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Sample records for rabbit tracheobronchial tree

  1. Expandable metallic stent: experimental and clinical experience in tracheobronchial tree

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    Song, Ho Young; Lee, Sang Young; Chung, Jin Young; Han, Young Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Hong, Ki Whan; Rhee, Yang Kun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    To maintain or reestablish an adequate airway in a patient with tracheobronchial narrowing coming from various causes, we constructed self-expanding metallic stents the same way Gianturco did, using them in 2 patients after an experimental study with rabbits. Twenty stents (10mm in diameter fully expanded and 20mm in length) were introduced into the trachea or bronchi of 10 Newzealand rabbits (weight, 2.5-3.0kg) through a 8.5 French Teflon sheath. No difficulties were encountered in the placement of the stents. At follow-up (4-12 weeks), no stent showed migration. Three rabbits died of pneumonia or bronchial perforation. Histologically, mucosal inflammation was noted at the sites of stent placement, and stent wires were covered by proliferated epithelium with intact cilia. During the last 4 months, 2 stents were used in 2 patients, one in a patient with endobronchial tuberculosis (3.0cm in length and 1.0cm in diameter fully expanded) and the other (3.0cm in length and 1.5cm in diameter) in a patient with a subglottic mass. In both patients the stents were successfully placed. Just after the placement of the stents dyspnea subsided in both patients, and there was no mortality or morbidity. These stents seem to be effective in the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheomalacia, and airway collapse following tracheal reconstruction.

  2. Expandable metallic stent: experimental and clinical experience in tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Young; Lee, Sang Young; Chung, Jin Young; Han, Young Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Hong, Ki Whan; Rhee, Yang Kun

    1991-01-01

    To maintain or reestablish an adequate airway in a patient with tracheobronchial narrowing coming from various causes, we constructed self-expanding metallic stents the same way Gianturco did, using them in 2 patients after an experimental study with rabbits. Twenty stents (10mm in diameter fully expanded and 20mm in length) were introduced into the trachea or bronchi of 10 Newzealand rabbits (weight, 2.5-3.0kg) through a 8.5 French Teflon sheath. No difficulties were encountered in the placement of the stents. At follow-up (4-12 weeks), no stent showed migration. Three rabbits died of pneumonia or bronchial perforation. Histologically, mucosal inflammation was noted at the sites of stent placement, and stent wires were covered by proliferated epithelium with intact cilia. During the last 4 months, 2 stents were used in 2 patients, one in a patient with endobronchial tuberculosis (3.0cm in length and 1.0cm in diameter fully expanded) and the other (3.0cm in length and 1.5cm in diameter) in a patient with a subglottic mass. In both patients the stents were successfully placed. Just after the placement of the stents dyspnea subsided in both patients, and there was no mortality or morbidity. These stents seem to be effective in the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheomalacia, and airway collapse following tracheal reconstruction

  3. Regional deposition of thoron progeny in models of the human tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the human tracheobronchial tree have been used to determine total and regional aerosol deposition of inhaled particles. Particle sizes measured in these studies have all been > 40 nm in diameter. The deposition of aerosols < 40 nm in diameter has not been measured. Particles in the ultrafine aerosol size range include some combustion aerosols and indoor radon progeny. Also, the influence of reduced lung size and airflow rates on particle deposition in young children has not been determined. With their smaller lung size and smaller minute volumes, children may be at increased risk from ultrafine pollutants. In order to accurately determine dose of inhaled aerosols, the effects of particle size, minute volume, and age at exposure must be quantified. The purpose of this study was to determine the deposition efficiency of ultrafine aerosols smaller than 40 nm in diameter in models of the human tracheobronchia tree. This study demonstrates that the deposition efficiency of aerosols in the model of the child's tracheobronchial tree may be slightly higher than in the adult models

  4. Regional deposition of thoron progeny in models of the human tracheobronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Models of the human tracheobronchial tree have been used to determine total and regional aerosol deposition of inhaled particles. Particle sizes measured in these studies have all been > 40 nm in diameter. The deposition of aerosols < 40 nm in diameter has not been measured. Particles in the ultrafine aerosol size range include some combustion aerosols and indoor radon progeny. Also, the influence of reduced lung size and airflow rates on particle deposition in young children has not been determined. With their smaller lung size and smaller minute volumes, children may be at increased risk from ultrafine pollutants. In order to accurately determine dose of inhaled aerosols, the effects of particle size, minute volume, and age at exposure must be quantified. The purpose of this study was to determine the deposition efficiency of ultrafine aerosols smaller than 40 nm in diameter in models of the human tracheobronchia tree. This study demonstrates that the deposition efficiency of aerosols in the model of the child`s tracheobronchial tree may be slightly higher than in the adult models.

  5. Aquamous cell carcinomas of the lung which presented as numerous polypoid nodules in the tracheobronchial tree: A case report

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    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Yo Won; Yoon, Hyun Jung; Paik, Seung Sam [Hanyang University Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We report a case of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, which presented as numerous polypoid nodules in the tracheobronchial tree. They occurred at two years and 7 months after resection of squamous cell carcinoma, which presented as a lung nodule in the left lower lobe, and at 7 months after resection of tracheal squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Aquamous cell carcinomas of the lung which presented as numerous polypoid nodules in the tracheobronchial tree: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Yo Won; Yoon, Hyun Jung; Paik, Seung Sam

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, which presented as numerous polypoid nodules in the tracheobronchial tree. They occurred at two years and 7 months after resection of squamous cell carcinoma, which presented as a lung nodule in the left lower lobe, and at 7 months after resection of tracheal squamous cell carcinoma

  7. Stent implantation into the tracheo-bronchial system in rabbits: histopathologic sequelae in bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Matthias; Klötzer, Julia; Quentin, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Möller, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Stent implantation into the tracheo-bronchial system may be life-saving in selected pediatric patients with otherwise intractable stenosis of the upper airways. Following implantation, significant tissue proliferation may occur, requiring re-interventions. We sought to evaluate the effect of immunosuppressive coating of the stents on the extent of tissue proliferation in an animal model. Bare metal and sirolimus-coated stents (Bx Sonic and Cypher Select, Johnson & Johnson, Cordis) were implanted into non-stenotic lower airways of New Zealand white rabbits (weight 3.1 to 4.8 kg). Three stents with sirolimus coating and six bare metal stents could be analyzed by means of histology and immunohistochemistry 12 months after implantation. On a macroscopic evaluation, all stents were partially covered with a considerable amount of whitish tissue. Histologically, these proliferations contained fiber-rich connective tissue and some fibromuscular cells without significant differences between both stent types. The superficial tissue layer was formed by typical respiratory epithelium and polygonal cells. Abundant lymphocyte infiltrations and moderate granulocyte infiltrations were found in both groups correspondingly, whereas foreign-body reaction was more pronounced around sirolimus-eluting stents. After stent implantation in the tracheo-bronchial system of rabbits, we found tissue reactions comparable to those seen after stent implantation into the vascular system. There was no difference between coated and uncoated stents with regard to quality and quantity of tissue proliferation. We found, however, a significantly different inflammatory reaction with a more pronounced foreign-body reaction in sirolimus-coated stents. In our small series, drug-eluting stents did not exhibit any benefit over bare metal stents in an experimental setting.

  8. Histologic findings in the tracheobronchial tree of uranium miners and non-miners with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, O.; Saccomanno, G.; Kuschner, M.; Brown, R.D.; Garfinkel, L.

    1978-01-01

    The remaining tissue of the tracheobronchial tree from 210 men who died from lung cancer was studied to compare the histologic alterations leading to further sites of primary cancer. These men were uranium miners matched with nonminers for age and smoking habits. In the examination of a total of 28,928 cross-sections carcinoma in situ was found in 96 percent of the miners and in 92 percent of the nonminers. The number of slides from miners showing degree 2 or 3 atypia in areas of carcinoma in situ was about double the number found from the nonminers. Although the difference was not statistically significant, 32 percent of the miners had at least one section showing early primary invasive carcinoma compared with 22 percent of the nonminers. The data indicate that the synergistic effect of the exposure to uranium dust along with cigarette smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and that in addition to a main tumor mass, other sites of tissue alterations leading to tumor development are frequently already present in the lung

  9. Clinical application of 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree with electron beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenwei; Shen Tianzhen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical promise of CT 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree (TBT) by analyzing 73 cases retrospectively. Methods: All the 73 cases were collected from October 1997 to February 2000, who were scanned by EBCT with 130 kV and 630 mA. The scanning method was continuous volume scan, the slice thickness were 3 mm or 1.5 mm. All cross-sectional images were transmitted to the INSIGHT workstation and reconstructed with SSD (shaded surface display), and the threshold setting were -500 to -300 HU. Results: 3D reconstruction of TBT with EBCT could reveal the abnormal changes of TBT by many kinds of diseases including central cancer, inflammation, bronchiectasis, saber-sheath trachea, trachea cancer, congenital disorders, post-surgical changes of lung cancer, and stenoses by adjacent benign or malignant diseases. It could be used to locate the stenoses and measure stenotic extent. Of the 35 central cancer cases with 3D reconstruction, 6 cases were pestle obstructed, 15 cases cone obstructed, 5 cases interrupted irregularly, 8 cases with eccentric stenoses, and 1 case with right stem destroyed and right upper lobe bronchus obstructed. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction of TBT has characteristic sign in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of central airway's benign or malignant stenoses, and it is of instructional value in clinical use

  10. Airflow in Tracheobronchial Tree of Subjects with Tracheal Bronchus Simulated Using CT Image Based Models and CFD Method.

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    Qi, Shouliang; Zhang, Baihua; Yue, Yong; Shen, Jing; Teng, Yueyang; Qian, Wei; Wu, Jianlin

    2018-03-01

    Tracheal Bronchus (TB) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of an abnormal bronchus originating from the trachea or main bronchi and directed toward the upper lobe. The airflow pattern in tracheobronchial trees of TB subjects is critical, but has not been systemically studied. This study proposes to simulate the airflow using CT image based models and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Six TB subjects and three health controls (HC) are included. After the geometric model of tracheobronchial tree is extracted from CT images, the spatial distribution of velocity, wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) is obtained through CFD simulation, and the lobar distribution of air, flow pattern and global pressure drop are investigated. Compared with HC subjects, the main bronchus angle of TB subjects and the variation of volume are large, while the cross-sectional growth rate is small. High airflow velocity, wall pressure, and WSS are observed locally at the tracheal bronchus, but the global patterns of these measures are still similar to those of HC. The ratio of airflow into the tracheal bronchus accounts for 6.6-15.6% of the inhaled airflow, decreasing the ratio to the right upper lobe from 15.7-21.4% (HC) to 4.9-13.6%. The air into tracheal bronchus originates from the right dorsal near-wall region of the trachea. Tracheal bronchus does not change the global pressure drop which is dependent on multiple variables. Though the tracheobronchial trees of TB subjects present individualized features, several commonalities on the structural and airflow characteristics can be revealed. The observed local alternations might provide new insight into the reason of recurrent local infections, cough and acute respiratory distress related to TB.

  11. Probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particles emitted by radon progeny using the analytical model of tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, B.; Nikezic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological bystander effects have become a phenomenon associated with the interaction of radiation with cells. There is a need to include the influence of biological effects in the dosimetry of the human lung. With this aim, the purpose of this work is to calculate the probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particle radiation on sensitive cells of the human lung. Probability was calculated by applying the analytical model cylinder bifurcation, which was created to simulate the geometry of the human lung with the geometric distribution of cell nuclei in the airway wall of the tracheobronchial tree. This analytical model of the human tracheobronchial tree represents the extension of the ICRP 66 model, and follows it as much as possible. Reported probabilities are calculated for various targets and alpha-particle energies. Probability of bystander effect has been calculated for alpha particles with 6 and 7.69 MeV energies, which are emitted in the 222 Rn chain. The application of these results may enhance current dose risk estimation approaches in the sense of the inclusion of the influence of the biological effects. (authors)

  12. 3-D printouts of the tracheobronchial tree generated from CT images as an aid to management in a case of tracheobronchial chondromalacia caused by relapsing polychondritis.

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    Tam, Matthew David; Laycock, Stephen David; Jayne, David; Babar, Judith; Noble, Brendon

    2013-08-01

    This report concerns a 67 year old male patient with known advanced relapsing polychondritis complicated by tracheobronchial chondromalacia who is increasingly symptomatic and therapeutic options such as tracheostomy and stenting procedures are being considered. The DICOM files from the patient's dynamic chest CT in its inspiratory and expiratory phases were used to generate stereolithography (STL) files and hence print out 3-D models of the patient's trachea and central airways. The 4 full-sized models allowed better understanding of the extent and location of any stenosis or malacic change and should aid any planned future stenting procedures. The future possibility of using the models as scaffolding to generate a new cartilaginous upper airway using regenerative medical techniques is also discussed.

  13. Transport and Deposition of Micro-and Nano-Particles in Human Tracheobronchial Tree by an Asymmetric Multi-Level Bifurcation Model

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    Lin Tian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in the upper tracheobronchial tree were analyzed using a multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model. The first three generations of tracheobronchial tree were included in the study. The laryngeal jet at the trachea entrance was modeled as an effective turbulence disturbance, and the study was focused on how to accurately simulate the airflow and predict the motion of the inhaled particles. Downstream in the lower level of the bronchial region, a laminar flow model was used, as smoother flow condition was expected. Transport and deposition of nano- and micro-scale spherical particles in the range of 0.01 μm to 30 μm were evaluated. The particle local deposition pattern and deposition rate in the lung bifurcation was discussed. The proposed multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model was found to be flexible, easy to use and computationally highly efficient. It was also shown that the selection of the anisotropic Reynolds stress transport turbulence model (RSTM was appropriate, and the use of the enhanced two-layer model boundary treatment was needed for accurate simulation of the turbulent airflow conditions in the upper airways.

  14. Management of Tracheobronchial Strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shim, Tae Sun

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the use of tracheobronchial stents has increased greatly sue to the advantages of easy placement and prompt airway relief. in addition, trachebronchial stents provide an alternative to open surgical procedures in select patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis or obstruction, in particular those with tracheobronchial tuberculosis. This paper review the indications for tracheobronchial stent placement, appropriate stent selection, pre-procedure evaluation, and the results of stent placement for benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures

  15. The value of oropharyngoesophageal scintigraphy in the management of aspiration into the tracheobronchial tree in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, M; Fattori, B; Volterrani, D; Chondrogiannis, S; Boni, G; Nacci, A; Marzola, M C; Rubello, D

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia and bolus aspiration are two of the most frequent and invalidating symptoms of various neurological diseases. Swallowing disorders often lead to tracheobronchial aspiration with consequent pneumonia episodes. Aspiration pneumonia per se constitutes the most frequent cause of death in these patients, with mortality rate ranging from 20% to 62%. Oropharyngoesophageal scintigraphy (OPES) permits functional quantitative assessment of the different stages of swallowing, together with the detection and quantitative measurement of bolus aspiration. In this work, we analyzed the role of OPES in patients with different neurological conditions to evaluate swallowing and to detect and quantify bolus aspiration. We enrolled 43 neurological patients (25 women and 18 men, mean age 67.3±12.4 yr) complaining of dysphagia with suspected inhalation. All patients underwent OPES with (99m)Tc-nanocolloid using a liquid bolus first, followed by a semi-solid bolus. We evaluated the following parameters: Oral, Pharyngeal and Esophageal Transit Time, Oro-Pharyngeal Retention Index, Esophageal Emptying Rate, and Aspiration Rate (% AR). OPES detected some airway aspiration in 26/43 patients. 19 patients had tracheal aspiration (with a mean 18.1% AR) and the remaining 7 patients had bilateral broncho-pulmonary aspiration (mean 44.9% AR). OPES is a feasible, repeatable and noninvasive method that allows quantitative assessment of bolus aspiration into the tracheobronchial tract, thus representing a useful and accurate tool to guide the most appropriate treatment and to monitor response to therapy in neurological patients with dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree: A decade-long experience at a health centre in Mexico

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    Arturo Cortés-Télles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Mexico′s National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (NIRD is a third-level national reference center. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (PACC is an uncommon neoplastic disorder; hence improvements in the description of this disease are needed. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective clinical study based on all consecutive patients with pathological diagnoses of PACC seen at the NIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Results: We identified 9 cases of PACC (67% female out of a total of 2,634 patients with lung cancer seen during the period analyzed. The mean age of those 9 patients was 41 years (IQR 36-57, and the frequency of PACC at our center was 0.3%. It is important to note that 67% of those patients had a history of smoking and that 6 of the 9 had the antecedent of previous exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Baseline arterial blood gas analyses revealed a median of 61 mmHg for pO 2 and 28.5 mmHg for pCO 2 . Median FVC was 78%, while FEV 1 was 77% with an FEV 1 /FVC ratio of 78. Death occurred in 56% of cases, and the median survival time was 17 months (IQR 6-26 after the initial diagnosis. Conclusions: The frequency of tracheobronchial PACC among patients with lung cancer was similar to that previously reported (0.3%. According to our results, lung function has no specific phenotype in this disease; however, some abnormalities could be related to potential risk factors such as tobacco use and exposure to biomass fuel smoke.

  17. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  18. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  19. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

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    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  20. Interventional management of tracheobronchial strictures

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ji Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Tracheobronchial balloon dilation and stent placement have been well used in the treatment of patients with benign and/or malignant diseases. Balloon dilation is the first option in the treatment of benign airway stenosis. Although balloon dilation is simple and fast, recurrence rate is high. Stent placement promptly relieves acute airway distress from malignant extraluminal and intraluminal airway obstruction. Temporary stent placement may be an alternative for benign airway strictures refra...

  1. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

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    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  2. Dietary inclusion of tannin extract from red quebracho trees (Schinopsis spp. in the rabbit meat production

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    Maria Elena Cossu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two levels (1% and 3% of condensed tannin extract from red quebracho (QT were added to a diet of growing rabbits in a 6-wk feeding trial up to 12 wk of age. Health status was unaf- fected by the QT supplementation. The E. coli count of caecal content denoted a bactericidal activity of the QT. Weight gain and slaughter weigh were significantly higher and conversion index was sig- nificantly lower in rabbits fed QT diets, compared to those fed the control diet (P<0.05. Meat traits, as well the meat fatty acid profile weren’t influenced by the QT supplementation. Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the dietary use of QT in the rabbit. QT extract supplemented at 1% and 3% in fattening rabbits diet had a clear beneficial effect on live performance. Further studies are needed to assess if supplementing diets with QT can be a valuable strategy.

  3. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor

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    Elif Tanrıverdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC, and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important.

  4. Solitary Tracheobronchial Papilloma: Cytomorphology and ancillary studies with histologic correlation

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    Tee U Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary tracheobronchial papilloma (STBP is a rare benign tumor that primarily involves the tracheobronchial tree. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection is associated with dysplasia and a high risk of carcinoma in these lesions. The cytomorphology of STBP is not well established in the literature. Our aim is to characterize the cytomorphologic features of STBP, with histologic correlation in a series of 6 patients - 4 males and 2 females - with a mean age of 67 years (range, 53-88 years. There were 5 biopsy-proven squamous papillomas and 1 glandular papilloma. On surgical biopsy, squamous papillomas exhibited cytological atypia (4 graded mild and 1 graded moderate with focal severe dysplasia, surface erosion, and inflammation. Cytology specimens available for review included a combination of 4 fine-needle aspirations (FNAs, 2 bronchoalveolar lavages and 2 (of 3 bronchial brushings. Cytologic findings associated with squamous papillomas included atypical squamous cells and rare squamous cell resembling koilocyte in 1 bronchial brushing. Sheets of squamous cells were identified in another specimen. Several cases had a prominent background of acute inflammation, and candida was present in 1 specimen. HPV in-situ hybridization was positive in 1 case and negative in 2 cases. A p16 immunocytochemical stain performed on 1 cell block was negative. In conclusion, although STBP is a rare neoplasm, these cases may be encountered in respiratory cytology samples. FNA of papillomas yields fewer lesional cells compared to exfoliative samples. These lesions may be mistaken in cytology specimens for squamous cell carcinoma, squamous-lined cavitary lesions, an infectious (fungal process, reactive squamous metaplasia, or oral contamination.

  5. Solitary Tracheobronchial Papilloma: Cytomorphology and ancillary studies with histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tee U; Khalbuss, Walid E; Monaco, Sara E; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-03-03

    Solitary tracheobronchial papilloma (STBP) is a rare benign tumor that primarily involves the tracheobronchial tree. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is associated with dysplasia and a high risk of carcinoma in these lesions. The cytomorphology of STBP is not well established in the literature. Our aim is to characterize the cytomorphologic features of STBP, with histologic correlation in a series of 6 patients - 4 males and 2 females - with a mean age of 67 years (range, 53-88 years). There were 5 biopsy-proven squamous papillomas and 1 glandular papilloma. On surgical biopsy, squamous papillomas exhibited cytological atypia (4 graded mild and 1 graded moderate with focal severe dysplasia), surface erosion, and inflammation. Cytology specimens available for review included a combination of 4 fine-needle aspirations (FNAs), 2 bronchoalveolar lavages and 2 (of 3) bronchial brushings. Cytologic findings associated with squamous papillomas included atypical squamous cells and rare squamous cell resembling koilocyte in 1 bronchial brushing. Sheets of squamous cells were identified in another specimen. Several cases had a prominent background of acute inflammation, and candida was present in 1 specimen. HPV in-situ hybridization was positive in 1 case and negative in 2 cases. A p16 immunocytochemical stain performed on 1 cell block was negative. In conclusion, although STBP is a rare neoplasm, these cases may be encountered in respiratory cytology samples. FNA of papillomas yields fewer lesional cells compared to exfoliative samples. These lesions may be mistaken in cytology specimens for squamous cell carcinoma, squamous-lined cavitary lesions, an infectious (fungal) process, reactive squamous metaplasia, or oral contamination.

