, and previous administration of chemotherapy did not influence 90-day complications and readmission. At multivariable analysis, albumin levels less than 3.5 g/dL (odds ratio, 16.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.8]; P = 0.002) and history of deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio, 9.6 [95% confidence interval, 0.93-98.2]; P = 0.057) were associated with 90-day morbidity. Low albumin levels independently correlated with readmission (P = 0.011). The occurrence of 90-day postoperative complications and readmission increased costs of a median of +12,500 and +6000 euros, respectively (P < 0.05). Preoperative patient selection is a key point for the reduction of postoperative complications after pelvic exenteration. Further prospective studies are warranted to improve patient selection.

  9. <90 day storage training plan for the 103-B, 1701-BA, AND 1714-C buildings

    Snider, P.M.

    1996-10-01

    The 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714C < 90 Day Storage Area stores characteristic wastes generated in the demolition of the 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C Complex. Wastes (lead-based painted components) are packaged and stored in vendor shipment containers. This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor team training plan for the 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C subgrade demolition < 90 Day Storage of Hazardous Waste. This document is intended to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. Training unrelated to compliance with WAC 173-303-330 is not addressed in this training plan. WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(2, 5, 6) requires that personnel be familiarized, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, response to ground-water contamination incidents, and shutdown of operations. These are not applicable to 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C Subgrade Demolition < 90 Day Storage, and therefore are not covered in this training plan

  10. Is there value in retrospective 90-day bundle payment models for shoulder arthroplasty procedures?

    Odum, Susan M; Hamid, Nady; Van Doren, Bryce A; Spector, Leo R

    2018-05-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative was implemented as part of the Affordable Care Act. We implemented a retrospective payment model 2 for a 90-day total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) episode to assess the value of TSA BPCI at our private practice. Expenditures and postacute event rates of 132 fee-for-service (FFS) patients who underwent a TSA operation between 2009 and 2012 were compared with 333 BPCI patients who had a TSA operation in 2015. The 90-day postacute events included an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), skilled nursing facility (SNF), and home health (HH) admissions and readmissions. Expenditures were converted to 2016 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Wilcoxon tests and multivariate generalized estimating equation were used to assess independent cost-drivers. The median FFS expenditure was $21,157 (interquartile range, $16,894-$30,748) compared with $17,894 (interquartile range, $15,796-$20,894) for BPCI (P model, we found BPCI had a 4% decrease in expenditures (P = .08). All postacute events were independently associated with higher expenditures. Our private practice implemented cost-containment practices, including clinical guidelines, patient navigators, and a BPCI management team. IRF and SNF utilization and the 90-day readmission rate significantly decreased. As a result, we were able to control the postacute spending, which resulted in decreased costs of performing TSA surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical profile of bronchiolitis in infants younger than 90 days in Saudi Arabia

    Syed Amir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile at presentation, disease course and outcome of bronchiolitis in <3-month-old infants who presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department (PED during one disease season. Settings: Retrospective chart review during one bronchiolitis season, from November 1, 2011 to April 20, 2012. Subjects: All <90-day-old infants presenting with clinical bronchiolitis presenting to Urban PED of a tertiary care university hospital during one bronchiolitis season. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review based on computer records of all emergency department visits of infants less than 90 days with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, covering the period between November 1, 2011 and April 30, 2012. Results: Out of the total of 1895 infants <90 days of age, 141 had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis and 35 needed admission to hospital. Blood for culture was obtained from 47 infants, urine for culture was obtained from 46 infants and cerebrospinal fluid for culture was obtained from eight infants. One case of bacteremia was documented, but this was found to be a contaminant. No cases of meningitis occurred among these infants. However, one infant had a positive urine culture consistent with infection (Escherichia coli . Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be conclude that the risk of bacteremia or meningitis among infants <90 days of age with fever and bronchiolitis is low. The

  12. Diagnostic testing for serious bacterial infections in infants aged 90 days or younger with bronchiolitis.

    Liebelt, E L; Qi, K; Harvey, K

    1999-05-01

    To describe the different laboratory tests that are performed on young infants aged 90 days or younger with bronchiolitis and to identify historical and clinical predictors of infants on whom laboratory tests are performed. Cross-sectional study whereby information was obtained by retrospective review of medical records from November through March 1992 to 1995 of all infants with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Urban pediatric emergency department. Two hundred eleven consecutive infants aged 90 days or younger (median age, 54 days) with 216 episodes of bronchiolitis. Historical and clinical data on each infant in addition to laboratory data that included a white blood cell count, urinalysis, and blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Two or more laboratory tests (not including chest radiographs) were obtained in 48% of all infants and 78% of febrile infants. Of the 91 infants with a history of a temperature of 38.0 degrees C or more or temperature on presentation of 38.0 degrees C or more, white blood cell counts were obtained in 77%, blood cultures in 75%, urinalyses in 53%, urine cultures in 60%, and analyses-cultures of cerebrospinal fluid in 47%. Febrile infants were 10 times more likely to get at least 2 laboratory tests than afebrile infants (Ppredictors of whether laboratory studies were obtained. History of preterm gestation, aged younger than 28 days, previous antibiotic use, and presence of otitis media were not associated with obtainment of laboratory studies. No cases of bacteremia, urinary tract infection, or meningitis were found among all infants with bronchiolitis who had blood, urine, and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures. There is wide variability in the diagnostic testing of infants aged 90 days or younger with bronchiolitis. The risks of bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and meningitis in infants with bronchiolitis seems to be low. History or a documented temperature of 38.0 degrees C or more; oxygen saturation of less than 92

  13. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad supplemental information to the Hanford facility contingency plan

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils primarily contaminated with lead generated while draining equipment within the building of residual lubricating oils. Waste oils are packaged and stored in fifty-five gallon drums, or other containers permitted by the Site Specific Waste Management Instruction. Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) manual BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements Procedures, references this document. This document is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements in Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units (units). Refer to BHI-EE-02, for additional information

  14. 77 FR 45571 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in...

    2012-08-01

    ... [Docket No. 120425024-1024-01] RIN 0648-XB089 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in Hawaii and Notice of Status Review AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 90-day finding on a petition to identify the Hawaiian population of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas...

  15. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Nak-won Seong,2,* Byoung Joon So,1 Heung-sik Seo,2 Jun-ho Kim,2 Jeong-Sup Hong,2 Myeong-kyu Park,2 Min-Seok Kim,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Mu yeb Seo,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggi-Do, South Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. Keywords: silica nanoparticles, toxicity, dermal route

  16. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  17. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  18. Leukoaraiosis predicts poor 90-day outcome after acute large cerebral artery occlusion.

    Henninger, Nils; Lin, Eugene; Baker, Stephen P; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Takhtani, Deepak; Moonis, Majaz

    2012-01-01

    To date limited information regarding outcome-modifying factors in patients with acute intracranial large artery occlusion (ILAO) in the anterior circulation is available. Leukoaraiosis (LA) is a common finding among patients with ischemic stroke and has been associated with poor post-stroke outcomes but its association with ILAO remains poorly characterized. This study sought to clarify the contribution of baseline LA and other common risk factors to 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS) after stroke due to acute anterior circulation ILAO. We retrospectively analyzed 1,153 consecutive patients with imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke during a 4-year period (2007-2010) at a single academic institution. The final study cohort included 87 patients with acute ILAO subjected to multimodal CT imaging within 24 h of symptom onset. LA severity was assessed using the van Swieten scale on non-contrast CT. Leptomeningeal collaterals were graded using CT angiogram source images. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) was determined on follow-up CT. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for HT, treatment modality, demographic, as well as baseline clinical and imaging characteristics was used to identify independent predictors of a poor outcome (90-day mRS >2). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline was 15 (interquartile range 9-21). Twenty-four percent of the studied patients had severe LA. They were more likely to have hypertension (p = 0.028), coronary artery disease (p = 0.015), poor collaterals (p Coexisting LA may predict poor functional outcome in patients with acute anterior circulation ILAO independent of other known important outcome predictors such as comorbid state, admission functional deficit, collateral status, hemorrhagic conversion, and treatment modality. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Evaluation of platelet lymphocyte ratio and 90-day mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Kumar, Praneel; Law, Stephanie; Sriram, Krishna B

    2017-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have high mortality and health care costs. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a marker of inflammation and has been reported to be elevated in patients with AECOPD compared to stable state. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of the PLR in patients with AECOPD with 90-day mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD between January 2014 and July 2014. Blood test results on admission were recorded. The primary outcomes were 90-day mortality. One hundred and eighty-one AECOPD patients were considered for the study. Death had occurred in 16 (9%) patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Univariable analysis identified age, haemoglobin, neutrophil count, and urea level, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PLR as being associated with increased 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis variables demonstrated that only PLR (P=0.03) was significantly associated with death at 90 days. Receiver operator characteristic analysis identified PLR ≥235 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 74% in predicting 90-day mortality. PLR was ≥235 was also associated with worse survival (days) [mean ± standard deviation (SD): PLR ≥235 vs. PLR <235: 512±358 vs. 626±346, P=0.004]. A PLR ≥235 was significantly associated with 90-day mortality, which may provide prognostic guidance to clinicians.

  20. Risk and Cost of 90-Day Complications in Morbidly and Superobese Patients After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Meller, Menachem M; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Son, Min-Sun; Lau, Edmund C

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the risk and cost of postoperative complications associated with morbid and super obesity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients who underwent TKA using Medicare hospital claims data. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code V85.4x was used to identify morbidly obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥40 kg/m(2)) and superobese patients (BMI ≥50 kg/m(2)) in 2011-2013. Patients without any BMI-related diagnosis codes were used as controls. Twelve complications occurred in the 90-day period after TKA were analyzed using multivariate Cox models, adjusting for patient demographic, morbidity, and institutional factors. In addition, hospital charges and payments were compared from primary surgery through subsequent 90 days. Morbidly obese patients showed a significantly elevated risk in most complications examined, with a 2-fold or higher risk in dislocation and wound dehiscence. In addition, death, periprosthetic joint infection, acute renal failure, and knee revision had significant hazard ratios between 1.5 and 2.0. However, risk of deep vein thrombosis and acute myocardial infarction did not increase for the morbidly obese patients. Superobese patients had significant increase in risk of infection, wound dehiscence, acute renal failures, revisions, death, and readmission compared with patients with BMI 40-49 kg/m(2). Significant dose-response trend was found between the level of BMI and risk for death, dislocation, implant failure, infection, readmission, revision, wound dehiscence, and acute renal failure. Controlling for patient and institutional factors, each TKA had an average total hospital charges of $75,884 among superobese patients, compared to $65,118 for the control group, a difference of $10,767. Medicare payment for the superobese patients was also higher, but only by $2703. Morbidly obese patients pose a significantly

  1. Dermal Sensitization Potential of Triethyleneglycol Dinitrate (TEGDN) in Guinea Pigs

    1989-01-01

    mutagenicity assay, acute oral toxicity tests in rats and mice, acute dermal toxicity in rabbits, dermal and ocular irritation studies in rabbits, and...conditions: 85E0102 had diffuse tracheitis, mild endocarditis , mild hepatitis, and diffuse pigment granules in the small intestine; 85E0103 had mild...severe ulceration progressing to necrosis. Sensitization is manifested as indirect inflammation mediated by components of the immune system in

  2. 78 FR 13614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humphead Wrasse as...

    2013-02-28

    ... Petition To List the Humphead Wrasse as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY... endangered and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition... within 90 days of [[Page 13615

  3. Predictors of 30- and 90-day readmission following craniotomy for malignant brain tumors: analysis of nationwide data.

    Donoho, Daniel A; Wen, Timothy; Babadjouni, Robin M; Schwartzman, William; Buchanan, Ian A; Cen, Steven Y; Zada, Gabriel; Mack, William J; Attenello, Frank J

    2018-01-01

    Hospital readmissions are a major contributor to increased health care costs and are associated with worse patient outcomes after neurosurgery. We used the newly released Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) to describe the association between patient, hospital and payer factors with 30- and 90-day readmission following craniotomy for malignant brain tumor. All adult inpatients undergoing craniotomy for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors in the NRD from 2013 to 2014 were included. We identified all cause readmissions within 30- and 90-days following craniotomy for tumor, excluding scheduled chemotherapeutic procedures. We used univariate and multivariate models to identify patient, hospital and administrative factors associated with readmission. We identified 27,717 admissions for brain tumor craniotomy in 2013-2014, with 3343 (13.2%) 30-day and 5271 (25.7%) 90-day readmissions. In multivariate analysis, patients with Medicaid and Medicare were more likely to be readmitted at 30- and 90-days compared to privately insured patients. Patients with two or more comorbidities were more likely to be readmitted at 30- and 90-days, and patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities or home health care were associated with increased 90-day readmission rates. Finally, hospital procedural volume above the 75th percentile was associated with decreased 90-day readmission rates. Patients treated at high volume hospitals are less likely to be readmitted at 90-days. Insurance type, non-routine discharge and patient comorbidities are predictors of postoperative non-scheduled readmission. Further studies may elucidate potentially modifiable risk factors when attempting to improve outcomes and reduce cost associated with brain tumor surgery.

  4. 90-Day oral toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Trimmer, G W

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a ketohexose, tastes like sugar and is useful as a low-calorie sweetener. To assess D-tagatose's safety, an oral 90-day toxicity study was conducted on male and female Crl:CDBR rats at dietary doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20% D-tagatose. One control group (dietary control) received only lab chow; a second control group received 20% cellulose/fructose in the diet. There were no treatment-related effects at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. At higher doses, treatment-related effects included transient soft stools in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. This was anticipated as a result of the osmotic effect of a large dose of relatively undigested sugar and was not considered a toxic effect. All treatment groups gained weight over the study period; however, mean body weights were statistically significantly decreased in the 15 and 20% dose-group males and the 20% dose-group females at selected intervals compared to dietary control animals. No significant reduction in mean food consumption was noted in the treatment groups compared to the dietary control. Statistically significantly increased relative liver weights were noted in male and female animals from the 10, 15, and 20% dose groups compared to the dietary control. No gross pathological findings correlated with these increased liver weights. Minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was observed in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. An independent review of the liver slides concluded that histomorphologic changes associated with D-tagatose were restricted hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocyte glycogen accumulation. Therefore, it was concluded that increased liver weights and minimal hypertrophy were the result of adaptation to the high dietary levels (greater than 5% in the diet) of D-tagatose. No adverse effects were seen at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days.

    Vujevic, Matea; Benzon, Benjamin; Markic, Josko

    2017-01-01

    Vujevic M, Benzon B, Markic J. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 261-268. Due to non-specific clinical presentation in febrile infants, extensive laboratory testing is often carried out to distinguish simple viral disease from serious bacterial infection (SBI). Objective of this study was to compare efficacy of different biomarkers in early diagnosis of SBI in infants Pediatrics, University Hospital Centre Split with suspicion of having SBI were included in this study. Retrospective cohort analysis of data acquired from medical records was performed. Out of 181 enrolled patients, SBI was confirmed in 70. Most common diagnosis was urinary tract infection (68.6%), followed by pneumonia (12.9%), sepsis (11.4%), gastroenterocolitis (5.7%) and meningitis (1.4%). Male gender was shown to be a risk factor for SBI in this population (p=0.008). White blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were confirmed as the independent predictors of SBI, with CRP as the best one. Two prediction models built by combining biomarkers and clinical variables were selected as optimal with sensitivities of 74.3% and 75.7%, and specificities of 88.3% and 86%. Evidently, CRP is a more superior biomarker in diagnostics of SBI comparing to WBC and ANC. Prediction models were shown to be better in predicting SBI than independent biomarkers. Although both showed high sensitivity and specificity, their true strength should be determined using validation cohort.

  6. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  7. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  8. Recent trends in the dispensing of 90-day-supply prescriptions at retail pharmacies: implications for improved convenience and access.

    Liberman, Joshua N; Girdish, Charmaine

    2011-03-01

    Mail-service pharmacies offer consumers the convenience of prescriptions filled with a 90-day supply of medication. Unlike mail-service pharmacies, retail pharmacies traditionally dispensed maintenance medication prescriptions with a 30-day supply. However, the retail landscape changed in May 2008 with Walmart's announcement of an extension of its $4 Prescription Program to include 90-day-supply prescriptions. To evaluate recent changes in access to and use of 90-day-supply maintenance medications dispensed via retail pharmacy. As of the first quarter of 2007, the proportion of retail-dispensed maintenance medications with a 90-day supply (compared with all maintenance prescriptions dispensed) among Medicare Part D plans, self-insured employers, and private health plans was 5.1%, 5.1%, and 5.0%, respectively. As of December 2009, this ratio had risen to 8.0% for Medicare plans and 8.1% for commercial health plans; the ratio among employers had risen more modestly to 6.1%. Of particular interest and importance, the proportion increased similarly for brand and for generic medications. There has been substantial growth in 90-day prescriptions dispensed via retail pharmacy, a trend that is likely to continue as more insurance providers adopt compatible benefit designs. It is important to continue monitoring these trends and to identify opportunities to rigorously evaluate their impact on medication adherence and healthcare costs.

  9. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value <4.25 mg/L only 6.9% was dead whereas the survival within 90 days. p:0.000.In conclusion, there were differences in hs-CRP values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  10. 76 FR 56607 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 42 Great...

    2011-09-13

    ... global climate models and hydrological models (Bates et al. 2008, p. 3). Thus, while the information in... initiation of status reviews. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day... reviews of these 32 species to determine if listing is warranted. To ensure that the status reviews are...

  11. 75 FR 19925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List a Distinct...

    2010-04-16

    ... List a Distinct Population Segment of the Fisher in Its United States Northern Rocky Mountain Range as...), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes...). Taxonomy We accept the characterization of the fisher as a species, Martes pennanti, based on the review of...

  12. 76 FR 62375 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the...

    2011-10-07

    ... Salmon Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on three petitions to delist coho salmon (Oncorhynchus... delist coho salmon under the ESA. We also received two similar petitions from the Siskiyou County Water...

  13. 75 FR 41436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical...

    2010-07-16

    ...-02] RIN 0648-XW94 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical Habitat for the Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... finding on a petition to revise critical habitat for the endangered leatherback sea turtle under the...

  14. 76 FR 56381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Franklin...

    2011-09-13

    ... distributions of any bumble bee in the world (Williams 1998, as cited in the petition (p. 6)). The original... To List the Franklin's Bumble Bee as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Franklin's bumble bee (Bombus...

  15. 76 FR 12683 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas...

    2011-03-08

    ...-0011; MO 92210-0-0008] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To... are to base this finding on information submitted with the petition, supporting information submitted... diet (Chapman 1972, pp. 878-879). Although they do not tend to construct their burrows in croplands...

  16. What Factors are Associated With 90-day Episode-of-care Payments for Younger Patients With Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Pathak, Shweta; Ganduglia, Cecilia M; Awad, Samir S; Chan, Wenyaw; Swint, John M; Morgan, Robert O

    2017-11-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been identified as a procedure with substantial variations in inpatient and postacute care payments. Most studies in this area have focused primarily on the Medicare population and rarely have characterized the younger commercially insured populations. Understanding the inpatient and postdischarge care service-component differences across 90-day episodes of care and factors associated with payments for younger patients is crucial for successful implementation of bundled payments in TJA in non-Medicare populations. (1) To assess the mean total payment for a 90-day primary TJA episode, including the proportion attributable to postdischarge care, and (2) to evaluate the role of procedure, patient, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments in a non-Medicare patient population younger than 65 years. Claims data for 2008 to 2013 from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas were obtained for primary TJAs. A total of 11,131 procedures were examined by aggregating payments for the index hospital stay and any postacute care including rehabilitation services and unplanned readmissions during the 90-day postdischarge followup period. A three-level hierarchical model was developed to determine procedure-, patient-, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments. The mean total payment for a 90-day episode for TJA was USD 47,700 adjusted to 2013 USD. Only 14% of 90-day episode payments in our population was attributable to postdischarge-care services, which is substantially lower than the percentage estimated in the Medicare population. A prolonged length of stay (rate ratio [RR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15-1.23; p ≤ 0.001), any 90-day unplanned readmission (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.71; p ≤ 0.001), computer-assisted surgery (RR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059; p ≤ 0.05), initial home discharge with home health component (RR, 1.029; 95% CI, 1.013-1.046; p ≤ 0.001), and very high patient morbidity

  17. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 15......, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. The aim of the study was to use a known animal model in performance of safety assessment of a GM crop, in this case KMD1 rice. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of KMD1 rice when tested in the design...... used in this 90-day study. Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)....

  18. Prolonged Elevated Heart Rate and 90-Day Survival in Acutely Ill Patients: Data From the MIMIC-III Database.

    Sandfort, Veit; Johnson, Alistair E W; Kunz, Lauren M; Vargas, Jose D; Rosing, Douglas R

    2018-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the association of prolonged elevated heart rate (peHR) with survival in acutely ill patients. We used a large observational intensive care unit (ICU) database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III [MIMIC-III]), where frequent heart rate measurements were available. The peHR was defined as a heart rate >100 beats/min in 11 of 12 consecutive hours. The outcome was survival status at 90 days. We collected heart rates, disease severity (simplified acute physiology scores [SAPS II]), comorbidities (Charlson scores), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis information in 31 513 patients from the MIMIC-III ICU database. Propensity score (PS) methods followed by inverse probability weighting based on the PS was used to balance the 2 groups (the presence/absence of peHR). Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to assess for association of peHR with the outcome survival at 90 days adjusting for additional covariates. The mean age was 64 years, and the most frequent main disease category was circulatory disease (41%). The mean SAPS II score was 35, and the mean Charlson comorbidity score was 2.3. Overall survival of the cohort at 90 days was 82%. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk of death within 90 days in patients with an episode of peHR ( P < .001; odds ratio for death 1.79; confidence interval, 1.69-1.88). This finding was independent of median heart rate. We found a significant association of peHR with decreased survival in a large and heterogenous cohort of ICU patients.