  6. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  7. The role of excitatory amino acids and substance P in the mediation of the cough reflex within the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Fontana, Giovanni A; Pantaleo, Tito

    2007-09-28

    We hypothesized that cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit is primarily mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission at the level of the caudal portions of the medial subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the lateral commissural NTS where cough-related afferents terminate, and that this reflex is potentiated by local release of substance P. To test our hypothesis, we performed bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists or substance P into these locations in pentobarbitone anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Blockade of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors by 50mM kynurenic acid abolished the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex or the pulmonary chemoreflex. Blockade of non-NMDA receptors using 10mM CNQX or 5mM NBQX caused identical effects. Blockade of NMDA receptors by 10mM D-AP5 strongly reduced, but did not abolish cough responses. Microinjections of 1mM substance P increased peak and rate of rise of abdominal muscle activity as well as cough number. These results are the first to provide evidence that ionotropic glutamate receptors, especially non-NMDA receptors, located within specific regions of NTS are primarily involved in the mediation of cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit. Present findings on substance P cough-enhancing effects extend previous observations and are relevant to the tachykinin-mediated central sensitization of the cough reflex. They also may provide hints for further studies on centrally acting antitussive drugs.

  8. Tracheobronchial injuries in blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid Montazeri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tracheobronchial injuries are uncommon but potentially fatal complication of blunt thoracic trauma harboring a high morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed early . A recent series gleaning cases from four major Trauma Center in Los Angeles nine cases in a seven- year period , but the incidence of these injuries has been increasing recently. This has been attributed to improvement in hospital care and advanced Trauma Centers and earlier diagnosis of such injuries. Disruption of tight main bronchus is more common, such injuries are often associated with rib or clavicular fractures. Findings: Clinical and paraclinical data gathered from records of three patients referred with tracheobronchial injuries during the recent ten years have been reviewed .These include clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, treatment modality and clinical course. The outcome has been satisfactory in all three patients who have undergone operation 2-5 hours after sustaining the injury. We have not had any mortality. Conclusion: These results are similar to those of other series emphasizing over early diagnosis and treatment of such injuries .

  9. Metallic Stents for Tracheobronchial Pathology Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Carolina; Laborda, Alicia; Lozano, Juan M.; Caballero, Hugo; Sebastián, Antonio; Lopera, Jorge; Gregorio, Miguel Ángel de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the 7-year experience of the treatment of benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenoses using metallic stents. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-three stents were inserted in 86 patients (74 benign and 12 malignant stenoses). Ninety-seven stents were placed in the trachea and 26 in the bronchi. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance with the patient under light sedation. In cases of severe stenotic lesions or obstructions, laser resection was performed before stent placement. Clinical and functional pulmonary data were recorded before and 3 months after the procedure. Follow-up involved clinical data and radiographic techniques at 48 h and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. Results: The technical success was 100 %. Dyspnea disappearance, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and pulmonary functional data improvement was observed in all patients (p < 0.001). Complications were detected in 23 patients (26.7 %). Mean follow-up time was 6.3 ± 1.2 months in patients with malignant lesions and 76.2 ± 2.3 months patients with in benign lesions. By the end of the study, 100 % of patients with malignant pathology and 6.7 % of patients with benign lesions had died. Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis with metallic stents is a therapeutic alternative in patients who are poor candidates for surgery. In unresectable malignant lesions, the benefit of metallic stenting is unquestionable. In benign lesions, the results are satisfactory, but sometimes other interventions are required to treat complications. New stent technology may improve these results

  10. Metallic stents for tracheobronchial pathology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carolina; Laborda, Alicia; Lozano, Juan M; Caballero, Hugo; Sebastián, Antonio; Lopera, Jorge; de Gregorio, Miguel Ángel

    2013-12-01

    To present the 7-year experience of the treatment of benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenoses using metallic stents. One hundred twenty-three stents were inserted in 86 patients (74 benign and 12 malignant stenoses). Ninety-seven stents were placed in the trachea and 26 in the bronchi. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance with the patient under light sedation. In cases of severe stenotic lesions or obstructions, laser resection was performed before stent placement. Clinical and functional pulmonary data were recorded before and 3 months after the procedure. Follow-up involved clinical data and radiographic techniques at 48 h and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The technical success was 100 %. Dyspnea disappearance, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and pulmonary functional data improvement was observed in all patients (p < 0.001). Complications were detected in 23 patients (26.7 %). Mean follow-up time was 6.3 ± 1.2 months in patients with malignant lesions and 76.2 ± 2.3 months patients with in benign lesions. By the end of the study, 100 % of patients with malignant pathology and 6.7 % of patients with benign lesions had died. Endoluminal treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis with metallic stents is a therapeutic alternative in patients who are poor candidates for surgery. In unresectable malignant lesions, the benefit of metallic stenting is unquestionable. In benign lesions, the results are satisfactory, but sometimes other interventions are required to treat complications. New stent technology may improve these results.

  11. Metallic Stents for Tracheobronchial Pathology Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.serrano@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Surgical Pathology Unit, Animal Pathology Department (Spain); Laborda, Alicia, E-mail: alaborda@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Minimally Invasive Techniques Research Group (GITMI) (Spain); Lozano, Juan M., E-mail: juamauloz@gmail.com [Marly Clinic, Radiology Department (Colombia); Caballero, Hugo, E-mail: hugocaballero2007@gmail.com [Marly Clinic, Pulmonology Department (Colombia); Sebastian, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.sebastian@ono.es [Lozano Blesa Clinical University Hospital, Pulmonology Department (Spain); Lopera, Jorge, E-mail: lopera@uthscsa.edu [Health Science Center, Interventional Radiology Deparment (United States); Gregorio, Miguel Angel de, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Minimally Invasive Techniques Research Group (GITMI) (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To present the 7-year experience of the treatment of benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenoses using metallic stents. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-three stents were inserted in 86 patients (74 benign and 12 malignant stenoses). Ninety-seven stents were placed in the trachea and 26 in the bronchi. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance with the patient under light sedation. In cases of severe stenotic lesions or obstructions, laser resection was performed before stent placement. Clinical and functional pulmonary data were recorded before and 3 months after the procedure. Follow-up involved clinical data and radiographic techniques at 48 h and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. Results: The technical success was 100 %. Dyspnea disappearance, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and pulmonary functional data improvement was observed in all patients (p < 0.001). Complications were detected in 23 patients (26.7 %). Mean follow-up time was 6.3 {+-} 1.2 months in patients with malignant lesions and 76.2 {+-} 2.3 months patients with in benign lesions. By the end of the study, 100 % of patients with malignant pathology and 6.7 % of patients with benign lesions had died. Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis with metallic stents is a therapeutic alternative in patients who are poor candidates for surgery. In unresectable malignant lesions, the benefit of metallic stenting is unquestionable. In benign lesions, the results are satisfactory, but sometimes other interventions are required to treat complications. New stent technology may improve these results.

  12. An ovine in vivo framework for tracheobronchial stent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Shea, Mary B; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2017-10-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are most commonly used to restore patency to airways stenosed by tumour growth. Currently all tracheobronchial stents are associated with complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. The present work develops a computational framework to evaluate tracheobronchial stent designs in vivo. Pressurised computed tomography is used to create a biomechanical lung model which takes into account the in vivo stress state, global lung deformation and local loading from pressure variation. Stent interaction with the airway is then evaluated for a number of loading conditions including normal breathing, coughing and ventilation. Results of the analysis indicate that three of the major complications associated with tracheobronchial stents can potentially be analysed with this framework, which can be readily applied to the human case. Airway deformation caused by lung motion is shown to have a significant effect on stent mechanical performance, including implications for stent migration, granulation formation and stent fracture.

  13. CT assessment of tracheobronchial anomaly in left pulmonary artery sling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min M.; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Ai-Min M.; Wang, Qian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2010-11-15

    The left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) is a rare vascular anomaly where the left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, passes over the right bronchus, and goes posteriorly between the trachea and esophagus. The LPAS is frequently associated with cardiac and non-cardiac defects including tracheobronchial abnormalities. To evaluate the utility of multislice CT (MSCT) and helical CT (HCT) in diagnosing and defining the tracheobronchial anomaly and anatomic relationships between the trachea and aberrant left pulmonary artery. MSCT or HCT was performed in 27 children to determine the tracheobronchial anatomy and identify tracheobronchial stenosis. Eighteen children underwent surgery. According to the Wells [6] classification of LPAS, which includes two main types and two subtypes, there were eight cases of type 1A, five cases of type 1B, six cases of type 2A and eight cases of type 2B in this group. Twenty-four of the 27 children had substantial tracheobronchial stenosis. Four died before surgery; the 18 had reanastomosis of the left pulmonary artery. Five children also had tracheoplasty; three died after surgery. CT, especially MSCT, is an ideal modality for simultaneously identifying aberrant left pulmonary artery and any associated tracheobronchial anomaly. The Wells classification is useful for operative planning. (orig.)

  14. Multidetector row CT for imaging the paediatric tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaioannou, Georgia; Young, Carolyn; Owens, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners has altered the approach to imaging the paediatric thorax. In an environment where the rapid acquisition of CT data allows general hospitals to image children instead of referring them to specialist paediatric centres, it is vital that general radiologists have access to protocols appropriate for paediatric applications. Thus a dramatic reduction in the delivered radiation dose is ensured with optimal contrast bolus delivery and timing, and inappropriate repetition of the scans is avoided. This article focuses on the main principles of volumetric CT imaging that apply generically to all MDCT scanners. We describe the reconstruction techniques for imaging the paediatric thorax and the low-dose protocols used in our institution on a 16-slice detector CT scanner. Examples of the commonest clinical applications are also given. (orig.)

  15. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  16. Management of Laryngotracheal and Tracheobronchial Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Davari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laryngotracheal and tracheobronchial injuries are uncommon,and their successful diagnosis and management often require ahigh level of expertise. This paper aimed at retrospectiveanalysis of a thoracic surgeon's experience in the diagnosisand management of traumatic injuries to the larynx, tracheaand major bronchi. Forty one patients with major airwaytrauma were managed from March 1994 to November 2008.Their demographic characteristics including age, gender,mechanisms and locations of injuries, associated other organinjuries as well as surgical airway managements and the outcomeswere recorded. Seven patients had re-implantation ofthe main bronchus, and one patient had a repair of the rightupper lobe bronchus with concomitant bilobectomy. In casesof tracheal injury, 16 patients had a primary repair of trachea.However, seven patients with tracheal injury first conservativeapproaches, but 4 of them were later subjected to sleeve resectionof trachea. In patients with laryngotracheal injuries, and ina patient with thermal injury, Montgomery T-Tube was usedwith or without repair and/or reconstruction. Four patients died,but no significant morbidity was seen in others. The analysis ofthe cases suggests that laryngotracheal and tracheobronchialinjuries require early correct diagnosis, skillful management,and prompt individualized surgical airway repair.

  17. Estimation of guinea pig tracheobronchial transport rates using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.J.; Morrow, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance in the tracheobronchial tree of guinea pigs was examined using monodisperse 7.9 μm MMAD polystyrene particles. Animals were exposed for approximately 1 h by inhalation via an intratracheal tube to aerosols tagged with gold-198 and fluorescent dyes. Following exposure, animals were radioactively monitored and sacrificed at predetermined times. The lungs were removed, freeze-dried, sectioned completely, and examined with a fluorescent microscope. Measurements were made of airway diameters where particles were found. An anatomic model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to assign ranges of airway diameters to five zones, which were incorporated into a compartmental model for lung clearance. Kinetic analysis of particle distributions in the zones led to development of first-order equations describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants obtained from the kinetic analysis were used to estimate mucociliary transport rates in specific bronchial generations, which ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea, and resulted in a calculated 24-h clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig. No evidence for either bronchial penetration by particles or relatively prolonged bronchial retention of particles was found in this study. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  18. Usefulness of a functional tracheobronchial phantom for interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate usefulness of a functional tracheobronchial phantom for interventional procedure. The functional phantom was made as a actual size with human normal anatomy used silicone and a paper clay mold. A tracheobronchial-shape clay mold was placed inside a square box and liquid silicone was poured. After the silicone was formed, the clay was removed. We measured film density and tracheobronchial angle at the human, animal and phantom respectively. The film density of trachea part were 0.76 (± 0.011) in human, 0.97 (± 0.015) in animal, 0.45 (± 0.016) in phantom. The tracheobronchial bifurcation part measured 0.51 (± 0.006) in human, 0.65 (± 0.005) in animal, 0.65 (± 0.008) in phantom. The right bronchus part measured 0.14 (± 0.008) in human, 0.59 (± 0.014) in animal and 0.04 (± 0.007) in phantom. The left bronchus were 0.54 (± 0.004) in human, 0.54 (± 0.008) in animal and 0.08 (± 0.008) in phantom. At the stent part were 0.54 (± 0.004) in human, 0.59 (± 0.011) in animal and 0.04 (± 0.007) in phantom, respectively. The tracheobronchial angle of the left bronchus site were 42.6 (± 2.07).deg. in human, 43.4 (± 2.40).deg. in animal and 35 (± 2.00).deg. in phantom, respectively. The right bronchus site were 32.8 (± 2.77).deg. in human, 34.6 (± 1.94).deg. in animal and 50.2 (± 1.30).deg. in phantom, respectively. The phantom was useful for in-vitro testing of tracheobronchial interventional procedure, since it was easy to reproduce

  19. Factors leading to tracheobronchial self-expandable metallic stent fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Chou, Chun-Liang; Yu, Chih-Teng; Liu, Chien-Ying; Wang, Chun-Hua; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was to determine factors that contribute to self-expandable metallic stent fracture in patients with tracheobronchial disease. From 2001 to 2006, 139 patients (age, 62.1 +/- 15.4 years; range, 23-87 years) with benign (n = 62) and malignant (n = 77) tracheobronchial disease received 192 Ultraflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) self-expandable metallic stents (98 in patients with benign disease and 94 in patients with malignant disease). Seventeen fractured self-expandable metallic stents were found; the incidence was 12.2% (17/139 patients) among patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway (odds ratio, 4.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-18.34; P = .04) independently predicted self-expandable metallic stent fracture. Most self-expandable metallic stent fractures (64.7%, 11/17) were detected 500 to 1000 days after self-expandable metallic stent implantation. Clinical presentations for patients with fractured self-expandable metallic stents included dyspnea exacerbation (70.6%, 12/17) and cough (23.5%, 4/17). Self-expandable metallic stent fracture is not uncommon in patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway is an independent predictor for it. Although management of the fractured self-expandable metallic stent in our study was feasible and safe, self-expandable metallic stents should be restricted to a more select population.

  20. Comparison between the effects of lisinopril and losartan on the cougn reflex in anesthetized and awake rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, D; Cinelli, E; Bongianni, F; Evangelista, S; Pantaleo, T

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in cough induction between losartan and lisinopril in both anaesthetized and awake rabbits, i.e., under conditions in which the influences of higher brain areas on the cough reflex are strongly reduced or abolished. Losartan (500 μg/kg), lisinopril (100 μg/kg) and NaCl 0.9% saline solution (vehicle) were administered by intravenous injections. Animals were randomly assigned to the different experimental treatments. The cough reflex was induced by chemical (citric acid) and/or mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. In anaesthetized rabbits, losartan and lisinopril caused similar hypotensive effects. Lisinopril, but not losartan, increased the cough response induced by both mechanical and chemical stimulation due to increases in the cough number, i.e. the number of coughs induced by each stimulation challenge. In awake animals, only lisinopril significantly increased the cough number. The results support the notion that cough potentiation induced by losartan, and possibly other sartans, is lower than that induced by most angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors despite the reduction or complete absence of higher brain functions. In this connection, the comparison between present results and our previous findings on ramipril and zofenopril shows that losartan and zofenopril display similar cough-inducing potency, much lower than that of lisinopril and ramipril.

  1. The cough reflex is upregulated by lisinopril microinjected into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that cough potentiation induced by intravenous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan is lower than that induced by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in anesthetized and awake rabbits. Since losartan and lisinopril cross the blood-brain barrier, their central action on the cough reflex can be hypothesized. Mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree and citric acid inhalation were used to induce cough reflex responses in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of losartan (5mM), lisinopril (1mM), bradykinin (0.05 mM), HOE-140 (0.2mM, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) and CP-99,994 (1mM, an NK1 receptor antagonist) were performed into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii, the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents. Lisinopril, but not losartan increased the cough number. This effect was reverted by HOE-140 or CP-99,994. Cough potentiation was also induced by bradykinin. The results support for the first time a central protussive action of lisinopril mediated by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic tracheobronchial stricture treated with the Eder-Puestow dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, H G

    1980-09-01

    A case of tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to trauma is presented. Primary reconstruction resulted in stricture in the distal part of the trachea. Resection and anastomosis was followed by restenosis, which had to be treated endoscopically. Endobronchial resections and forceful dilatations with stiff bronchoscopes were done weekly for about 11 months without lasting benefit. After changing to Eder-Puestow dilators, the dilatations could be done at steadily increasing intervals. This method of dilatation was found to be safe, effective and less traumatic.

  3. Treatment of malignant or benign tracheobronchial stenosis by home made Nitrol stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fanchang; Luo Zhehuang; Hu Xunying; Liu Jiubao; Jin Aifang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of home made Nitrol stents in the treatment of malignant or benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods: Thirteen patients with malignant or benign tracheobronchial stenosis were treated by Nitrol stents. The stenosed sites located in trachea in 5, tracheo-bronchi in 6, main bronchus in 2. All cases were malignant except one was benign. Results: 15 stents were successfully placed the expected position with dyspnea rapidly improved. The average survival time was 11.4 months. Conclusions: It is an effective way to place Nitrol stent in treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis under x-ray guidance with fiber tracheo-bronchoscopy

  4. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  5. Suppression of the cough reflex by α2-adrenergic receptor agonists in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine has been shown to inhibit citric acid-induced cough responses in guinea pigs when administered by aerosol, but not orally. In contrast, oral or inhaled clonidine had no effect on capsaicin-induced cough and reflex bronchoconstriction in humans. In addition, intravenous administration of clonidine has been shown to depress fentanyl-induced cough in humans. We investigated the effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonists, clonidine and tizanidine, on cough responses induced by mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. Drugs were microinjected (30–50 nL) into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG) as well as administered intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections of clonidine into the cNTS or the cVRG reduced cough responses at 0.5 mmol/L and abolished the cough reflex at 5 mmol/L. Bilateral microinjections of 0.5 mmol/L tizanidine into the cNTS completely suppressed cough responses, whereas bilateral microinjections of 5 mmol/L into the cVRG only caused mild reductions in them. Depressant effects on the cough reflex of clonidine and tizanidine were completely reverted by microinjections of 10 mmol/L yohimbine. Intravenous administration of clonidine (80–120 μg/kg) or tizanidine (150–300 μg/kg) strongly reduced or completely suppressed cough responses. These effects were reverted by intravenous administration of yohimbine (300 μg/kg). The results demonstrate that activation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the rabbit exerts potent inhibitory effects on the central mechanism generating the cough motor pattern with a clear action at the level of the cNTS and the cVRG. PMID:24400133

  6. A review of cases of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Masatsugu; Adachi, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three children with tracheobronchial foreign bodies were statistically studied. The number of cases under 3 years of age was 16 (70%). The male-female ratio was 1.9:1. In 19 cases, the foreign bodies were radiolucent. Within these 19 cases, 12 cases involved peanuts. In 4 cases, the foreign bodies were radiopaque. Eight patients underwent extirpation more than 1 week after inhalation because of diagnostic delay. Some of these cases showed granulation in the bronchus and other complications. For early diagnosis, education is necessary not only for parents but also for general physicians. Foreign bodies were lodged in the right bronchus in 11 cases, left bronchus in 11 cases, and trachea in 1 case. Chest X-ray was performed in all patients. Auxiliary examinations performed were lung perfusion scintigraphy (n=9), CT scan (n=8) and MR imaging (n=4). Lung perfusion scintigraphy and CT scan are easy to perform and seemed to be effective for diagnosis. Observation of the trachea and bronchus using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope before insertion of rigid ventilation bronchoscopy (VBS) is useful for avoiding subglottic swelling. Furthermore, it is helpful for suctioning sputum and for collecting useful information on the airway before using VBS. For extirpation, we used VBS in 20 cases and a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in 3 cases. Sometimes, after extirpation patients suffer respiratory disturbance from complications such as pneumonia. Cooperation of otolaryngologists and pediatricians as a team is necessary for treatment of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. (author)

  7. Expandable metallic stents for tracheobronchial stenoses in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, S; Fujita, H; Hayashi, A; Tayama, K; Mitsuoka, M; Ohtsuka, S; Shirouzu, K

    1996-09-01

    Tracheobronchial stenosis in patients with esophageal cancer can be life threatening. Few reports have discussed use of expandable metallic stents for central airway stenoses in patients with esophageal cancer. Twelve patients with esophageal cancer underwent placement of expandable metallic stents for respiratory distress caused by tracheobronchial stricture. Single or double metallic stents were placed in the stenotic airways under fluoroscopic guidance. Improvement in respiratory symptoms and clinical outcome were assessed. Most stenoses were located in the trachea or the left main bronchus. From one to four expandable metallic stents were placed in each stricture site, with immediate relief of respiratory symptoms in 8 patients. One patient with tracheomalacia in alive 3 years after stent placement and another is alive 6 months after stent insertion. The other 10 patients lived from 10 to 70 days (mean; survival, 35 days) after stent placement. Death was due to progression of disease. Although metallic stents are useful for relieving respiratory distress in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, additional therapies should be considered.