  19. A 90-day Bundled Payment for Primary Single-level Lumbar Discectomy/Decompression: What Does "Big Data" Say?

    Jain, Nikhil; Virk, Sohrab S; Phillips, Frank M; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2018-04-01

    Episode-based bundling may become the major form of reimbursement for many elective spine procedures. As the amount for a 90-day episode of care is not known for a lumbar discectomy, we analyzed the previous reimbursements from Commercial payers (2007-Q2 2015), Medicare Advantage (2007-Q2 2015), and Medicare (2005-2012) for a primary single-level lumbar discectomy/decompression. Distribution of payments among various service providers was studied and a 90-day bundle was simulated. Depending on the payer type, the average facility costs constituted 59.7% to 73.6% of total payments, followed by surgeon's fees, which accounted for 13.7% to 18.5%. Postacute services made up 8.8% to 15.8% of the total reimbursement. Surgeries performed in the inpatient setting were significantly more expensive as compared with surgeries performed in the outpatient setting (P<0.01). The average 90-day bundle amount was estimated at $11,091, $6571, and $6239 for Commercial payers, Medicare Advantage, and Medicare, respectively. Overall, service providers in the Southern region were reimbursed the lowest from Commercial payers and Medicare, compared with other regions. Postacute services are not as major cost drivers after discectomy as after total joint arthroplasty or hip fracture repair.

  20. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  1. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  2. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  3. Prediction of 90 Day and Overall Survival after Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer: Role of Performance Status and Body Composition.

    Bowden, J C S; Williams, L J; Simms, A; Price, A; Campbell, S; Fallon, M T; Fearon, K C H

    2017-09-01

    If appropriate patients are to be selected for lung cancer treatment, an understanding of who is most at risk of adverse outcomes after treatment is needed. The aim of the present study was to identify predictive factors for 30 and 90 day mortality after chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and factors that were prognostic for overall survival. A retrospective cohort study of 194 patients with lung cancer who had undergone CRT in South East Scotland from 2008 to 2010 was undertaken. Gender, age, cancer characteristics, weight loss, body mass index (BMI), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; ECOG) and computed tomography-derived body composition variables were examined for prognostic significance using Cox's proportional hazards model and logistic regression. The median overall survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval 16.3, 21.7). Four of 194 patients died within 30 days of treatment completion, for which there were no independent predictive variables; 22/194 (11%) died within 90 days of treatment completion. BMI < 20 and ECOG performance status ≥2 were independent predictors of death within 90 days of treatment completion (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Patients with either BMI < 20 or ECOG performance status ≥ 2 had an odds ratio of death within 90 days of 5.97 (95% confidence interval 2.20, 16.19), rising to an odds ratio of 13.27 (1.70, 103.47) for patients with both BMI < 20 and ECOG performance status ≥ 2. Patients with low muscle attenuation had significantly reduced overall survival (P = 0.004); individuals with low muscle attenuation had a median survival of 15.2 months (95% confidence interval 12.7, 17.7) compared with 23.0 months (95% confidence interval 18.3, 27.8) for those with high muscle attenuation, equating to a hazard ratio of death of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.17, 2.23, P = 0.003). Poor performance status, low BMI and low muscle attenuation identify patients at increased risk of premature death after

  4. Evolution of a 90-day model of care for bundled episodic payments for congestive heart failure in home care.

    Feld, April; Madden-Baer, Rose; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center's Episode-Based Payment initiatives propose a large opportunity to reduce cost from waste and variation and stand to align hospitals, physicians, and postacute providers in the redesign of care that achieves savings and improve quality. Community-based organizations are at the forefront of this care redesign through innovative models of care aimed at bridging gaps in care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions. This article describes a community-based provider's approach to participation under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative and a 90-day model of care for congestive heart failure in home care.

  5. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Readmission within 90 Days in Hospitalized Elderly Patients with Heart Failure

    Masahiro Kitamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the relationship between activities of daily living (ADL and readmission within 90 days and assess the cutoff value of ADL to predict readmission in hospitalized elderly patients with heart failure (HF. Methods. This cohort study comprised 589 consecutive patients with HF aged ≥65 years, who underwent cardiac rehabilitation from May 2012 to May 2016 and were discharged home. We investigated patients’ characteristics, basic attributes, and ADL (motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure [FIM]. We analyzed the data using the unpaired t-test, χ2 test, Cox proportional hazard model, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, and Kaplan-Meier method. Results. Of 589 patients, 113 met the criteria, and they were divided into the nonreadmission (n=90 and readmission groups (n=23. Age, body mass index, New York Heart Association class, hemoglobin level, and motor FIM score were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. The body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; p<0.05 and motor FIM score (HR: 0.94; p<0.01 remained statistically significant. The cutoff value for the motor FIM score determined by ROC curve analysis was 74.5 points (area under the curve = 0.78; p<0.001. Conclusion. The motor FIM score in elderly patients with HF was an independent predictor of rehospitalization within 90 days.

  7. Claims Procedure for Plans Providing Disability Benefits; 90-Day Delay of Applicability Date. Final rule; delay of applicability

    2017-11-29

    This document delays for ninety (90) days--through April 1, 2018--the applicability of a final rule amending the claims procedure requirements applicable to ERISA-covered employee benefit plans that provide disability benefits (Final Rule). The Final Rule was published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2016, became effective on January 18, 2017, and was scheduled to become applicable on January 1, 2018. The delay announced in this document is necessary to enable the Department of Labor to carefully consider comments and data as part of its effort, pursuant to Executive Order 13777, to examine regulatory alternatives that meet its objectives of ensuring the full and fair review of disability benefit claims while not imposing unnecessary costs and adverse consequences.

  8. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  9. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able......Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified...

  10. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  11. Quality Assurance Audit of Technique Failure and 90-Day Mortality after Program Discharge in a Canadian Home Hemodialysis Program.

    Shah, Nikhil; Reintjes, Frances; Courtney, Mark; Klarenbach, Scott W; Ye, Feng; Schick-Makaroff, Kara; Jindal, Kailash; Pauly, Robert P

    2017-07-24

    Little is known about patients exiting home hemodialysis. We sought to characterize the reasons, clinical characteristics, and pre-exit health care team interactions of patients on home hemodialysis who died or underwent modality conversion (negative disposition) compared with prevalent patients and those who were transplanted (positive disposition). We conducted an audit of all consecutive patients incident to home hemodialysis from January of 2010 to December of 2014 as part of ongoing quality assurance. Records were reviewed for the 6 months before exit, and vital statistics were assessed up to 90 days postexit. Ninety-four patients completed training; 25 (27%) received a transplant, 11 (12%) died, and 23 (25%) were transferred to in-center hemodialysis. Compared with the positive disposition group, patients in the negative disposition group had a longer mean dialysis vintage (3.15 [SD=4.98] versus 1.06 [SD=1.16] years; P =0.003) and were performing conventional versus a more intensive hemodialysis prescription (23 of 34 versus 23 of 60; P <0.01). In the 6 months before exit, the negative disposition group had significantly more in-center respite dialysis sessions, had more and longer hospitalizations, and required more on-call care team support in terms of phone calls and drop-in visits (each P <0.05). The most common reason for modality conversion was medical instability in 15 of 23 (65%) followed by caregiver or care partner burnout in three of 23 (13%) each. The 90-day mortality among patients undergoing modality conversion was 26%. Over a 6-year period, approximately one third of patients exited the program due to death or modality conversion. Patients who die or transfer to another modality have significantly higher health care resource utilization ( e.g. , hospitalization, respite treatments, nursing time, etc. ). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. The safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study

    Ann Marone Palma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the safety of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, a novel viscous dietary polysaccharide (fiber, when administered to Sprague Dawley® rats in the diet for 90 days. Methods Groups of ten male and ten female rats each consumed PGX mixed in the diet at levels of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0% for 90 days, then evaluated for toxicological effects on parameters that included neuromotor activity, body weight, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Results Mean body weight, mean feed consumption and food efficiency in the treated groups were generally comparable to controls for both male and female rats. No changes were noted in neuromotor behavior, and histopathological analysis revealed no significant changes between treated and control animals. There were no differences in mean organ weight, organ-to-body weight or organ-to-brain weight values between controls and treated animals. Decreased red blood cell count occurred in the high dose males and increases in aspartate and alanine aminotransferase enzyme levels and triglycerides, while significant decreases in serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were observed in the females fed 5.0% PGX. However, the decreased mineral concentrations may be the result of significantly increased urinary volume in both males and females at the high dose, with a concomitant decrease in urinary specific gravity (males and females and protein concentration (females. These results were within historical control values, did not correlate with any histopathological changes, and were not considered adverse. Conclusion The results indicate a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for PGX at 5.0% of the diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 3219 and 3799 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively.

  13. 90-day Readmission After Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery in New York State Between 2005 and 2014: A 10-year Analysis of a Statewide Cohort.

    Baaj, Ali A; Lang, Gernot; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Avila, Mauricio J; Mao, Jialin; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-11-15

    MINI: We assessed 90-day readmission and evaluated risk factors associated with readmission after lumbar spinal fusion surgery in New York State. The overall 90-day readmission rate was 24.8%. Age, sex, race, insurance, procedure, number of operated spinal levels, health service area, and comorbidities are major risk factors for 90-day readmission. Retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to assess 90-day readmission and evaluate risk factors associated with readmission after lumbar fusion in New York State. Readmission is becoming an important metric for quality and efficiency of health care. Readmission and its predictors following spine surgery are overall poorly understood and limited evidence is available specifically in lumbar fusion. The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) was utilized to capture patients undergoing lumbar fusion from 2005 to 2014. Temporal trend of 90-day readmission was assessed using Cochran-Armitage test. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors associated with 90-day readmission. There were 86,869 patients included in this cohort study. The overall 90-day readmission rate was 24.8%. On a multivariable analysis model, age (odds ratio [OR] comparing ≥75 versus New York-Pennsylvania border: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.61-0.73), and comorbidity, i.e., coronary artery disease (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.19-1.33) were significantly associated with 90-day readmission. Directions of the odds ratios for these factors were consistent after stratification by procedure type. Age, sex, race, insurance, procedure, number of operated spinal levels, HSA, and comorbidities are major risk factors for 90-day readmission. Our study allows risk calculation to determine high-risk patients before undergoing spinal fusion surgery to prevent early readmission, improve quality of care, and reduce health care expenditures. 3.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties

    Jutta Sharbati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810 or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR. For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS.Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling.Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties.

    Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Keller, Andreas; Backes, Christina; Franke, Andre; Steinberg, Pablo; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810) or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR). For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS. Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO) analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling. Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant alterations of

  16. A 90-day repeated-dose toxicity study of dietary alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    Bushita, Hiroto; Ito, Yuichi; Saito, Tetsuji; Nukada, Yuko; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nakagiri, Hideaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Morita, Osamu

    2018-05-31

    Diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-which mainly consists of oleic and linolenic, linoleic acids-have potential health benefits in terms of preventing or managing obesity. Although safety of DAG oil has been extensively investigated, toxicity of ALA-DAG oil has not been well understood. Hence, the present study was conducted to clarify the potential adverse effects, if any, of ALA-DAG oil in rats (10/sex/group) fed diets containing 1.375%, 2.75%, or 5.5% ALA-DAG oil for 90 days. Compared to control rats fed rapeseed oil or ALA-triacylglycerol oil (flaxseed oil), rats receiving ALA-DAG oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes as evaluated by clinical signs, functional observational battery, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, necropsy and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect levels for dietary exposure to ALA-DAG oil for male and female rats were 2916 and 3326 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, the highest dose tested. The findings from this study suggest that consumption of ALA-DAG oil is unlikely to cause adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  18. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  19. Early Results of Medicare's Bundled Payment Initiative for a 90-Day Total Joint Arthroplasty Episode of Care.

    Iorio, Richard; Clair, Andrew J; Inneh, Ifeoma A; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2016-02-01

    In 2011 Medicare initiated a Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) program with the goal of introducing a payment model that would "lead to higher quality, more coordinated care at a lower cost to Medicare." A Model 2 bundled payment initiative for Total Joint Replacement (TJR) was implemented at a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center. The episode of care includes all costs through 90 days following discharge. After one year, data on 721 Medicare primary TJR patients were available for analysis. Average length of stay (LOS) was decreased from 4.27 days to 3.58 days (Median LOS 3 days). Discharges to inpatient facilities decreased from 71% to 44%. Readmissions occurred in 80 patients (11%), which is slightly lower than before implementation. The hospital has seen cost reduction in the inpatient component over baseline. Early results from the implementation of a Medicare BPCI Model 2 primary TJR program at this medical center demonstrate cost-savings. IV economic and decision analyses-developing an economic or decision model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  1. Focal dermal hypoplasia without focal dermal hypoplasia

    Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina N.; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; Goltz-Gorlin syndrome) is an X-linked dominant disorder affecting mainly tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. The phenotype is characterized by hypoplastic linear skin lesions, eye malformations, hair and teeth anomalies, and multiple limbs malformations. The

  2. Processes of 30-90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Vialard, J. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Lengaigne, M. [Univerite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Case 100, CNRS, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); CSIR, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Sengupta, D. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Centre of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-05-15

    During summer, the northern Indian Ocean exhibits significant atmospheric intraseasonal variability associated with active and break phases of the monsoon in the 30-90 days band. In this paper, we investigate mechanisms of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) signature of this atmospheric variability, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously-reported intraseasonal SST signature in the Bay of Bengal, observations show clear SST signals in the Arabian Sea related to the active/break cycle of the monsoon. As the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation moves northward, SST variations appear first at the southern tip of India (day 0), then in the Somali upwelling region (day 10), northern Bay of Bengal (day 19) and finally in the Oman upwelling region (day 23). The Bay of Bengal and Oman signals are most clearly associated with the monsoon active/break index, whereas the relationship with signals near Somali upwelling and the southern tip of India is weaker. In agreement with previous studies, we find that heat flux variations drive most of the intraseasonal SST variability in the Bay of Bengal, both in our model (regression coefficient, 0.9, against {proportional_to}0.25 for wind stress) and in observations (0.8 regression coefficient); {proportional_to}60% of the heat flux variation is due do shortwave radiation and {proportional_to}40% due to latent heat flux. On the other hand, both observations and model results indicate a prominent role of dynamical oceanic processes in the Arabian Sea. Wind-stress variations force about 70-100% of SST intraseasonal variations in the Arabian Sea, through modulation of oceanic processes (entrainment, mixing, Ekman pumping, lateral advection). Our {proportional_to}100 km resolution model suggests that internal oceanic variability (i.e. eddies) contributes substantially to intraseasonal variability at small-scale in the Somali upwelling region

  3. Processes of 30-90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Vialard, J.; Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Lengaigne, M.; Sengupta, D.; Goswami, B. N.

    2012-05-01

    During summer, the northern Indian Ocean exhibits significant atmospheric intraseasonal variability associated with active and break phases of the monsoon in the 30-90 days band. In this paper, we investigate mechanisms of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) signature of this atmospheric variability, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously-reported intraseasonal SST signature in the Bay of Bengal, observations show clear SST signals in the Arabian Sea related to the active/break cycle of the monsoon. As the atmospheric intraseasonal oscillation moves northward, SST variations appear first at the southern tip of India (day 0), then in the Somali upwelling region (day 10), northern Bay of Bengal (day 19) and finally in the Oman upwelling region (day 23). The Bay of Bengal and Oman signals are most clearly associated with the monsoon active/break index, whereas the relationship with signals near Somali upwelling and the southern tip of India is weaker. In agreement with previous studies, we find that heat flux variations drive most of the intraseasonal SST variability in the Bay of Bengal, both in our model (regression coefficient, 0.9, against ~0.25 for wind stress) and in observations (0.8 regression coefficient); ~60% of the heat flux variation is due do shortwave radiation and ~40% due to latent heat flux. On the other hand, both observations and model results indicate a prominent role of dynamical oceanic processes in the Arabian Sea. Wind-stress variations force about 70-100% of SST intraseasonal variations in the Arabian Sea, through modulation of oceanic processes (entrainment, mixing, Ekman pumping, lateral advection). Our ~100 km resolution model suggests that internal oceanic variability (i.e. eddies) contributes substantially to intraseasonal variability at small-scale in the Somali upwelling region, but does not contribute to large-scale intraseasonal SST

  4. First report of 90-day support of 2 calves with a continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-09-01

    The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamic parameters, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure, 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure, 17 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure-left atrial pressure difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; and pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three animals with recent CFTAH implantation recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last 2 were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to human surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Impact of General Practitioner Transient Ischemic Attack Training on 90-Day Stroke Outcomes: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Ranta, Annemarei; Dovey, Susan; Gommans, John; Tilyard, Murray; Weatherall, Mark

    2018-07-01

    Many patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) receive initial assessments by general practitioners (GPs) who may lack TIA management experience. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we showed that electronic decision support for GPs improves patient outcomes and guideline adherence. Some stroke services prefer to improve referrer expertise through TIA/stroke education sessions instead of promoting TIA decision aids or triaging tools. This is a secondary analysis of whether a GP education session influenced TIA management and outcomes. Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, single blind, parallel group, cluster RCT comparing TIA/stroke electronic decision support guided GP management with usual care to assess whether a pretrial TIA/stroke education session also affected RCT outcomes. Of 181 participating GPs, 79 (43.7%) attended an education session and 140 of 291 (48.1%) trial patients were managed by these GPs. There were fewer 90-day stroke events and 90-day vascular events or deaths in patients treated by GPs who attended education; 2 of 140 (1.4%) and 10 of 140 (7.1%) respectively, compared with those who did not; 5 of 151 (3.3%), and 14 of 151 (9.3%), respectively. Logistic regression for association between 90-day stroke and 90-day vascular events or death and education, however, was nonsignificant (odds ratio [OR] .42 (.08 to 2.22), P = .29 and .59 (95% confidence interval [CI] .27 to 1.29), P = .18 respectively. Guideline adherence was not improved by the education session: OR .84 (95% CI .49 to 1.45), P = .54. In the described setting, a GP TIA/stroke education session did not significantly enhance guideline adherence or reduce 90-day stroke or vascular events following TIA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic liver disease and 90-day mortality in 21,359 patients following peptic ulcer bleeding--a Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Holland-Bill, L; Christiansen, C F; Gammelager, H; Mortensen, R N; Pedersen, L; Sørensen, H T

    2015-03-01

    Bleeding is a serious and frequent complication of peptic ulcer disease. Hepatic dysfunction can cause coagulopathy and increases the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. However, whether chronic liver disease increases mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding remains unclear. To examine the prognostic impact of chronic liver disease on mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding. We used population-based medical registries to conduct a cohort study of all Danish residents hospitalised with incident peptic ulcer bleeding from 2004 through 2011. We identified patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis or non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease before their admission for peptic ulcer bleeding. We then computed 90-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding based on the Kaplan-Meier method (1 - survival function) and used a Cox regression model to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs), controlling for potential confounders. We identified 21,359 patients hospitalised with peptic ulcer bleeding. Among these, 653 (3.1%) had a previous diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and 474 (2.2%) had a history of non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease. Patients with liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease had a cumulative 90-day mortality of 25.3% and 20.7%, respectively, compared to 18.3% among patients without chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis was associated with an adjusted 90-day MRR of 2.38 (95% CI: 2.02-2.80), compared to 1.49 (95% CI: 1.22-1.83) among patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease. Patients with chronic liver disease, particularly liver cirrhosis, are at increased risk of death within 90 days after hospitalisation for peptic ulcer bleeding compared to patients without chronic liver disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications.

    Featherall, Joseph; Brigati, David P; Faour, Mhamad; Messner, William; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Standardized care pathways are evidence-based algorithms for optimizing an episode of care. Despite the theoretical promise of care pathways, there is an inconsistent literature demonstrating improvements in patient care. The authors hypothesized that implementing a care pathway, across 11 hospitals, would decrease hospital length of stay (LOS), decrease postoperative complications at 90 days, and increase discharges to home. A multidisciplinary team developed an evidence-based care pathway for total hip arthroplasty (THA) perioperative care. All patients receiving THA in 2013 (pre-protocol, historical control), 2014 (transition), and 2015 (full protocol implementation) were included in the analysis. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship of the care pathway to 90-day postoperative complications, LOS, and discharge disposition. Cost savings were estimated using previously published postarthroplasty episode and per diem hospital costs. A total of 6090 primary THAs were conducted during the study period. After adjusting for the covariates, the full protocol implementation was associated with a decrease in LOS (mean ratio, 0.747; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.727, 0.767]) and an increase in discharges to home (odds ratio, 2.079; 95% CI [1.762, 2.456]). The full protocol implementation was not associated with a change in 90-day complications (odds ratio, 1.023; 95% CI [0.841, 1.245]). Payer-perspective-calculated theoretical cost savings, including both index admission and postdischarge costs, were $2533 per patient. The THA care pathway implementation was successful in reducing LOS and increasing discharges to home. The care pathway was not associated with a change in 90-day complications; further targeted interventions in this area are needed. Despite care standardization efforts, high-volume hospitals and surgeons had higher performance. Extrapolation of theoretical cost savings indicates that widespread THA care pathway adoption could lead to national

  9. Skilled Nursing Facility Partnerships May Decrease 90-Day Costs in a Total Joint Arthroplasty Episode Under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative.

    Behery, Omar A; Kouk, Shalen; Chen, Kevin K; Mullaly, Kathleen A; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D; Iorio, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-03-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative was developed to reduce costs associated with total joint arthroplasty through a single payment for all patient care from index admission through a 90-day post-discharge period, including care at skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). The aim of this study is to investigate whether forming partnerships between hospitals and SNFs could lower the post-discharge costs. We hypothesize that institutionally aligned SNFs have lower post-discharge costs than non-aligned SNFs. A cohort of 615 elective, primary total hip and knee arthroplasty subjects discharged to an SNF under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement from 2014 to 2016 were included in our analysis. Patients were grouped into one of the 3 categories of SNF alignment: group 1: non-partners; group 2: agreement-based partners; group 3: institution-owned partners. Demographics, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS) at SNF, and associated costs during the 90-day post-operative period were compared between the 3 groups. Mean index hospital LOS was statistically shortest in group 3 (mean 2.7 days vs 3.5 for groups 1 and 2, P = .001). SNF LOS was also shortest in group 3 (mean 11 days vs 19 and 21 days in groups 2 and 1 respectively, P Total SNF costs and total 90-day costs were both significantly lower in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2 (P total 90-day costs, without increased risk of readmissions, compared with other SNFs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  11. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  12. Evaluation of the safety of a genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal and hulls in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-11-01

    A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for 90-day readmission in veterans with inflammatory bowel disease-Does post-discharge follow-up matter?