  8. Gianturco-Rösch Z stents in tracheobronchial stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, B D; Uchida, B T; Barton, R E; Keller, F S; Rösch, J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate expandable metallic Gianturco-Rösch Z (GRZ) stents for treatment of benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenoses. Six patients, ages 45-73 years, were treated for severe dyspnea with placement of GRZ stents. Three patients had benign tracheal lesions (one tracheomalacia, two postoperative) and received uncovered GRZ stents. Three patients had malignant stenoses at the level of the carina; one received an uncovered stent and the other two received silicone-covered GRZ stents. Two patients with benign lesions responded well to stent placement. One was asymptomatic for a year and then was lost to follow-up; the other improved substantially but died of end-stage lung disease 5 months after stent placement. A third patient with a benign high tracheal lesion did poorly; symptoms recurred secondary to inferior migration of a stent, which was removed surgically at 4 months. All patients with malignant lesions improved symptomatically after stent placement and remained without significant dyspnea until death (from 1 to 6 months). Expandable GRZ stents are promising devices for treatment of benign lesions and offer effective palliation of malignant tracheobronchial stenoses.

  9. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The role of airway stenting in pediatric tracheobronchial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-Pacheco, Juan L; Cabezalí, Daniel; Tejedor, Raquel; López, María; Luna, Carmen; Comas, Juan V; de Miguel, Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Tracheobronchial obstruction is infrequent in the pediatric age group but it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to review the results of a single institution experience with endoscopic stent placement in children with benign tracheobronchial obstruction, and with special concern on safety and clinical effectiveness. Twenty-one patients with severe airway stenosing disease in which stent placement was performed between 1993 and 2006. Inclusion criteria according to the clinical status were: failure to wean from ventilation, episode of apnea, frequent respiratory infections (>3 pneumonia/year), and severe respiratory distress. Additional criteria for stent placement were: failure of surgical treatment, bronchomalacia, and tracheomalacia refractory to previous tracheostomy. Selection of the type of stent depended on the site of the lesion, the patient's age, and the stent availability when time of presentation. The following variables were retrospectively evaluated: age, type of obstruction, associated malformations, stent properties, technical and clinical success, complications and related reinterventions, outcome and follow-up period. Thirty-three stents were placed in the trachea (n=18) and/or bronchi (n=15) of 21 patients with a median age of 6 months (range, 9 days-19 years). Etiology of the airway obstruction included severe tracheomalacia and/or bronchomalacia in 19 cases (90%), and postoperative tracheal stenosis in two. Twelve children had a total of 20 balloon-expandable metallic stents placed, and 10 had 13 silicone-type stents (one patient had both). In nine patients (42%) more than one device was placed. Stent positioning was technically successful in all but one patient. Clinical improvement was observed in 18 patients (85%) but complications occurred in five of them (27%). Eight patients died during follow-up but only in one case it was related to airway stenting. Thirteen patients (62%) are alive and

  11. Proteolytic fragmentation and peptide mapping of human carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.C.; Kaufman, B.; Martin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Human tracheobronchial mucin was isolated from lung mucosal gel by chromatography on Sepharose 4B in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents, and its thiol residues were carboxyamidomethylated with iodo[1(-14)C]acetamide. The 14C-carboxyamido-methylated mucin was purified by chromatography on Sepharose 2B. No low molecular weight components were detected by molecular sieve chromatography or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents or by analytical density centrifugation in CsCl/guanidinium chloride. After digestion of the purified 14C-mucin with trypsin-L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, three fractions (TR-1, TR-2, and TR-3) were observed by chromatography on Sepharose 4B. TR-1, a 260-kDa mucin glycopeptide fragment, contained all of the neutral hexose and blood group activity and 20% of the radioactivity in the undigested mucin. TR-1 was refractory to a second incubation with trypsin but could be digested by papain or Pronase to a smaller mucin glycopeptide fraction, as judged by the slight decrease in apparent molecular weight on Sepharose CL-4B. These mucin glycopeptides contained approximately 50% of the radioactivity in the TR-1 fraction, indicating that the glycosylated domains of carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin contained thiol residues. The remainder of the radioactivity from papain or Pronase digests of TR-1 eluted, like the TR-3 fractions, in the salt fraction on Sepharose CL-4B. Peptide mapping of the nonglycosylated TR-3 fraction by TLC and high voltage electrophoresis yielded six principal and several less intensely stained ninhydrin reactive components, with the radiolabel concentrated in one of the latter peptides

  12. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  13. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  14. Studies of plutonium in human tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Stewart, M.W.; Moss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1959, tissues from 70 occupationally exposed former employees of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory have been examined following autopsy. Exposure in most cases was to inhaled plutonium oxide aerosols. Chemical analyses of selected tissues were performed to determine the amount of plutonium retained in the body at the time of death. On the basis of the measured tissue concentrations of plutonium, extrapolations of total-body burdens were made. Thirty-three of the measured cases had plutonium depositions in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes ranging from 0.1 to 4000 dpm per gram of tissue (0.05 to 1800 pCi/g). The duration of exposures ranged from 4 to 30 years. Microscopic examination of representative sections of these lymph nodes revealed no abnormalities other than those which were directly attributable to the basic disease that caused the demise of the various persons in this study. The size distribution of plutonium particles in nodes from one individual was determined by exposing tissue sections to nuclear track film. The estimated mass median diameter of the particles was 0.3 μm, and the distribution had a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. It is estimated that 95 percent of the individual particles had corresponding plutonium concentrations between 0.001 and 0.22 pCi

  15. Outcomes of Temporary Partially Covered Stent Placement for Benign Tracheobronchial Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ji; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Gang; Jiao, Dechao; Ren, Kewei; Bi, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the intermediate outcomes of temporary partially covered tracheobronchial stenting in patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective study of patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis who underwent stent placement. All stents were removed approximately 3 months after placement. Respiratory function was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) before and after stent placement. The lumen diameters of the stenotic lesions were measured using chest computed tomography (CT) and compared between before stent placement and after stent removal.ResultsA total of 51 stents were successfully placed in consecutive 51 patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis. No serious complications occurred. The mean VAS and KPS scores significantly improved after stent removal (6.291 ± 0.495 and 25.352 ± 10.533, respectively) compared with those before stent placement (1.493 ± 0.504 and 60.140 ± 16.344, respectively; P   0.05).ConclusionTemporary partially covered stenting may be a safe and effective treatment for benign tracheobronchial stenosis.

  16. Outcomes of Temporary Partially Covered Stent Placement for Benign Tracheobronchial Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Gang; Jiao, Dechao; Ren, Kewei; Bi, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the intermediate outcomes of temporary partially covered tracheobronchial stenting in patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis who underwent stent placement. All stents were removed approximately 3 months after placement. Respiratory function was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) before and after stent placement. The lumen diameters of the stenotic lesions were measured using chest computed tomography (CT) and compared between before stent placement and after stent removal. A total of 51 stents were successfully placed in consecutive 51 patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis. No serious complications occurred. The mean VAS and KPS scores significantly improved after stent removal (6.291 ± 0.495 and 25.352 ± 10.533, respectively) compared with those before stent placement (1.493 ± 0.504 and 60.140 ± 16.344, respectively; P  0.05). Temporary partially covered stenting may be a safe and effective treatment for benign tracheobronchial stenosis.

  17. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [de

  18. Outcomes after Bronchoscopic Procedures for Primary Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis: Retrospective Study of 6 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Alloubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory amyloidosis is a rare disease which refers to localized aberrant extracellular protein deposits within the airways. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis (TBA refers to the deposition of localized amyloid deposits within the upper airways. Treatments have historically focused on bronchoscopic techniques including debridement, laser ablation, balloon dilation, and stent placement. We present the outcomes after rigid bronchoscopy to remove the amyloid protein causing the airway obstruction in 6 cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. This is the first report of primary diffuse tracheobronchial amyloidosis in our department; clinical features, in addition to therapy in the treatment of TBA, are reviewed. This paper shows that, in patients with TBA causing airway obstruction, excellent results can be obtained with rigid bronchoscopy and stenting of the obstructing lesion.

  19. Outcomes after bronchoscopic procedures for primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis: retrospective study of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloubi, Ihsan; Thumerel, Matthieu; Bégueret, Hugues; Baste, Jean-Marc; Velly, Jean-François; Jougon, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory amyloidosis is a rare disease which refers to localized aberrant extracellular protein deposits within the airways. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis (TBA) refers to the deposition of localized amyloid deposits within the upper airways. Treatments have historically focused on bronchoscopic techniques including debridement, laser ablation, balloon dilation, and stent placement. We present the outcomes after rigid bronchoscopy to remove the amyloid protein causing the airway obstruction in 6 cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. This is the first report of primary diffuse tracheobronchial amyloidosis in our department; clinical features, in addition to therapy in the treatment of TBA, are reviewed. This paper shows that, in patients with TBA causing airway obstruction, excellent results can be obtained with rigid bronchoscopy and stenting of the obstructing lesion.

  20. [Eight Cases of Esophagus and Tracheobronchial Stenting for Advanced Esophageal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yujiro; Takachi, Ko; Tsujimura, Naoto; Wakasugi, Masaki; Hirota, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Oshima, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    Malignant stricture and fistula of the esophagus and tracheobronchus adversely affect the quality of life(QOL)in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Stenting is one ofthe therapies available for these patients. We investigated the outcomes ofesophagus and tracheobronchial stenting in our institution. Eight patients with advanced esophageal cancer underwent double stenting from 2010 to 2016. Among them, 4 patients underwent double stenting as planned. One patient underwent an emergency tracheal stenting because ofstenosis ofthe trachea caused by esophageal stenting. Three patients underwent tracheobronchial stenting later on because ofan increase in the tumor size after esophageal stenting. Dysphagia score was improved in 5(67.5%)out ofthe 8 patients. Respiratory symptoms were improved in all patients, and 4 patients(50.0%) were discharged. The median survival time after esophageal stenting was 70.5 days. Esophagus and tracheobronchial stenting for advanced esophageal cancer was useful for the improvement of the QOL.

  1. Suppression of the cough reflex by inhibition of ERK1/2 activation in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Cinelli, Elenia; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2012-04-15

    The caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS), the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents, has been shown to be a site of action of some centrally acting antitussive agents. A role of ERK1/2 has been suggested in acute central processing of nociceptive inputs. Because pain and cough share similar features, we investigated whether ERK1/2 activation could also be involved in the central transduction of tussive inputs. For this purpose, we undertook the present research on pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits by using microinjections (30-50 nl) of an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (U0126) into the cNTS. Bilateral microinjections of 25 mM U0126 caused rapid and reversible reductions in the cough responses induced by both mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. In particular, the cough number and peak abdominal activity decreased. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0126 completely suppressed the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex, the pulmonary chemoreflex, and the sneeze reflex. These U0126-induced effects were, to a large extent, reversible. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0124, the inactive analog of U0126, at the same cNTS sites had no effect. This is the first study that provides evidence that ERK1/2 activation within the cNTS is required for the mediation of cough reflex responses in the anesthetized rabbit. These results suggest a role for ERK1/2 in the observed effects via nontranscriptional mechanisms, given the short time involved. They also may provide hints for the development of novel antitussive strategies.

  2. [Tracheobronchial and pulmonary parenchymatous congenital abnormalities requiring surgical treatment in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordant, P; De Dominicis, F; Berna, P; Riquet, M

    2012-04-01

    Most tracheobronchial and parenchymatous congenital abnormalities of the respiratory system are diagnosed in early life. However, some lesions may be initially silent and diagnosed only in adulthood. These cases included congenital abnormalies of the tracheobronchial tract (tracheal and/or bronchial stenosis, bronchogenic cysts, bronchial atresia, oesotracheal fistula, oesobronchial fistula, and tracheal diverticulum), and lung parenchyma itself (pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoïd malformation, lobar emphysema, lobar or lung hypoplasia). To avoid dreadful complications, these rare cases deserve surgical management, and must be known by chest physicians and surgeons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of 144Ce inhaled in fused-clay particles on the tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Hobbs, C.H.; Jones, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph node changes and lymphopenia are sequelae of inhalation of relatively insoluble radioactive aerosols by beagle dogs. The tracheobronchial lymph nodes from dogs that inhaled 144 Ce in fused-clay particles were examined at intervals from 2 to 730 days after exposure to assess the development of these lesions. Initial lung burdens in the dogs studied ranged from 33 to 63 μCi/kg of body weight. The concentration of radioisotope in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes increased during the first year after exposure and exceeded that in the lung about 100 days after exposure. Autoradiographs of the lymph nodes showed that 144 Ce particles were present in macrophages in the paracortical zone two days after exposure and that concentrations continued to increase in the paracortical zone and medullary cords. Histologic changes in the nodes included atrophy of the germinal centers and lymphocytic follicles, loss of lymphocytes and accumulation of macrophages in the paracortical zone, accumulation of pigment and isotope-laden macrophages in the medullary cords, occasional infiltrates of neutrophils in the medullary cords, and at later time periods focal fibrosis of the medullary cords. Tracheobronchial lymph node weights of the dogs exposed to 144 Ce in fused clay were not decreased until 512 days after exposure. These findings indicate that tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate relatively high burdens of 144 Ce after 144 Ce is inhaled in a relatively insoluble form and that the pathologic changes resulting from these burdens are basically atrophy of the nodes. Primary neoplasms in lymph nodes were not observed in dogs with initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to more than 30 μCi/kg of body weight followed for up to 2000 days after exposure. At the higher levels, however, a high incidence of primary pulmonary neoplasia was observed

  4. Cigarette smoke deposition in the tracheobronchial tree: evidence for colligative effects

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, RF; Oldham, MJ; Mannix, RC; Schum, GM

    1994-01-01

    A series of cigarette smoke deposition studies was performed that used hollow models designed to represent the upper airways of adults and children. A major objective of the studies was to look for evidence of the influence of the colligative behavior of concentrated smoke on deposition in the hollow models. Another objective was to identify possible body-size—related factors in cigarette smoke deposition. The concentrated sidestream smoke from 1R3 University of Kentucky unfiltered research c...

  5. Modulation of the cough reflex by GABAA receptors in the caudal ventral respiratory group of the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenia eCinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG is a possible site of action of some antitussive drugs and plays a crucial role in determining both the expiratory and inspiratory components of the cough motor pattern. In addition, it has been reported that medullary expiratory neurons of the cVRG are subject to potent GABAergic gain modulation. This study was devoted to investigate the role of cVRG GABAA receptors in the control of baseline respiratory activity and cough responses to mechanical and chemical (citric acid stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. To this purpose, bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl of bicuculline or muscimol were performed into the cVRG of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bicuculline (1 mM increased peak abdominal activity and respiratory frequency due to decreases in TE. Cough responses were potentiated mainly owing to increases in the cough number. The recovery was observed within ~ 2 h. On the contrary, muscimol (0.3 mM abolished abdominal activity and decreased respiratory frequency due to increases in TE. In addition, cough responses were progressively reduced and completely suppressed within ~ 20 min. Partial recovery of cough responses was achieved after ~ 3 h or within ~ 5 min following bicuculline microinjections at the same locations. The sneeze reflex induced by mechanical stimulation of the nasal mucosa persisted following bicuculline and muscimol microinjections. However, the number and intensity of expiratory thrusts were enhanced by bicuculline and suppressed by muscimol. The results provide evidence that a potent GABAA-mediated inhibitory modulation is exerted at the level of the cVRG not only on respiratory activity, but also on cough and sneeze reflex responses.

  6. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  7. Correlative factors for the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Feng, Rui-Ling; Jiang, Lan; Ren, Hong-Bo; Li, Qi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to analyze factors related to the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children, and provide help in the assessment of the disease, surgical risk and prognosis. The clinical data of 1,060 pediatric patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies diagnosed from January 2015 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied, the association of the location of the foreign bodies with age, gender, granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, preoperative complications, operation time, and hospital stay was analyzed. The location of foreign bodies was not correlated with age, gender, operation time and length of hospital stay, but was correlated to granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, and preoperative complications. The location of foreign bodies was correlated to granulation formation, the location of foreign bodies displayed by chest computed tomography, and preoperative complications.

  8. Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Mitsuru; Saraya, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Sato, Shinji; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 3-month history of dyspnea, polyarthralgia, myalgia and weight loss. He was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus/dermatomyositis overlap syndrome with lung involvement, which presented as organizing pneumonia. However, a bronchoscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple plaque-like white lesions with ulcers on the bronchial membrane, located mainly in the central airway. The pathological specimens obtained from bronchoscopy showed numerous filamentous fungal hyphae that were aggressively invading the bronchial walls, suggesting a diagnosis of invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis. The present case, along with a review of the literature, demonstrates that invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis can occur in patients who do not appear to be immunosuppressed. This case of aspergillosis should thus be recognized as an extremely rare presentation of an Aspergillus infection.

  9. Results of endoscopic surgery and intralesional steroid therapy for airway compromise due to tracheobronchial Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R. Nouraei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life-threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery, and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of eighteen previously-untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006 were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16 years [range 13–74]. There were thirteen patients with tracheal, and five patients with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3 mm, located 23 (9 mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally-invasive treatment was 26 (2.8 months. Following endobronchial therapy the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs. tracheal lesions. No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Conclusions: Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.

  10. Acute tracheobronchial injuries: Impact of imaging on diagnosis and management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Mariano; Romano, Stefania; Pinto, Antonio; Sparano, Amelia; Scialpi, Michele; Rotondo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of chest radiography, single-slice CT and 16-row MDCT in the direct evidence of tracheobronchial injuries. Methods: Patients with acute tracheobronchial injury were identified from the registry of our level 1 trauma center during a 5-year period ending July 2005. Findings at chest radiograph and CT were compared to those shown at bronchoscopy. Results: Eighteen patients with tracheobronchial injury - three patients with cervical trachea injury, eight with thoracic trachea injury and seven with bronchial injury - were identified. Twelve patients had a blunt trauma (67%), six patients had a penetrating (iatrogenic) injury (33%). Chest radiograph directly identified the site of tracheal injury in four cases, showing overdistension of the endotracheal cuff in three cases and displacement of the endotracheal tube in one case. At the level of the bronchi, chest radiograph demonstrated only one injury. CT directly identified the site of tracheal injury in all the cases showing the overdistension of the endotracheal cuff at the level of the thoracic trachea (three cases), posterior herniation of the endotracheal cuff at the thoracic trachea (three cases), lateral endotracheal cuff herniation at the thoracic trachea (one case), tracheal wall discontinuity at the cervical (one case) and at the thoracic trachea (one case) and displacement of endotracheal tube at the cervical trachea (two cases). At the level of the bronchi, CT correctly showed the site of injury in six case including: discontinuity of the left main bronchial wall (two cases), the 'fallen lung' sign (one case), right main bronchial wall enlargement (one case), discontinuity of the right middle bronchial wall (two cases). In one case, CT showed just direct 'air leak' at the level of the carina suggesting main bronchus injury. This finding was confirmed by bronchoscopy. Conclusion: Chest radiograph was helpful for the assessment of iatrogenic tracheal injuries. CT detected the site

  11. Postmortem CT versus forensic autopsy: frequent discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Schwendener, Nicole; Brencicova, Eva; Schuster, Frederick; Lombardo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In their daily forensic casework, the authors experienced discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings between postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy to an extent previously unnoticed in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate such discrepancies in routine forensic cases. A total of 327 cases that underwent PMCT prior to routine forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated for tracheal and bronchial contents according to PMCT and autopsy findings. Hounsfield unit (HU) values of tracheobronchial contents, causes of death, and presence of pulmonary edema were assessed in mismatching and matching cases. Comparing contents in PMCT and autopsy in each of the separately evaluated compartments of the respiratory tract low positive predictive values were assessed (trachea, 38.2%; main bronchi, 40%; peripheral bronchi, 69.1%) indicating high discrepancy rates. The majority of tracheobronchial contents were viscous stomach contents in matching cases and low radiodensity materials (i.e., HU autopsy occur in a considerable number of cases. Discrepancies may be explained by the runoff of contents via nose and mouth during external examination and the flow back of tracheal and main bronchial contents into the lungs caused by upright movement of the respiratory tract at autopsy.