    Malhotra, Ashish; Phatharacharukul, Parkpoom; Thongprayoon, Charat

    2018-02-08

    Repeat hospitalizations in veterans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are understudied. The early readmission rate and potentially modifiable risk-factors for 90-day readmission in veterans with IBD were studied to avert avoidable readmissions. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the data from veterans who were admitted to the Minneapolis VA Medical Center (MVMC) between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, for an IBD-related problem. All-cause readmissions within 30 and 90 days were recorded to calculate early readmission rates. The multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the potential risk factors for 90-day readmission. There were 130 unique patients (56.9% with Crohn's disease and 43.1% with ulcerative colitis) with 202 IBD-related index admissions. The mean age at the time of index admission was 59.8 ± 15.2 years. The median time to re-hospitalization was 26 days (IQR 10-49), with 30- and 90-day readmission rates of 17.3% (35/202) and 29.2% (59/202), respectively. Reasons for all-cause readmission were IBD-related (71.2%), scheduled surgery (3.4%) and non-gastrointestinal causes (25.4%). The following reasons were independently associated with 90-day readmission: Crohn's disease (OR 3.90; 95% CI 1.82-8.90), use of antidepressants (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.12-4.32), and lack of follow-up within 90 days with a primary care physician (PCP) (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.32-5.26) or a gastroenterologist (GI) (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.20-5.00). 51.0% and 49.0% of patients had documentation of a recommended outpatient follow-up with PCP and/or GI, respectively. Early readmission in IBD is common. Independent risk factors for 90-day readmission included Crohn's disease, use of antidepressants and lack of follow-up visit with PCP or GI. Further research is required to determine if the appropriate timing of post-discharge follow-up can reduce IBD readmissions.

  14. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the

  15. Is Anesthesia Technique Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality or Complications Within 90 Days of Surgery for Geriatric Patients With Hip Fractures?

    Desai, Vimal; Chan, Priscilla H; Prentice, Heather A; Zohman, Gary L; Diekmann, Glenn R; Maletis, Gregory B; Fasig, Brian H; Diaz, Diana; Chung, Elena; Qiu, Chunyuan

    2018-06-01

    Postoperative mortality and complications after geriatric hip fracture surgery remain high despite efforts to improve perioperative care for these patients. One factor of particular interest is anesthetic technique, but prior studies on this are limited by sample selection, competing risks, and incomplete followup. (1) Among older patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture, does 90-day mortality differ depending on the type of anesthesia received? (2) Do 90-day emergency department returns and hospital readmissions differ based on anesthetic technique after geriatric hip fracture repairs? (3) Do 90-day Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) outcomes differ according to anesthetic techniques used during hip fracture surgery? We conducted a retrospective study on geriatric patients (65 years or older) with hip fractures between 2009 and 2014 using the Kaiser Permanente Hip Fracture Registry. A total of 1995 (11%) of the surgically treated patients with hip fracture were excluded as a result of missing anesthesia information. The final study sample consisted of 16,695 patients. Of these, 2027 (12%) died and 98 (< 1%) terminated membership during followup, which were handled as competing events and censoring events, respectively. Ninety-day mortality, emergency department returns, hospital readmission, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI), and pneumonia were evaluated using multivariable competing risk proportional subdistribution hazard regression according to type of anesthesia technique: general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or conversion from regional to general. Of the 16,695 patients, 58% (N = 9629) received general anesthesia, 40% (N = 6597) received regional anesthesia, and 2.8% (N = 469) patients were converted from regional to general. Compared with regional anesthesia, patients treated with general anesthesia had a higher likelihood of overall 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95

  16. [Risk Prediction Using Routine Data: Development and Validation of Multivariable Models Predicting 30- and 90-day Mortality after Surgical Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Crispin, Alexander; Strahwald, Brigitte; Cheney, Catherine; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2018-06-04

    Quality control, benchmarking, and pay for performance (P4P) require valid indicators and statistical models allowing adjustment for differences in risk profiles of the patient populations of the respective institutions. Using hospital remuneration data for measuring quality and modelling patient risks has been criticized by clinicians. Here we explore the potential of prediction models for 30- and 90-day mortality after colorectal cancer surgery based on routine data. Full census of a major statutory health insurer. Surgical departments throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. 4283 and 4124 insurants with major surgery for treatment of colorectal cancer during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Age, sex, primary and secondary diagnoses as well as tumor locations as recorded in the hospital remuneration data according to §301 SGB V. 30- and 90-day mortality. Elixhauser comorbidities, Charlson conditions, and Charlson scores were generated from the ICD-10 diagnoses. Multivariable prediction models were developed using a penalized logistic regression approach (logistic ridge regression) in a derivation set (patients treated in 2013). Calibration and discrimination of the models were assessed in an internal validation sample (patients treated in 2014) using calibration curves, Brier scores, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) and the areas under the ROC curves (AUC). 30- and 90-day mortality rates in the learning-sample were 5.7 and 8.4%, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation sample were 5.9% and once more 8.4%. Models based on Elixhauser comorbidities exhibited the highest discriminatory power with AUC values of 0.804 (95% CI: 0.776 -0.832) and 0.805 (95% CI: 0.782-0.828) for 30- and 90-day mortality. The Brier scores for these models were 0.050 (95% CI: 0.044-0.056) and 0.067 (95% CI: 0.060-0.074) and similar to the models based on Charlson conditions. Regardless of the model, low predicted probabilities were well calibrated, while

  17. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization (CRE) and subsequent risk of infection and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients, an observational study.

    McConville, Thomas Howe; Sullivan, Sean Berger; Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Whittier, Susan; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as an urgent public health threat. Intestinal colonization with CRE has been identified as a risk factor for the development of systemic CRE infection, but has not been compared to colonization with third and/or fourth generation cephalosporin-resistant (Ceph-R) Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the risk conferred by colonization on adverse outcomes is less clear, particularly in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We carried out a cohort study of consecutive adult patients screened for rectal colonization with CRE or Ceph-R upon ICU entry between April and July 2013. We identified clinical variables and assessed the relationship between CRE or Ceph-R colonization and subsequent systemic CRE infection within 30 days (primary outcome) and all-cause mortality within 90 days (secondary outcome). Among 338 ICU patients, 94 (28%) were colonized with either Ceph-R or CRE. 26 patients developed CRE infection within 30 days of swab collection; 47% (N = 17/36) of CRE-colonized and 3% (N = 2/58) of Ceph-R colonized patients. 36% (N = 13/36) of CRE-colonized patients died within 90 days compared to 31% (N = 18/58) of Ceph-R-colonized and 15% (N = 37/244) of non-colonized patients. In a multivariable analysis, CRE colonization independently predicted development of a systemic CRE infection at 30 days (aOR 10.8, 95% CI2.8-41.9, p = 0.0006); Ceph-R colonization did not (aOR 0.5, 95% CI0.1-3.3, p = 0.5). CRE colonization was associated with increased 90-day mortality in a univariable analysis (p-value 0.001), in a multivariable model, previous hospitalization and medical ICU admission were independent predictors of 90-day mortality whereas CRE colonization approached significance (aOR 2.3, 95% CI1.0-5.3, p = 0.056). Our study highlights the increased risk of CRE infection and mortality in patients with CRE colonization at the time of ICU admission. Future studies are needed to assess how CRE

  18. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...... concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption....

  19. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Xueming Tang

    Full Text Available In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  20. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  1. Calcium lignosulphonate: re-evaluation of relevant endpoints to re-confirm validity and NOAEL of a 90-day feeding study in rats.

    Thiel, Anette; Braun, William; Cary, Maurice G; Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Goodman, Dawn G; Hall, William C; Romeike, Annette; Ward, Jerrold M

    2013-08-01

    A 90-day feeding study in Han/Wistar rats with calcium lignosulphonate was evaluated by the EFSA. The study was considered to be inadequate due to potentially impaired health status of the animals based upon a high incidence of minimal lymphoid hyperplasia in mesenteric/mandibular lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and minimal lymphoid cell infiltration in the liver in all animals. The EFSA Panel further disagreed with the conclusion that the treatment-related observation of foamy histiocytosis in mesenteric lymph nodes was non-adverse and asked whether this observation would progress to something more adverse over time. A PWG was convened to assess the sections of lymph nodes, Peyer's patches and liver. In addition, all lymphoid tissues were re-examined. The clinical pathology and animal colony health screening data were re-evaluated. The question whether the foamy histiocytosis could progress to an adverse finding with increasing exposure duration was addressed by read-across. In conclusion, the animals on the 90-day feeding study were in good health, the study was adequate for safety evaluation, and the foamy histiocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes were not considered adverse, but rather an adaptive response that was considered unlikely to progress to an adverse condition with time. The NOAEL was re-affirmed to be 2000 mg/kgbw/d. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rabbit analgesia.

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Predictive modelling of 2-year potency outcomes using a novel 90-day erection fullness scale after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Huynh, Linda M; Osann, Kathryn; Skarecky, Douglas; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2018-03-09

    To introduce a patient-reported erection fullness scale (%fullness) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) as a qualitative adjunct to the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and as a 90-day predictor of 2-year potency outcomes. Prospective data were collected from 540 men with preoperative IIEF-5 scores of 22-25 who underwent RARP by a single surgeon, and of whom 299 had complete data at all time points up to 2 years. In addition to standard assessment tools (IIEF-5 and erections sufficient for intercourse [ESI]), the men were asked to 'indicate the fullness you are able to achieve in erections compared to before surgery?' (range: 0-100%). The primary outcome was prediction of potency (defined as ESI) at 24 months, based on 90-day %fullness tertile (0-24%, 25-74% and 75-100%). A total of 299 men with complete follow-up were included in the study. Significant predictors of 24-month potency included age, body mass index, pathological stage, nerve-sparing status and %fullness tertiles. When the men (preoperative IIEF-5 score 22-25) were assessed at 90 days after RARP, 181/299 (61%) had erections inadequate for intercourse. If IIEF-5 scores of 1-6 were used, 142/181 men (78%) would be targeted for early intervention. By contrast, if 0-24% fullness was used, 88/181 men (49%) would be targeted. If both the IIEF-5 score and %fullness were used, this would be reduced to 77/181 men (43%). We introduce %fullness as a qualitative adjunct to the IIEF-5 score, and separately as a 90-day predictor of 2-year potency recovery. This initial report is hypothesis-generating, such that the use of %fullness enables the identification of men who are most likely to benefit from early, secondary intervention. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  5. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    ., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H...... to separate potentially unintended effects of the novel gene product from other unintended effects at the level of intake defined in the test and within the remit of the test. Recommendations for further work necessary in the field are given.......This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schroder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A...

  6. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  7. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  9. Does Surgical Approach Affect Outcomes in Total Hip Arthroplasty Through 90 Days of Follow-Up? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    Miller, Larry E; Gondusky, Joseph S; Bhattacharyya, Samir; Kamath, Atul F; Boettner, Friedrich; Wright, John

    2018-04-01

    The choice between anterior approach (AA) and posterior approach (PA) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is controversial. Previous reviews have predominantly relied on data from retrospective studies. This systematic review included prospective studies comparing postoperative outcomes through 90 days of AA vs PA in primary THA. Outcomes were pain severity, narcotic usage, hip function using Harris Hip Score, and complications. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for all outcomes. Efficacy data were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) where values of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 were defined as small, medium, large, and very large effect sizes, respectively. Complications were reported as the absolute risk difference (RD) where a positive value implied higher risk with AA and a lower value implied lower risk with AA. A total of 13 prospective comparative studies (7 randomized) with patients treated with AA (n = 524) or PA (n = 520) were included. The AA was associated with lower pain severity (SMD = -0.37, P SMD = -0.36, P = .002), and improved hip function (SMD = 0.31, P = .002) compared to PA. No differences between surgical approaches were observed for dislocation (RD = 0.2%, P = .87), fracture (RD = 0.2%, P = .87), hematoma (RD = 0%, P = .99), infection (RD = 0.2%, P = .85), thromboembolic event (RD = -0.9%, P = .42), or reoperation (RD = 1.3%, P = .26). Conclusions of this study were unchanged when subjected to sensitivity analyses. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies comparing postoperative outcomes through 90 days of AA vs PA in primary THA, patients treated with AA reported less pain, consumed fewer narcotics, and reported better hip function. No statistical differences in complication rates were detected between AA and PA. Ultimately, the choice of surgical approach in primary THA should consider preference and experience of the surgeon as well as preference and anatomy of the patient

  10. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  11. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  12. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  14. Transgenic and conventional Brazilian soybeans don't cause or prevent preneoplastic colon lesions or oxidative stress in a 90-day in vivo study

    Felipe Augusto Sbruzzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study presents the results of a 90-day safety assessment of rats fed with four varieties of soybeans, BRS 245 RR and BRS Valiosa RR (transgenic, BRS 133 and MG BR46 Conquista (non-transgenic. METHODS: Diets were prepared by incorporating toasted soybean flour to a commercial diet at 1%, 10% or 20% weight In the in vivo experimental the rats' body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, number of aberrant crypt foci, oxidative stress biomarkers, urea and creatinine levels were analyzed and compared between experimental groups, as well as histopathological observations (digestive tract, liver, kidneys. RESULTS: The results indicate that glyphosate-tolerant soy varieties neither induce nor prevent aberrant crypt foci induction, nor do their conventional counterparts. Similarly, none of the four soybean varieties tested induced changes in the digestive tract, liver or kidney. Serum biochemical parameters were also unchanged. CONCLUSION: The consumption of both, conventional and transgenic soybeans, were insufficient to ameliorate dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per

    2015-01-01

    training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. PURPOSE: the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons......INTRODUCTION: spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance...... collagen/mg protein [95% CI: -25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference -2.78 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: -29.7; 24.1], p=0.82). CONCLUSION: muscle collagen content in the VL or SOL muscle does not seem to differ after a 90-day bed rest...

  16. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of compressive strength tests at age of 28 and 90 days and density of products using chemical additives in cementing radioactive waste

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical additives (admixtures) in the cementation process of radioactive wastes, which are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market, then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 2 3 . The measured parameters were the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. In this study we performed comparative analyzes of the results of compressive strength at age of 28 and 90 days and between the densities of the samples at the same ages.The compressive strength test at age of 28 days is considered a parameter essential issues related to security handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented product, but presented lower values density products. (author)

  18. Impact of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on 90-Day Episode Costs and Post-Acute Care Utilization in Total Knee Replacement Patients with Disuse Atrophy.

    Pal, Sarmistha; Chughtai, Morad; Sultan, Assem A; Khlopas, Anton; Sodhi, Nipun; George, Nicole E; Etcheson, Jennifer I; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Newman, Jared M; Samuel, Linsen T; Bhave, Anil; DaVanzo, Joan E; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-22

    This study evaluated differences in: 1) total episode payments, 2) probability of hospital readmission, 3) probability of inpatient rehab facility (IRF) and utilization, and 4) probability of skilled nursing care facility (SNF) utilization in patients who had disuse atrophy and underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and either did, or did not, receive preoperative home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy. We used the Medicare limited dataset for a 5% sample of beneficiaries from 2014 and 2015 to construct episodes-of-care for TKA (DRG-470) patients with disuse atrophy who underwent a TKA during the 30 days prior to hospital admission and 90 days post-discharge. Patients were stratified into those who either did or did not receive pre- and postoperative NMES therapy. An ordinary least square (OLS) model was used to estimate the impact of NMES on total episode. Linear probability models were used to estimate the impact of NMES on SNF or IRF utilization and readmission. A $3,274 reduction in episode payments for patients who used preoperative NMES versus those who did not (ptotal episode payments and SNF utilization for TKA patients with disuse atrophy who had NMES therapy was demonstrated.

  19. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  20. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    Park HS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hark-Soo Park,1 Seon-Ju Kim,1 Taek-Jin Lee,1 Geon-Yong Kim,1 EunHo Meang,1 Jeong-Sup Hong,1 Su-Hyon Kim,1 Sang-Bum Koh,1 Seung-Guk Hong,1 Yle-Shik Sun,1 Jin Seok Kang,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Jayoung Jeong,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,4 Woo-Chan Son,5 Jae-Hak Park61General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, 2Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Namseoul University, Cheonan, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 4National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul, 5Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 6Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM,20(+ nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days.Methods: For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM,20(+ NPs.Results: No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with

  1. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    Di Pierro F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alberto Zanvit,2 Piero Nobili,2 Paolo Risso,3 Carlo Fornaini4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, 2Stomatology Institute, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Health Science, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 4Teleo Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nice, Nice, France Abstract: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18. Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®. The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. Keywords: BLIS M18, caries prediction, dextranase, urease, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, plaque, salivary pH, bacteriocins

  2. Ovarian condition of Holstein dairy cows between 30 and 90 days postpartum in the microregion of Uberlândia, MG

    Anderson Kloster Munhoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anestrous postpartum is a state of complete sexual inactivity without estrous manifestations and the return of ovarian activity in postpartum may be negatively affected by several factors, such as negative energy balance (NEB, loss of body condition score (BCS, season in which the calving occurs, nutritional deficiencies, dystocic calving, retained placenta, uterine infections and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BCS and number of days in milk (DIM on ovarian cyclicity of Holstein dairy cows. Ovarian conditions of 168 cows between 30 to 90 days in milk (DIM were evaluated twice by ultrasonography with seven days of interval and cows were classified in four categories: ovaries with presence of small follicles (Category 1: up to 10 mm; ovaries with medium follicles (Category 2: 10 to 18 mm; ovaries with large follicles (Category 3: over 20 mm and ovaries with presence of corpus luteum (CL (Category 4. The cows classified in categories 1, 2 and 3 were considered in anestrous. Data were analyzed by logistic regression at Minitab (P<0.05. As a result 15 cows (8.93% were in Category 1, 34 (20.24% in Category 2, 4 (2.38% in Category 3 and 115 (68.45% in Category 4. There was no effect (P>0.05 of DIM in the percentage of cycling cows, however there was a tendency (P=0.074 that cows with greater BCS (≥ 2.75 had a higher cyclicity rate (74.44% vs. 61.54% than cows with lower BCS. Days in milk effect was not detected in cyclicity rate in cows between 30 and 90 DIM, but there was a tendency of Holstein cows with greater body condition score to had higher cyclicity rate.

  3. Toxicity of the main electronic cigarette components, propylene glycol, glycerin, and nicotine, in Sprague-Dawley rats in a 90-day OECD inhalation study complemented by molecular endpoints.

    Phillips, Blaine; Titz, Bjoern; Kogel, Ulrike; Sharma, Danilal; Leroy, Patrice; Xiang, Yang; Vuillaume, Grégory; Lebrun, Stefan; Sciuscio, Davide; Ho, Jenny; Nury, Catherine; Guedj, Emmanuel; Elamin, Ashraf; Esposito, Marco; Krishnan, Subash; Schlage, Walter K; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared with vehicle exposure, the PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity. Addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects observed in previous studies, including up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1/Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, such as reduced serum lipid concentrations and expression changes of hepatic metabolic enzymes. No toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520  mg PG/L + 1.890 mg VG/L) were observed, and no adverse effects for PG/VG/nicotine were observed up to 438/544/6.6 mg/kg/day. This study demonstrates how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, even in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  5. Sub-chronic 90-day toxicity of neamine in SD rats and its anti-liver cancer activity in vitro and in vivo

    Wu, Yanli [Department of pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 400030 (China); Feng, Yongdong [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 400030 (China); Li, Yanling [Department of pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 400030 (China); Xu, Yiping; Shi, Nian [Department of hygienic toxicology, School of Public Health, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 400030 (China); Hu, Guo-fu [Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston 02111 (United States); Wu, Yunxia, E-mail: wuyunxia@hust.edu.cn [Department of pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 400030 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Neamine, an inhibitor of angiogenin (ANG), is a new investigative anticancer drug currently in preclinical stage. Here we report the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity of neamine in SD rats and its anti-liver cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Neamine has a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 12 and 16 mg·kg{sup −1}·d{sup −1} for female and male rats, respectively. No mortality was found. The adverse effects included increased organ coefficients of spleen and kidney, increased BUN in both female and male rats at high dose, increased CR and decreased organ coefficients of heart and liver in male rats at high dose. All of which, except the kidney coefficient and BUN in males, returned to normal levels after 28-day recovery. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of glomerulus, degeneration of renal tubules and cast in the kidneys, which were also recovered except in males of high-dosing group. These results indicate that kidney is the most susceptible organ for neamine toxicity. Tissue microarray analysis validated that ANG is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by increased nuclear translocation, suggesting that ANG is a possible target for drug development in liver cancer treatment. Neamine blocked nuclear translocation of ANG in HUVEC and HepG2 cells, and inhibited ANG-stimulated cell proliferation without affecting basal level cell proliferation. Neamine also inhibited progression of HepG2 xenografts in athymic mice accompanied by decreased angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation. These results suggest that neamine is a specific ANG inhibitor with low toxicity and high anti-liver cancer efficacy. - Highlights: • The NOAEL of neamine is 12 mg·kg{sup −1}·d{sup −1} for females and 16 mg·kg{sup −}1·d{sup −1} for males. • The most susceptible organ for neamine toxicity is kidney. • Neamine inhibits the progression of xenograft HepG2 liver cancer in athymic mice.

  6. Sub-chronic 90-day toxicity of neamine in SD rats and its anti-liver cancer activity in vitro and in vivo

    Wu, Yanli; Feng, Yongdong; Li, Yanling; Xu, Yiping; Shi, Nian; Hu, Guo-fu; Wu, Yunxia

    2017-01-01

    Neamine, an inhibitor of angiogenin (ANG), is a new investigative anticancer drug currently in preclinical stage. Here we report the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity of neamine in SD rats and its anti-liver cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Neamine has a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 12 and 16 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 for female and male rats, respectively. No mortality was found. The adverse effects included increased organ coefficients of spleen and kidney, increased BUN in both female and male rats at high dose, increased CR and decreased organ coefficients of heart and liver in male rats at high dose. All of which, except the kidney coefficient and BUN in males, returned to normal levels after 28-day recovery. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of glomerulus, degeneration of renal tubules and cast in the kidneys, which were also recovered except in males of high-dosing group. These results indicate that kidney is the most susceptible organ for neamine toxicity. Tissue microarray analysis validated that ANG is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by increased nuclear translocation, suggesting that ANG is a possible target for drug development in liver cancer treatment. Neamine blocked nuclear translocation of ANG in HUVEC and HepG2 cells, and inhibited ANG-stimulated cell proliferation without affecting basal level cell proliferation. Neamine also inhibited progression of HepG2 xenografts in athymic mice accompanied by decreased angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation. These results suggest that neamine is a specific ANG inhibitor with low toxicity and high anti-liver cancer efficacy. - Highlights: • The NOAEL of neamine is 12 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 for females and 16 mg·kg − 1·d −1 for males. • The most susceptible organ for neamine toxicity is kidney. • Neamine inhibits the progression of xenograft HepG2 liver cancer in athymic mice.