  12. Experimental models of tracheobronchial stenoses: a useful tool for evaluating airway stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, C H; Mensier, E; Copin, M C; Desmidt, A; Freitag, L; Witt, C; Petyt, L; Ramon, P

    1995-09-01

    Stent implantation is a conservative alternative to open operation for treating benign tracheobronchial strictures. Most of the presently available stents were primarily designed for endovascular use. Their respiratory use entails a risk of iatrogenic complications. From a scientific and from an ethical point of view these risks justify preclinical evaluation of new respiratory stents in experimental models of central airway stenoses. Therefore, an attempt was made to develop such models in piglets and adult minipigs. Tracheal stenoses were obtained by creating first a segmental tracheomalacia through extramucosal resection of cartilaginous arches. The fibrous component of the stenoses was then obtained through bronchoscopic application of a caustic agent causing progressive deep mucosal and submucosal injury. Stenoses of the main bronchi were created by topical application of the caustic agent only. These models demonstrated the typical features of benign fibromalacic tracheobronchial stenoses with constant recurrence after mechanical dilation. Preliminary experiments showed that short-term problems of tolerance of stent prototypes are easily demonstrable in these models. These experimental models, which simulate quite realistically human diseases, offer the opportunity to perfect new tracheobronchial stents specifically designed for respiratory use and to evaluate their long-term tolerance before their use in humans.

  13. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  14. Outcomes of Temporary Partially Covered Stent Placement for Benign Tracheobronchial Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ji; Han, Xinwei, E-mail: hanxinwei2006@163.com; Wu, Gang; Jiao, Dechao; Ren, Kewei; Bi, Yonghua [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the intermediate outcomes of temporary partially covered tracheobronchial stenting in patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective study of patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis who underwent stent placement. All stents were removed approximately 3 months after placement. Respiratory function was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) before and after stent placement. The lumen diameters of the stenotic lesions were measured using chest computed tomography (CT) and compared between before stent placement and after stent removal.ResultsA total of 51 stents were successfully placed in consecutive 51 patients with benign tracheobronchial stenosis. No serious complications occurred. The mean VAS and KPS scores significantly improved after stent removal (6.291 ± 0.495 and 25.352 ± 10.533, respectively) compared with those before stent placement (1.493 ± 0.504 and 60.140 ± 16.344, respectively; P < 0.05). The mean lumen transverse diameters of the stenotic site in trachea and main bronchus after stent removal (17.235 ± 3.457 and 8.993 ± 0.961 mm; 1 month post-removal; 16.353 ± 4.132 and 8.357 ± 1.082 mm; 6 months post-removal) were significantly larger than those before stent placement (7.876 ± 2.351 and 2.143 ± 0.770 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). However, the mean lumen diameters between 1 and 6 months after stent removal had no significant difference (P > 0.05).ConclusionTemporary partially covered stenting may be a safe and effective treatment for benign tracheobronchial stenosis.

  15. Numerical investigation of inspiratory airflow in a realistic model of the human tracheobronchial airways and a comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, Jakub; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav; Chovancova, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the results of numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry are presented. The simulations and experiments were conducted in a realistic model of the human airways, which comprised the throat, trachea and tracheobronchial tree up to the fourth generation. A full inspiration/expiration breathing cycle was used with tidal volumes 0.5 and 1 L, which correspond to a sedentary regime and deep breath, respectively. The length of the entire breathing cycle was 4 s, with inspiration and expiration each lasting 2 s. As a boundary condition for the CFD simulations, experimentally obtained flow rate distribution in 10 terminal airways was used with zero pressure resistance at the throat inlet. CCM+ CFD code (Adapco) was used with an SST k-ω low-Reynolds Number RANS model. The total number of polyhedral control volumes was 2.6 million with a time step of 0.001 s. Comparisons were made at several points in eight cross sections selected according to experiments in the trachea and the left and right bronchi. The results agree well with experiments involving the oscillation (temporal relocation) of flow structures in the majority of the cross sections and individual local positions. Velocity field simulation in several cross sections shows a very unstable flow field, which originates in the tracheal laryngeal jet and propagates far downstream with the formation of separation zones in both left and right airways. The RANS simulation agrees with the experiments in almost all the cross sections and shows unstable local flow structures and a quantitatively acceptable solution for the time-averaged flow field.

  16. Long-term tolerance of airway silicone stent in patients with post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Hojoong

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is a well-recognized modality of treatment for benign tracheobronchial stenosis. However, in some benign disease groups, such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, war gas exposure, and inhalation burns, multiplicity of involvement or long length of stenosed segment heightens surgical challenge. We investigated the outcomes and long-term tolerability of the Natural stent (N-stent) in such patients with post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis. A retrospective review was done for 17 patients who underwent silicone stenting (N-stent) for post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis during January 2000-December 2003 but needed persistent stent placement and still require the stent. Significant increase in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC), expressed as FEV1%, as well as in forced percentual vital capacity (FVC%) (Δ24% and Δ11%, respectively) in the short term and sustained increase in the FEV1% and FVC% (Δ26.5% and Δ16.5%, respectively) in the long term were noted at a median (range) interval of 1 (0.5-72) month and 72 (12-114) months, respectively, along with symptomatic relief. No procedure-related death occurred. Stent-related late complications included granulation tissue formation (76%), migration (70%), and mucostasis (17%). The median duration for which N-stents were tolerated was 7.9 (range, 3-11) years. N-stents are well-tolerated for a prolonged period. Stent-related complications occur, but are easily managed. These results might carry medical implications for those who have airway lesions difficult to correct surgically.

  17. Utilización de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis en la ceba de conejos Nueva Zelanda Blanco Utilization of fruit and leaf meals from breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis for fattening New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia S Leyva

    2012-12-01

    breadfruit tree, plus vitamins and minerals. A variance analysis was used according to a completely randomized design with three treatments and four repetitions. After 90 days of fattening, the live weight at slaughter was 2 347, 2 223 and 2 127 g/rabbit, respectively, the average gain was 20, 19 and 18 g/day and viability was 100% in all treatments. Economically, the concentrate feed balanced with fruit and leaf meal from the breadfruit tree had a profit of US $1,05/fattened rabbit, the feeding system with breadfruit meal plus perennial soybean foliage earned US $0,89/fattened rabbit, while the control system generated economic losses, due to the high costs of raw materials that composed the conventional concentrate feed. It is concluded that alternative feeding systems which use fruit and leaf meal from the breadfruit tree are economically and biologically suitable for fattening rabbits

  18. In vivo detection of plutonium in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes with a fiber-optic coupled scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Park, J.F.; Voelz, G.L.; Ewins, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    An intraesophageal probe was developed for measuring plutonium in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The probe uses a fiber-optic coupled NaI(Tl) scintillator as a detector and has a detection limit one-tenth that of a solid-state probe previously used for this measurement. The probe, with a projected sensitivity of 1 cpm/nCi, was used to detect plutonium in the lymph nodes of 11 experimentally exposed dogs. Tests on an accidentally exposed human volunteer yielded positive counts from the lymph nodes from an amount estimated at 7 nCi in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes

  19. Temporary placement of metallic stent could lead to long-term benefits for benign tracheobronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Wu; Huang, Hai-Dong; Sun, Qin-Ying; Xiong, Ye; Li, Qiang; Dong, Yu-Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The permanent placement of metallic stent for benign tracheobronchial stenosis (BTS) was controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term outcomes of temporary placement of metallic stent for BTS. The BTS patients who received temporary placement of retrievable self-expanded metallic stents were included between 2008 and 2011. Pre-stenting and follow-up respiratory status was analyzed. And symptom recurrence-free survival (SRFS) was assessed. A total of 49 stents were successfully temporarily placed in 40 consecutive BTS patients whose etiologies included endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) (n=22), post-tracheostomy stenosis (n=10), post-intubation stenosis (n=6) and post radiotherapy stricture (n=2). All stents were removed integrally after a median 18 days' stenting period, without major complications. During the median 27 months follow-up period after stent removal, a total of 22 patients were free of recurrence. And the overall 3-year SRFS rate was 52.0%. According to the etiology, the 3-year SRFS rates were 59.1% and 42.9% in the patients with EBTB and non-EBTB, respectively. Compared with pre-stenting, the follow-up internal diameter of stricture, Hugh-Jones scale, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) were significantly improved. Multivariate analysis suggested that granulation tissue growth and tracheobronchial malacia might be independent factors of poor prognosis. Temporary placement of retrievable metallic stent may be an alternative treatment for BTS patients.

  20. Evaluating the interaction of a tracheobronchial stent in an ovine in-vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2018-04-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are used to restore patency to stenosed airways. However, these devices are associated with many complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. Of these, granulation tissue formation is the complication that most frequently requires costly secondary interventions. In this study a biomechanical lung modelling framework recently developed by the authors to capture the lung in-vivo stress state under physiological loading is employed in conjunction with ovine pre-clinical stenting results and device experimental data to evaluate the effect of stent interaction on granulation tissue formation. Stenting is simulated using a validated model of a prototype covered laser-cut tracheobronchial stent in a semi-specific biomechanical lung model, and physiological loading is performed. Two computational methods are then used to predict possible granulation tissue formation: the standard method which utilises the increase in maximum principal stress change, and a newly proposed method which compares the change in contact pressure over a respiratory cycle. These computational predictions of granulation tissue formation are then compared to pre-clinical stenting observations after a 6-week implantation period. Experimental results of the pre-clinical stent implantation showed signs of granulation tissue formation both proximally and distally, with a greater proximal reaction. The standard method failed to show a correlation with the experimental results. However, the contact change method showed an apparent correlation with granulation tissue formation. These results suggest that this new method could be used as a tool to improve future device designs.

  1. Risk factors for granuloma formation in children induced by tracheobronchial foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenghua; Zhou, Ai; Zhang, Jianya; Xie, Lisheng; Li, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for granuloma formation caused by plant-based tracheobronchial foreign bodies in children, and investigate the underlying pathogenesis. In this retrospective analysis of 153 cases with tracheobronchial foreign bodies (peanuts and watermelon seeds), 35 cases of granuloma formation as granulation group (G), and 118 cases of no granuloma formation as non-granulation group (NG) were studied. Clinical data pertaining to sex (S), age (A), foreign body surface smoothness (SF), foreign body shape (SH), foreign body oil release state (O), the location of foreign bodies (L), and foreign body retention time (T) were collected for statistical analysis. Univariate analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups (G and NG) with respect to S, A, SH and L. Significant factors based on univariate analysis included SF, O and T. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SF and T were independent risk factors associated with development of granuloma. SF, O and T had relationship with the granuloma formation. Local trauma caused by an irregular and sharp foreign body, and extended period of time represent the main factors causing granuloma formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Particle deposition in human and canine tracheobronchial casts: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work measures deposition patterns and efficiencies of aerosols within realistic, physical models of the tracheobronchial airways of humans and experimental animals over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 to 1.0 μm, for a variety of respiratory modes and rates. Full morphometric and flow distribution measurements were completed on casts of human and canine tracheobronchial airways, which extend from just below the larynx to airways 1 mm in diameter. They show basic similarities in the distribution of airflow, but also species differences which must be considered. The distribution of airflow was measured for minute volumes equivalent to 6, 11, 17 and 22 L min -1 for the human and 3, 6, 8 and 11 L min -1 for the canine for both constant and pulsatile inspiratory flow. Inertance was found to carry more of the flow to airways of the lower lobes at higher flow rates. Basic differences in airway branching pattern result in a more distinct change in airflow distribution as flow rate changes for the canine cast as compared with the human cast. These differences will contribute to differing patterns of mass transfer of inhaled particles in central airways of the two species. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis with a self-expandable metallic stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Jeon, Seok Chol; Choi, Chul Seung; Choi, Yo Won; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    We analysed the role of modified Gianturco self-expandable stents in the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis in 13 patients. We inserted modified Gianturco self-expandable stents under the fluoroscopic and bronchoscopic guidance. There were stenosis in the trachea(n=2), the right main bronchus(n=2), and the left main bronchus(n=9). The causes of the stenosis were endobronchial tuberculosis(n=10), intubation granuloma(n=1), restenosis after surgical reconstruction(n=2). Dyspnea or wheezing was improved within 1 or 2 days following the procedure. There were 32% and 22% respective increase in average FEV1 and FVC. Lung perfusion scan showed 9.6% increase of perfusion in the involved lung. No complications related to the procedure were encountered. During follow-up period of up to 31 months, 2 patients showed tracheal or bronchial restenosis, at 3 and 6 months, retrospectively. There was a distal migration of the stents in one case. During the follow up period after stent insertion, improvement of the obstructive changes and dyspnea persisted in 10 out of 13 patients. The modified Gianturco self-expandable metallic stents may be a good choice for the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, either as a primary treatment, or when the reconstruction failed.

  4. Experimental study with gianturco stent in the trachea of rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kook; Kim, Yun Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    An expendable stainless steel stent was formulated for use in treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheomalacia and air way collapse following tracheal reconstruction. The stents were placed throughout an endobronchial tube into the trachea of 20 healthy rabbits. Two different of sizes (10mm, A type and 20mm, B type in diameter and length) and two kinds of shapes (standard, A and B and modified, A' and B' with barbs) were used. Group I were used with A and A' type stents and group II were used with B and B' types. The animals were observed under fluoroscopy and findings were later confirmed at autopsy. With the exception of 2 cases where the stents migrated. 1 case in A subgroup and A' and an inflammatory reaction was noted in each animal. Group II rabbits were almost died within 2-4 weeks after stent placement. In the comparison of the pathohistologic findings between group I and II, the tissue necrosis at the sites of stent placement in trachea is more severe and extensive in group II than that of group I, and also reactive fibroblastic reaction is more severe in group II. So the thickness of the tracheal wall in group II is two or three times thicker than that of group I which seems to be a result of reactive fibrosis. So, A and A' type stent is safer than B and B' type stent in normal rabbit trachea. It is advisable to use stents in diameter under 2 times to tracheal width and the complication of stent placement in trachea may be reduced for appropriate reconstruction of stenotic lesion.

  5. Experimental study with gianturco stent in the trachea of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Kook; Kim, Yun Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1991-01-01

    An expendable stainless steel stent was formulated for use in treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheomalacia and air way collapse following tracheal reconstruction. The stents were placed throughout an endobronchial tube into the trachea of 20 healthy rabbits. Two different of sizes (10mm, A type and 20mm, B type in diameter and length) and two kinds of shapes (standard, A and B and modified, A' and B' with barbs) were used. Group I were used with A and A' type stents and group II were used with B and B' types. The animals were observed under fluoroscopy and findings were later confirmed at autopsy. With the exception of 2 cases where the stents migrated. 1 case in A subgroup and A' and an inflammatory reaction was noted in each animal. Group II rabbits were almost died within 2-4 weeks after stent placement. In the comparison of the pathohistologic findings between group I and II, the tissue necrosis at the sites of stent placement in trachea is more severe and extensive in group II than that of group I, and also reactive fibroblastic reaction is more severe in group II. So the thickness of the tracheal wall in group II is two or three times thicker than that of group I which seems to be a result of reactive fibrosis. So, A and A' type stent is safer than B and B' type stent in normal rabbit trachea. It is advisable to use stents in diameter under 2 times to tracheal width and the complication of stent placement in trachea may be reduced for appropriate reconstruction of stenotic lesion

  6. Experimental study with gianturco stent in the trachea of rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kook; Kim, Yun Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    An expendable stainless steel stent was formulated for use in treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheomalacia and air way collapse following tracheal reconstruction. The stents were placed throughout an endobronchial tube into the trachea of 20 healthy rabbits. Two different of sizes (10mm, A type and 20mm, B type in diameter and length) and two kinds of shapes (standard, A and B and modified, A' and B' with barbs) were used. Group I were used with A and A' type stents and group II were used with B and B' types. The animals were observed under fluoroscopy and findings were later confirmed at autopsy. With the exception of 2 cases where the stents migrated. 1 case in A subgroup and A' and an inflammatory reaction was noted in each animal. Group II rabbits were almost died within 2-4 weeks after stent placement. In the comparison of the pathohistologic findings between group I and II, the tissue necrosis at the sites of stent placement in trachea is more severe and extensive in group II than that of group I, and also reactive fibroblastic reaction is more severe in group II. So the thickness of the tracheal wall in group II is two or three times thicker than that of group I which seems to be a result of reactive fibrosis. So, A and A' type stent is safer than B and B' type stent in normal rabbit trachea. It is advisable to use stents in diameter under 2 times to tracheal width and the complication of stent placement in trachea may be reduced for appropriate reconstruction of stenotic lesion.

  7. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  8. Multi-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of congenital heart diseases associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongpin; Liang Changhong; Huang Meiping; Liu Hui; Cui Yanhai; Liu Qishun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of post processing techniques of MSCT for diagnosing congenital heart disease associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children. Methods: Thirty four patients with congenital heart disease complicated by tracheobronchial stenosis were evaluated with MSCT. MPR, CPR, MinIP and VR were performed to show the tracheobronchial morphology. Findings in 43 segments of 32 cases were compared with the findings of surgical operation. Mann-Whitney test was employed to assess the significance of measurement between the post processing techniques and the operation. Results: The length of stenotic segments were variable seen at operation, with values between 4- 39 mm in trachea, 4-33 mm in main bronchi and 3-12 mm in lobe bronchi, respectively. The biggest difference between the measurement of operation and MSCT was 4 mm (3 segments). Other differences of stenotic segments were within 3 mm. Six segments exhibited mild, 16 moderate and 21 severe stenosis at surgery. By contrast, five segments exhibited mild, 17 moderate and 21 severe stenosis by MPR or CPR, 2 mild, 9 moderate and 32 severe stenosis by MinIP and 4 mild, 11 moderate and 28 sever stenosis by VR, respectively. There was no significant difference in measuring the degree of tracheobronchial stenosis between MPR or CPR, VR and the surgery (Z=-0.105, -1.479; P>0.05), while MinIP frequently overrated the degree of stenosis compared with the measurement at surgery (Z=-2.484, P=0.013). Conclusion: The integrated three dimensional reformations of MSCT scan can accurately evaluate the degree and extent of congenital heart disease associated with tracheobronchial stenosis in children and provide valuable information for clinical management. (authors)

  9. [Fatal toxic respiratory epitheliolysis. Subacute tracheo-bronchial desquamation in Stevens-Johnson syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L; Hazouard, E; Michalak-Provost, S; Maurage, C; Machet, L

    2001-09-01

    Acute bronchial mucosal sloughing related to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Lyell syndrome) is widely reported in literature. On the contrary severe respiratory involvement is rare in post-infectious or toxic Epitheliolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome). There is no well-known predictive sign of bronchial epithelium involvement. An 18-year-old patient was admitted for Stevens-Johnson syndrome related to sulfasalazine (salazosulfapyridine). There were no respiratory signs. An acute respiratory failure occurred 36 hours after from admission due to an obstructive and desquamative necrosis of the tracheobronchial epithelium. We purpose that a fiberoptic laryngoscopy should be performed even in non-dyspneic patients suffering from Stevens-Johnson syndrome if hypersecretion is present. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be helpful in these cases.

  10. Computed-tomographic and conventional linear-tomographic evaluation of tracheobronchial lesions for laser photoresection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlberg, J.L.; Sandler, M.A.; Kvale, P.; Beute, G.H.; Madrazo, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Laser therapy is a new modality for treatment of airway lesions. The authors examined 18 patients prior to laser photoresection of tracheobronchial lesions. Thirteen had cancers involving the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi; five had benign lesions of the middle or proximal trachea. Each patient was examined by conventional linear tomography (CLT) and computed tomography (CT). CT was valuable in patients who had lesions of the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi. Its particular usefulness, and its advantage relative to CLT, consisted in its ability to delineate vascular structures adjacent to the planned area of photoresection. Neither CLT nor CT was helpful in evaluation of benign lesions of the proximal trachea

  11. Expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Ryong; Kim, Hyun Sook; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of using expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea. Under fluoroscopic and bronchoscopic guidance, seven patients with malignant airway stenosis were treated with ten expandable metallic stents. The cause of stenosis was metastasis from esophageal cancer in five patients, recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea in one, and primary lung cancer in one. The major sites of obstruction were the trachea in four patients, the left main bronchus in one, the trachea and left main bronchus in one, and the trachea and both bronchi in one. Chest radiography (n=7), bronchoscopy (n=5), pulmonary function test (PFT)(n=3), and spirometry(n=1) were performed before and after stent placement. In all seven patients, the stent was successfully placed at the lesion sites and dyspnea began to improve immediately. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After stent placement, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) improved 53% and 56%, respectively. Peak flow velocity also changed from 46 L/min to 200 L/min. During median follow-up of 67 (41-1565) days, one stent migration occurred. In one patient, proximal tumor overgrowth occurred, and in one, tumor ingrowth was treated with balloon dilatation. For in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea, placement of expandable metal stents is safe and effective. (author). 21 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woong; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Ryong; Kim, Hyun Sook; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of using expandable metallic stent in the management of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea. Under fluoroscopic and bronchoscopic guidance, seven patients with malignant airway stenosis were treated with ten expandable metallic stents. The cause of stenosis was metastasis from esophageal cancer in five patients, recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea in one, and primary lung cancer in one. The major sites of obstruction were the trachea in four patients, the left main bronchus in one, the trachea and left main bronchus in one, and the trachea and both bronchi in one. Chest radiography (n=7), bronchoscopy (n=5), pulmonary function test (PFT)(n=3), and spirometry(n=1) were performed before and after stent placement. In all seven patients, the stent was successfully placed at the lesion sites and dyspnea began to improve immediately. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After the procedure, chest radiography and bronchoscopy showed an increase in airway diameter. After stent placement, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) improved 53% and 56%, respectively. Peak flow velocity also changed from 46 L/min to 200 L/min. During median follow-up of 67 (41-1565) days, one stent migration occurred. In one patient, proximal tumor overgrowth occurred, and in one, tumor ingrowth was treated with balloon dilatation. For in the palliative treatment of malignant tracheobronchial stenosis with dyspnea, placement of expandable metal stents is safe and effective. (author). 21 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  13. [Tracheobronchial stents: a retrospective analysis of indications, results and in particular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, H; Mall, W; Schneider, K-D; Schönhofer, B

    2008-10-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are inserted mainly in cases of malignant and benign airway stenosis. Further indications are esophago-tracheal fistulas, mediastinal fistulas and tracheomalacia. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients' records, information provided by the general practitioners and relatives of the patients from July 1993 to December 2006 in the Department of Pneumology of the Heidehaus Hospital Hannover (since 6/05 Department of Pneumology and Internal Intensive Care Medicine, Oststadt-Heidehaus Hospital). During the observation period of 13 years a total of 269 stents (177 permanent, 92 temporary) were implanted in 207 patients (1.3 stents per patient). The vast majority of patients (173/207) suffered from an underlying malignancy. About half of the stents were deployed in the trachea. The median length of placement was 116 days in patients with malignancies and 313 days in patients with benign diseases. In about 40 % of the patients notable complications were observed which were directly or indirectly associated with the stents. These findings show the importance of a critical indication for stent implantation. In benign diseases a stent can remain for years inside the tracheobronchial system, if it is well tolerated in the beginning. In malignant diseases the result depends decisively on the stage of the tumour: has the stent been implanted before any other tumour therapy is started or is it an end-stage tumor with no other therapeutic option? In general, complications of stents occur quite frequently. The analysis of stent data leads to some aspects for the prevention of stent-related complications. There should be a strict indication and appropriate choice of stent material. Nevertheless, there remains an ethical dilemma in patients with end-stage disease as to whether to implant a stent or to do nothing against the tumor, because the benefit immediately after stent insertion vanishes with progression of the tumour, so causing extra

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  16. The electrosurgical knife in an optimized intermittent cutting mode for the endoscopic treatment of benign web-like tracheobronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Beatriz; Esselmann, Albert; Reichle, Guenther; Rohde, Hans-Juergen; Westhoff, Michael; Freitag, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The established endoscopic treatment of web-like tracheobronchial stenosis is laser vaporization, but the appearance on the market of a new cutting mode with a lower coagulation effect has been proposed as an alternative to laser due to less injury to the tissue. To study the clinical and functional consequences, as well as the side effects of this technique. Afterwards, we investigated whether the use of an electrosurgical knife with this technique is as effective and convenient as an ND-YAG-laser. Between March 2005 and July 2007, included for study were 22 patients who had undergone 34 interventional bronchoscopy procedures with the VIO-300-D radiofrequency system, using a mode of the Endo-cut I program in conjunction with the reusable knife electrode. All of the patients treated (100%) presented improvements in their symptoms, in the tracheobronchial lumen diameter and in lung function, which were statistically significant. Symptom-free time was 157 ± 93 days. There was an overall decrease observed in mean obstruction (Pbenign web-like tracheobronchial stenosis as all the patients showed clinical and functional improvement, and less than 50% required a second intervention. In comparison with laser therapy, an advantage of this technique is that less fibrin is produced, probably due to the reduced anti-coagulation effect. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  18. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  19. Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, G.R.; Kocier, M.; Calaque, O.; Coulomb, M. [Service Central de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, INSERM EMI 9924, CHU, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Arbib, F.; Pison, C. [Departement de Medecine Aigue Specialisee (DMAS), CHU Grenoble, CHU, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Righini, C. [Service d' Oto Rhino Laryngologie, CHU Grenoble, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare helical CT with fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings to appraise the medium-term results of proximal-airways stenting. Twenty-five patients with 28 endobronchial metallic stents inserted for local advanced malignancy (n=13) or benign diseases (n=12) underwent follow-up CT from 3 days to 50 months (mean 8 months). All studies were obtained using helical CT with subsequent multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction including virtual bronchoscopy. The location, shape, and patency of stents and adjacent airway were assessed. The results of CT were compared with the results of fiberoptic bronchoscopy obtained with a mean delay of 2.5 days (SD 9 days) after CT scan. Twelve stents (43%) remained in their original position, patent and without deformity. Sixteen stents were associated with local complications: migration (n=6); external compression with persistent stenosis (n=4); local recurrence of malignancy (n=4); fracture (n=1); and non-congruence between the airway and the stent (n=1). The CT demonstrated all the significant abnormalities demonstrated at fiberoptic bronchoscopy except two moderate stenoses (20%) related to granulomata at the origin of the stent. Ten of 14 stents inserted for benign conditions were without complications as compared with 2 of 14 in malignant conditions (p=0.008). Computed tomography is an accurate noninvasive method for evaluating endobronchial stents. The CT is a useful technique for follow-up of patients who have undergone endobronchial stenting. (orig.)

  20. Follow-up after stent insertion in the tracheobronchial tree: role of helical computed tomography in comparison with fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, G.R.; Kocier, M.; Calaque, O.; Coulomb, M.; Arbib, F.; Pison, C.; Righini, C.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare helical CT with fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings to appraise the medium-term results of proximal-airways stenting. Twenty-five patients with 28 endobronchial metallic stents inserted for local advanced malignancy (n=13) or benign diseases (n=12) underwent follow-up CT from 3 days to 50 months (mean 8 months). All studies were obtained using helical CT with subsequent multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional reconstruction including virtual bronchoscopy. The location, shape, and patency of stents and adjacent airway were assessed. The results of CT were compared with the results of fiberoptic bronchoscopy obtained with a mean delay of 2.5 days (SD 9 days) after CT scan. Twelve stents (43%) remained in their original position, patent and without deformity. Sixteen stents were associated with local complications: migration (n=6); external compression with persistent stenosis (n=4); local recurrence of malignancy (n=4); fracture (n=1); and non-congruence between the airway and the stent (n=1). The CT demonstrated all the significant abnormalities demonstrated at fiberoptic bronchoscopy except two moderate stenoses (20%) related to granulomata at the origin of the stent. Ten of 14 stents inserted for benign conditions were without complications as compared with 2 of 14 in malignant conditions (p=0.008). Computed tomography is an accurate noninvasive method for evaluating endobronchial stents. The CT is a useful technique for follow-up of patients who have undergone endobronchial stenting. (orig.)

  1. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents; Interdisziplinaere interventionelle Therapie tracheobronchialer Stenosen mit modernen Metallmaschenstents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abteilung Pulmonologie, Medizinische Klinik

    2002-08-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erfassung des therapeutischen Potenzials der Stentbehandlung bei tracheobronchialen Stenosen, in-vivo Vergleich verschiedener Stenttypen und Erarbeitung von geeigneten Kriterien zur Stentwahl. Material und Methodik: Prospektive Fallanalyse. Zwischen 1993 und 1999 wurden insgesamt 53 Stents in das Tracheobronichalsystem von 39 konsekutiven Patienten implantiert. Jeder einzelne Stent (26 Streckerstents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Nitinolstents, ein Dumonstent

  2. Mechanisms of asbestos-induced squamous metaplasia in tracheobronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.; Woodworth, C.D.; Edmondson, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Within 1 to 4 weeks after exposure to asbestos, differentiated rodent and human tracheobronchial epithelial cells in organ culture undergo squamous metaplasia, a putative preneoplastic lesion characterized by conversion of mucociliary cell types to keratinizing cells. The exogenous addition of retinal acetate (RA) to culture medium of hamster tracheal organ cultures reverses preestablished, asbestos-induced squamous metaplasia, although data suggest that the effectiveness of RA decreases as the length of time between exposure to asbestos and initial application of RA increases. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), inhibits squamous metaplasia caused by asbestos or vitamin A deficiency, whereas addition of methylglyoxal bis(guanyl-hydrazone) (MGBG), a structural analog of spermidine and inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, causes an enhancement of metaplasia under both circumstances. Basal cell hyperplasia and increased incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by tracheal epithelial cells also are seen after addition of the polyamines, putrescine or spermidine, to tracheal organ cultures, an observation supporting the importance of polyamines in the development of this lesion. The use of retinoids and inhibitors of ODC could be promising as preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for individuals at high risk for development of asbestos-associated diseases

  3. In-vivo counting of 241Am in human lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, A.R.; Binney, S.E.; Palmer, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted of a human male who had inhaled a mixture of 241 Am and Pu. To distinguish 241 Am deposited in the subject's lungs from translocated activity deposited in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), two intrinsic Ge detectors were collimated with 0.3-cm Pb sheeting. A tissue-equivalent phantom containing either 22.9 kBq (620 nCi) of 241 Am in the lungs or a 81.4 kBq (2200 nCi) 241 Am point source in the TBLN was measured. Calibration curves observed from lateral differential scans on the phantom were compared to data obtained by the same detection system for a human male with a measured lung deposition of 89 Bq (2.4 nCi) of 241 Am. Comparison of the human data to the calibration curves indicated the activity was restricted primarily to the lungs. The calibration curves demonstrate that this method is useful in determining the distribution of inhaled radioactivity between the lungs and TBLN. The measured activity from the male subject generally supported the ICRP Publication 30 model translocation prediction for class Y compounds

  4. Computer simulation of airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, B.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of airflow patterns in the human lung is important for an analysis of lung diseases and drug delivery of aerosolized medicine for medical treatment. However, very little systematic information is available on the pattern of airflow in the lung and on how this pattern affects the deposition of toxicants in the lung, and the efficacy of aerosol drug therapy. Most previous studies have only considered the airflow through a single bifurcating airway. However, the flow in a network of more than one bifurcation is more complicated due to the effect of interrelated lung generations. Because of the variation of airway geometry and flow condition from generation to generation, a single bifurcating airway cannot be taken as a representative for the others in different generations. The flow in the network varies significantly with airway generations because of a redistribution of axial momentum by the secondary flow motions. The influence of the redistribution of flow is expected in every generation. Therefore, a systematic information of the airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway is needed, and it becomes the purpose of this study. This study has provided information on airflow in a lung model which is necessary to the study of the deposition of toxicants and therapeutic aerosols

  5. Computer simulation of airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, B.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge of airflow patterns in the human lung is important for an analysis of lung diseases and drug delivery of aerosolized medicine for medical treatment. However, very little systematic information is available on the pattern of airflow in the lung and on how this pattern affects the deposition of toxicants in the lung, and the efficacy of aerosol drug therapy. Most previous studies have only considered the airflow through a single bifurcating airway. However, the flow in a network of more than one bifurcation is more complicated due to the effect of interrelated lung generations. Because of the variation of airway geometry and flow condition from generation to generation, a single bifurcating airway cannot be taken as a representative for the others in different generations. The flow in the network varies significantly with airway generations because of a redistribution of axial momentum by the secondary flow motions. The influence of the redistribution of flow is expected in every generation. Therefore, a systematic information of the airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway is needed, and it becomes the purpose of this study. This study has provided information on airflow in a lung model which is necessary to the study of the deposition of toxicants and therapeutic aerosols.

  6. Treatment of Benign and Malignant Tracheobronchial Obstruction with Metal Wire Stents: Experience with a Balloon-Expandable and a Self-Expandable Stent Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Johannes; Hautmann, Hubert; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Weber, Cristoph; Treitl, Markus; Huber, R.M.; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years various types of metal wire stents have been increasingly employed in the treatment of both malignant and benign tracheobronchial obstruction. To date, however, few studies have investigated the in vivo properties of different stent types. We implanted 26 balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents (18 patients) and 18 self-expandable Wallstents (16 patients) into the tracheobronchial system of 30 patients with combined stenting in 4 patients. Mean age was 51 years (range: 0.5-79 years). Malignant disease was present in 23 patients, benign disease in seven patients. Both patients and individual stents were monitored clinically and radiographically. The probability of stents remaining within the tracheobronchial system, and of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for both stent types. Average stent follow-up time was 112 days until explantation and 115 days until patients' death or discharge. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher probability for the Wallstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system. Dislocation and compression occurred more rarely. Explantation, however, if desired, was more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also led to the formation of granulation tissue, especially at the proximal stent end, frequently requiring reintervention. Both stent types proved to be effective therapeutic options in the management of obstructive tracheobronchial disease. The mechanical properties of the Strecker stent seem to be less favorable compared to the Wallstent but removal is easy. For benign disease, however, the Wallstent reveals limitations due to significant side effects

  7. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  8. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  9. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  10. Hybrid 3D visualization of the chest and virtual endoscopy of the tracheobronchial system: possibilities and limitations of clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, M D; Claussen, C D

    2001-06-01

    A hybrid rendering method which combines a color-coded surface rendering method and a volume rendering method is described, which enables virtual endoscopic examinations using different representation models. 14 patients with malignancies of the lung and mediastinum (n=11) and lung transplantation (n=3) underwent thin-section spiral computed tomography. The tracheobronchial system and anatomical and pathological features of the chest were segmented using an interactive threshold interval volume-growing segmentation algorithm and visualized with a color-coded surface rendering method. The structures of interest were then superimposed on a volume rendering of the other thoracic structures. For the virtual endoscopy of the tracheobronchial system, a shaded-surface model without color coding, a transparent color-coded shaded-surface model and a triangle-surface model were tested and compared. The hybrid rendering technique exploit the advantages of both rendering methods, provides an excellent overview of the tracheobronchial system and allows a clear depiction of the complex spatial relationships of anatomical and pathological features. Virtual bronchoscopy with a transparent color-coded shaded-surface model allows both a simultaneous visualization of an airway, an airway lesion and mediastinal structures and a quantitative assessment of the spatial relationship between these structures, thus improving confidence in the diagnosis of endotracheal and endobronchial diseases. Hybrid rendering and virtual endoscopy obviate the need for time consuming detailed analysis and presentation of axial source images. Virtual bronchoscopy with a transparent color-coded shaded-surface model offers a practical alternative to fiberoptic bronchoscopy and is particularly promising for patients in whom fiberoptic bronchoscopy is not feasible, contraindicated or refused. Furthermore, it can be used as a complementary procedure to fiberoptic bronchoscopy in evaluating airway stenosis and

  11. Removal of Retrievable Self-Expandable Metallic Tracheobronchial Stents: An 18-Year Experience in a Single Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Pyeong Hwa; Shin, Ji Hoon; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Kim, Min Tae; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Song, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the technical outcomes of removal of retrievable self-expandable metallic stents (REMSs) and identify predictors of technical failure in 81 patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures.Materials and MethodsA total of 98 REMSs were removed under fluoroscopic guidance in 81 patients with benign (n = 48) or malignant (n = 33) tracheobronchial strictures. Primary and secondary technical success rates and complication rate were evaluated. Technical outcomes with regard to underlying diseases were also evaluated. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify predictors of primary technical success.ResultsPrimary and secondary technical success rates were 86.7 and 94.9 %, respectively. Stent removal-related complication rate was 7.1 % (7/98) and all were bleeding after stent removal. All bleeding complications were minor and managed conservatively. Primary technical success rate for benign strictures was significantly lower compared with that for malignant strictures (80.9 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.029), but secondary technical success rate (93.7 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.652) did not differ between the two groups. Granulation tissue formation was identified as an independent predictor of primary technical success (odds ratio 0.249, 95 % CI 0.071–0.874, P = 0.030).ConclusionRemoval of REMSs in patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures is safe and technically feasible. Bronchoscopic guidance may be required when the removal using a hook wire fails. The presence of granulation tissue was the negative predictor of primary technical success.

  12. Tracheobronchial air-liquid interface cell culture: a model for innate mucosal defense of the upper airways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Kirkham, Sara; Pickles, Raymond J.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Alexis, Neil E.; DeMaria, Genevieve; Knight, David; Thornton, David J.; Sheehan, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface culture have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of airway biology. In this study, we have investigated whether this culture system produces “mucus” with a protein composition similar to that of in vivo, induced airway secretions. Previous compositional studies of mucous secretions have greatly underrepresented the contribution of mucins, which are major structural components of normal mucus. To overcome this limitation, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach centered on prior separation of the mucins from the majority of the other proteins. Using this approach, we have compared the protein composition of apical secretions (AS) from well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human tracheobronchial normal induced sputum (IS). A total of 186 proteins were identified, 134 from AS and 136 from IS; 84 proteins were common to both secretions, with host defense proteins being predominant. The epithelial mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 and the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in both secretions. Refractometry showed that the gel-forming mucins were the major contributors by mass to both secretions. When the composition of the IS was corrected for proteins that were most likely derived from saliva, serum, and migratory cells, there was considerable similarity between the two secretions, in particular, in the category of host defense proteins, which includes the mucins. This shows that the primary cell culture system is an important model for study of aspects of innate defense of the upper airways related specifically to mucus consisting solely of airway cell products. PMID:18931053

  13. Removal of Retrievable Self-Expandable Metallic Tracheobronchial Stents: An 18-Year Experience in a Single Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Pyeong Hwa; Shin, Ji Hoon, E-mail: jhshin@amc.seoul.kr; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Kim, Min Tae; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Song, Ho-Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the technical outcomes of removal of retrievable self-expandable metallic stents (REMSs) and identify predictors of technical failure in 81 patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures.Materials and MethodsA total of 98 REMSs were removed under fluoroscopic guidance in 81 patients with benign (n = 48) or malignant (n = 33) tracheobronchial strictures. Primary and secondary technical success rates and complication rate were evaluated. Technical outcomes with regard to underlying diseases were also evaluated. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify predictors of primary technical success.ResultsPrimary and secondary technical success rates were 86.7 and 94.9 %, respectively. Stent removal-related complication rate was 7.1 % (7/98) and all were bleeding after stent removal. All bleeding complications were minor and managed conservatively. Primary technical success rate for benign strictures was significantly lower compared with that for malignant strictures (80.9 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.029), but secondary technical success rate (93.7 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.652) did not differ between the two groups. Granulation tissue formation was identified as an independent predictor of primary technical success (odds ratio 0.249, 95 % CI 0.071–0.874, P = 0.030).ConclusionRemoval of REMSs in patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures is safe and technically feasible. Bronchoscopic guidance may be required when the removal using a hook wire fails. The presence of granulation tissue was the negative predictor of primary technical success.

  14. Removal of Retrievable Self-Expandable Metallic Tracheobronchial Stents: An 18-Year Experience in a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Pyeong Hwa; Shin, Ji Hoon; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Kim, Min Tae; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Song, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the technical outcomes of removal of retrievable self-expandable metallic stents (REMSs) and identify predictors of technical failure in 81 patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures. A total of 98 REMSs were removed under fluoroscopic guidance in 81 patients with benign (n = 48) or malignant (n = 33) tracheobronchial strictures. Primary and secondary technical success rates and complication rate were evaluated. Technical outcomes with regard to underlying diseases were also evaluated. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify predictors of primary technical success. Primary and secondary technical success rates were 86.7 and 94.9 %, respectively. Stent removal-related complication rate was 7.1 % (7/98) and all were bleeding after stent removal. All bleeding complications were minor and managed conservatively. Primary technical success rate for benign strictures was significantly lower compared with that for malignant strictures (80.9 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.029), but secondary technical success rate (93.7 vs. 97.1 %, P = 0.652) did not differ between the two groups. Granulation tissue formation was identified as an independent predictor of primary technical success (odds ratio 0.249, 95 % CI 0.071-0.874, P = 0.030). Removal of REMSs in patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial strictures is safe and technically feasible. Bronchoscopic guidance may be required when the removal using a hook wire fails. The presence of granulation tissue was the negative predictor of primary technical success.

  15. One-stoma carinoplasty: right upper sleeve lobectomy with hemicarinectomy for resection of right-tracheobronchial-angle tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Sevinc, Serpil; Ceylan, Kenan Can; Usluer, Ozan; Unsal, Saban

    2013-01-01

    Tracheobronchial-angle tumors involve the right main bronchus, the right upper lobar bronchus, and the lateral wall of the lower trachea. Resecting these tumors is one of the most complex procedures in thoracic surgery. In cases of high-caliber mismatch, the selection of a suitable anastomotic technique can be challenging. We found that our use of a one-stoma carinoplasty technique overcame high-caliber mismatch after the resection of these tumors. From 2009 through 2012, 8 men (mean age, 59 ± 6.2 yr; range, 46-66 yr) underwent complete resection of non-small-cell right-tracheobronchial-angle tumors at our institution. In every case, right upper sleeve lobectomy, wedge carinal resection, and one-stoma carinoplasty were applied. After tumor resection, one patient with hemoptysis and bronchopleural fistula underwent a completion pneumonectomy and died 10 days postoperatively. Bronchoscopy was necessary in 2 patients who had atelectasis in the contralateral lung. At a mean follow-up duration of 19.43 ± 8.4 months (range, 0.2-27.1 mo), 6 patients were alive and free of disease. We conclude that our one-stoma carinoplasty technique enables the resection of tumors at the right tracheobronchial angle, with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. This method saves the unaffected part of the ipsilateral lung and can overcome high-caliber mismatch. Because of these and other advantages, we suggest that using our method first might preclude having to perform a right carinal sleeve pneumonectomy or using Barclay's method.