  7. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  8. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    ... in people with focal dermal hypoplasia is an omphalocele , which is an opening in the wall of ... Dermal Hypoplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Ectodermal dysplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Omphalocele General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  9. Increased Level of Interleukin 6 Associates With Increased 90-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease.

    Remmler, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Treuner-Kaueroff, Theresa; Bartels, Michael; Seehofer, Daniel; Scholz, Markus; Berg, Thomas; Kaiser, Thorsten

    2018-05-01

    ). Level of IL6 was an independent, significant risk factor for mortality after adjustment for MELD score, MELD-Na score, level of CRP, or WBC. In a retrospective analysis, we found high blood levels of IL6 to associate with 90-day and 1-year mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease; its predictive value was comparable to that of MELD or MELD-Na score, and was higher than that of level of CRP or WBC. Further studies should be performed to confirm the results in different cohorts. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  11. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term nanostructural effects of high radiofrequency treatment on the skin tissues of rabbits.

    Choi, Samjin; Cheong, Youjin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hui-Jae; Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Seok Keun; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively investigate the short-term effects of RF tissue-tightening treatment in in vivo rabbit dermal collagen fibrils. These effects were measured at different energy levels and at varying pass procedures on the nanostructural response level using histology and AFM analysis. Each rabbit was divided into one of seven experimental groups, which included the following: control group, and six RF group according to RF energy (20 W and 40 W) and three RF pass procedures. The progressive changes in the diameter and D-periodicity of rabbit dermal collagen fibrils were investigated in detail over a 7-day post-treatment period. The dermal tissues treated with the RF tissue-tightening device showed more prominent inflammatory responses with inflammatory cell ingrowth compared to the control. This effect showed more prominent with the passage of day after treatment. Although an increase in the diameter and D-periodicity of dermal collagen fibrils was identified immediately after the RF treatment, a decrease in the morphology of dermal collagen fibrils continued until post-operative day 7. Furthermore, RF treatment led to the loss of distinct borders. Increases in RF energy with the same pass procedure, as well as an increase in the number of RF passes, increased the occurrence of irreversible collagen fibril injury. A multiple-pass treatment at low energy rather than a single-pass treatment at high energy showed a large amount of collagen fibrils contraction at the nanostructural level.

  13. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  14. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2004-11-01

    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  15. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  16. Liposome-containing Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract formulations with increased antioxidant activity, improved dermal penetration and reduced dermal toxicity.

    Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ungphaiboon, Suwipa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, or Roselle, is a medicinal plant used extensively in traditional Thai medicine since ancient times. The extracts of Roselle calyces possess antioxidant activity and have potential for development as active ingredients in cosmetic products. However the limitations of using Roselle extracts in cosmetics are its low skin permeation and dermal irritation. Liposome technology is an obvious approach that might overcome these problems. Liposome formulations of standardized Roselle extracts were developed with various lipid components. The formulation showing the highest entrapment efficiency was selected for stability, skin permeation and dermal irritability studies. The liposome formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (83%) and smalôlest particle size (332 mm) was formulated with phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SPC): Tween 80: deoxycholic acid (DA); 84:16:2.5 weight ratio, total lipid of 200 g/mL and 10% w/v Roselle extract in final liposomal preparation. This liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light, for 2 months. The in vitro skin permeation studies, using freshly excised pig skin and modified Franz-diffusion cells, showed that the liposome formulation was able to considerably increased the rate of permeation of active compounds in Roselle extracts compared to the Roselle extract solution. The in vivo dermal irritability testing on rabbit skin showed that the liposome formulation dramatically decreased skin irritability compared to the unformulated extract. These results showed that the liposomes containing Roselle extracts had good stability, high entrapment efficacy, increased skin permeation and low skin irritation.

  17. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (Pjuice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  19. Getting Out of the 90-Day Mentality.

    Trotter, Kathleen M.

    1989-01-01

    Recommends steps to improve camp directors' year-round effectiveness in the camping movement. Suggests establishing common vocabulary, emphasizing values of camp programs or "hospitality services," and understanding the relationship of the outdoors to the programs offered. Offers tips for broadening camps' year-round services as educational…

  20. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  1. The effect of intensive and extensive production systems on carcass quality in New Zealand White rabbits

    Tomasz Daszkiewicz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty New Zealand White rabbits weaned at 30 days were divided into 2 groups and reared under intensive or extensive production system till slaughter age (90 days of age.  In the extensive production system, rabbits were housed in free-standing cages on straw litter and fed farm-made feed ad libitum.  Control rabbits were raised intensively in wire mesh slatted floor cages, indoors and on a commercial pellet ad libitum. Hot carcass weight was 16,6% lower (P<0.01 in extensive production, although the difference of 1 point both in hot and cold dressing percentage in favour of the intensively reared rabbits was not significant (P>0.05. The higher carcass weight of the control rabbits led to heavier primal cuts, including head (P0.05 and the fore part, intermediate part and hind part of the carcass (P0.01.  However, expressed as % of carcass weight, a significantly higher ratio was only found for the head (P0.01 and edible offal (P0.05 in intensively produced rabbits.  The production systems investigated  had no significant (P>0.05 effect on the chemical composition, physicochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics of meat from New Zealand White rabbits.

  2. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  3. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  4. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  6. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  7. Flexible Dermal Armor : Designs Learned from Nature

    Chen, Irene Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Designs derived from nature have become a perfect blueprint for today's engineers and scientists to follow and implement. One particularly noted area is the defense industry, wherein flexible dermal armor inspired by nature has been pioneering many sophisticated technologies and designs in recent years. Designers today are considering borrowing aspects of flexibility and mobility of natural dermal armors to enhance the maneuverability of man-made armor by imitating the following mechanisms : ...

  8. Changes in vascularization of internal organs in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, treated with protein hydrolysate

    Demireva, K.; Popdimitrov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vascularization of the internal organs of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis was studied by the method of Sapirstein with 86 rubidium. Experiments were carried out on male Chinchilla rabbits, fed cholesterol in a dose of 0,2 g/kg of body weight daily for a period of 90 days. Part of the animals were treated with protein hydrolysate in a dose of 5 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously and the remaining - with physiologic saline. There was reduced vascularization in the heart, kidneys, intestines, liver, adrenals, pancreas and other internal organs in rabbits fed cholestrol and treated with physiologic saline. Administration of protein hydrolysate had protective effect on organ vascularization. Accumulation of 86 rubidium in a large part of the animals was greater than in control group. It is shown that protein hydrolysate amino acids stabilize the endothelial cells and stimulate the local vascularization. (author)

  9. RabbitMQ essentials

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  10. Inductive capacity of irradiated dermal papillae

    Ibrahim, L.; Wright, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the importance of the dermal papilla for the maintenance and control of hair cycles in mammals has long been recognised, but there has been little direct evidence of its mode of functioning. Permanent removal of rat body hair has resulted from large doses of X-radiation and it was believed that this caused destruction of the dermal papilla, which in turn resulted in permanent epilation. A study is here reported on the effect of heavy doses of irradiation on the dermal papilla and epithelial elements of the hair follicles of mice and rats. It was found that the high doses that caused permanent epilation destroyed the epithelium but left the dermal papilla anatomically and functionally intact, so that even on transplantation it could induce a series of new hairs. The dose employed was 2500 R of X-radiation for mice or 5000 R for rats. Hairs after transplantation were shorter than normal and had a slower rate of growth; depending on the size of the transplanted dermal papilla. The hairs become shorter with successive cycles of irradiation. (U.K.)

  11. Update on botulinum toxin and dermal fillers.

    Berbos, Zachary J; Lipham, William J

    2010-09-01

    The art and science of facial rejuvenation is an ever-evolving field of medicine, as evidenced by the continual development of new surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities. Over the past 10 years, the use of botulinum toxin and dermal fillers for aesthetic purposes has risen sharply. Herein, we discuss properties of several commonly used injectable products and provide basic instruction for their use toward the goal of achieving facial rejuvenation. The demand for nonsurgical injection-based facial rejuvenation products has risen enormously in recent years. Used independently or concurrently, botulinum toxin and dermal filler agents offer an affordable, minimally invasive approach to facial rejuvenation. Botulinum toxin and dermal fillers can be used to diminish facial rhytides, restore facial volume, and sculpt facial contours, thereby achieving an aesthetically pleasing, youthful facial appearance.

  12. Persistent Dystrophin Protein Restoration 90 Days after a Course of Intraperitoneally Administered Naked 2′OMePS AON and ZM2 NP-AON Complexes in mdx Mice

    Elena Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach has obtained proof of concept in animal models, myogenic cell cultures, and following local and systemic administration in Duchenne patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that low doses (7.5 mg/Kg/week of 2′-O-methyl-phosphorothioate antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs adsorbed onto ZM2 nanoparticles provoke widespread dystrophin restoration 7 days after intraperitoneal treatment in mdx mice. In this study, we went on to test whether this dystrophin restoration was still measurable 90 days from the end of the same treatment. Interestingly, we found that both western blot and immunohistochemical analysis (up to 7% positive fibres were still able to detect dystrophin protein in the skeletal muscles of ZM2-AON-treated mice at this time, and the level of exon-23 skipping could still be assessed by RT real-time PCR (up to 10% of skipping percentage. In contrast, the protein was undetectable by western blot analysis in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice treated with an identical dose of naked AON, and the percentage of dystrophin-positive fibres and exon-23 skipping were reminiscent of those of untreated mdx mice. Our data therefore demonstrate the long-term residual efficacy of this systemic low-dose treatment and confirm the protective effect nanoparticles exert on AON molecules.

  13. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  14. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  15. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Scroggins-Markle, Leslie; Kelly, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies. PMID:24073343

  16. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  17. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  18. Chitosan film containing fucoidan as a wound dressing for dermal burn healing: Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Sezer, Ali Demir; Hatipoglu, Fatih; Cevher, Erdal; Oğurtan, Zeki; Bas, Ahmet Levent; Akbuğa, Jülide

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop chitosan film containing fucoidan and to investigate its suitability for the treatment of dermal burns on rabbits. Porous films, thickness between 29.7 and 269.0 μm, were obtained by the solvent dropping method. Water vapor permeability (3.3–16.6/0.1 g), the swelling (0.67–1.77 g/g), tensile strength (7.1–45.8 N), and bioadhesion (0.076–1.771 mJ/cm2) of the films were determined. The thinnest films were obtained with the lowest chitosan concentration (P...

  19. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    He, X Y; Huang, K L; Li, X; Qin, W; Delaney, B; Luo, Y B

    2008-06-01

    DAS-59122-7 (59122) is a transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) that contains genes encoding Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner strain 149B1 and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of these proteins in planta confers resistance to corn rootworms and other Coleopteran parasites and tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, respectively. In the current study, processed flours from 59122 maize grain or its near isogenic control line (091) were used at two concentrations (50% and 70% wt/wt) to produce diets that were fed to rats for 90 days in accordance with Chinese toxicology guidelines (GB15193.13-2003). A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional negative control. No significant differences in body weight and feed utilization were observed between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 and 091 Control corn. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in certain hematology and serum chemistry response variables between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 or 091 Control flour compared to AIN93G diet. However, the mean value of these response variables in the 59122 groups were not statistically different from those observed in diets formulated with corresponding high and low concentrations of the flour from the 091 Control maize grain. Therefore, the statistical differences were considered to be related to consumption of diets containing high concentrations of maize flour (compared to AIN93G diets) regardless of source rather than to consumption of flour from 59122 maize grain. The results from this study demonstrated that 59122 maize grain is as safe as non-transgenic maize grain.

  1. The impact of place of enrollment and delay to reperfusion on 90-day post-infarction mortality in the ASSENT-4 PCI trial: assessment of the safety and efficacy of a new treatment strategy with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Ross, Allan M; Huber, Kurt; Zeymer, Uwe; Armstrong, Paul W; Granger, Christopher B; Goldstein, Patrick; Bogaerts, Kris; Van de Werf, Frans

    2009-10-01

    We have performed a retrospective analysis of the data stratified by time to treatment and by enrollment site: percutaneous coronary intervention hospitals (PCIH), nonpercutaneous coronary intervention hospitals (NoPCIH), or in a pre-hospital setting (PreH). The ASSENT-4 PCI (Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Treatment Strategy with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial intended to test the hypothesis that in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients an upfront fibrinolytic bolus before PCI ("facilitated PCI") compared with primary PCI would benefit STEMI patients facing a long pre-PCI delay. Seven hundred forty-nine patients (45%) presented directly to PCIH, 578 (34%) presented to NoPCIH, and 334 (20%) were randomized and initially treated in the PreH setting. Patients in the PreH-facilitated group had the shortest delays (pain-to-fibrinolytic treatment 125 min) and the lowest 90-day mortality (3.1%). Among patients randomized to primary PCI, the shortest time from pain to first balloon was similarly in the PreH group (223 min). They had the lowest mortality of the primary PCI patient groups (4.1%). The highest mortality (8.4%) was in patients presenting to a PCIH and assigned to the facilitated strategy. Their pain-to-lysis time was 174 min and pain-to-PCI time 266 min (or 92 min after lysis). Few patients fit the target population, long delays to PCI for whom facilitated PCI was designed. Patients treated early after pain onset in the PreH setting do well after a facilitated approach. Despite limitations of post hoc subgroup analysis, these observations suggest caution in extrapolating the results of the ASSENT-4 trial to the "real world" where many patients might have potentially short pain-to-fibrinolysis time but are facing a long transport time to primary PCI.

  2. A 90-day continuous vapor inhalation toxicity study of JP-8 jet fuel followed by 20 or 21 months of recovery in Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 mice.

    Mattie, D R; Alden, C L; Newell, T K; Gaworski, C L; Flemming, C D

    1991-01-01

    The kerosene-type jet fuel, JP-8, consists of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of the utility of JP-8, studies have been conducted to identify the potential long-term consequence of occupational inhalation exposure. Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 mice of both sexes were exposed to JP-8 vapors at 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/m3 on a continuous basis for 90 days, then followed by recovery until approximately 24 months of age. Occurrence of necrotizing dermatitis associated with fighting resulted in an increase in mortality in mice (male greater than female) during the 2 week to 9 month post-exposure recovery period. The male rat kidney developed a reversible ultrastructural increase in size and propensity for crystalloid changes of phagolysosomal proteinic reabsorption droplets in the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium. A specific triad of persisting light microscopic renal lesions occurred but functional change was limited to a decrease in urine concentration compared to controls that persisted throughout the recovery period. The response is comparable to the chronic effect of lifetime exposure of the male rat to unleaded gasoline, d-limonene, and p-dichlorobenzene, except for the absence of tubular tumorigenesis. The active toxicologic response presumably must occur over a greater proportion of the male rat's life span for the tumor component of this male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy syndrome. The predictiveness for humans must be questioned, since the pathologic response to JP-8 involved only one tissue in one sex of one species, and since the male rat response appears to be linked to an inherent renal protein peculiarity.

  3. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  5. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  6. The CareRabbit

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  7. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  8. Dissolving microneedle patches for dermal vaccination

    Leone, M.; Monkare, J.T.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Kersten, G.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antige...

  9. Dermal pocketing following distal finger replantation.

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T

    2010-08-01

    Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composite synthetic hydroxyapatite 30%, in two physical states, as dermal filler

    Rodrigo Viana Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite 30% (HAP-91® in different physical states as dermal filler. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were used, distributed randomly into two equal groups and then divided into three groups according to the postoperative period at 8, 21 and 49 days. One mL of HAP-91®, fluid and viscous, was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue, 1 cm proximal to the cranial crest of the right scapula. The thickness of the skin was measured before and after implantation and for the following 15 days. Pain sensitivity assessment was conducted, assigning the following scores: 0 - when the animal allowed the touch of the implant area and expressed no signs of pain; 1 - when the animal allowed the touch, but pain reaction occurred, like increase of the respiratory rate or attempt to escape; 2 - when the animal did not allow the touch to the implanted area. At 8, 21 and 49 days, biopsy of the implanted area was performed. No difference was observed between the thickness of the skin (p>0.05 and all animals received a score 0 for soreness. Histological analysis did not reveal any obvious inflammatory process, showing a predominance of mononuclear cells in samples of eight days and tissue organization around the biomaterial with a tendency to encapsulation. The results indicate that HAP-91®, both viscous and fluid, is biocompatible and suitable for dermal filling.

  11. PAMAM dendrimer hydrogel film—biocompatible material to an efficient dermal delivery of drugs

    Magalhães, Thamiris Machado; Guerra, Rodrigo Cinti; San Gil, Rosane Aguiar da Silva; Valente, Ana Paula; Simão, Renata Antoun; Soares, Bluma Guenther; Mendes, Thamara de Carvalho; Pyrrho, Alexandre dos Santos; Sousa, Valeria Pereira de; Rodrigues-Furtado, Vanessa Lúcia

    2017-08-01

    We report the preparation, characterization, and drug release kinetics of a pH-responsive hydrogel film from a dendrimer megamer. The megamer (GP32) is a three-dimensional reticulated structure with a mean diameter of 71.16 nm (PDI 0.150) and was prepared by the reaction between Poly(amidoamine) generation4 (PAMAM G4) dendrimer and glutaraldehyde (G:P molar ratio 32). The crosslinking units in the megamer are provided mainly by the bicyclic dimer 2-hydroxy-3,4,4a,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2 H-chromene-6-carbaldehyde as determined by high-resolution (800 MHz) 1H NMR and FTIR. The hydrogel film (F[GP32]) is formed upon evaporation of a methanolic solution of the megamer and has a high degree of organization and homogeneity. Further crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (CLF[GP32]) enhanced the mechanical properties of the hydrogel film. The chemical constitution and unique megamer architecture enable the hydrogel film to carry both lipophilic and hydrophilic substances. The film did not cause any dermal irritation or clinical signs of toxicity in tests on rabbits, allowed for a sustained release of ketoprofen and played an important role in the process of drug delivery into the receptor medium. This performance taken together with the absence of toxicity makes this hydrogel film a good choice for dermal sustained drug release. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Primary cell culture and morphological characterization of canine dermal papilla cells and dermal fibroblasts.

    Bratka-Robia, Christine B; Mitteregger, Gerda; Aichinger, Amanda; Egerbacher, Monika; Helmreich, Magdalena; Bamberg, Elmar

    2002-02-01

    Skin biopsies were taken from female dogs, the primary hair follicles isolated and the dermal papilla dissected. After incubation in supplemented Amniomax complete C100 medium in 24-well culture plates, the dermal papilla cells (DPC) grew to confluence within 3 weeks. Thereafter, they were subcultivated every 7 days. Dermal fibroblast (DFB) cultures were established by explant culture of interfollicular dermis in serum-free medium, where they reached confluence in 10 days. They were subcultivated every 5 days. For immunohistochemistry, cells were grown on cover slips for 24 h, fixed and stained with antibodies against collagen IV and laminin. DPC showed an aggregative growth pattern and formation of pseudopapillae. Intensive staining for collagen IV and laminin could be observed until the sixth passage. DFB grew as branching, parallel lines and showed only weak staining for collagen IV and laminin.

  13. Toxicity of middle distillates from dermal exposure.

    Koschier, F J

    1999-02-01

    This report focuses on recent studies that investigated the effects of kerosine dermal exposure on neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Background toxicity information will also be reviewed for kerosine range mid distillates. The kerosine range mid distillates have a carbon range of C9-C16 and have a boiling range of 302-554 degrees F (150-290 degrees C). This category includes kerosine, aviation fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP-5 and JP-8), no. 1 fuel oil and diesel fuel oil. In general, the kerosine range mid distillates demonstrate relatively low acute toxicity by any route of exposure. High inhalation exposures can induce central nervous system depression characterized by ataxia, hypoactivity and prostration. Kerosines are known to cause skin irritation and inflammation under conditions of acute and repeated exposure in animals and humans, but are only slightly irritating to the eye and are not skin sensitizers. In addition, the absorption of kerosine range mid distillates through the skin has been demonstrated to be fairly rapid, but limited to approximately 10-15% of the applied dose after 24 hours. The kerosine range mid distillates are generally inactive in genetic toxicity tests although positive studies have been reported. Positive results, while at times equivocal, have been reported for straight run kerosine and jet fuel A in the mouse lymphoma assay with metabolic activation, and hydrodesulfurized kerosine (mouse) and jet fuel A (rat) in the bone marrow cytogenetic assay. Effects on the nervous and reproductive systems have been reported in humans and experimental animals under conditions where inhalation and dermal exposure to specific kerosine type fuels are sometimes difficult to separate. Recent laboratory studies have addressed this point and examined the effects of dermal exposure. In these studies, rats were exposed to hydrodesulfurized kerosine by skin application to determine the potential of dermal contact to cause reproductive

  14. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  15. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  16. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  17. Dermal exposure to monoterpenes during wood work.

    Eriksson, Kare; Wiklund, Leif

    2004-06-01

    The dermal exposure to the suspected allergenic monoterpenes [small alpha]-pinene, [small beta]-pinene and [capital Delta](3)-carene was assessed with a patch sampling technique. The patch used was made of activated charcoal sandwiched between two layers of cotton cloth. Patches were fastened at 12 different spots on a sampling overall and at the front of a cap to estimate the potential exposure of the body. Fastening two patches on a cotton glove, one patch representing the dorsal side and one patch representing the palm of the hand respectively, assessed the exposure on the hands. Sampling was carried out during collecting of pine and spruce boards in sawmills and during sawing of pine wood pieces in joinery shops respectively. The potential dermal exposure of the total body was 29.0-1 890 mg h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 238 mg h(-1) during sawing. During collecting the GM was estimated to 100 mg h(-1) with a range of 12.2-959 mg h(-1). The hands had a mean exposure of 9.24 mg h(-1) during sawing and 3.25 mg h(-1) during collecting respectively. The good correlation between the mass of contamination on the individual body parts and the potential body exposure indicates that sampling can be performed on one body part to give a good estimation of the potential body exposure. Monoterpenes were detected at patches fastened underneath the protective clothing indicating a contamination of the skin of the worker. The patch used may overestimate the dermal exposure.