  16. Removal of metallic tracheobronchial stents in lung transplantation with flexible bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruchter Oren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway complications are among the most challenging problems after lung transplantation, and Self-Expandable Metallic Stents (SEMS are used to treat airway complications such as stenosis or malacia at the bronchial anastomosis sites. Several transplantation centers are reluctant to use SEMS since their removal is sometimes needed and usually requires the use of rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. The objective of the current report is to describe our experience in SEMS retrieval by flexible bronchoscopy under conscious sedation. Methods A retrospective review was done of patients requiring tracheobronchial stent placement after lung transplantation in which the SEMS had to be removed. The retrieval procedure was done by flexible bronchoscopy on a day-care ambulatory basis. Results Between January 2004 and January 2010, out of 305 lung transplantation patients, 24 (7.8% underwent SEMS placement. Indications included bronchial stenosis in 20 and bronchomalacia in 4. In six patients (25% the SEMS had to be removed due to excessive granulation tissue formation and stent obstruction. The average time from SEMS placement to retrieval was 30 months (range 16-48 months. The stent was completely removed in five patients and partially removed in one patient; no major complications were encountered, and all patients were discharged within 3 hours of the procedure. In all procedures, new SEMS was successfully re-inserted thereafter. Conclusions The retrieval of SEMS in patients that underwent lung transplantation can be effectively and safely done under conscious sedation using flexible bronchoscopy on a day-care basis, this observation should encourage increasing usage of SEMS in highly selected patients.

  17. Successful Use of Extracorporeal Life Support after Double Traumatic Tracheobronchial Injury in a Patient with Severe Acute Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an asthmatic patient with blunt trachea and left main bronchus injuries who developed acute severe asthma after surgical repair. Despite medical treatment and ventilatory support, asthma persisted with high airway pressures and severe respiratory acidosis. We proposed venovenous extracorporeal life support for CO2 removal which allowed arterial blood gas normalization and airway pressures decrease. Extracorporeal life support was removed on day five after medical treatment of acute severe asthma. So we report the successful use of extracorporeal life support for operated double blunt tracheobronchial injury with acute severe asthma.

  18. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  3. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  4. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  5. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  6. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  7. Contribution to the study of tracheobronchial and pulmonary deposits in 52 subjects after inhalation of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Pierre.

    1980-03-01

    Particle deposits in the bronchopulmonary system can lead to three main types of disorder: pneumoconioses, bronchial cancers and most chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. The study of deposition is useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses. The air-borne contaminants laid down are cleared by different mechanisms corresponding roughly to distinct anatomical regions. Short-term clearance, known as tracheobronchial (TB) takes place in a few hours, while long-term clearance from the deep lung is much slower: according to the International Radiological Protection Commission, 60% of particles deposited in the bronchiolo-alveolar region take more than 500 days to eliminate. It is useful therefore to known in what proportions the particles are fixed in the tracheobronchial region and on the deep lung. This was the purpose of the present work. The distribution of the deposit between these two regions was measured in 52 subjects having breathed in radioactive particles (indium 111). A functional respiratory study was conducted at the same time to find out whether the two sets of experimental data are related in any way [fr

  8. Evaluation of Enhanced Condensational Growth (ECG) for Controlled Respiratory Drug Delivery in a Mouth-Throat and Upper Tracheobronchial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of enhanced condensational growth (ECG), as a novel inhalation drug delivery method, on nano-aerosol deposition in a mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) model using in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Methods Separate streams of nebulized nano-aerosols and saturated humidified air (39°C—ECG; 25°C—control) were combined as they were introduced into a realistic MT-TB geometry. Aerosol deposition was determined in the MT, generations G0–G2 (trachea—lobar bronchi) and G3–G5 and compared to CFD simulations. Results Using ECG conditions, deposition of 560 and 900 nm aerosols was low in the MT region of the MT-TB model. Aerosol drug deposition in the G0–G2 and G3–G5 regions increased due to enhanced condensational growth compared to control. CFD-predicted depositions were generally in good agreement with the experimental values. Conclusions The ECG platform appears to offer an effective method of delivering nano-aerosols through the extrathoracic region, with minimal deposition, to the tracheobronchial airways and beyond. Aerosol deposition is then facilitated as enhanced condensational growth increases particle size. Future studies will investigate the effects of physio-chemical drug properties and realistic inhalation profiles on ECG growth characteristics. PMID:20454837

  9. Treatment of multiple-level tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to endobronchial tuberculosis using bronchoscopic balloon dilatation with topical mitomycin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Harun, Hafaruzi; Hassan, Tidi M; Ban, Andrea Y L; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Abdul Rahaman, Jamalul Azizi

    2016-04-14

    Tracheobronchial stenosis is a known complication of endobronchial tuberculosis. Despite antituberculous and steroid therapy, the development of bronchial stenosis is usually irreversible and requires airway patency to be restored by either bronchoscopic or surgical interventions. We report the use of balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C to successful restore airway patency. We present a 24-year old lady with previous pulmonary tuberculosis and laryngeal tuberculosis in 2007 and 2013 respectively who presented with worsening dyspnoea and stridor. She had total left lung collapse with stenosis of both the upper trachea and left main bronchus. She underwent successful bronchoscopic balloon and manual rigid tube dilatation with topical mitomycin-C application over the stenotic tracheal segment. A second bronchoscopic intervention was performed after 20 weeks for the left main bronchus stenosis with serial balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application. These interventions led to significant clinical and radiographic improvements. This case highlights that balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C application should be considered in selected patients with tracheobronchial stenosis following endobronchial tuberculosis, avoiding airway stenting and invasive surgical intervention.

  10. Placement of tracheobronchial silicone Y-stents: Multicenter experience and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderpaul Singh Sehgal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airway obstruction or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF near the tracheal carina requires placement of Y-shaped stents. Herein, we describe our multicenter experience with the placement of Dumon silicone Y-stents. We also conduct a systematic review for studies describing the deployment of airway silicone Y-stents. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive subjects who underwent placement of silicone Y-stents. The clinical details including the underlying diagnosis, indication for the placement of silicone Y-stents, success of stent placement, and follow-up are presented. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were also reviewed for studies describing the placement of silicone Y-stents. Results: During the study, 27 silicone Y-stents were placed. The mean (standard deviation age of the study population (85.2% males was 57.7 (13.5 years. The stents were placed for airway obstruction in 77.8% and TEF in 29.6% of the patients. The most common underlying disease was carcinoma of the esophagus. The degree of airway obstruction was grade 3–4 in 18 subjects, and respiratory failure was encountered in 18 subjects. The stent was deployed successfully in all the subjects. No deaths were encountered during stent placement. Most subjects had rapid relief of symptoms following the procedure. Excessive secretions and mucostasis were the most common stent-related complications followed by the development of granulation tissue. The systematic review yielded nine studies (338 subjects with airway obstruction and/or TEF. The most common indication for silicone Y-stent placement was tracheobronchial obstruction and TEF due to malignancy. Benign disorders that necessitated stent placement included postintubation tracheal stenosis, airway malacia, and others. The stent was successfully placed in 98% with only one periprocedural death. Granulation tissue formation and mucostasis were the most common stent-related complications. Conclusion

  11. Flexible endoscopy for pediatric tracheobronchial metallic stent placement, maintenance and long-term outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the placement, surveillance management and long-term outcomes of the tracheobronchial (TB) balloon expandable metallic stent (BEMS) managed by therapeutic flexible endoscopy (TFE). Methods This is a retrospective review and analysis of all computerized medical records and related flexible endoscopy videos of pediatric patients who received TB BEMS during 20 years period, from January 1997 to December 2016. TFE techniques with forceps debridement, balloon dilatation and laser ablation were used to implant stents, perform regular surveillance, maintain their functions, and expand the diameters of BEMS. Short-length (30cm-36cm) endoscopes of OD 3.2mm to 5.0mm coupled with the noninvasive ventilation, without ventilation bag, mask or airway tube, supported the whole procedures. Results 146 BEMS were implanted in 87 consecutive children, including 84 tracheal, 15 carinal and 47 bronchial stents. At the time of placement, the mean age was 35.6 ± 54.6 month-old (range 0.3–228) and the mean body weight was 13.9 ± 10.6 kg (range 2.2–60). Surveillance period was 9.4 ± 6.7 years (range, 0.3–18.0). Satisfactory clinical improvements were noted immediately in all but two patients. Seventy-two (82.8%) patients were still alive with stable respiratory status, except two patients necessitating TFE management every two months. Fifty-one stents, including 35 tracheal and 16 bronchial ones, were successfully retrieved mainly with rigid endoscopy. Implanted stents could be significantly (stent diameters were positively correlated to the implanted duration. Altogether, 33 stents expired (15 patients), 51 were retrieved (40 patients), and 62 remained and functioning well (38 patients), with their mean duration of 7.4 ± 9.5, 34.9 ± 36.3 and 82.3 ± 62.5 months, respectively. Conclusion In pediatric patients, TFE with short-length scopes coupled with this NIV support has provided a safe, feasible and effective modality in placing and subsequently managing

  12. A tree-parenchyma coupled model for lung ventilation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozin, Nicolas; Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira; Pichelin, Marine; Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Grandmont, Céline

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we develop a lung ventilation model. The parenchyma is described as an elastic homogenized media. It is irrigated by a space-filling dyadic resistive pipe network, which represents the tracheobronchial tree. In this model, the tree and the parenchyma are strongly coupled. The tree induces an extra viscous term in the system constitutive relation, which leads, in the finite element framework, to a full matrix. We consider an efficient algorithm that takes advantage of the tree structure to enable a fast matrix-vector product computation. This framework can be used to model both free and mechanically induced respiration, in health and disease. Patient-specific lung geometries acquired from computed tomography scans are considered. Realistic Dirichlet boundary conditions can be deduced from surface registration on computed tomography images. The model is compared to a more classical exit compartment approach. Results illustrate the coupling between the tree and the parenchyma, at global and regional levels, and how conditions for the purely 0D model can be inferred. Different types of boundary conditions are tested, including a nonlinear Robin model of the surrounding lung structures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  19. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  20. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  2. Transnasal tracheobronchial stenting for malignant airway narrowing under local anesthesia: Our experience of treating three cases using this technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhi, Jayanta; Handique, Akash; Goyal, Amit; Lynser, Donbok; Phukan, Pranjal; Sarma, Kalyan; Padmanabhan, Aswin; Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Chutia, Happy

    2016-01-01

    To study the technical feasibility of tracheobronchial stenting via transnasal route under bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance in severe malignant airway strictures using self-expandable nitinol stents. We describe three patients with malignant airway strictures, treated entirely via transnasal route under local anesthesia using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Nasal route allowed convenient access to the airway for the bronchoscope across the stricture and a guidewire was introduced through its working channel. The 18F tracheal stent and the 6F bronchial stent assembly could be easily introduced and deployed under bronchoscopic (reintroduced through the other nostril) and fluoroscopic guidance. We achieved technical success in all the three patients with immediate relief of dyspnea. Transnasal airway stenting with self-expandable nitinol stent using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia is a safe and effective method with minimal patient discomfort

  3. Transnasal tracheobronchial stenting for malignant airway narrowing under local anesthesia: Our experience of treating three cases using this technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Medhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the technical feasibility of tracheobronchial stenting via transnasal route under bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance in severe malignant airway strictures using self-expandable nitinol stents. Materials and Methods: We describe three patients with malignant airway strictures, treated entirely via transnasal route under local anesthesia using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Nasal route allowed convenient access to the airway for the bronchoscope across the stricture and a guidewire was introduced through its working channel. The 18F tracheal stent and the 6F bronchial stent assembly could be easily introduced and deployed under bronchoscopic (reintroduced through the other nostril and fluoroscopic guidance. Results: We achieved technical success in all the three patients with immediate relief of dyspnea. Conclusion: Transnasal airway stenting with self-expandable nitinol stent using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia is a safe and effective method with minimal patient discomfort.

  4. Benign tracheobronchial stenoses: changes in short-term and long-term pulmonary function testing after expandable metallic stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotway, Michael B; Golden, Jeffrey A; LaBerge, Jeanne M; Webb, W Richard; Reddy, Gautham P; Wilson, Mark W; Kerlan, Robert K; Gordon, Roy L

    2002-01-01

    To determine the short- and long-term improvement in airflow dynamics in patients undergoing tracheobronchial stent placement for benign airway stenoses. Twenty-two patients underwent 34 tracheal and/or bronchial stent placement procedures for benign airway stenoses and had the results of pulmonary function tests available. Stent placement indications included bronchomalacia after lung transplantation (n = 11), postintubation stenoses (n = 6), relapsing polychondritis (n = 2), and 1 each of tracheomalacia, tracheal compression, and histoplasmosis. Six patients underwent more than one stent placement procedure (range: 2-7 procedures). The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) ), forced expiratory flow rate in the midportion of the forced vital capacity curve (FEF(25-75) ), forced vital capacity, and peak flow (PF) rate obtained before stent placement were compared with those immediately after stent placement and with those measurements most remote from stent placement using the paired two-tailed test. All patients reported improved respiratory function immediately after stent placement. The mean FEV(1), FEF(25-75), and PF rate improved significantly (p stent placement. On long-term follow-up averaging 15 months after stent placement, these parameters declined despite patients' subjective sense of improvement. Segregating the population into transplant and nontransplant airway stenosis etiologies, however, FEF(25-75) and PF rate remained significantly improved (p = 0.045, p = 0.027, respectively), over the long term for the latter. FEV increased after subsequent stent placements for patients receiving multiple stents. Stent placement for benign tracheobronchial stenoses provides significant immediate improvement in airflow dynamics. Long-term improvement in airflow obstruction may be expected, and additional stent placements may further improve pulmonary function.

  5. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  6. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  7. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  8. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  9. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  10. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  13. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  14. Tracheobronchial puncture-site nodular reaction (TPNR following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA: Systematic review of case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Madan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive and efficacious diagnostic modality for lung cancer staging and evaluation of undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Procedure-related complications are uncommon. We herein report an infrequently described phenomenon following EBUS-TBNA in which two patients developed nodular granulation tissue at the tracheobronchial puncture site. On systematic review, we found description of such phenomena by terminologies such as endobronchial inflammatory polyp, granuloma, and endobronchial mass. The endobronchial inflammatory polyp has been one of the most commonly used terminologies for these; but in most cases, the classical features of an inflammatory polyp are lacking. We propose the term, tracheobronchial puncture-site nodular reaction (TPNR with further classification into granulomatous and nongranulomatous subtypes, for standardized reporting of such reactions following transbronchial needle aspiration procedures. Knowledge of this entity and standardized nomenclature shall help in better characterization of the outcomes and risk factors for the occurrence of these reactions.

  15. Severe tracheobronchial compression in a patient with Turner′s syndrome undergoing repair of a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm: Anesthesia perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C .C. Hudson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe tracheobronchial compression from a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm in a patient with Turner′s syndrome undergoing open surgical repair. Significant airway compression is a challenging situation and requires careful preoperative preparation, maintenance of spontaneous breathing when possible, and consideration of having an alternative source of oxygenation and circulation established prior to induction of general anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary monitoring is essential for safe general anesthesia and diagnosis of unexpected intraoperative events.

  16. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  17. Details of regional particle deposition and airflow structures in a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways: two-phase flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Gorji, Mohammad; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, detailed two-phase flow modeling of airflow, transport and deposition of micro-particles (1-10µm) in a realistic tracheobronchial airway geometry based on CT scan images under various breathing conditions (i.e. 10-60l/min) was considered. Lagrangian particle tracking has been used to investigate the particle deposition patterns in a model comprising mouth up to generation G6 of tracheobronchial airways. The results demonstrated that during all breathing patterns, the maximum velocity change occurred in the narrow throat region (Larynx). Due to implementing a realistic geometry for simulations, many irregularities and bending deflections exist in the airways model. Thereby, at higher inhalation rates, these areas are prone to vortical effects which tend to entrap the inhaled particles. According to the results, deposition fraction has a direct relationship with particle aerodynamic diameter (for dp=1-10µm). Enhancing inhalation flow rate and particle size will largely increase the inertial force and consequently, more particle deposition is evident suggesting that inertial impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism in tracheobronchial airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Karriker, Locke; Main, Rodger; Christianson, Eric; Marsteller, Thomas; Hammen, Kristin; Bates, Jessica; Thomas, Paul; Ellingson, Josh; Harmon, Karen; Abate, Sarah; Crawford, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    The swine industry currently lacks validated antemortem methods of detecting baseline herd prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The focus of our study was to evaluate alternative antemortem detection techniques and to determine baseline litter prevalence in preweaned pig populations utilizing the selected technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Preliminary data was analyzed on weaned piglets with evidence of respiratory disease (n = 32). Five sample types (antemortem nasal swab, tracheobronchial mucus, postmortem deep airway swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue) were collected from each pig. Individual samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae using qPCR. Compared to nasal swabs, tracheobronchial mucus demonstrated higher test sensitivity (P hyopneumoniae. Two out of 180 litters revealed a positive result (1.1%). Individual qPCR assays were run on the samples collected from sow farm 4. Five out of 30 samples revealed a positive result (16.7%). Tracheobronchial mucus collection in combination with qPCR is a sensitive antemortem sampling technique that can be used to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in preweaned pigs, thus providing insight into the infection dynamics across the entire farrow-to-finish process. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of a tissue-engineered tracheobronchial epithelial model using a bilayered collagen-hyaluronate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Cian; Cavanagh, Brenton; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; O'Dea, Shirley; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2016-04-01

    Today, chronic respiratory disease is one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Epithelial dysfunction can play a central role in its pathophysiology. The development of physiologically-representative in vitro model systems using tissue-engineered constructs might improve our understanding of epithelial tissue and disease. This study sought to engineer a bilayered collagen-hyaluronate (CHyA-B) scaffold for the development of a physiologically-representative 3D in vitro tracheobronchial epithelial co-culture model. CHyA-B scaffolds were fabricated by integrating a thin film top-layer into a porous sub-layer with lyophilisation. The film layer firmly connected to the sub-layer with delamination occurring at stresses of 12-15 kPa. Crosslinked scaffolds had a compressive modulus of 1.9 kPa and mean pore diameters of 70 μm and 80 μm, depending on the freezing temperature. Histological analysis showed that the Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell line attached and grew on CHyA-B with adoption of an epithelial monolayer on the film layer. Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR studies demonstrated that the CHyA-B scaffolds facilitated Calu-3 cell differentiation, with enhanced mucin expression, increased ciliation and the formation of intercellular tight junctions. Co-culture of Calu-3 cells with Wi38 lung fibroblasts was achieved on the scaffold to create a submucosal tissue analogue of the upper respiratory tract, validating CHyA-B as a platform to support co-culture and cellular organisation reminiscent of in vivo tissue architecture. In summary, this study has demonstrated that CHyA-B is a promising tool for the development of novel 3D tracheobronchial co-culture in vitro models with the potential to unravel new pathways in drug discovery and drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  12. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  13. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  15. Investigations of the tracheobronchial epithelium of rat after X-ray irradiation and inhalation of 212Pb aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, P.

    1981-01-01

    Early reactions of the tracheobronchial epithelium of rats. Be up to 96 h after irradiation have been investigated. Detection of autoradiographically labelled DNA in the basal cells is a measure of the regenerative function of the epithelium. The labelling index is determined on the basis of histological preparations of trachea and bronchi. Each group of animals was exposed to partial irradiation of the thorax of 500 R, 1000 R and 1500 R. A dose-dependent reduction of the labelling index is found with a minimum after 24 h. A further group of animals inhaled 212 Pb aerosol while the control group was given inactive aerosol. The calculations of Hofmann (1969) yield a value of about 170 rad for the trachea and 480 rad for the upper part of the lungs. The labelling index after 12 h is lower than in the animals exposed to 500 R. It is significantly higher in the lobar bronchi. At the time of sacrificing, the labelling index is higher in all regions than the labelling index of 500 R animals. This labelling method enables quantitative determination of DNA synthesis and labelling index after radiation exposure. The study did not indicate the stage of development in which the so-called ''replacement cells'' of the bronchial epithelium are influenced by radiation exposure. Radionuclide inhalation does not affect the bronchial DNA synthesis index as strongly as assumed on the basis of dose estimates. Ater 12 h, the trachea shows a stronger reaction than the bronchi. Explanations are offered. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plopper, C.G.; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O 3 ). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined

  17. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  19. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  20. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  1. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  2. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  3. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  4. Effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeru; Hobo, Seiji; Endo, Yoshiro; Narita, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Koji

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV) on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation. 32 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses received interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, q 24 h) as an immunologic stimulant for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; enrofloxacin group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 mL, IV, once; control group) ≤ 1 hour before being transported 1,210 km via commercial vans (duration, approx 26 hours). Before and after transportation, clinical examination, measurement of temperature per rectum, and hematologic analysis were performed for all horses; a tracheobronchial aspirate was collected for neutrophil quantification in 12 horses (6/group). Horses received antimicrobial treatment after transportation if deemed necessary by the attending clinician. No adverse effects were associated with treatment. After transportation, WBC count and serum amyloid A concentration in peripheral blood samples and neutrophil counts in tracheobronchial aspirates were significantly lower in horses of the enrofloxacin group than in untreated control horses. Fever (rectal temperature, ≥ 38.5°C) after transportation was detected in 3 of 16 enrofloxacin group horses and 9 of 16 control horses; additional antimicrobial treatment was required in 2 horses in the enrofloxacin group and 7 horses in the control group. In horses premedicated with interferon-α, enrofloxacin appeared to provide better protection against fever and lower respiratory tract inflammation than did saline solution.