  18. EFFECT OF STENT ABSORBED c-myc ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDE ON SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS APOPTOSIS IN RABBIT CAROTID ARTERY

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 李江; 崔翰斌; 徐仓宝; 朱参战

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent absorbed c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on smooth muscle cells apoptosis in a normal rabbit carotid arteries. Methods Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stents were implanted in the right carotid arteries of 32 rabbits under vision. Animals were randomly divided into control group and treated group receiving c-myc ASODN (n=16, respectively). On 7, 14, 30 and 90 days following the stenting procedure ,morphometry for caculation of neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were performed.The expression of c-myc protein was detected by immunohistochemical method. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results At 7 and 14 days after stenting,there were no detectable apoptotic cells in both groups. The apoptotic cells occurred in the neointima 30 and 90 days after stenting, and the number of apoptotic cells at 30 days were less [4.50±1.29 vs 25.75±1.89 (number/0.1mm2)] than that at 90 days [13.50±1.91 vs 41.50±6.46 (number/0.1mm2)]. Meanwhile c-myc ASODN induced more apoptotic cells than the control group(P<0.0001). c-myc protein expression was weak positive or negative in treated group and positive in control group.Conclusion c-myc ASODN can induce smooth muscle cells apoptosis after stenting in normal rabbit carotid arteries,and it can be used to prevent in-stent restenosis.

  19. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    Mario Cherubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  20. Use of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Dermal Substitute in Rats

    Srivastava, Anil; DeSagun, Evangeline Z.; Jennings, Lawrence J.; Sethi, Stephen; Phuangsab, Anan; Hanumadass, Marella; Reyes, Hernan M.; Walter, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as a xenogenic dermal substitute in a rat model. Summary Background Data Acellular dermal matrix has been used in the treatment of full-thickness skin injuries as an allogenic dermal substitute providing a stable wound base in human and animal studies. Methods Xenogenic and allogenic ADMs were produced by treating porcine or rat skin with Dispase and Triton X-100. Full-thickness skin defects (225 mm2) were created on the dorsum of rats (n = 29), porcine or rat ADMs were implanted in them, and these were overlain with ultrathin split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). In two adjacent wounds, 0.005- or 0.017-inch-thick autografts were implanted. In other experiments, the antimicrobial agent used during ADM processing (azide or a mixture of antibiotics) and the orientation of the implanted ADM (papillary or reticular side of ADM facing the STSG) were studied. Grafts were evaluated grossly and histologically for 30 days after surgery. Results Significant wound contraction was seen at 14, 20, and 30 days after surgery in wounds receiving xenogenic ADM, allogenic ADM, and thin STSGs. Contraction of wounds containing xenogenic ADM was significantly greater than that of wounds containing allogenic ADM at 30 days after surgery. Graft take was poor in wounds containing xenogenic ADM and moderately good in those containing allogenic ADM. Wound healing was not significantly affected by the antimicrobial agent used during ADM preparation or by the ADM orientation. Conclusion Dispase–Triton-treated allogenic ADM was useful as a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin defects, but healing with xenogenic ADM was poor. PMID:11224629

  1. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data.......To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  2. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment.

    Warren, Nicholas D; Marquart, Hans; Christopher, Yvette; Laitinen, Juha; VAN Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of new measurements of dermal exposure together with detailed contextual information. This article describes the development of a set of generic task-based models capable of predicting potential dermal exposure to both solids and liquids in a wide range of situations. To facilitate modelling of the wide variety of dermal exposure situations six separate models were made for groupings of exposure scenarios called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units). These task-based groupings cluster exposure scenarios with regard to the expected routes of dermal exposure and the expected influence of exposure determinants. Within these groupings linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the influence of various exposure determinants and to estimate components of variance. The models predict median potential dermal exposure rates for the hands and the rest of the body from the values of relevant exposure determinants. These rates are expressed as mg or microl product per minute. Using these median potential dermal exposure rates and an accompanying geometric standard deviation allows a range of exposure percentiles to be calculated.

  3. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  5. Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) In vivo veritas

    Immunology LAB-1

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 0. 200. 400. 600. 800. 1000. 1200. 1400. 1600 ... Rapid diagnostic tests exist (PKDL?) • Effective ... ld (C t). No: of parasites/ 200 µl of blood. Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL); dermal ...

  6. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  7. The White Rabbit project

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  8. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  9. Desempenho, características de carcaça e viabilidade econômica de coelhos sexados abatidos em diferentes idades Performance, carcass characteristics and economic viability of sexed rabbits slaughtered at different ages

    M.C. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho, as características de carcaça e a viabilidade econômica de coelhos sexados abatidos em diferentes idades. Foram usados 100 coelhos (50 machos e 50 fêmeas, em delineamento de blocos inteiramente ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2×2 (dois sexos e duas idades ao abate, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os coelhos foram desmamados aos 35 e abatidos aos 75 ou 90 dias de idade. Não houve diferença entre sexo (P>0,05 nos parâmetros avaliados. Os animais abatidos aos 90 dias (PPerformance, carcass characteristics and economic viability of sexed rabbits slaughtered at different ages were evaluated. One-hundred rabbits (50 males and 50 females were assigned to a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement of 2×2 (two sexes and two slaughter ages, with four treatments and five replicates. The rabbits weaned at 35 were slaughtered at 75 and 90 days of age. No effect of sex (P>0.05 on the evaluated parameters was observed. Animals slaughtered at 90 days were heavier(P<0.001, had a higher daily feed intake and a higher carcass weight than animals slaughtered at 75 days which showed higher daily weight gain and better feed: gain ratio. Rabbits slaughtered at 90 days of age had higher carcass weight (P<0.04, thigh (P<0.005, internal fat (P<0.001 and liver (P<0.01. They also showed better carcass characteristics. High rentability was obtained alternatively for animals sold alive at 25 days of age or slaughtered at 90 days of age.

  10. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits' femoral vein

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson's tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  11. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroids are the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, hospitals public health, homes and textile industry. Cypermethrin, a composite pyrethroid is moderately toxic to mammals. Exposure to the pyrethroids occurs by inhalation, dermal and oral routes both accidentally as well as from the environment. Cypermethrin and DDT have been detected in human breast milk from malaria endemic area in South Africa. The WHO has recommended that the level of permethrin in drinking water not exceed 20 micrograms per liter (microg/L). The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits, habits and whether other chemicals are present. Pyrethroids are often combined commercially with other chemicals called synergists, which enhance the insecticidal activity of the pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The synergists prevent some enzymes from breaking down the pyrethrins and pyrethroids, thus increasing their toxicity. Because these compounds are broken down in the body quickly, there are several ways to measure the metabolites of these chemicals in human blood and urine. In this study the pyrethroid cypermethrin Sherpa 25% (active substance 250 g/l cypermethrin) was used, rabbits (1 kg weight), were gavaged by 1/20 LD50 for 3 weeks (one dose every week). Blood was collected before dosing and after 24, 72, 144 hours after the treatment. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma samples obtained. GOT, GPT, ALPH, CREA, GGT, Glucose and Total Pro were measured. Rabbits showed depression, decrease in feed intake, body weight and loose faeces. Livers exhibited fatty change, necrosis, lesions in kidney included tubular necrosis and pink homogeneous tubular casts. Serum ALT and creatinine concentrations increased while those of total proteins, albumin, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased.The results showed a decrease in RBC; WBC and Hb. This probably explained by the effect of

  12. Formulation of diclofenac for dermal delivery.

    Goh, Choon Fu; Lane, Majella E

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DF) was first synthesized in the 1960's and is currently available as ophthalmic, oral, parenteral, rectal and skin preparations. This review focuses on the administration of DF to the skin. As a member of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs the primary indications of DF are for the management of inflammation and pain but it is also used to treat actinic keratosis. The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of DF following oral and topical administration; (ii) examine critically the various formulation approaches which have been investigated to enhance dermal delivery of DF; and (iii) identify new formulation strategies for enhanced DF skin penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  14. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    Rivkin AZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Z Rivkin David Geffen/UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. Keywords: dermal fillers, hands, volumization, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite

  15. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG)

  16. Expression of VEGF and collagen using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits

    André Luís Alonso Domingos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the VEGF expression and collagen deposition using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2 x 2 cm was sewn to the bladder of rabbits with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate sutures in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were killed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. Sections of 5µm were cut and stained with picrosirius-red in order to estimate the amount of extracellular matrix in the graft. To confirm the presence of VEGF in tissues, protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. A progressive reduction in the amount of collagen occurred in the graft area and was negatively and linearly correlated with time (p < 0.001. VEGF expression was higher in grafted areas when compared to controls at 15 and 45 days after surgery and decreased with time (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane as a matrix for partial bladder replacement in rabbits promotes temporary collagen deposition and stimulates the angiogenic process.

  17. Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate glaucoma implant healing response in rabbit eyes

    Gossage, Kirk W.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2002-06-01

    Glaucoma is a set of diseases that cause optic nerve damage and visual field loss. The most important risk factor for the development of glaucoma is elevated intraocular pressure. One approach used to alleviate the pressure increase is to surgically install glaucoma implants. Two standard Ahmed and ten experimental ePTFE implants were evaluated in this study in rabbit eyes. The implants were imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 0, 7, 15, 30, and 90 days after implantation. Histology was collected at days 7, 15, 30, and 90 and compared to the OCT images. Preliminary analysis of images indicates that OCT can visualize the development of fibrous encapsulation of the implant, tissue erosion, fibrin accumulation in the implant tube, and tube position in the anterior chamber. A new OCT handheld probe was developed to facilitate in vivo imaging in rabbit eye studies. The OCT probe consists of a mechanical scaffold designed to allow the imaging fiber to be held in a fixed position with respect to the rabbit eye, with minimal anesthesia. A piezo electric lateral scanning device allows the imaging fiber to be scanned across the tissue so that 2D images may be acquired.

  18. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  19. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing ...

    Background: The preference for a fairer skin-tone has become a common trend ... to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum ... Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream ...

  20. Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal ...

    Background: Acute complex traumatic wounds of the lower limbs are usually ... The recovery is lengthy, and the outcome dependent on the initial injury, the surgical ... of fracture and use of a dermal regeneration template over the fracture site, ...

  1. Brain abscess as a manifestation of spinal dermal sinus

    Parisa Emami-Naeini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Emami-Naeini, Ali Mahdavi, Hamed Ahmadi, Nima Baradaran, Farideh NejatDepartment of Neurosurgery, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, IranAbstract: Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brain abscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brain abscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed.Keywords: brain abscess, spinal dermal sinus, spinal abscess

  2. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    2007-04-01

    cycles and the measurements taken after each cycle were recorded. All water rinses were performed using tap water and applied using a gentle stream...uniform and highly reproducible. EpiDermFT ( EFT ) consists of organized basal, spinous, granular, and cornified epidermal layers analogous to those found...in vivo. The dermal compartment is composed of a collagen matrix containing viable normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). EFT is mitotically and

  3. A comparative study between the coal-biomass briquette and raw coal in SO{sub 2} pollution and adverse effects in rabbits

    Cheng Shuqun; Zhou Yanrong; Wang Yi' nan; Wang Xun; Liu Yuanfu; Iwao Uchiyama; Wang Qiangyue; Kazuhiki Sakamoto [Chongqing University of Medical Sciences. Chongqing (China). School of Public Health

    2006-12-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse health effects on rabbits exposed to SO{sub 2} emitted indoors from burning coals, and compare differences between coal-biomass briquette (BB) and raw coal (RC). Thirty-six male rabbits were divided equally into three groups at random, and then exposed to burning RC, BB, and the third without burning coal (Control) for 90 days. Data showed that the average concentration of SO{sub 2} in 24 h in RC was 13.04 mg m{sup -3}, which was 5-fold greater than BB and 31-fold higher than control (0.41 mg m{sup -3}). After 45 days, the numbers of rabbits, with increased frequency of Comet cell was highest in RC. After 90 days, the % positive Comet cell was significant at 10.36% in RC, 5.42% in BB, and 1.73% in Control. There was a nonlinear dose-effect relationship between % positive Comet cell and the concentration of SO{sub 2}. The incidence of interstitial pneumonia was 6/12 in RC and 4/12 in BB showing severe squamous metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia in bronchial epithelia in RC animals. The results of study indicate that use of BB reduced the emission of SO{sub 2}; but the smoke emitted from burning coal still produced DNA damage.

  4. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  5. Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis

    Giambiagi-deMarval Marcia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Currently, these isolates have also shown resistance to vancomycin, the last therapy used in these cases. It has been observed that quinones and other related compounds exhibit antibacterial activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity, toxicity and in vivo dermal irritability of lapachol extracted from Tabebuia avellanedae and derivatives against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. In addition, its mechanism of action was also analyzed. Methods The compounds β-lapachone, 3-hydroxy β N lapachone and α-lapachone were tested to determine the MIC values against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus strains, being the two last ones hetero-resistant to vancomycin. Experiments of protein synthesis analysis to investigate the naphthoquinones action were assessed. In vitro toxicity to eukaryotic BSC-40 African Green Monkey Kidney cell cultures and in vivo primary dermal irritability in healthy rabbits were also performed. Results The compounds tested showed antibacterial activity (MICs of 8, 4/8 and 64/128 μg/mL to β-lapachone, 3-hydroxy β N lapachone and α-lapachone, respectively, but no bactericidal activity was observed (MBC > 512 μg/mL for all compounds. Although it has been observed toxic effect in eukaryotic cells, the compounds were shown to be atoxic when applied as topic preparations in healthy rabbits. No inhibition of proteins synthesis was observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that quinones could be used in topic preparations against wound infections caused by staphylococci, after major investigation of the pharmacological properties of the compounds. Studies about the use of these compounds on tumoral cells could be carried on, due to their effect in eukaryotic cells metabolism.

  6. The White Rabbit Project

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  7. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  8. Biology of the rabbit.

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  9. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of the Intact Dermal Sheath Cup of Human Hair Follicles.

    Niiyama, Shiro; Ishimatsu-Tsuji, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuzo; Soma, Tsutomu; Ideta, Ritsuro; Mukai, Hideki; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2018-04-24

    Cells that constitute the dermal papillae of hair follicles might be derived from the dermal sheath, the peribulbar component of which is the dermal sheath cup. The dermal sheath cup is thought to include the progenitor cells of the dermal papillae and possesses hair inductive potential; however, it has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the gene expression profile of the intact dermal sheath cup, and identified dermal sheath cup signature genes, including extracellular matrix components and BMP-binding molecules, as well as TGF-b1 as an upstream regulator. Among these, GREM2, a member of the BMP antagonists, was found by in situ hybridization to be highly specific to the dermal sheath cup, implying that GREM2 is a key molecule contributing to maintenance of the properties of the dermal sheath cup.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  12. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  13. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  14. Histological response to platelet-rich plasma added to polypropylene mesh implemented in rabbits

    Oscar Rubini Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The platelet-rich plasma (PRP is part of a set of biotechnologies, providing some growth factors that promote repair of different tissues. The polypropylene meshes (PPM are applied in the correction of abdominal defects, pelvic floor and urinary incontinence, however, they induce many significant complications, as a result of an inappropriate inflammatory response. Purpose: To investigate the changes caused by PRP associated with the implantation of PPM in the abdomen of female rabbits, in the production of collagen I and III and the inflammatory infiltrate (ININ. Materials and Methods: We performed implant meshes with and without PRP in adult rabbits (n=30 and euthanasia at 7, 30 and 90 days. Two plates were prepared from each animal and analyzed in five different fields. The ININ was evaluated by quantification of inflammatory cells using hematoxylin-eosin and the collagen by Sirius red method. The results were analyzed applying the Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Junckheere and Friedmann tests. Results: There was a significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells between the groups with and without PRP (p=0.01 at 90 days. There was increased production of collagen I, III and total with the use of PRP, at seven days. Conclusion: The PPM coating with PRP was associated with increased ININ at the implant area, and an increasing trend during the process of tissue repair. The PPM coated with PRP was related to increased concentration of collagen I, collagen III and the concentration of total collagen increased after seven days of implantation.

  15. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  16. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... of animals displaying each type of lesion. (ii) All observed results (quantitative and qualitative... exposure apparatus including design, type, volume, source of air, system for generating aerosols, method of... substance should be used, if possible throughout the duration of the study, and the research sample should...

  17. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO x abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO x emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO x from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr -1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NO x concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH 3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO x concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO x concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  18. Melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes of Japanese Silky chicken embryos.

    Ortolani-Machado, C F; Freitas, P F; Faraco, C D

    2009-08-01

    The Japanese Silky chicken (SK) shows dermal and visceral hyperpigmentation. This study characterizes ultrastructurally the melanin granules developing in dermal melanocytes of the dorsal skin of SK, in an attempt to better understand the processes of melanogenesis in these permanently ectopic cells. The steps of melanogenesis are similar to those described for epidermal melanocytes, with melanosomes going from stage I to IV but, in SK, the maturation occurs in the cell body, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes. At stage III, the deposition of melanin is cumulative and can aggregate in rounded structures, which combine to turn into the mature granule. The final destiny of mature melanosomes is still unclear, although it was observed that dermal macrophages can accumulate melanin granules in their phagosomes. Even with the close proximity between melanocytes and other dermal cells, the transference of melanosomes was not observed. Our findings indicate that melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes in SK has the same morphological characteristics found in epidermal melanocytes, but the functional aspect still remains to be elucidated.

  19. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  1. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurements of Dermal and Oral Emissions from Humans

    Tsushima, Sayana; Bekö, Gabriel; Bossi, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Human related pollutants (bioeffluents) emitted through skin and via exhaled breath were measured. Two climate chambers were connected via flexible ducts. The ducts were in one chamber attached to a breathing mask, through which five subjects exhaled on one occasion the air into the other chamber......: Human bioeffluents emitted orally were in this way isolated from those that were emitted dermally. On another occasion, the subjects exhaled the air into the chamber where they were sitting, thus exposure contained oral and dermal bioeffluents. Another twenty subjects assessed the air quality...... in the chambers. They judged the air quality in the chamber with dermal bioeffluents to be lower than in the one containing orally exhaled bioeffluents, and similar to the air quality in the chamber with all bioeffluents. The chemical compounds with slightly elevated concentrations differed between the two...

  3. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  4. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  5. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    Skin biopsies were taken from the central regions of the ears of New Zealand white rabbits following localized exposure of one ear of each rabbit to 530 MeV/amu Ar or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions. The unirradiated ears served as controls. Biopsies were taken also from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys after whole-body exposure to 32 MeV protons and from unirradiated control animals. The linear energy transfers (LET∞'s) for the radiations were 90 +/- 5, 35 +/- 3, and ~1.2 keV/μm, respectively. In the rabbit studies, explants were removed with a 2 mm diameter dermal punch at post-irradiation times up to five years after exposure. Similar volumes of monkey tissue were taken from skin samples excised surgically 16-18 years following proton irradiation. Fibroblast cultures were initiated from the explants and were propagated in vitro until terminal senescence (cessation of cell division) occurred. Cultures from irradiated tissue exhibited decreases in doubling potential that were dependent on radiation dose and LET∞ and seemed to reflect damage to stem cell populations. The implications of these results for astronauts exposed to heavy ions and/or protons in space include possible manifestations of residual effects in the skin many years after exposure (e.g. unsatisfactory responses to trauma or surgery).

  6. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  7. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Emodi, Omri; Ginini, Jiriys George; van Aalst, John A; Shilo, Dekel; Naddaf, Raja; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%). We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  8. Complications caused by injection of dermal filler in Danish patients

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Zachariae, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number of complicati......Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number...

  9. Labeled chloroquine analog in diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of the melanin-specific properties of chloroquine, an 125 I-labeled chloroquine analog (NM-113) was synthesized for use in the diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas. The limitations and indications for the use of NM-113 in the diagnosis of dermal melanomas are summarized, and its efficiency in the diagnosis of ocular melanomas is discussed. The low probability of side effects (radiation effects) on the retina from a diagnostic dose of 2 m Ci (46 rads) is mentioned. (U.S.)

  10. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p humans.

  11. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  12. Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA.

    Marquart, Hans; Franken, Remy; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody

    2017-08-01

    The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a

  13. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  15. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  16. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  17. Hydroquinone PBPK model refinement and application to dermal exposure.

    Poet, Torka S; Carlton, Betsy D; Deyo, James A; Hinderliter, Paul M

    2010-11-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hydroquinone (HQ) was refined to include an expanded description of HQ-glucuronide metabolites and a description of dermal exposures to support route-to-route and cross-species extrapolation. Total urinary excretion of metabolites from in vivo rat dermal exposures was used to estimate a percutaneous permeability coefficient (K(p); 3.6×10(-5) cm/h). The human in vivo K(p) was estimated to be 1.62×10(-4) cm/h, based on in vitro skin permeability data in rats and humans and rat in vivo values. The projected total multi-substituted glutathione (which was used as an internal dose surrogate for the toxic glutathione metabolites) was modeled following an exposure scenario based on submersion of both hands in a 5% aqueous solution of HQ (similar to black and white photographic developing solution) for 2 h, a worst-case exposure scenario. Total multi-substituted glutathione following this human dermal exposure scenario was several orders of magnitude lower than the internal total glutathione conjugates in rats following an oral exposure to the rat NOEL of 20 mg/kg. Thus, under more realistic human dermal exposure conditions, it is unlikely that toxic glutathione conjugates (primarily the di- and, to a lesser degree, the tri-glutathione conjugate) will reach significant levels in target tissues. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  19. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  20. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  1. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A new technique. ... Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report ... Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However ...

  2. Implanon sub-dermal implant: an emerging method of contraception ...

    Implanon, a single rod sub-dermal implant is a relatively new contraceptive which offers long term reversible contraception for women. This study seeks to determine the safety, efficacy and acceptor characteristics of Implanon at the family planning clinic of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria.

  3. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However, these materials may be expensive, inappropriate or unavailable. The aim of this study is to determine the place of de-epithelialized dermal ...

  4. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  5. Respiratory and dermal symptoms in Thai nurses using latex products.

    Supapvanich, C; Povey, A C; de Vocht, F

    2013-09-01

    Despite known health risks related to the use of powdered latex gloves (PLGs), they are still widely used in hospitals in developing countries due to the high cost of alternatives. To determine the prevalence of dermal and respiratory symptoms associated with latex glove use in nurses in Thailand and evaluate the influence of previously reported occupational risk factors in this population. A cross-sectional study in female nurses working in three Thai hospitals. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, occupational and personal history, use of latex products at work and dermal and respiratory symptoms attributed to occupational use of latex gloves. Of 899 nurses, 18% reported health effects attributed to the use of latex products. After adjustment for confounding, occupational risk factors associated with increased reporting of dermal symptoms included wearing more than 15 pairs of PLG per day (odds ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.32-3.34]), using chlorhexidine (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: [1.22-3.52]) and being an operating theatre nurse (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: [1.47-4.12]). Being a labour ward nurse (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: [1.26-9.85]) was the only factor associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms. Continuing use of PLGs in Thai nurses is associated with increased prevalence of dermal symptoms compared with data from developed countries. Measures to reduce such health effects are well established and should be considered. Additionally, replacement of chlorhexidine with an alternative detergent seems advisable.

  6. Dextran derivatives modulate collagen matrix organization in dermal equivalent.

    Frank, Laetitia; Lebreton-Decoster, Corinne; Godeau, Gaston; Coulomb, Bernard; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Dextran derivatives can protect heparin binding growth factor implied in wound healing, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds on human dermal fibroblasts in culture with or without TGF-beta1. Several dextran derivatives obtained by substitution of methylcarboxylate (MC), benzylamide (B) and sulphate (Su) groups were used to determine the effects of each compound on fibroblast growth in vitro. The data indicate that sulphate groups are essential to act on the fibroblast proliferation. The dextran derivative LS21 DMCBSu has been chosen to investigate its effect on dermal wound healing process. Fibroblasts cultured in collagenous matrices named dermal equivalent were treated with the bioactive polymer alone or associated to TGF-beta1 or FGF-2. Cross-sections of dermal equivalent observed by histology or immunohistochemistry, demonstrated that the bioactive polymer accelerates the collagen matrices organization and stimulates the human type-III collagen expression. This bioactive polymer induces apoptosis of myofibroblast, property which may be beneficial in treatment of hypertrophic scar. Culture media analyzed by zymography and Western blot showed that this polymer significantly increases the secretion of zymogen and active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), involved in granulation tissue formation. These data suggest that this bioactive polymer has properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of wound healing.

  7. Dermal Contributions to Human Interfollicular Epidermal Architecture and Self-Renewal

    Kynan T. Lawlor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human interfollicular epidermis is renewed throughout life by populations of proliferating basal keratinocytes. Though interfollicular keratinocyte stem cells have been identified, it is not known how self-renewal in this compartment is spatially organized. At the epidermal-dermal junction, keratinocytes sit atop a heterogeneous mix of dermal cells that may regulate keratinocyte self-renewal by influencing local tissue architecture and signalling microenvironments. Focusing on the rete ridges and complementary dermal papillae in human skin, we review the identity and organisation of abundant dermal cells types and present evidence for interactions between the dermal microenvironment and the interfollicular keratinocytes.

  8. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  9. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  10. Effects of a topical hemostatic agent on an epistaxis model in rabbits.

    Kurtaran, Hanifi; Ark, Nebil; Serife Ugur, K; Sert, Huseyin; Ozboduroglu, Akin Altug; Kosar, Ali; Gunduz, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Ankaferd BloodStopper (ABS) is a standardized herbal compound consisting of 5 different plant extracts. ABS, as a topical medicinal product, has been approved by the Turkish Ministry of Health for the management of dermal, external postsurgical and postdental surgery bleedings. The aim of this study was to assess the hemostatic effect of ABS in an experimental epistaxis model. Adult female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Standardized full-thickness mucosal wounds were created to provide bleeding on the right and left side of the nasal septum of rabbits with a 3-mm surgical punch. To stop bleeding, the wounds were treated with topical ABS on one side and with topical isotonic saline solution as a control on the other side of the nasal septum. Investigators were blinded to treatment. The duration of bleeding was measured in order to compare the hemo-static effect with ABS or topical isotonic saline solution. The wounds were observed for the duration of bleeding in order to compare the hemostatic effect of ABS with isotonic saline solution and acute adverse effects (AEs) for 30 minutes by a researcher blinded to treatment groups. Six rabbits (mean weight, 2.6 kg [range, 2.3-3.1 kg]) were used in this study. Mean (SD) bleeding time in the wounds administered ABS (98 [17] sec) was significantly less than that of the controls (266 [36] sec; P = 0.004). No AEs were observed up to 30 minutes after study initiation. This study suggests that ABS may be more effective in reducing time to hemostasis when compared with isotonic saline solution in this epistaxis model in rabbits.

  11. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  12. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  13. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  14. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  15. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Surya Darma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  16. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Surya Darma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen. Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  17. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  18. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12 th postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  19. Effects of pyrithiones and surfactants on zinc and enzyme levels in rabbits.

    Spiker, R C; Ciuchta, H P

    1980-04-01

    The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and sodium pyrithione (NaPT), including the influence of various vehicles, upon whole blood and plasma zinc levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) have been investigated in rabbits following dermal and/or iv administration. Two such vehicles, ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, affected zinc homeostasis differently than the pyrithiones, in that, unlike the pyrithiones, no whole blood changes were observed, although there were delayed and sustained declines in plasma zinc and SAP values. These changes were most likely related to the skin irritation caused by the surfactants. In contrast, NaPT-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dermal and iv exposures produced rapid decreases in plasma zinc followed by quick recovery, coupled with smaller and unsustained declines in SAP. Large increases in whole blood zinc were also observed in both cases, as well as in a ZnPT-DMSO iv exposure. DMSO itself had no effects on the measured parameters. Experiments involving combinations of the pyrithiones and ALS demonstrated effects on zinc homeostasis that were attributable to both substances, i.e. large increases in whole blood zinc (PT effect), quick drops in plasma zinc (PT effect) and slowly recovering plasma zinc and SAP values (surfactant effect). The chelating nature of the PT molecule may have been responsible for some of the observed changes in zinc distribution.

  20. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Omri Emodi, DMD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%. We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  1. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  2. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  4. Further delineation of the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    Mégarbané, Hala; Haddad, May; Delague, Valérie; Renoux, Julien; Boehm, Nelly; Mégarbané, André

    2004-08-30

    We report on three boys, two brothers and their maternal cousin, presenting with dry hair, pilar keratosis, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue, onychodysplasia, and keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles. Histology of the skin showed orthokeratotic, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, and mild acanthosis in the epidermis. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair showed longitudinal depressions in some hair. These features are close to a rare entity: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia but with some differing features. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria: aberrant dermal melanocytosis and nevus spilus.

    Wolf, Ronni; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone

    2011-08-15

    We present a dermal melanocytosis with superimposed nevus spilus on the arm of a 5-year-old boy. We recently introduced a new type of phacomatosis, which we termed "phacomatosis pigmentopigmentalis," that is analogous to phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica or pigmentovascularis, for describing the association of two pigmented nevi. The present case is an example of this type of phacomatosis, which now we prefer to define phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria according to the correct Latin terminology.

  6. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  7. Dynamic interactions between dermal macrophages and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Feuerstein, Reinhild; Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream. This quantitative renewal is promoted further at the beginning of life, when prenatally seeded cells are rapidly replaced and in healing phases after injuries or infections. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the dynamic dermal Mϕ biology on the establishment and maintenance of immunity against Staphylococcus aureus, which can either be a harmless colonizer or an invasive pathogen. The understanding of the heterogeneity of the "mature" dermal Mϕ compartment driven both by the influx of differentiating monocytes and by a bone marrow-independent Mϕ persistence and expansion may help to explain failing immunity and immunopathology originating from the skin, the important interface between host and environment. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  9. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist

    Carlos M. S. Dutok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L. Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25% Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5, while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4. Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating.

  11. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1996-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  12. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  13. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways.

    Weschler, C J; Nazaroff, W W

    2012-10-01

    This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that--in central tendency--an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assuming that thermodynamic equilibrium prevails. Then, equations are developed, based upon idealized mass-transport considerations, to estimate transdermal penetration of an SVOC either from its concentration in skin-surface lipids or its concentration in air. Kinetic constraints limit air-to-skin transport in the case of SVOCs that strongly sorb to skin-surface lipids. Air-to-skin transdermal uptake is estimated to be comparable to or larger than inhalation intake for many SVOCs of current or potential interest indoors, including butylated hydroxytoluene, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diethyl phthalate, Galaxolide, geranyl acetone, nicotine (in free-base form), PCB28, PCB52, Phantolide, Texanol and Tonalide. Although air-to-skin transdermal uptake is anticipated to be slow for bisphenol A, we find that transdermal permeation may nevertheless be substantial following its transfer to skin via contact with contaminated surfaces. The paper concludes with explorations of the influence of particles and dust on dermal exposure, the role of clothing and bedding as transport vectors, and the potential significance of hair follicles as transport shunts through the epidermis. Human exposure to indoor pollutants can occur through dietary and nondietary ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Many factors influence the relative importance of these pathways, including physical and chemical properties of the pollutants. This paper argues that exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through the dermal pathway has often been underestimated. Transdermal permeation of SVOCs can be substantially greater than is commonly assumed. Transport of SVOCs from the air to and through the skin is

  14. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  15. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  16. Chitosan solutions as injectable systems for dermal filler applications: Rheological characterization and biological evidence.

    Halimi, C; Montembault, A; Guerry, A; Delair, T; Viguier, E; Fulchiron, R; David, L

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of dermal filler for wrinkle filler based on chitosan was compared to current hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers by using a new rheological performance criterion based on viscosity during injection related to Newtonian viscosity. In addition an in vivo evaluation was performed for preclinical evidence of chitosan use as dermal filler. In this way, biocompatibility and dermis reconstruction was evaluated on a pig model.

  17. Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on viability of diced cartilage grafts in a rabbit model.

    Güler, İsmail; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Kocatürk, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the viability of cartilage grafts embedded in platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) wrapped with no material (bare diced cartilage grafts), oxidized methylcellulose (Surgicel), or acellular dermal tissue (AlloDerm). Experimental study. In this study, six New Zealand rabbits were used. Cartilage grafts including perichondrium were excised from each ear and diced into 2-mm-by 2-mm pieces. There were four comparison groups: 1) group A, diced cartilage (not wrapped with any material); 2) group B, diced cartilage wrapped with AlloDerm; 3) group C, diced cartilage grafts wrapped with Surgicel; and 4) group D, diced cartilage wrapped with PRFM. Four cartilage grafts were implanted under the skin at the back of each rabbit. All rabbits were sacrificed at the end of 10 weeks. The cartilages were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Orcein. After that, they were evaluated for the viability of chondrocytes, collagen content, fibrillar structure of matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues. When the viability of chondrocytes, the content of fiber in matrix, and changes in peripheral tissues were compared, the cartilage embedded in the PRFM group was statistically significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that PRFM has significant advantages in ensuring the chondrocyte viability of diced cartilage grafts. It is also biocompatible, with relatively lesser inflammation and fibrosis. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  19. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  20. In vivo evaluation of the sealing ability of two endodontic sealers in root canals exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days Avaliação, in vivo, da capacidade de selamento de dois cimentos endodônticos em canais radiculares expostos ao meio bucal por 45 e 90 dias

    Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12. After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification. The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05. Group E90 (2.03±0.94 showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (pEste estudo in vivo avaliou a capacidade de selamento de um cimento endodôntico resinoso (AH Plus e um a base de óxido de zinco eugenol (Endofill, em dentes de cães, expostos ao meio bucal, por 45 e 90 dias. Foi realizado o tratamento endodôntico de 48 incisivos inferiores de 8 cães. Uma randomização estratificada determinou o tipo de cimento a ser usado em cada canal que foram tratados pela técnica de condensação lateral. Após a obturação, o excesso de material obturador, na porção cervical do canal radicular foi seccionado, restando o comprimento de 10 mm no interior do canal

  1. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  2. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  3. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    Homa, Joanna; Olchawa, Ewa; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.; John Morgan, A.; Plytycz, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes

  4. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    Homa, Joanna [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Olchawa, Ewa [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Plytycz, Barbara [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: plyt@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl

    2005-05-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes.

  5. * Comparison of Autologous, Allogeneic, and Cell-Free Scaffold Approaches for Engineered Tendon Repair in a Rabbit Model-A Pilot Study.

    Wang, Wenbo; Deng, Dan; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, WenJie; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Peihua; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Tendons are subjected to high strength dynamic mechanical forces in vivo. Mechanical strength is an essential requirement for tendon scaffold materials. A composite scaffold was used in this study to provide mechanical strength, which was composed of an inter part of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers and an outer part of the net knitted with PGA and polylactic acid (PLA) fibers in a ratio of 4:2. This study compared three different approaches for in vivo tendon engineering, that is, cell-free scaffold and allogeneic and autologous cell seeded scaffolds, using a rabbit Achilles tendon repair model. Dermal fibroblasts were, respectively, isolated from the dermis of regular rabbits or green fluorescence protein transgenic rabbits as the autologous and the allogeneic cell sources, respectively. The cell scaffolds and cell-free scaffolds were implanted to bridge a partial segmental defect of rabbit Achilles tendon. The engineered tendons were harvested at 7 and 13 months postsurgery for various examinations. The results showed that all three groups could achieve in vivo tendon regeneration similarly with slightly better tissue formation in autologous group than in other two groups, including better scaffold degradation and relatively thicker collagen fibrils. There were no statistically significant differences in mechanical parameters among three groups. This work demonstrated that allogeneic fibroblasts and scaffold alone are likely to be used for tendon tissue engineering.

  6. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  7. Design of an elastin-layered dermal regeneration template.

    Mithieux, Suzanne M; Weiss, Anthony S

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach for the production of tunable quantities of elastic fibers. We also show that exogenous tropoelastin is rate-limiting for elastin synthesis regardless of the age of the dermal fibroblast donor. Additionally, we provide a strategy to further enhance synthesis by older cells through the application of conditioned media. We show that this approach delivers an elastin layer on one side of the leading dermal repair template for contact with the deep dermis in order to deliver prefabricated elastic fibers to a physiologically appropriate site during subsequent surgery. This system is attractive because it provides for the first time a viable path for sufficient, histologically detectable levels of patient elastin into full-thickness wound sites that have until now lacked this elastic underlayer. The scars of full thickness wounds typically lack elasticity. Elastin is essential for skin elasticity and is enriched in the deep dermis. This paper is significant because it shows that: (1) we can generate elastic fibers in tunable quantities, (2) tropoelastin is the rate-limiting component in elastin synthesis in vitro, (3) we can generate elastin fibers regardless of donor age, (4) we describe a novel approach to further increase the numbers and thickness of elastic fibers for older donors, (5) we improve on Integra Dermal Regeneration Template and generate a new hybrid biomaterial intended to subsequently surgically deliver these elastic fibers, (6) the elastic fiber layer is presented on the side of Integra that is intended for delivery into its physiologically appropriate site i.e. the deep dermis. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR.

    Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Mori, Seiji; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kohzo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2017-09-23

    SVVYGLR peptide (SV peptide) is a 7-amino-acid sequence with angiogenic properties that is derived from osteopontin in the extracellular matrix and promotes differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblast-like cells and the production of collagen type Ⅲ by cardiac fibroblasts. However, the effects of SV peptide on dermal cells and tissue are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of this peptide in a rat model of dermal wound healing. The synthetic SV peptide was added to dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes, and their cellular motility was evaluated. In an in vivo wound healing exeriment, male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the SV peptide treatment, non-treated control, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) groups. Wound healing was assessed by its repair rate and histological features. Scratch assay and cell migration assays using the Chemotaxicell method showed that SV peptide significantly promoted the cell migration in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In contrast the proliferation potency of these cells was not affected by SV peptide. In the rat model, wound healing progressed faster in the SV peptide-treated group than in the control and PBS groups. The histopathological analyses showed that the SV peptide treatment stimulated the migration of fibroblasts to the wound area and increased the number of myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of von Willebland factor-positive neomicrovessels in the SV peptide-treated group. In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  10. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  11. Atypical post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis with "muzzle area" swelling.

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter.

  12. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-04-16

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  13. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most...... compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating the possibility of removing chemicals from the skin through different cleansing procedures following unintended dermal exposures....

  14. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  15. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  16. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  17. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  18. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  19. Changes in dermal papilla structures due to aging in the facial cheek region.

    Mizukoshi, K; Yonekura, K; Futagawa, M; Nakamura, T; Hirayama, K; Takahashi, K

    2015-05-01

    In the past, it has been possible to measure the dermal papilla structures which are undulations between the epidermis and dermis by noninvasive method. However, almost all of previous studies were not intended to measure facial skin but another site of body. Here, we investigated age-dependent alterations for dermal papilla structures in the facial cheek region after elucidating the difference of characteristics between the body site. The surface of the dermis was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) using face and abdominal skin biopsy samples. A total of 90 Japanese women were investigated by in vivo confocal laser microscope (CLSM). The number and the shape in the horizontal cross-sectional images of the dermal papilla were analyzed. The facial skin had different characteristics in comparison to the abdominal skin by SEM observation. Under CLSM observation, we found abnormal dermal papilla structures which were accompanied by spots or enlarged pore areas and eliminated these structures from our analysis. We revealed a decrease in the number of normal dermal papilla structures with age and large individual differences at younger ages. We found abnormal dermal papilla structures and differences in the dermal papilla structures between face and other body site. With these taken into consideration, we could precisely investigate the aging alteration of normal dermal papilla structures in the face. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Measurements of Dermal Uptake of Nicotine Directly from Air and Clothing

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare-skinne...

  1. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  2. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  3. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  4. Harmonization of future needs for dermal exposure assessment and modeling : a workshop report

    Marquart, H.; Maidment, S.; Mcclaflin, J.L.; Fehrenbacher, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Dermal exposure assessment and modeling is still in early phases of development. This article presents the results of a workshop organized to harmonize the future needs in this field. Methods for dermal exposure assessment either assess the mass of contaminant that is transferred to the skin, or the

  5. A dermal model for spray painters, part I : subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition

    Brouwer, D.H.; Semple, S.; Marquart, J.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a

  6. Antirestenotic Effects of a Novel Polymer-Coated D-24851 Eluting Stent. Experimental Data in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Model

    Lysitsas, Dimitrios N.; Katsouras, Christos S.; Papakostas, John C.; Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Angelidis, Charalampos; Bozidis, Petros; Thomas, Christopher G.; Seferiadis, Konstantin; Psychoyios, Nikolaos; Frillingos, Stathis; Pavlidis, Nikolaos; Marinos, Euaggelos; Khaldi, Lubna; Sideris, Dimitris A.; Michalis, Lampros K.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that stents eluting antiproliferative agents can be used for the prevention of in-stent restenosis. Here we investigate in vitro the antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of D-24851 and evaluate the safety and efficacy of D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents in a rabbit restenosis model (n = 53). Uncoated stents (n = 6), poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-coated stents (n = 7), and PLGA-coated stents loaded with 0.08 ± 0.0025 μM (31 ± 1 μg; low dose; n = 7), 0.55 ± 0.02 μM (216 ± 8 μg; high dose; n = 6), and 4.55 ± 0.1 μM (1774 ± 39 μg; extreme dose; n = 5) of D-24851 were randomly implanted in New Zealand rabbit right iliac arteries and the animals were sacrificed after 28 days for histomorphometric analysis. For the assessment of endothelial regrowth in 90 days, 12 rabbits were subjected to PLGA-coated (n = 3), low-dose (n = 3), high-dose (n = 3), and extreme-dose (n = 3) stent implantation. In vitro studies revealed that D-24851 exerts its growth inhibitory effects via inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis without increasing the expression of heat shock protein-70, a cytoprotective and antiapoptotic protein. Treatment with low-dose D-24851 stents was associated with a significant reduction in neointimal area and percentage stenosis only compared with bare metal stents (38% [P = 0.029] and 35% [P = 0.003] reduction, respectively). Suboptimal healing, however, was observed in all groups of D-24851-loaded stents in 90 days in comparison with PLGA-coated stents. We conclude that low-dose D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents significantly inhibit neointimal hyperplasia at 28 days through inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. In view of the suboptimal re-endothelialization, longer-term studies are needed in order to establish whether the inhibition of intimal growth is maintained

  7. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  8. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  9. Dermal transfer quantification of nanoparticles from nano-enabled surfaces

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Mines, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The dermal transfer testing by wipe sampling and analytical approach used in this study demonstrates that wipe testing in combination with spICP-MS analysis can provide both qualitative data in terms of mass and number-based NP release, as well as particle characterization in terms of NP size distribution...... and characterize NP release from keyboard covers and freshly painted surfaces, in terms of mass and number concentration, as well as released particle size distribution through the use of spICP-MS. Three types of NPs were selected for method validation testing, Ag, TiO2, and CuO; and, the particle extraction from...... wipes was found to be efficient for Ag and CuO, but not for TiO2 particles. Thereafter, potential dermal transfer was tested by wipe sampling for two nanoAg-containing silicon keyboard covers, and wood painted with nanoCuO-containing paint. AgNP release was observed for one of the keyboard cover types...

  10. Radiological impact of the use of calcium hydroxylapatite dermal fillers

    Feeney, J.N.; Fox, J.J.; Akhurst, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To report a case series in which the radiological features of the subcutaneous use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHa) dermal fillers are described for the first time. Materials and methods: Five patients with facial hyperattenuating hypermetabolic subcutaneous lesions were identified on 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), who gave a history of facial injections to augment physical appearance. Correlation with additional imaging studies was performed. Results: All cases had subcutaneous high attenuation material on CT (range 280-700 HU), which was FDG avid on PET, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) range of 2.9-13.4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity subcutaneous lesion with enhancement post-gadolinium in one case. Conclusions: CaHa dermal filler is hyperattenuating on CT, hypermetabolic on FDG-PET imaging, of intermediate signal intensity on MRI, and is a potential cause of a false-positive imaging study.

  11. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method

    Agostini, M.; Fransman, W.; Vocht, F.D.; Joode, B.V.W.D.; Kromhout, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)].Methods: Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85

  13. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  14. Long-Term Survival of Neonatal Porcine Islets Without Sertoli Cells in Rabbits

    Rafael Vald and eacute;s-Gonz and aacute;lez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment for metabolic disorders such as type-1 diabetes. Transplantation protocols have investigated several anatomical sites for cell implantation; however, some of these procedures, such as intraportal infusion, can cause organ failure or thrombosis secondarily. Bio-artificial organs could be the choice, although concerns still remain. Using a subcutaneous device, we are able to preserve neonatal porcine islets without sertoli cells in healthy New Zealand rabbits. Devices were implanted in the back of the animals underneath the skin, and after 3 months the islets were transplanted. Histology showed the presence of inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils; however, insulin- and glucagon-positive cell clusters were identified inside the device at different time points for at least 90 days, and porcine C-peptide was also detected during the follow-up, indicating graft functionality. We have found that our device induces the deposition of a fibrous matrix enriched in blood vessels, which forms a good place for cell grafting, and this model is probably able to induce an immunoprivileged site. Under these conditions, transplanted porcine islet cells have the capability of producing insulin and glucagon for at least three months. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 101-108

  15. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid ( 3 H-PAH) and rubidium ( 86 Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either 3 H-PAH or 86 Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing

  16. Computed tomography to evaluate the association of fragmented heterolog cortical bone and methylmethacrylate to repare segmental bone defect produced in tibia of rabbits

    Freitas, S.H.; Doria, R.G.S.; Mendonca, F.S.; Santos, M.D.; Moreira, R.; Simoes, R.S.; Camargo, L.M.; Simoes, M.J.; Marques, A.T.C.