  5. Argon Plasma Coagulation Combined with Covered Stent Placement for Management of Tracheobronchial Stenoses/occlusions as well as Esophagorespiratory Fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu WANG

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is a complex problem and difficult treatment for tracheobronchial stenoses/occlusions involving in carina. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of argon plasma coagulation (APC and bifurcated covered Z-type stents (CZTS placement for the treatment of tracheobronchus stenoses and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF. Methods Thirty-two cases with airway disorders were retrospectively reviewed for the treatment of APC and CZTS placement. Under the bronchoscopic guidance, APC was first given in patients with airway stenoses, then CZTS was placed under the fluoroscopic and flexible bronchoscopic guidance either with airway stenoses or ERF. Results APC was first given in 19 patients with airway stenoses. Airway structures were significantly improved after APC procedure (57.4%-72.1% before APC vs 12.8%-25.8% after APC. Thirty-two CZTS were technically successfully placed in 30 out of 32 cases involving in carinal bifurcation. After APC and stent placement, short breath index was significantly reduced and karnofsky physical score (KPS increased obviously. The endobronchial defects were successfully palliated with bifurcated CZTS placed under fluoroscopy and flexible bronchoscopy in 12 out of 13 patients with ERFs. There is no bleeding introprocedure. Mucous retention was very common in all types of the stents less than 2 weeks after stenting, which required debridement by bronchoscopy and could be prevented by normal saline solution nebulizations. Granuloma developed at the ends of stents after 1 month of stenting which all of them were treated successfully with APC and CO2 cryosurgery. Conclusion Utilization of APC and retrieval bifurcated CZTS placement is a simple and safe protocol for the management of airway complex stenoses involving the tracheal carina and ERF.

  6. Characterization of respiratory drug delivery with enhanced condensational growth using an individual path model of the entire tracheobronchial airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Longest, Philip Worth; Su, Guoguang; Hindle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the delivery of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols using an enhanced condensational growth (ECG) approach in an airway model extending from the oral cavity to the end of the tracheobronchial (TB) region. The geometry consisted of an elliptical mouth-throat (MT) model, the upper TB airways extending to bifurcation B3, and a subsequent individual path model entering the right lower lobe of the lung. Submicrometer monodisperse aerosols with diameters of 560 and 900 nm were delivered to the mouth inlet under control (25 °C with subsaturated air) or ECG (39 or 42 °C with saturated air) conditions. Flow fields and droplet characteristics were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model that was previously demonstrated to accurately predict aerosol size growth and deposition. Results indicated that both the control and ECG delivery cases produced very little deposition in the MT and upper TB model (approximately 1%). Under ECG delivery conditions, large size increases of the aerosol droplets were observed resulting in mass median aerodynamic diameters of 2.4-3.3 μm exiting B5. This increase in aerosol size produced an order of magnitude increase in aerosol deposition within the TB airways compared with the controls, with TB deposition efficiencies of approximately 32-46% for ECG conditions. Estimates of downstream pulmonary deposition indicted near full lung retention of the aerosol during ECG delivery. Furthermore, targeting the region of TB deposition by controlling the inlet temperature conditions and initial aerosol size also appeared possible.

  7. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  8. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  10. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  11. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  12. Tracheal Self-Expandable Metallic Stents: A Comparative Study of Three Different Stents in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carolina; Lostalé, Fernando; Rodríguez-Panadero, Francisco; Blas, Ignacio de; Laborda, Alicia; de Gregorio, Miguel Angel

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess tracheal reactivity after the deployment of different self-expandable metal stents (SEMS). Forty female New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups. Three groups received three different SEMS: steel (ST), nitinol (NiTi), or nitinol drug-eluting stent (DES); the fourth group was the control group (no stent). Stents were deployed percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance. Animals were assessed by multi-slice, computed tomography (CT) scans, and tracheas were collected for anatomical pathology (AP) study. Data from CT and AP were statistically analyzed and correlated. The DES group had the longest stenosis (20.51±14.08mm vs. 5.84±12.43 and 6.57±6.54mm in NiTi and ST, respectively, day 30; Pstent. CT was more effective in detecting wall thickening (positive correlation of 68.9%; Pstent, while DES caused significant lesions that may be related to drug dosage. This type of DES stent is therefore not recommended for the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation

  14. Primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis: Two case reports Amiloidose traqueobrônquica primária: A propósito de dois casos clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Saleiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a form of respiratory amyloidosis, characterised by insoluble amyloid fibril proteins deposits along the airways wall. It is an uncommon disease, requiring a tissue sample to establish the definite diagnosis based on specific pathological features. The authors report two cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis, describing their symptoms and the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that were performed.A amiloidose traqueobrônquica primária é uma forma de amiloidose respiratória, caracterizada pela presença de depósitos insolúveis de proteína fibrilar amilóide, ao longo da parede das vias aéreas. É uma doença pouco frequente, sendo necessário uma amostra de tecido para estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo, com base em características histológicas específicas. Os autores relatam dois casos clínicos de amiloidose traqueobrônquica, descrevendo os seus sintomas e os procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos que foram efectuados.

  15. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  16. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  17. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  18. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  19. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected or coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO), or coinfected with both. Twenty-eight pigs were randomly assigned to one ...

  20. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  1. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  2. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  3. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  4. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  5. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  6. Measuring of the airway dimensions with spiral CT images: an experimental study in Japanese white big-ear rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Lu Huibin; Ma Ji; Wu Gang; Wang Nan; Si Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure the length, angle and their correlation of the main anatomical dimensions of the trachea and bronchus in experimental Japanese white big-ear rabbits with the help of spiral CT 3D images, in order to lay the foundation of treating the airway disorders with stenting in animal experiment. Methods: Multi-slice CT scanning of cervico-thoracic region was performed in 30 healthy adult Japanese white big-ear rabbits, the longitudinal, transversal dimensions of the trachea, the glottis-carina length, the inner diameter and length of bronchi, and the angle formed by bronchial long axis and sagittal section were measured. Results: No significant difference was found in the inner diameters of various parts of the trachea and upper apical bronchi. The angle formed by bronchial long axis and sagittal section were smaller than that of the left ones. And the inner diameters of the right main bronchus was bigger than the left ones. Conclusion: The complex branching structure of the rabbit airway tree can be well displayed on spiral CT 3D images. Through measuring and statistical analysis of the results the authors have got a regressive equation for estimating the value of the inner diameter, length, angle, etc. concerning the airway tree, which is very helpful for providing the useful anatomical parameters in rabbit experiment. (authors)

  7. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  8. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  9. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  10. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  11. Virtual endoscopy of the tracheo-bronchial system: sub-millimeter collimation with the 16-row multidetector scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Herzog, Christopher; Maataoui, Adel; Harth, Marc; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Ackermann, Hanns; Wagner, Thomas O.F.

    2004-01-01

    /32); observer 2: P=0.123 (16/32)]. Sub-millimeter collimation and minimum cardiac movement ECG-triggered data acquisition allow deeper penetration into the tracheo-bronchial system allowing visualization of the bronchial surface down to diameters below 5 mm in certain cases up to the eighth bifurcation. Along with an enhanced visualization as such, better image quality is acquired in all segments evaluated. Trade off between better image quality, of doubtful diagnostic consequence, and much higher irradiation dose must be made. (orig.)

  12. A magnet built on bronchoscopic suction for extraction of tracheobronchial headscarf pins: a novel technique and review of a tertiary centre experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Hany H.; Mostafa, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Saleh; El-Bawab, Hatem Y.; Moharram, Adel A.; El-Nori, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Airway metal pins are one of the most commonly inhaled foreign bodies in Eastern societies in young females wearing headscarves. We innovated a modified bronchoscopic technique to extract tracheobronchial headscarf pins by the insertion of a magnet to allow an easy and non-traumatic extraction of the pins. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of our new technique and compare it with our large previous experience with the classic bronchoscopic method of extraction of tracheobronchial headscarf pins. METHODS We performed a study comparing our retrospective experience of classic bronchoscopic extraction from February 2004 to January 2014 and prospective experience with our modified technique using the magnet from January 2014 to June 2015. An institutional review board and new device approval were obtained. RESULTS Three hundred and twenty-six procedures on 315 patients were performed during our initial 10-year experience. Of them, 304 patients were females. The median age of our group was 13 (0–62). The median time from inhalation to procedure was 1 day (0–1022). After introducing our modified new technique using the magnet, 20 procedures were performed. Nineteen were females. The median time of the procedure and the need to forcefully bend the pin for extraction were in favour of the new technique in comparison with our classic approach (2 vs 6 min; P magnets was safer and simpler in comparison with our large experience with the classic approach. We advise the use of this device (or concept) in selected patients in centres dealing with this problem. PMID:26850113

  13. A magnet built on bronchoscopic suction for extraction of tracheobronchial headscarf pins: a novel technique and review of a tertiary centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Hany H; Mostafa, Ahmed M; Soliman, Saleh; El-Bawab, Hatem Y; Moharram, Adel A; El-Nori, Ahmed A

    2016-05-01

    Airway metal pins are one of the most commonly inhaled foreign bodies in Eastern societies in young females wearing headscarves. We innovated a modified bronchoscopic technique to extract tracheobronchial headscarf pins by the insertion of a magnet to allow an easy and non-traumatic extraction of the pins. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of our new technique and compare it with our large previous experience with the classic bronchoscopic method of extraction of tracheobronchial headscarf pins. We performed a study comparing our retrospective experience of classic bronchoscopic extraction from February 2004 to January 2014 and prospective experience with our modified technique using the magnet from January 2014 to June 2015. An institutional review board and new device approval were obtained. Three hundred and twenty-six procedures on 315 patients were performed during our initial 10-year experience. Of them, 304 patients were females. The median age of our group was 13 (0-62). The median time from inhalation to procedure was 1 day (0-1022). After introducing our modified new technique using the magnet, 20 procedures were performed. Nineteen were females. The median time of the procedure and the need to forcefully bend the pin for extraction were in favour of the new technique in comparison with our classic approach (2 vs 6 min; P magnets was safer and simpler in comparison with our large experience with the classic approach. We advise the use of this device (or concept) in selected patients in centres dealing with this problem. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  15. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  16. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  17. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  18. Neurons of the dentate molecular layer in the rabbit hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Sancho-Bielsa

    Full Text Available The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus appears as the main entrance gate for information into the hippocampus, i.e., where the perforant path axons from the entorhinal cortex synapse onto the spines and dendrites of granule cells. A few dispersed neuronal somata appear intermingled in between and probably control the flow of information in this area. In rabbits, the number of neurons in the molecular layer increases in the first week of postnatal life and then stabilizes to appear permanent and heterogeneous over the individuals' life span, including old animals. By means of Golgi impregnations, NADPH histochemistry, immunocytochemical stainings and intracellular labelings (lucifer yellow and biocytin injections, eight neuronal morphological types have been detected in the molecular layer of developing adult and old rabbits. Six of them appear as interneurons displaying smooth dendrites and GABA immunoreactivity: those here called as globoid, vertical, small horizontal, large horizontal, inverted pyramidal and polymorphic. Additionally there are two GABA negative types: the sarmentous and ectopic granular neurons. The distribution of the somata and dendritic trees of these neurons shows preferences for a definite sublayer of the molecular layer: small horizontal, sarmentous and inverted pyramidal neurons are preferably found in the outer third of the molecular layer; vertical, globoid and polymorph neurons locate the intermediate third, while large horizontal and ectopic granular neurons occupy the inner third or the juxtagranular molecular layer. Our results reveal substantial differences in the morphology and electrophysiological behaviour between each neuronal archetype in the dentate molecular layer, allowing us to propose a new classification for this neural population.

  19. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  1. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  2. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  3. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  4. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  5. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  6. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  7. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  8. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  9. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  11. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  12. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  13. Chronic intersticial lung disease in the horse- Findings in arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the thorax; Chronisch interstitielle Lungenerkrankung beim Pferd - Blutgasanalytische, sekretzytolytische und röntgenologische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M. [Klinik fuer Pferde, Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Klein, H. J.; Deegen, E.

    1990-07-01

    In 12 horses chronic interstitial lung disease was diagnosed. All horses were referrred because of unexplained loss of performance. In general there was no history of respiratory problems; 4 horses showed nasal discharge and 2 horses coughed. Results of arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the lungs were found in a typical combination, and they were different from results found generally in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean value of arterial partial pressure of oxygen was 100,6 mm Hg, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 45,1 mm Hg and alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen 5,1 mm Hg, respectively. In tracheobronchial aspirates pulmonary alveolar macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes were found in a relation of 2,6 : 1. Chest radiographs of all horses showed diffuse interstitial pattern throughout the lung.

  14. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  15. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  16. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  17. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  18. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  19. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  20. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  1. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  2. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  3. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  4. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  5. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  8. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  9. A correção das estenoses traqueobrônquicas mediante o emprego de órteses Therapeutic management of tracheobronchial stenosis with stent application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURÍCIO GUIDI SAUERESSIG

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico do paciente com estenose traqueobrônquica exige uma avaliação individualizada em razão da complexidade de sua origem, sendo a traqueoplastia considerada a modalidade ideal. As causas mais comuns de estenose são devidas à intubação traqueal e ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias e estas condições são justamente as que mais se beneficiam com o tratamento endoscópico quando a correção cirúrgica não está indicada. Na atualidade, os meios endoscópicos incluem a aplicação de diversos tipos de laser e sondas de dilatação, habitualmente com o uso de broncoscópio rígido, e emprego de radioterapia e órteses, separadamente ou em associação. Basicamente, as órteses são de dois tipos: metálicas e de silicone. As metálicas têm sua indicação mais freqüente para os casos de traqueomalacia e estenoses por compressão neoplásica extrínseca. Nos casos de obstrução da via aérea por inflamação aguda, restrita à sua luz ou sem envolvimento mais profundo da parede traqueobrônquica, ou em presença de neoplasia endoluminal, é recomendável a órtese de silicone. Embora em algumas situações essas diversas formas de tratamento possam ser intercambiáveis, não costumam ser a regra. Portanto, a estratégia terapêutica visando à resolução mais eficaz da estenose traqueobrônquica baseia-se na seleção dos métodos empregados desde o primeiro tratamento.The surgical treatment of patients with tracheobronchial stenosis requires individualized attention due to the complexity of its origin though tracheoplasty is considered to be the ideal procedure. The most common causes of stenosis are tracheal intubation and the development of neoplasias. These are the very conditions that most benefit from endoscopic treatment when surgical correction is not indicated. Today, endoscopic procedures include the application of different kinds of laser and dilators usually delivered with a rigid bronchoscope, as well as

  10. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  11. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  13. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  14. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  15. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  16. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  17. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  18. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  19. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  20. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  1. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  2. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  3. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  4. Complications of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children: report of 5 cases and review of the literature Complicações de aspiração de corpo estranho traqueobrônquico em crianças: relato de 5 casos e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Flauzino de Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration (FBA is one of leading causes of death in children, especially among those younger than 3 years of age. The inhalation of a foreign body may cause a wide variety of symptoms, and early diagnosis is highly associated with the successful removal of the inhaled foreign material. Despite the great advances in endoscopic procedures and anesthesia, a large number of difficulties and complications still result from foreign body aspiration. We describe 5 cases of serious acute complications following aspiration of foreign bodies that became lodged in the tracheobronchial tree, including pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, total atelectasis, foreign body dislodgment, and need for thoracotomy in children admitted into our intensive care unit in 1999 and 2000; these were all situations that could have been prevented with early recognition and prompt therapeutic intervention.Aspiração de corpo estranho em via áerea é uma das principais causas de morte em crianças, especialmente nas menores que 3 anos de idade. A aspiração do corpo estranho pode causar um amplo espectro de sintomas, e o diagnóstico precoce é altamente associado com o sucesso da retirada do material inalado. Apesar dos grandes avanços nos procedimentos endoscópicos e anestésicos, um grande número de dificuldades e complicações ainda estão presentes nesta situação clínica. Neste estudo, descrevemos 5 casos de sérias complicações agudas, incluindo pneumomediatismo, pneumotórax, atelectasia total, migração do corpo estranho e necessidade de toracotomia, em crianças admitidas em nosso Centro de Terapia Intensiva em 1999 e 2000, situações essas que poderiam ser prevenidas com reconhecimento precoce e rápida intervenção terapêutica.

  5. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  6. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  7. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  8. The application of spiral-CT and 3D-imaging of airway for observation of efficacy and complication after tracheobronchial stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ning; Xu Hao; Zu Maoheng; Gu Yuming; Li Gang; Zhang Qingqiao; Xu Wei; Cui Yanfeng; Liu Hongtao; Wang Wenliang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of spiral-CT and 3D-imaging of airway for observation of efficacy and complication after tracheobronchial stent placement. Methods: Thirty-one patients treated with tracheal stents were retrospectively analyzed, of which there were 27 malignant tracheal stenosis, 2 benign tracheal stenosis, 1 bronchial remnant fistula and 1 gastroesophageal anastomosis tracheal fistula. The spiral-CT and 3D-imagings were analyzed and the location, shape and complication of the stents were assessed. Results: Thirty-one patients were treated with 8 Z-type stainless steel stents and 28 Ni-Ti memory alloy stents. The stents of 22 cases remained patent in the original position and restenosis was occurred in 5 cases, migration in 3 cases and fracture in 1 case. All the CT features were performed and reconstructed on the workstation, using multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, and CT virtual endoscopy. The location of tracheal stenosis and fistula were showed in different angle, and the location, shape of the stents, and the complications (such as restenosis, fracture) as well. Conclusion: Spiral-CT and 3D-imaging is a rapid, simple and effective method in assessing tracheal stent implantation and complication, therefore, it is of great value in clinical practice. (authors)

  9. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmehran, O.; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter

  10. Simulation of magnetic drug targeting through tracheobronchial airways in the presence of an external non-uniform magnetic field using Lagrangian magnetic particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmehran, O., E-mail: oveis87@yahoo.com; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M., E-mail: gorji@nit.ac.ir; Gorji, T.B.

    2015-11-01

    Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter.

  11. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  12. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  13. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  14. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  15. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  17. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  18. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  19. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  20. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  1. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  2. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  3. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  4. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  5. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  6. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  7. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  8. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  9. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  10. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  11. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  12. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  13. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  15. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  16. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  17. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  18. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  19. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  20. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  1. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  2. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  3. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  4. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  5. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  6. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  7. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  8. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  9. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  10. Characterization of tracheobronchial stents of polymeric matrix with calcium phosphates nanoparticles; Caracterizacao de stents traqueobronquicos de matriz polimerica com nanoparticulas de fosfatos de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetrio, Ketner Bendo; Santos, Luis Alberto dos, E-mail: ketner.demetrio@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais. Laboratorio de Biomateriais

    2015-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (silicone) is used for decades in biomaterials area. This material has interesting characteristics as blood compatibility, physiological inertness, biocompatibility, thermal and oxidative stability, low toxicity, and others. Studies in the area of biomaterials have been focused on the improvement of the biological properties, physico-chemical and mechanical properties by incorporating bioactive inorganic substances such as calcium phosphates. Hydroxyapatite is preferred over other calcium phosphates due to its greater similarity with bone constituent. Composite of silicone with hydroxyapatite has great potential to exhibit excellent biological and physical properties. In this case, the silicone provides the mechanical properties and bioactivity hydroxyapatite promotes the material required to be used in implants. In this work, the composite used to produce tracheobronchial stents are produced by biomimetic synthesis, wherein the phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide are mixed to silicon in an open two-roll mixer. Composite was placed in metallic molds and pressed at 185 deg C for 45 minutes to cross-linking the material and calcium phosphates are produced in situ during mixing. The characterization of the biomaterial was performed using diffraction analysis of X-ray (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The phases present were analyzed by XRD. DSC analysis showed dehydration temperatures and cross-link of the composite when submitted at high temperatures. Microstructures, presence of particles of calcium phosphates and the homogeneous distribution were analyzed by SEM and EDS. Nanoparticles of calcium phosphates were analyzed by TEM, and it was observed that the particles are approximately 20 nm in diameter and are dispersed homogeneously in the matrix. (author)

  11. The measurement of tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance with 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy and its preliminary application in COPD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kuang, A.; Deng, H.; Li, X.