    2012-01-01

    A 6mm segmental defect was performed on the metaphyseal region of the tibia of 12 rabbits and the autoclaved fragmented heterolog cortical bone conserved in glycerin (98%) and methylmethacrylate was used as a bone graft for the reconstruction. The graft was placed in the receptor bed and its integration was evaluated by computed tomography after 30, 60 and 90 days. There was gradual bone graft incorporation in the receptor bed during the time in 100% of the cases. Fragmented cortical bone heterograft and methylmethacrylate was biologically compatible and promotes bone defect reparation without signs of infection, migration and or rejection, featuring a new option of osseous substitute to fill in bone defects. (author)

  17. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  19. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  20. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  1. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  2. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  3. Keratinocytes express fibrillin and assemble microfibrils: implications for dermal matrix organization.

    Haynes, S L; Shuttleworth, C A; Kielty, C M

    1997-07-01

    Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are key architectural structures of the upper dermis and integral components of the dermal elastic fibre network. Microfibril bundles intercalate into the dermal-epithelial junction and provide an elastic connection between the dermal elastic fibre network and the epidermis. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that they are laid down both at the dermal-epithelial junction and in the deep dermis. While dermal fibroblasts are responsible for deposition of the elastin and microfibrillar components that comprise the elastic fibres of the deep dermis, the cellular origin of the microfibril bundles that extrude from the dermal-epithelial junction is not well defined. We have used fresh tissues, freshly isolated epidermis and primary human and porcine keratinocyte cultures to investigate the possibility that keratinocytes are responsible for deposition of these microfibrils. We have shown that keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro synthesize both fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2, and assemble beaded microfibrils concurrently with expression of basement membrane collagen. These observations suggest that keratinocytes co-ordinate the secretion, deposition and assembly of these distinct structural elements of the dermal matrix, and have important implications for skin remodelling.

  4. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Fan, Rong-hui; Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen; Peng, Hui-zi; Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  5. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  6. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  7. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  8. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  9. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  10. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal uptake directly from air is a potentially important yet largely overlooked pathway for human exposure to organic vapors indoors. We recently reported (Indoor Air 2012, 22, 356) that transdermal uptake directly from air could be comparable to or larger than intake via inhalation for many......, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal......-to-inhalation uptake; for such compounds, the estimates reported here require experimental verification. In accounting for total exposure to indoor organic pollutants and in assessing potential health consequences of such exposures, it is important to consider direct transdermal absorption from air....

  11. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  12. Microporous dermal-like electrospun scaffolds promote accelerated skin regeneration.

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Bain, Jennifer L; Schultz, Matthew J; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (pores. Keratinocytes formed a stratified layer on the surface of fibroblast-remodeled scaffolds, and staining for cytokeratin 10 revealed terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the apical surface. When implanted, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds degraded within 3-4 weeks, an optimal time frame for degradation in vivo. Finally, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with or without 160 μm pores were implanted into full-thickness critical-sized skin defects. Relative to nonporous scaffolds or sham wounds, scaffolds with 160 μm pores induced accelerated wound closure, and stimulated regeneration of healthy dermal tissue, evidenced by a more normal-appearing matrix architecture, blood vessel in-growth, and hair follicle development. Collectively, these results suggest that microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration.

  13. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part I: background and mechanisms of action.

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.

  14. Quantification of dermal exposure to nanoparticles from solid nanocomposites by using single particle ICP-MS

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    , optical or photocatalytical properties. There is a lot of research focusing on effects exerted by nanoparticles, but the knowledge concerning release and subsequential exposure to nanoparticles is very limited, and information regarding potential dermal exposure from nanomaterial containing solid articles...... and characterization. In this study, we have investigated the potential dermal exposure to three different types of nano-enabled consumer products: Ag-containing keyboard covers, TiO2 coated ceramic tiles, and wood painted with CuO containing paint. The potential for dermal transfer from the aforementioned surfaces...

  15. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  16. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  17. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  18. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  19. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  20. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  1. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  2. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  3. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  4. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  5. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  8. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2012-01-13

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  10. Osteopathia striata: a characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality.

  11. In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., J.M. Sanders,...

  12. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  13. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    Murphy, Kelly E.; Hall, Cameron L.; Maini, Philip K.; McCue, Scott W.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  14. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  15. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  16. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  17. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. Case presentation: A fou...

  19. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either s...

  20. Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap

    Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144......Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144...

  1. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  2. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  3. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  4. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  5. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  6. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  7. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  8. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  9. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  10. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  11. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  12. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  13. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  14. Dermal changes in superficial basal cell carcinoma, melanoma in situ and actinic keratosis and their implications

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Malhotra, Saurabh; Navarro, Raquel; Wu, Karen Nguyen; Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Shengli, Chen; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has a characteristic stroma, but less is known about the dermal characteristics associated with melanoma in situ (MIS) and actinic keratosis (AK). Materials and methods Dermal changes were studied in 301 specimens of AK, BCC and MIS. Subsequently, blinded images of dermal changes from 90 randomly selected cases of those entities were used to assess the predictive value of the dermal changes. Agreement with the final diagnosis was calculated using kappa coefficient (κ). Results Fibromyxoid stroma was present in 82% of BCC cases; fibrous stroma was seen in 25% of BCC, 58% of MIS and 35.6% of AK specimens (p <0.05). A lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate was frequently associated with AK and a perifollicular infiltrate with periadnexal fibrosis with MIS. Blinded evaluation of images of the dermal changes associated with the tumors yielded the correct diagnosis in (54.4, 41.1 and 27.8%; average 41.2%) by the three appraisers. Coefficient of agreement in blinded imaged evaluation with the actual diagnosis was higher in the BCC and MIS compared with AK (κ = 0.37, p = 0.0001; κ = 0.2, p = 0.0005 and κ = −0.06, p = 0.84, respectively). Conclusion Dermal features may be helpful in predicting the correct diagnosis when tumor is not visible. PMID:24117926

  15. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Mingbo; She, Zhending; Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng; Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng; Shi, Shengjun; Tan, Rongwei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  17. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  18. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  19. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses; Estudo comparativo da placa em ponte associada ao pino intramedular e da placa de compressao dinamica na fixacao de osteotomia experimental em femur de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Analises clinica, radiografica, histologica e cintilografica

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12{sup th} postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  20. In vivo distribution of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides local delivered by gelatin-coated platinmn-iridium stents in rabbits and its effect on apoptosis

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华; 邝碧娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Post-stenting restenosis is a significant clinical problem, involving vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis. It is reported that c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODNs) local delivered by catheter can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. This study was designed to assess tissue distribution of c-myc ASODN local delivered using gelatin-coated platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir) stents, and its effect on apoptosis of VSMCs. Methods Gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents that had absorbed caroboxyfluorescein-5-succimidyl ester (FAM) labeled c-myc ASODNs (550 μg per stent) were implanted into the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained at 45 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODNs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. Rabbits in the control group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents, and those in the treatment group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated stents that had absorbed c-myc ASODNs. 7, 14, 30, or 90 days (n=4, respectively, for each group) after the stenting procedure, the stented segments were harvested, and histopathological examinations were performed to calculate neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness. The expression of c-myc was assessed using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptotic VSMCs were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results According to fluorescence microscopic results, FAM-labeled c-myc ASODNs were concentrated in the target vessel media at the 45 minutes time point, and then dispersed to the adventitia. Morphometric analysis showed that neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness increased continuously up to 90 days after stent implantation, but that total neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were less in the treatment group than in the

  1. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

    Lim Yau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

  2. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    Rexon Ngim

    1999-01-01

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  3. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The structure and mechanical design of rhinoceros dermal armour.

    Shadwick, R E; Russell, A P; Lauff, R F

    1992-09-29

    The collagenous dermis of the white rhinoceros forms a thick, protective armour that is highly specialized in its structure and material properties compared with other mammalian skin. Rhinoceros skin is three times thicker than predicted allometrically, and it contains a dense and highly ordered three-dimensional array of relatively straight and highly crosslinked collagen fibres. The skin of the back and flanks exhibits a steep stress-strain curve with very little 'toe' region, a high elastic modulus (240 MPa), a high tensile strength (30 MPa), a low breaking strain (0.24) and high breaking energy (3 MJm-3) and work of fracture (78 kJm-2). By comparison, the belly skin is somewhat less stiff, weaker, and more extensible. In compression, rhinoceros skin withstands average stresses and strains of 170 MPa and 0.7, respectively, before yielding. As a biological material, rhinoceros dorsolateral skin has properties that are intermediate between those of 'normal' mammalian skin and tendons. This study shows that the dermal armour of the rhinoceros is very well adapted to resist blows from the horns of conspecifics, as might occur during aggressive behaviour, due to specialized material properties as well as its great thickness.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA levels in Huntington disease leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Jędrak, Paulina; Krygier, Magdalena; Tońska, Katarzyna; Drozd, Małgorzata; Kaliszewska, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Sołtan, Witold; Sitek, Emilia J; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Limon, Janusz; Sławek, Jarosław; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Barańska, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the huntingtin gene. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in, and especially influence of the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on, development of this disease is unclear. Here, samples of blood from 84 HD patients and 79 controls, and dermal fibroblasts from 10 HD patients and 9 controls were analysed for mtDNA levels. Although the type of mitochondrial haplogroup had no influence on the mtDNA level, and there was no correlation between mtDNA level in leukocytes in HD patients and various parameters of HD severity, some considerable differences between HD patients and controls were identified. The average mtDNA/nDNA relative copy number was significantly higher in leukocytes, but lower in fibroblasts, of symptomatic HD patients relative to the control group. Moreover, HD women displayed higher mtDNA levels in leukocytes than HD men. Because this is the largest population analysed to date, these results might contribute to explanation of discrepancies between previously published studies concerning levels of mtDNA in cells of HD patients. We suggest that the size of the investigated population and type of cells from which DNA is isolated could significantly affect results of mtDNA copy number estimation in HD. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration in studies on mtDNA in HD, and perhaps also in other diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs.

  6. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  7. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  8. Creation of a contusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle using a drop-mass technique

    Margaret N. Deane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a ‘drop-mass’ method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH and examined by light microscopy (LM. The ‘optimal’ injury was created after seven drops, where quite severe, mild and moderately severe trauma was caused to muscle in the juxta-bone, mid and sub-dermal regions respectively. In each region, the muscle exhibited features of healing six days after injury. The ‘drop-mass’ technique appears to cause a contusion within a single muscle of at least three degrees of severity. This previously unreported observation is of particular importance to other researchers wishing to investigate contusion injury in other animal models.

  9. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  10. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  11. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Disposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine by Fischer 344 rats dosed orally and dermally

    Pelletier, O.; Ritter, L.; Caron, J.; Somers, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dimethylamine salt of 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D was administered to Fischer 344 rats orally (1 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight) and dermally (10 mg/kg body weight). Absorption, distribution, and elimination were determined from 14C-labeled 2,4-D in blood, tissues, and excreta. Quantitatively, most of the orally administered dose (94-96%) became systemically available within 6 h. Following dermal administration 10% of the dose became systemically available over 72 h. However, peak concentrations in blood and kidneys were achieved within 30 min of dosing by either route. By 1.5 h after dosing, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys had decreased in both the orally dosed and dermally dosed animals. Between 2 and 8 h, the blood, muscle, liver and kidney concentrations in dermally dosed animals maintained a plateau while urinary excretion increased, presumably due to continued absorption of 2,4-D from the skin. The concentrations in orally dosed animals continued to decrease. Following 7 h of dermal exposure, skin cleansing removed about 63% of the applied dose; about 17% of the applied dose remained at the site of dermal dosing. At 8 h, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys of dermally dosed animals began to decrease, most likely a result of the removal of the reservoir on the skin. However, 2,4-D continued to be absorbed from skin site, resulting in a slower decline of the 2,4-D concentrations in these tissues over remainder of the 72-h study period. By comparison, in animals that had been orally dosed, the absorbed dose was almost completely excreted within 24 h

  13. Dermal bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene on lampblack: implications for risk assessment.

    Stroo, Hans F; Roy, Timothy A; Liban, Cris B; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2005-06-01

    Lampblack is the principal source of contamination in soils at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites where oil was used as the feedstock. Risks and cleanup criteria at these sites are determined primarily by the total carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, particularly the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Dermal contact with soils at oil-gas MGP sites is a significant component of the overall risks. Seven samples were collected from oil-gas MGP sites and the steady-state dermal fluxes were measured over 96 h in vitro. The standard dermal bioassay technique (in which 3H-BaP is added to the soil matrix) was modified to allow direct measurement of the dermal absorption of the native BaP in the samples. The experimentally derived dermal absorption factors for BaP were 14 to 107 times lower than the default assumption of 15% over 24 h (55-fold lower on average). The dermal fluxes were correlated positively to the total BaP and total carbon concentrations. The measured dermal absorption factors were compared to the default risk-assessment calculations for all seven samples. The calculated excess cancer risk was reduced as a result of using the measured absorption factors by 97% on average (with reductions ranging from 93 to 99%). This work indicates the risks at oil-gas MGP sites currently are overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude, and provides a protocol for the testing and data analysis needed to generate site-specific cleanup levels.

  14. SIRT-1 regulates TGF-β-induced dermal fibroblast migration via modulation of Cyr61 expression.

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyeran; Huh, Jung-Sik; Kim, Jinseok; Cho, Moonjae

    2018-05-01

    SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a SIRT1 agonist, or overexpression of SIRT1 also promoted the expression Cyr61 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 activity by nicotinamide or knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the level of Cyr61, as well as TGF-β or RSV-induced Cyr61 expression. Blocking of ERK signaling by PD98509 reduced the expression of Cyr61 induced by TGF-β or RSV. TGF-β, RSV, or SIRT1 overexpression enhanced β-catenin as well as Cyr61 expression. This stimulation was reduced by the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. RSV increased migration and nicotinamide attenuated RSV-induced migration of human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression promoted cell migration, whereas blocking Cyr61 attenuated SIRT1-stimulated migration of human dermal fibroblasts. SIRT1 increased cell migration by stimulating Cyr61 expression and the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. SIRT1-induced Cyr61 activity is very important for human dermal fibroblasts migration.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells-seeded bio-ceramic construct for bone regeneration in large critical-size bone defect in rabbit

    Maiti SK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC represent an attractive cell population for tissue engineering purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 to a silica-coated calcium hydroxyapatite (HASi - rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC construct promoted bone healing in a large segmental bone defect beyond standard critical -size radial defects (15mm in rabbits. An extensively large 30mm long radial ostectomy was performed unilaterally in thirty rabbits divided equally in five groups. Defects were filled with a HASi scaffold only (group B; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC (group C; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC along with rhBMP-2 and IGF-1 in groups D and E respectively. The same number of rBMSC (five million cells and concentration of growth factors rhBMP-2 (50µg and IGF-1 (50µg was again injected at the site of bone defect after 15 days of surgery in their respective groups. An empty defect served as the control group (group A. Radiographically, bone healing was evaluated at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days post implantation. Histological qualitative analysis with microCT (µ-CT, haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed 90 days after implantation. All rhBMP-2-added constructs induced the formation of well-differentiated mineralized woven bone surrounding the HASi scaffolds and bridging bone/implant interfaces as early as eight weeks after surgery. Bone regeneration appeared to develop earlier with the rhBMP-2 constructs than with the IGF-1 added construct. Constructs without any rhBMP-2 or IGF-1 showed osteoconductive properties limited to the bone junctions without bone ingrowths within the implantation site. In conclusion, the addition of rhBMP-2 to a HASi scaffold could promote bone generation in a large critical-size-defect.

  16. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  17. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  18. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  19. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  20. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  1. Parameter optimization toward optimal microneedle-based dermal vaccination.

    van der Maaden, Koen; Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Yu, Huixin; Romeijn, Stefan; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-11-20

    Microneedle-based vaccination has several advantages over vaccination by using conventional hypodermic needles. Microneedles are used to deliver a drug into the skin in a minimally-invasive and potentially pain free manner. Besides, the skin is a potent immune organ that is highly suitable for vaccination. However, there are several factors that influence the penetration ability of the skin by microneedles and the immune responses upon microneedle-based immunization. In this study we assessed several different microneedle arrays for their ability to penetrate ex vivo human skin by using trypan blue and (fluorescently or radioactively labeled) ovalbumin. Next, these different microneedles and several factors, including the dose of ovalbumin, the effect of using an impact-insertion applicator, skin location of microneedle application, and the area of microneedle application, were tested in vivo in mice. The penetration ability and the dose of ovalbumin that is delivered into the skin were shown to be dependent on the use of an applicator and on the microneedle geometry and size of the array. Besides microneedle penetration, the above described factors influenced the immune responses upon microneedle-based vaccination in vivo. It was shown that the ovalbumin-specific antibody responses upon microneedle-based vaccination could be increased up to 12-fold when an impact-insertion applicator was used, up to 8-fold when microneedles were applied over a larger surface area, and up to 36-fold dependent on the location of microneedle application. Therefore, these influencing factors should be considered to optimize microneedle-based dermal immunization technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  4. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  5. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  6. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  7. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  8. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  9. A systematic review of acelluar dermal matrices in head and neck reconstruction.

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Tufaro, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrices has been well described in the scientific literature since the early 1990 s and has been utilized for multiple applications in the head and neck for both aesthetic and reconstructive efforts. After systematically searching the PubMed database and following further refinement (based on the authors' inclusion and exclusion criteria), the authors identified 30 studies that provided information about patients who had undergone head and neck reconstruction with the use of acellular dermal matrix. Studies had to report quantifiable objective results in patients who were older than 1 year and younger than 90 years. The authors excluded single case reports, studies with fewer than 10 patients, and studies not published in English. The optimal material used as an implant for reconstruction possesses the following properties: facilitation of vascular ingrowth, decreased propensity to incite inflammation, biologic inertness, resistance to infection, and ease of handling. Acellular dermal matrix possesses many of these properties and is utilized in reconstructing nasal soft tissue and skeletal support, tympanic membrane, periorbital soft tissue, extraoral and intraoral defects, oropharyngeal defects, dura mater, and soft-tissue deficits from parotidectomy. Furthermore, it is used to assist in preventing Frey syndrome following parotidectomy and surgical treatment of facial paralysis. Use of acellular dermal matrix for head and neck reconstruction has expanded exponentially and is validated in many studies. Further prospective randomized control trials are warranted to further investigate the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix in head and neck reconstruction.

  10. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches.

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.

  11. A Bayesian statistical analysis of mouse dermal tumor promotion assay data for evaluating cigarette smoke condensate.

    Kathman, Steven J; Potts, Ryan J; Ayres, Paul H; Harp, Paul R; Wilson, Cody L; Garner, Charles D

    2010-10-01

    The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method available to study the dermal tumor promoting potential of mainstream cigarette smoke. In the typical SENCAR mouse CSC bioassay, CSC is applied for 29 weeks following the application of a tumor initiator such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Several endpoints are considered for analysis including: the percentage of animals with at least one mass, latency, and number of masses per animal. In this paper, a relatively straightforward analytic model and procedure is presented for analyzing the time course of the incidence of masses. The procedure considered here takes advantage of Bayesian statistical techniques, which provide powerful methods for model fitting and simulation. Two datasets are analyzed to illustrate how the model fits the data, how well the model may perform in predicting data from such trials, and how the model may be used as a decision tool when comparing the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate from multiple cigarette types. The analysis presented here was developed as a statistical decision tool for differentiating between two or more prototype products based on the dermal tumorigenicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  13. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  14. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  15. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  16. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  17. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  18. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  19. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.

  20. Use of dermal fat graft for augmentation of the labia majora.

    Salgado, Christopher J; Tang, Jennifer C; Desrosiers, Arthur E

    2012-02-01

    Dermal fat grafts have been utilized in plastic surgery for both reconstructive and aesthetic purposes of the face, breast, and body. There are multiple reports in the literature on the male phallus augmentation with the use of dermal fat grafts. Few reports describe female genitalia aesthetic surgery, in particular rejuvenation of the labia majora. In this report we describe an indication and use of autologous dermal fat graft for labia majora augmentation in a patient with loss of tone and volume in the labia majora. We found that this procedure is an option for labia majora augmentation and provides a stable result in volume-restoration. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken

    Ming TIAN,Rui HAO,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented. This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene (ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. By genotyping, ID was found to be closely linked to the region between GGA_rs16127903 and GGA_rs14685542 (8406919 bp on chromosome Z, which contains ten functional genes. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene. Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP(s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z.

  2. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled......Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  3. Cross-finger dermal pocketing to augment venous outflow for distal fingertip replantation.

    Tan, Valerie H; Murugan, Arul; Foo, Tun-Lin; Puhaindran, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Venous anastomosis in distal fingertip replantations is not always possible, and venous congestion is recognized as a potential cause of failure. Methods previously described to address this problem include amputate deepithelization and dermal pocketing postarterial anastomosis to augment venous outflow. However, attachment of the digit to the palm or abdomen resulted in finger stiffness. We describe a modification of the previous methods by utilizing dermal flaps raised from the adjacent digit in the form of a cross-finger flap. The key differences are the partial deepithelization of the replanted fingertip and subsequent replacement of the dermal flap to the donor digit to minimize donor site morbidity. During the period where the 2 digits are attached, interphalangeal joint mobilization is permitted to maintain joint mobility.

  4. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  5. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  6. The use of dermal autograft as an adjunct to breast reconstruction with tissue expanders.

    Rinker, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Acellular dermal matrices are commonly used in breast reconstruction but add cost to the procedure and have been associated with complications. Dermal autograft may represent a useful alternative to matrices. Sixteen patients (26 breasts) underwent breast reconstruction using tissue expanders and dermal autograft. Their ages ranged from 41 to 66 years (median, 51 years). Autografts were harvested by wide excision of preexisting abdominal scars. Demographic data, clinical history, and harvest and preparation time were recorded. The initial fill volume, number of expansions, and complications were recorded and compared with published data for acellular dermal matrix-assisted reconstruction. Patients rated their satisfaction with scar appearance on a seven-point scale. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 16 months (mean, 10 months). Three patients were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.5 (range, 19.1 to 48.8). Three patients received chemotherapy between reconstructive stages, and none required irradiation. The mean time of autograft harvest was 38 minutes, the mean initial fill was 190 cc, and the average number of expansions was 3.5. There were no implant losses. There were three minor complications (19 percent). Initial expander fill, number of expansions, and complication rate were equivalent to historical values for matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Fourteen of 16 patients (88 percent) were "very satisfied" with their scars. The use of dermal autograft in tissue expander breast reconstruction offers the advantages of acellular dermal matrix, without the associated expense. The technique adds minimally to the operative time and morbidity and is associated with a low complication rate. Therapeutic, IV.

  7. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton.

    Keating, Joseph N; Marquart, Chloe L; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four-layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel-fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel-fibred bone, showing osteon-like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we interpret the

  8. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A structured observational method to assess dermal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles: DREAM as an initial assessment tool

    Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Pelzer, J.; Moehlmann, C.; Berges, M.; Bard, D.; Wake, D.; Mark, D.; Jankowska, E.; Brouwer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of inventories of exposure scenarios for nanomaterials have indicated possible dermal exposure. Within the NANOSH project focused on occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology a shortened version of the observational DeRmal Exposure AssessMent (DREAM) method was

  10. Effect of pore size and cross-linking of a novel collagen-elastin dermal substitute on wound healing

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; Damink, L.O.; Middelkoop, E.; Eummelen, L.; Buhren, A.V.; Ulrich, M.M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen-elastin (CE) scaffolds are frequently used for dermal replacement in the treatment of full-thickness skin defects such as burn wounds. But little is known about the optimal pore size and level of cross-linking. Different formulations of dermal substitutes with unidirectional pores were

  11. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    2012-07-23

    ... vivo acute dermal systemic toxicity tests. Corresponding acute oral LD 50 data for the same compounds....), estimated LD 50 , and incidence of death and other adverse effects. Background Information on ICCVAM and... tests. DATES: Nominations and test method data for the acute dermal and oral tests should be submitted...

  12. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  13. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  14. Securing the Airway in Pretracheal Dermal Metastases From Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case Report.

    Truong, Angela T; Truong, Dam-Thuy; Gillenwater, Ann M; Soliz, Jose M; Rahlfs, Thomas F

    2018-04-23

    Dermal metastases reflect the ominous and aggressive spread of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The rampant proliferation of these metastatic tumors to the neck results in respiratory distress and impending airway obstruction. We report a case of a patient with massive neck dermal metastases requiring urgent airway control for intermittent stridor. Awake tracheostomy is generally regarded as the gold standard to manage the compromised airway. However, in this unusual case, after discussion between surgeon and anesthesiologist, because of the anticipated formidable difficulties in performing awake tracheostomy, it was decided that awake fiberoptic intubation would provide the best chance of success.

  15. Coexistence of dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and encephalocele in a patient presenting with nasal cellulitis.

    Karandikar, Mahesh; Yellon, Robert F; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Greene, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Dermoid cysts, encephaloceles, and dermal sinus tracts represent abnormalities that develop during the process of embryogenesis. The elucidation of the precise timing of formation for these malformations has remained elusive at the molecular level of study. Yet, clinical experience has demonstrated that these malformations do not all occur in the same patient, suggesting a shared pathway that goes awry at distinct points for different patients, resulting in 1 of the 3 malformations. Herein the authors describe a case in which all 3 malformations were present in a single patient. This is the first description in the English literature of a sincipital encephalocele occurring with a dermoid cyst and a dermal sinus tract.

  16. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed, E-mail: mae_abdallah@yahoo.co.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut (Egypt); Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm{sup 2}, finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K{sub p}, cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K{sub ow} for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K{sub ow} of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal

  17. Coverage of Megaprosthesis with Human Acellular Dermal Matrix after Ewing's Sarcoma Resection: A Case Report

    Robert M. Whitfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female with Ewing's Sarcoma underwent tibial resection and skeletal reconstruction using proximal tibial allograft prosthetic reconstruction with distal femur endoprosthetic reconstruction and rotating hinge. Human acellular dermal matrix, (Alloderm, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA, was used to wrap the skeletal reconstruction. Soft tissue reconstruction was completed with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap and skin graft. Despite prolonged immobilization, the patient quickly regained full range of motion of her skeletal reconstruction. Synthetic mesh, tapes and tubes are used to perform capsule reconstruction of megaprosthesis. This paper describes the role of human acellular dermal matrix in capsule reconstruction around a megaprosthesis.

  18. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm 2 , finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K p , cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K ow for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K ow of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal absorption of target PFRs

  19. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  20. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  1. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  2. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  3. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  4. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  5. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  6. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  7. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  8. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  9. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  10. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  11. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  12. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  13. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  14. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  15. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  16. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  17. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  18. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  19. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  20. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  1. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  2. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  3. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  4. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  5. Age-related changes in dermal fiber-like structures in facial cheeks.

    Mizukoshi, K; Hirayama, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent progress in non-invasive measurement methods, such as in vivo laser confocal microscopy (CLSM), it is difficult to quantitatively measure age-related changes in dermal fibrous structures in the face using these methods and qualitative characteristics. We used characteristics extracted from the analysis of CLSM images to quantitatively investigate the effects of aging on dermal fibrous structures in the face. CLSM images of dermal fibrous structures were obtained from 90 Japanese females, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years. The feature values of CLSM images were extracted using image analysis methods, such as short-line segment-matching processing and spatial frequency analysis. The qualitative characteristics of the dermal fibrous structures in the CLSM images were obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) of these feature values. The fibrous structures were scored on the basis of qualitative characteristics and then age-related changes in the scores among the subjects were quantitatively evaluated. The PCA results showed that there were two characteristics in the images of fibrous structures: clearness and directionality. The clearness of fibrous structures decreased and directionality isotropy increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results

    Morrison, G. C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Beko, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent...

  7. Cost study of dermal substitutes and topical negative pressure in the surgical treatment of burns

    Hop, M.J.; Bloemen, M.C.T.; van Baar, M.E.; Nieuwenhuis, M.K.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Polinder, S.; Middelkoop, E.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractBackground A recently performed randomised controlled trial investigated the clinical effectiveness of dermal substitutes (DS) and split skin grafts (SSG) in combination with topical negative pressure (TNP) in the surgical treatment of burn wounds. In the current study, medical and

  8. Burn injury suppresses human dermal dendritic cell and Langerhans cell function

    van den Berg, Linda M.; de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; Witte, Lot de; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Human skin contains epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs) that are key players in induction of adaptive immunity upon infection. After major burn injury, suppressed adaptive immunity has been observed in patients. Here we demonstrate that burn injury affects adaptive

  9. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  10. Handling of thermal paper: Implications for dermal exposure to bisphenol A and its alternatives.

    Meghan R Bernier

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in a wide range of consumer products including photoactive dyes used in thermal paper. Recent studies have shown that dermal absorption of BPA can occur when handling these papers. Yet, regulatory agencies have largely dismissed thermal paper as a major source of BPA exposure. Exposure estimates provided by agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA are based on assumptions about how humans interact with this material, stating that 'typical' exposures for adults involve only one handling per day for short periods of time (30% of individuals hold thermal paper with more than three fingertips, and >60% allow the paper to touch their palm. Only 11% of the participants we observed were consistent with the EFSA model for time of contact and dermal surface area. Mathematical modeling based on handling times we measured and previously published transfer coefficients, concentrations of BPA in paper, and absorption factors indicate the most conservative estimated intake from handling thermal paper in this population is 51.1 ng/kg/day, similar to EFSA's estimates of 59 ng/kg/day from dermal exposures. Less conservative estimates, using published data on concentrations in thermal paper and transfer rates to skin, indicate that exposures are likely significantly higher. Based on our observational data, we propose that the current models for estimating dermal BPA exposures are not consistent with normal human behavior and should be reevaluated.

  11. 40 CFR 795.232 - Inhalation and dermal pharmacokinetics of commercial hexane.

    2010-07-01

    ... studies of volatile solvents in hairless mice. I. Description of a skin depot”, In: Journal of Applied... concentration. (C) Dermal studies. The test substance shall be applied and kept on the skin for a minimum of 6... data shall be evaluated by appropriate statistical methods. (3) Reporting results. In addition to the...

  12. Osteopathia striata: A characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality. (orig.)

  13. The Dermal Apron Technique for Immediate Implant Socket Management: A Novel Technique.

    Levin, Barry P

    2016-01-01

    With immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIP) in the esthetic zone, measures to counter hard and soft tissue loss are frequently necessary. To reduce the morbidity associated with bone and connective tissue procurement, various exogenous materials are utilized. The "Dermal Apron Technique" presented in this article demonstrates the use of a composite bone particulate (allograft/xenograft) plus a dermal allograft, adapted around screw-retained temporary crowns and secured within a subperiosteal pouch. The purpose is to augment the thickness of peri-implant mucosa for the purpose of preserving ridge dimensions and preventing mucosal recession. Controlled studies are required to further support its use. Clinical significance: Soft tissue health and harmony are critical for successful implant therapy in the esthetic regions of the dentition. Often, autogenous soft tissue grafts are used to augment peri-implant soft tissues. The Dermal Apron Technique is a method, that in specific situations, obviates the need for autogenous grafting. This reduces treatment time and morbidity associated with procurement of these grafts. The Dermal Apron Technique is used simultaneous with immediate placement and provisionalization and can improve long-term esthetic outcomes for patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dermal-epidermal membrane systems by using human keratinocytes and mesenchymal stem cells isolated from dermis

    Salerno, Simona, E-mail: s.salerno@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Messina, Antonietta [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Giordano, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, (CS) (Italy); Bader, Augustinus [Biomedical-Biotechnological Center, BBZ, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Drioli, Enrico [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); WCU Energy Engineering Department, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Bartolo, Loredana, E-mail: l.debartolo@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    Dermal-epidermal membrane systems were developed by co-culturing human keratinocytes with Skin derived Stem Cells (SSCs), which are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from dermis, on biodegradable membranes of chitosan (CHT), polycaprolactone (PCL) and a polymeric blend of CHT and PCL. The membranes display physico-chemical, morphological, mechanical and biodegradation properties that could satisfy and fulfil specific requirements in skin tissue engineering. CHT membrane exhibits an optimal biodegradation rate for acute wounds; CHT-PCL for the chronic ones. On the other hand, PCL membrane in spite of its very slow biodegradation rate exhibits mechanical properties similar to in vivo dermis, a lower hydrophilic character, and a surface roughness, all properties that make it able to sustain cell adhesion and proliferation for in vitro skin models. Both CHT–PCL and PCL membranes guided epidermal and dermal differentiation of SSCs as pointed out by the expression of cytokeratins and the deposition of the ECM protein fibronectin, respectively. In the dermal-epidermal membrane systems, a more suitable microenvironment for the SSCs differentiation was promoted by the interactions and the mutual interplay with keratinocytes. Being skin tissue-biased stem cells committed to their specific final dermal and/or epidermal cell differentiation, SSCs are more suitable for skin tissue engineering than other adult MSCs with different origin. For this reason, they represent a useful autologous cell source for engineering skin substitutes for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  15. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  16. Application of dermal microdialysis for the evaluation of bioequivalence of a ketoprofen topical gel

    Tettey-Amlalo, Ralph Nii Okai; Kanfer, Isadore; Skinner, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate dermal microdialysis (DMD) for the assessment of the bioavailability of a ketoprofen topical gel formulation and to evaluate this technique as a tool for the determination of bioequivalence. Four microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the volar aspect...

  17. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  18. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    Beko, G.; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we have investigated whether dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or indirectly from clothing can be a meaningful exposure pathway. Two participants wearing only shorts and a third participant wearing clean cotton clothes were exposed to environmental tobacco smo...

  19. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  20. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  1. Pengujian Toksisitas Akut Oral Dan Dermal pada Biolarvasida Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap Tikus Putih Spraque Dawley

    Deni Zulfiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute oral and dermal toxicity test against white rats was conducted to determine the toxicity and side effects of bio-larvacide (Metarhizium anisopliae crude extract on humans. In the oral test used a maximum dose 5000 mg/kg and dermal testing used a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. Dose treatment and control tested to 5 Spraque Dawley male rats. The results showed that oral treatment with a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. In the dermal treatment with a dose of 2000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. Based on these results LD50 acute oral M. anisopliae biolarvacide above 5000 mg/kg and the acute dermal is above 2000 mg/kg. It was therefore concluded that the formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae biolarvasida classified as not hazardous when used in accordance with the recommendation of the class I (WHO, 2003.

  2. Dermal regeneration in native non-cross-linked collagen sponges with different extracellular matrix molecules

    de Vries, H. J.; Middelkoop, E.; Mekkes, J. R.; Dutrieux, R. P.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, H.

    1994-01-01

    Collagenous dermal templates can prevent scarring and wound contraction in the healing of full-thickness defects. In a porcine wound model, full-thickness wounds were substituted by reconstituted and native collagen sponges in combination with autologous split-skin mesh grafts and covered with a

  3. DERMAL AND MOUTHING TRANSFERS OF SURFACE RESIDUES MEASURED USING FLUORESCENCE IMAGING

    To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and non-dietary ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to develop and test methods for measuring...

  4. Secondary cytotoxicity of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen during repeated exposure to human fibroblasts

    van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  5. The processing of sheepskin for use as a dermal collagen graft--an experimental study

    van Gulik, T. M.; Klopper, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a biological mesh-prosthesis, sheepskin was processed according to established methods in the manufacture of leather. The dermal collagen fibre-mesh of sheepskin was purified by a proteolytic enzyme treatment after which the skins were split, providing a split-skin graft corresponding

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN INVITRO CYTOTOXICITY AND CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    Collagen-based biomaterials have found various applications in the biomedical field. However, collagen-based biomaterials may induce cytotoxic effects. This study evaluated possible cytotoxic effects of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using a 7-d-methylcellulose cell culture with human

  7. BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND TISSUE REGENERATING CAPACITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  8. SECONDARY CYTOTOXICITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS DURING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenedlisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  9. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla.

  10. [Penile augmentation and elongation using autologous dermal-fat strip grafting].

    Yang, Zhe; Li, Yang-qun; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuan-de; Zhao, Mu-xin; Hu, Chun-mei

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of autologous dermal-fat strip grafting in penile augmentation and elongation. From May 2004 to December 2010, 24 patients underwent penile enhancement with free dermal-fat strip grafting. Through suprapubic incision, the superior suspensory ligament and part deep suspensory ligament are cutted off to lengthen the penis. The resulted dead space is filled with the autologous dermal-fat strip (6.0-9.5 cm in length, 1.2-1.5 cm in width and 0.6-0.8 cm in depth) to enhance the penis. Primary healing was achieved in 23 cases. Incisional fat liquefaction happened in one case which healed after dressing change. The penile appearance was satisfactory both at rest or erection. The penile length and circumference increased by 2.5-4.8 cm (average, 3.2 cm) and 1.8-3.0 cm (average, 2.4 cm), respectively. 18 patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. All the patients were satisfactory on the cosmetic and functional results. No complication happened. It is safe and effective for penile augmention and elongation with autologous dermal-fat strip grafting and disconnection of penile suspensory ligament.

  11. Augmentation Phalloplasty With Autologous Dermal Fat Graft in the Treatment of "Small Penis".

    Xu, Lisi; Zhao, Muxin; Chen, Wen; Li, Yangqun; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Ning; Wang, Weixin; Feng, Jun; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Our objective is to report on the efficacy and safety of dermal fat graft in augmentation phalloplasty performed on patients who presented complaining of "small penis," and evaluate the cosmetic and psychological outcomes of it. From April 2010 and January 2015, 23 Chinese adult patients aged 18 to 33 years (average, 23 years) with subjective perception of small penis were included; all who requested an increase in the penile dimension underwent penile elongation (suprapubic skin advancement-ligamentolysis) and girth enhancement by dermal fat graft. Besides objective measurement, Male Genital Image Scale was used to facilitate selection of patients and evaluate the outcome, respectively. The change and shrinkage of the dermal fat strips was evaluated by ultrasound examination and computed tomography. No major complications or erection deficiencies occurred during the postoperative follow-up period. After 6 months, the mean flaccid length was increased by 2.27 ± 0.54 cm, whereas the mean flaccid circumference gain was 1.67 ± 0.46 cm. Significant improvement of genital satisfaction was reported during the follow-up. The shrinkage of dermal fat strips was inconspicuous, and no curvature was observed due to fibrosis. With strict patient selection, this procedure is proved to be a plausible and reasonable option for patients with penile dysmorphophobia. Also, it provides a potential alternative procedure to current dominant methods and promotes the aesthetic results with penile lengthening.

  12. Development and characterization of hyaluronic acid-lysine nanoparticles with potential as innovative dermal filling

    Jaqueline Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Skin aging causes changes such as wrinkles and flaccidity leading to a large demand for aesthetic procedures, including dermal filling. A key agent in dermal filling is hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. However, it is a hydrophilic macromolecule that experiences great difficulty in crossing the skin barrier causing most commercial formulations containing it to be injectable, which in turn brings risks since they involve an invasive technique. In that sense, the aim of this study was to develop and characterize nanoparticles obtained from ionic interaction between HA and lysine (Lys for use as a potential agent of dermal filling for topical application, increasing and improving its applicability and safety. To this end, nanoparticles were obtained by dripping of Lys over HA under magnetic stirring. A nanometric size was confirmed and a suitable surface charge was obtained by zeta potential. Nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with a smooth surface. Interaction between raw materials for preparing nanoparticles was studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and an ionic interaction was confirmed. These physicochemical features suggest that obtained nanoparticles can be further used as a topical dermal filling.

  13. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  14. Skin permeability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac epolamine administered by dermal patch in Yorkshire-Landrace pigs

    Tse S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanna Tse,1 Kendall D Powell,2 Stephen MacLennan,3 Allan R Moorman,4 Craig Paterson,5 Rosonald R Bell11Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Tandem Labs, Durham, NC, USA; 3BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc, Durham, NC, USA; 4Alta Vetta Pharmaceutical Consulting LLC, Durham, NC, USA; 5Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc, Raleigh, NC, USAPurpose: This study compared the pharmacokinetic profile, and systemic and local absorption of diclofenac, following dermal patch application and oral administration in Yorkshire- Landrace pigs.Patients and methods: Twelve anesthetized, female, Yorkshire-Landrace pigs were randomized to receive either the dermal patch (FLECTOR® patch, 10 × 14 cm; Alpharma Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc, New York, NY or 50 mg oral diclofenac (Voltaren®; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ. Tissue (skin area of 2 × 2 cm and underlying muscles approximately 2–3 cm in depth and blood (10 mL samples were collected at timed intervals up to 11.5 hours after initial patch application or oral administration. The concentrations of diclofenac in plasma, skin, and muscle samples were analyzed using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric methods.Results: Peak systemic exposure of diclofenac was very low by dermal application compared with oral administration (maximum concentration [Cmax] values of 3.5 vs 9640 ng/mL, respectively. Absorption of diclofenac into underlying muscles beneath the dermal patch was sustained, and followed apparently zero-order kinetics, with the skin serving as a depot with elevated concentrations of diclofenac. Concentrations of diclofenac in muscles beneath the patch application site were similar to corresponding tissues after oral administration (Cmax values of 879 and 1160 ng/mL, respectively. In contrast to the wide tissue distribution of diclofenac after oral administration, dermal patch application resulted in high concentrations of diclofenac only on the treated skin and immediate

  15. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Puente, Pilar de la; Ludeña, Dolores; López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  16. Determinants of dermal exposure relevant for exposure modelling in regulatory risk assessment.

    Marquart, J; Brouwer, D H; Gijsbers, J H J; Links, I H M; Warren, N; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European research programme, an analysis of potential dermal exposure determinants was made based on the available studies and models and on the expert judgement of the authors of this publication. Only a few potential determinants appear to have been studied in depth. Several studies have included clusters of determinants into vaguely defined parameters, such as 'task' or 'cleaning and maintenance of clothing'. Other studies include several highly correlated parameters, such as 'amount of product handled', 'duration of task' and 'area treated', and separation of these parameters to study their individual influence is not possible. However, based on the available information, a number of determinants could clearly be defined as proven or highly plausible determinants of dermal exposure in one or more exposure situation. This information was combined with expert judgement on the scientific plausibility of the influence of parameters that have not been extensively studied and on the possibilities to gather relevant information during a risk assessment process. The result of this effort is a list of determinants relevant for dermal exposure models in the scope of regulatory risk assessment. The determinants have been divided into the major categories 'substance and product characteristics', 'task done by the worker', 'process technique and equipment', 'exposure control measures', 'worker characteristics and habits' and 'area and situation'. To account for the complex nature of the dermal exposure processes, a further subdivision was made into the three major processes 'direct contact', 'surface contact' and 'deposition'.

  17. Expanding the applications of Cadaveric skin - the properties and uses of an acellular dermal matrix

    Greenleaf, G.; Livesey, S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to transplant organs and tissues has been one of the most significant advances of modern medicine. The availability of cadaveric allograft skin has greatly facilitated the practice of aggressive, early excision of massive burn injuries. Due to its ultimate rejection however, the role of allograft skin has historically been limited to that of a temporary wound dressing. Development of an acellular dermal allograft has greatly expanded the applications for donated human skin. AlloDerm(r) preserved dermal graft (LifeCell, The Woodlands, TX) is prepared via ionic separation of allograft skin followed by detergent removal of antigenic cells. Acellular dermal grafts are then cryoprotected and freeze-dried. The process maintains the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and preserves the biochemical composition of the basement membrane. The resultant immunologically inert allograft can be used in a variety of applications. In burn injuries, lack of an adequate dermal component at either the donor or wound site may result in complications including contraction, delayed healing, hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation. Utilizing allogenic dermis eliminates the need for autologous dermis at the wound site and minimizes donor site trauma by allowing procurement of ultra-thin (0.006 ) autografts. Expanding the scope of traditional uses for allograft skin, acellular dermal grafts have been successfully utilized in a variety of procedures including duraplasty, orbital reconstruction, and hemia repar. In periodontal surgery, allograft tissue eliminates the need for painful palatal autografts and has been used to increase attached gingiva and reduce gingival recession. Resorption of autologous grafts or extrusion of synthetic material often hampers repair or reconstruction of soft tissue deficits. Transplantation of acellular allograft dermis provides a biochemically and structurally intact matrix, which persists and is ultimately repopulated with

  18. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  19. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  20. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.