    2000-01-01

    Mucocoiliary clearance of respiratory channels is one of the important mechanisms guarding against retention of foreign particles within the lungs. Disorders of the mucociliary transport system play a major role among non-respiratory function in causing congenital and acquired bronchial disease. Thus, objective assay of the system is essential to recognizing and understanding abnormalities. In the present paper, a simple, noninvasive, and reliable in vivo method of monitoring mucociliary clearance function is reported. 18 healthy subjects and 32 COPD patients were studied with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection (cinescintigraphy, to observe the distribution of 99m Tc-DTPA particles and the movement of radiomucous 'hot bolus') and quantitative analysis (two indexes were utilized: the first is airway clearance ratio (ACR); the second is mucociliary clearance rate (MCC), i.e. speed of advances of mucous bolus, calculated reported by Zwas). Siemens 3700 SPECT, 64 X 64 byte mode, zoom 2. Sequential images (frame/60s) were obtained for 120 minutes. The deposition pattern of 99m Tc-DTPA particles in normal subjects was uniform. The deposition pattern in COPD patients demonstrated in general a centrally located distribution with major retention in the proximal airways. Four abnormal mucous transport patterns were regionally observed: stasis, regurgitation, straying and spiral or zigzag transport. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant difference of ACR between healthy subjects and COPD patients at different time points (P<0.05). The MCC in healthy subjects and COPD patients was 3.89±0.92 mm/min and 1.32±0.59 mm/min respectively. The method of assaying tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance reported here is simple and objective. It has not only the advantage of visual inspection and quantitative analysis, but also has a potential usefulness in studying other bronchial diseases and evaluating of therapeutic

  12. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  13. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  14. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  15. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  16. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  17. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  18. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree

  19. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  20. A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.

  1. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  2. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  3. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  4. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  5. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  6. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  7. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  8. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  9. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  10. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  11. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  12. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  13. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  14. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  15. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  16. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  17. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  18. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  19. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  20. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  1. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  2. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  3. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  4. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  5. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  6. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  7. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  8. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  9. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  10. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  11. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  12. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  13. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  14. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  15. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  16. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  17. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  18. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  19. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  20. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  1. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  2. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  3. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  4. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  5. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  6. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  7. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  8. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  9. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  10. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  11. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  12. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

    2011-04-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit.

  14. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  15. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  16. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  17. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...

  18. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  19. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  20. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  1. Multiquarks and Steiner trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

  2. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  4. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  5. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  6. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  7. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  8. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  9. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  10. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity of four rabbit genotypes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Ola

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... consumption and low cost, it has been widely utilized in genetics analysis in ... isozyme variation among the selected individuals within each rabbit genotype. ... with different embryo survival (Bolet and Theau-Clement, 1994).

  12. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant | Ting | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... defensin genetic engineering of plant in recent years, and also focuses on the existing problems and new strategies in this area.

  13. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... meal on performance of rabbits have been documented. (Taha et ..... Interaction effect of long-term feeding of cottonseed cake and vitamin E supplementation on the haematological ..... disorders as well as exposure to drug.

  14. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  15. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  16. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teratogenic effects of Khat (Catha edulis in New Zealand rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Saleh Abdul-Mughni

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal exposure of Khat in rabbit induces harmful effects in defferent visceral organs including liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, spleen, intestine, heart and lung. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 25-36

  18. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... rabbit defensin has a significant toxic effect on mouse tumor cells .... Disease is one of the important factors which lead to decrease of .... Transgenic Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutant of Chlorella ellipsoide. J. Agric.

  19. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  20. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  1. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  2. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  3. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  4. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon’s fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Methods Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit’s conjunctival sac. The rabbits were...

  6. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9).

  7. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  8. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  9. HARMONIZATION OF CRITERIA AND TERMINOLOGY IN RABBIT MEAT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Mateu, Agustín; Ouhayoun, J.; Masoero, G.

    1993-01-01

    [EN] The harmonization of rabbit carcass criteria is a result of an international work. lts task was to specify the main traits to be considerad from the birth of the animal to carcass analysis, to define these traits with enough accuracy and to propose a common terminology. Work on harmonization has been initialized by the Mediterranean Rabbit Group Conference (BLASCO, OUHAYOUN and MASOERO, 1992), completad by several research teams and, finally, discussed during a round...

  10. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  11. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  12. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  13. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  14. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (Phealth problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  17. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  18. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  19. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  20. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Tree-level formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  2. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  3. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  4. Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Tarik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.

  5. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  6. O muco traqueobrônquico humano mantido em temperatura ambiente e suas propriedades físico-químicas Physicochemical properties of human tracheobronchial sputum maintained at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Claudia Zanchet

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da permanência em temperatura ambiente na análise da transportabilidade por ação ciliar e por tosse e do ângulo de contato do muco traqueobrônquico. MÉTODOS: Foi coletado muco hialino de 30 indivíduos sem doença pulmonar, e purulento de vinte pacientes com bronquiectasia. As amostras foram analisadas logo após a coleta e novamente após 24 h. RESULTADOS: Para o muco purulento, após 24 h em temperatura ambiente, houve aumento no deslocamento por tosse (96 ± 50 vs. 118 ± 61 mm e diminuição do ângulo de contato (32 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 6 graus (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect that maintaining tracheobronchial sputum at room temperature has on the analysis of ciliary transport and cough, as well as on the contact angle. METHODS: Hyaline sputum was collected from 30 individuals without pulmonary diseases, and purulent sputum was collected from patients with bronchiectasis. The samples were analyzed immediately after collection and again after 24 h. RESULTS: After 24 h at room temperature, the purulent sputum presented an increase in cough-induced dislodgment (96 ± 50 vs. 118 ± 61 mm and a decrease in the contact angle (32 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 6 degrees (p < 0.05. For the hyaline sputum, there were no alterations in the parameters analyzed. CONCLUSION: Hyaline tracheobronchial sputum can be stored in room temperature for 24 h without presenting alterations in ciliary transport or contact angle. However, purulent sputum should not be stored at room temperature for many hours, since ciliary transport and contact angle might be altered as a result.

  7. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  8. Submodular unsplittable flow on trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Chalermsook, Parinya; Ene, Alina

    2016-01-01

    We study the Unsplittable Flow problem (UFP) on trees with a submodular objective function. The input to this problem is a tree with edge capacities and a collection of tasks, each characterized by a source node, a sink node, and a demand. A subset of the tasks is feasible if the tasks can...... simultaneously send their demands from the source to the sink without violating the edge capacities. The goal is to select a feasible subset of the tasks that maximizes a submodular objective function. Our main result is an O(k log n)-approximation algorithm for Submodular UFP on trees where k denotes...... the pathwidth of the given tree. Since every tree has pathwidth O(log n), we obtain an O(log2 n) approximation for arbitrary trees. This is the first non-trivial approximation guarantee for the problem and it matches the best approximation known for UFP on trees with a linear objective function. Our main...

  9. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  10. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  11. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  12. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroids are the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, hospitals public health, homes and textile industry. Cypermethrin, a composite pyrethroid is moderately toxic to mammals. Exposure to the pyrethroids occurs by inhalation, dermal and oral routes both accidentally as well as from the environment. Cypermethrin and DDT have been detected in human breast milk from malaria endemic area in South Africa. The WHO has recommended that the level of permethrin in drinking water not exceed 20 micrograms per liter (microg/L). The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits, habits and whether other chemicals are present. Pyrethroids are often combined commercially with other chemicals called synergists, which enhance the insecticidal activity of the pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The synergists prevent some enzymes from breaking down the pyrethrins and pyrethroids, thus increasing their toxicity. Because these compounds are broken down in the body quickly, there are several ways to measure the metabolites of these chemicals in human blood and urine. In this study the pyrethroid cypermethrin Sherpa 25% (active substance 250 g/l cypermethrin) was used, rabbits (1 kg weight), were gavaged by 1/20 LD50 for 3 weeks (one dose every week). Blood was collected before dosing and after 24, 72, 144 hours after the treatment. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma samples obtained. GOT, GPT, ALPH, CREA, GGT, Glucose and Total Pro were measured. Rabbits showed depression, decrease in feed intake, body weight and loose faeces. Livers exhibited fatty change, necrosis, lesions in kidney included tubular necrosis and pink homogeneous tubular casts. Serum ALT and creatinine concentrations increased while those of total proteins, albumin, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased.The results showed a decrease in RBC; WBC and Hb. This probably explained by the effect of

  13. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  15. Rabbit Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a “starry sky” pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  16. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordahl, J.N.; Gorthy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Eyes of young New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated with 2000 rads of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and the eyes removed at 2, 8, 16, and 30 days post-irradiation for electron microscopic analysis. Lenses were treated histochemically for acid phosphatase localization to examine the role of lysosomal enzymes in the early development of radiation cataracts. Intercellularly located acid phosphatase reaction product, noted in the epithelium and subjacent cortex, was more prevalent after irradiation, especially in central and transitional epithelial zones. In the central zone small vesicles typically were most numerous in areas of extensive intercellular reaction product. The occurrence of discrete packets of reaction product within the vesicles and the adjoining intercellular space, plus the resemblance of the peripheral vesicles to small Golgi vesicles also containing reaction product, suggested an exocytotic release of the enzyme. These appearances suggest that lysosomal hydrolases are released extracellularly by a secretory mechanism accelerated by radiation and that these hydrolases may play a role in both physiological and pathological functions of the lens. (author)

  18. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable.

  19. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  20. Systolic trees and systolic language recognition by tree automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinby, M

    1983-01-01

    K. Culik II, J. Gruska, A. Salomaa and D. Wood have studied the language recognition capabilities of certain types of systolically operating networks of processors (see research reports Cs-81-32, Cs-81-36 and Cs-82-01, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). In this paper, their model for systolic VLSI trees is formalised in terms of standard tree automaton theory, and the way in which some known facts about recognisable forests and tree transductions can be applied in VLSI tree theory is demonstrated. 13 references.

  1. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (pRHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix by decellularization of rabbit livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Nari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrix. Methods: a combination of physical, chemical (Triton X-100 and SDS and enzymatic agents to decellularize rabbit livers was used. After 68 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and biochemical (DNA quantification studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using macroscopic staining, which revealed a correct conservation of bile and vascular trees. A microscopic observation corroborated these macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin staining showing no cells or nuclear material and the presence of a portal triad. Wilde's staining demonstrated the conservation of reticulin fibers in the decellularized matrix. In addition, scanning electron microscopy revealed a preserved Glisson's capsule and a decellularized matrix, with the DNA quantification being less than 10 % in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally, the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 96 hours. Conclusions: the proposed decellularization protocol was correct, and was verified by an absence of cells. The hepatic matrix had preserved vascular and bile ducts with a suitable three-dimensional architecture permitting further cell seeding.

  3. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  4. Study on phototherapeutic keratotomy for bacterial corneal lesions in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of phototherapeutic keratectomy(PTKon rabbit bacterial corneal ulcer model and explore the clinical potential of this method. METHODS: Totally 48 eyes from all the 24 New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial corneal ulcer model was established successfully. At 1d after inoculation, 48 eyes were given levofloxacin eye drops when corneal ulcer was confirmed. Then slit lamp inspection and optical coherence tomography(OCTwere performed to measure the central corneal ulcer depth. All the rabbits right eyes were treated with PTK, as an observation group, left eyes were not treated as a control group. The eye section were observed by slit lamp and central thickness of corneal ulcer was measured by OCT at 3 and 7d after this operation. Rabbits were sacrificed and the cornea was removed for pathological section 7d later. RESULTS: The corneal ulcers in both groups had a tendency to heal, showing a decrease in ulcer area and smoothness of the surface. There was no significant difference in the depth of corneal ulcer between the observation group and the control group before PTK(t=0.706, P=0.484. The difference between the two groups of eyes at 3 and 7d after PTK was obviously(PCONCLUSION: PTK can effectively cure rabbit Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer and promote ulcer wound healing, which may be used for clinical treatment of patients with bacterial corneal lesions.

  5. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  7. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  8. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  9. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  10. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  11. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  14. Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits, hybrid AxC (50 rabbits and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits was recorded from weaning (35 days of age to slaughter (93 days. Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05, heterosis effect (H +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05, H +5.65%; dressing percentage: A 54.1, C 55.6, AxC 55.5% (P£0.05; H +1.26%. Weaning weight of AxCal was significantly lower than of AxC (AxCal 843, AxC 1050 g, P£0.05, but at the end of the experiment the weight of AxCal rabbits was very close to AxC (AxCal 2958, AxC 3043 g, P>0.05. Other growth and slaughter traits did not differ between AxC and AxCal group.

  15. The distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.Y.; In, J.W.; Min, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6,7- 3 H-es-tradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. For female rabbits the binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. For male rabbits the binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree. (author)

  16. The Distribution of Estrogen Receptor in Various Organs of Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ho Young; In, Jae Whan; Min, Byong Sok

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6, 7- 3 H-estradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. The results were as follows: 1) Female rabbits. The binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. 2) Male rabbits. The binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree.

  17. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

  18. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  19. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  20. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  1. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  2. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  3. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  4. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  5. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  6. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  7. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated...

  8. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  9. Economic weights in rabbit meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cartuche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A profit function was designed for an industrial commercial rabbitry with the most common management in industrial rabbit production. The incomes, costs, and profit function were calculated and economic weights of the traits were estimated. The variable costs (feeding, artificial insemination, health and replacement represented 62% of the total costs, and the fixed costs (labour, utilities, amortisation and administration represented 38% of the total costs. Major costs were feeding of fattening kits and labour cost, at 26% and 18% of the total cost, respectively. The economic weights were feed conversion rate during fattening (–20.2 €/[g feed/g liveweight], number of kits born alive (15.7 €/kit, pregnancy rate (1.7 €/percentage unit, weaning survival (1.7 €/percentage unit, fattening survival (2.0 €/percentage unit, daily feed intake (–0.50 €/(g feed/d, daily gain during fattening (1.33 €/(g weight/d, and replacement rate (–0.29 €/percentage unit. When varying the prices of kg of fattening feed and kg of liveweight, only the economic weights of feed conversion rate during fattening in the first case and the number of kits born alive in the second case changed considerably. Changes in labour cost produced appreciable changes in the whole production cost. Although economic weights are robust to changes in prices, these weights should be recalculated after some generations of selection, because changes in the mean of the traits due to selection can also change economic weights.

  10. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  11. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of rabbit Haemorrhagic disease virus 2 during the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) eradication from the Berlengas archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade Dos Santos, F A; Carvalho, C; Nuno, Oliveira; Correia, J J; Henriques, M; Peleteiro, M C; Fevereiro, M; Duarte, M D

    2017-11-15

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV). For six RHDV2-negative specimens, emaciation and parasitism were considered the most probable cause of death. Lesions identified in the RHDV2-positive rabbits included non-suppurative diffuse hepatic necrosis and pulmonary lesions varying from congestion and oedema of the lungs to interstitial pneumonia. Sequencing analysis of the vp60 gene obtained from two specimens showed identical vp60 sequences. Comparison with other known RHDV2 strains from public databases through BLAST analysis revealed a closer similarity with strains from Alentejo collected during 2013. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2016 strains from the archipelago have a higher resemblance with a group of strains mostly collected in the South of Portugal between 2013 and 2014. The results suggest that RHDV2 may have been introduced on the Berlenga Island a few years ago, having evolved separately from mainland strains due to insularity.

  13. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Immune response in rabbit ovaries following infection of a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Seamark, Robert; Kerr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the autoimmune response in rabbit ovaries following infection with a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B (MV-ZPB). A specific IgG antibody response to ZPB was elicited in the serum of infected rabbits and the antibody strongly bound to the zona pellucida of oocytes in secondary and tertiary follicles. T cell infiltration in the ovary was detected in a small proportion of the infected rabbits. In spite of this, the mean number of preovulatory and tertiary follicles in the ovary was significantly reduced at 30 days postinfection compared with that of the infected and uninfected controls. Histological analysis revealed that the cortex and medulla of these ovaries had accumulated a large number of probably luteinized cells and there were no follicles in these areas, indicating the ovaries were in a severe pathological condition. The data suggest that the delivery of ZP antigens using a recombinant myxoma virus is a prospective way to develop immunocontraceptive vaccines for rabbit population control, but that more understanding of the kinetics of the autoimmune response induced by viral delivery is needed

  15. Visualizing Individual Tree Differences in Tree-Ring Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Trouillier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, the climate sensitivity of individual trees can be modulated by factors like competition, height, and nitrogen deposition, calling attention to whether average chronologies adequately assess climatic growth-control. In this study, we demonstrate four simple but effective methods to visually assess differences between individual trees. Using individual tree climate-correlations we: (1 employed jitter plots with superimposed metadata to assess potential causes for these differences; (2 plotted the frequency distributions of climate correlations over time as heat maps; (3 mapped the spatial distribution of climate sensitivity over time to assess spatio-temporal dynamics; and (4 used t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE to assess which trees were generally more similar in terms of their tree-ring pattern and their correlation with climate variables. This suite of exploratory methods can indicate if individuals in tree-ring datasets respond differently to climate variability, and therefore, should not solely be explored with climate correlations of the mean population chronology.

  16. Tree Size Comparison of Some Important Street Trees Growing at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    More research is needed on these trees for healthy environment of city. The present ..... use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environ. Poll. .... Anna. Bot., 65:567-574. Kozlowski, T.T., 1971. Growth and Development of. Trees. Vol. 1.

  17. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  18. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  19. Picking a tree: habitat use by the tree agama, Acanthocercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied tree agama (Acanthocercus a. atricollis) habitat use in the Magaliesberg mountain range in northern South Africa using sightings of marked individuals, and in a few cases, radio-telemetry. Acanthocercus a. atricollis preferentially selected thorn trees (46%; Acacia karroo), followed by common sugarbush (10%; ...

  20. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  1. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  2. Development and homology of the incisor teeth in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylle, S.; Simoens, P.; Lauwers, H.

    1996-01-01

    The morphology and development of the incisors were investigated stercomicroscopically, radiographically and by means of serial histologic sections in fetal, juvenile and adult New Zealand White rabbits. A vestigial and a major incisor develop on both sides of the upper and of the lower jaw, while a diphyodont minor incisor is located caudal to the major incisor on both sides of the upper jaw. The present study describes a unique case of incisor polyodontia in an adult wild rabbit, that exhibited all the characteristics of a typical atavistic dentition. From these observations it was deduced that the vestigial and the major incisors in the rabbit are monophyodont and correspond to the first and second incisors respectively, while the minor diphyodont incisor in the upper jaw is homologous with the third incisor

  3. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  4. The effect of transport on the quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Składanowska-Baryza, Joanna; Ludwiczak, Agnieszka; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Kołodziejski, Paweł; Bykowska, Marta; Stanisz, Marek

    2018-04-01

    The analyzed material included 40 hybrid rabbits slaughtered at the age of 90 days. The control group was transported directly after weaning, while the transport group was transported directly prior to slaughter. The experiment was designed to assess the transport stress, carcass and meat quality implications, taking into account the muscle type and sex. The transported animals were characterized by a higher level of blood cortisol, glucose and triglycerides (P meat were affected by the transport (P meat from the control group was characterized by greater plasticity compared to the transport group (P = 0.003). The chemical composition of rabbit meat was not changed by the effect of transport (P = 0.643-0.979). To conclude, the quality traits of meat from the transported hybrid rabbits clearly indicated the development of dark firm and dry-like lower quality of meat. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The rabbit as an experimental model in laryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Christiano de Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the research in laryngology we normally use animal models. The animal experimentation may also contribute largely for this evolution, mainly for the easy access compared to human larynxes and for they are more easily controlled. Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the laryngofissure with vocal cords graft as an experimental surgical technique in male adult rabbits. Method: We studied 46 New Zealand albino rabbits submitted to microsurgery in both vocal cords with autologous unilateral or bilateral graft of fat or fascia. Results: There were 4 losses of 3 animals until the first week of the postoperative period and another after 19 days after surgery. In the subsequent animals there were no infection, hematoma or sutures dehiscence. Conclusion: The study enables the conclusion that the experimental laryngofissure in rabbits is a safe method that may be used for laryngological studies.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Rabbit models for biomedical research revisited via genome editing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONDA, Arata; OGURA, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although the laboratory rabbit has long contributed to many paradigmatic studies in biology and medicine, it is often considered to be a “classical animal model” because in the last 30 years, the laboratory mouse has been more often used, thanks to the availability of embryonic stem cells that have allowed the generation of gene knockout (KO) animals. However, recent genome-editing strategies have changed this unrivaled condition; so far, more than 10 mammalian species have been added to the list of KO animals. Among them, the rabbit has distinct advantages for application of genome-editing systems, such as easy application of superovulation, consistency with fertile natural mating, well-optimized embryo manipulation techniques, and the short gestation period. The rabbit has now returned to the stage of advanced biomedical research. PMID:28579598

  8. Post-splenectomy β-amyloid level changes in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xueli; Yu Jiwei; Ji Zhe; Zhou Zhengzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of splenectomy on serum β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rabbit. Methods: Thirty 3yr-old rabbits underwent splenectomy and fifteen others underwent a sham-operation of laparectomy only. Serum Aβ levels were determined with RIA before and at regular intervals after operation. Results: In the splenectomy group, the Aβ levels were increased greatly after the operation and reached the peak at 5 th week. The levels then gradually declined but remained significantly higher than the pre-operative value at 6 th month. In the sham operation group, the value was no drastically changed but increased slowly (as an aging process). Conclusion: Splenectomy in rabbit would markedly increase the serum Aβ level, possibly due to a hypoimmune state impairing clearance of the substance

  9. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. The site of action of corticosteroid antipyresis in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willies, G H; Woolf, C J

    1980-01-01

    1. The antipyretic effects of corticosteroids on the fevers produced by bacterial and endogenous pyrogens in the rabbit were investigated. 2. Intravenous infusions of hydrocortisone and methyl prednisolone, when administered simultaneously with bacterial or endogenous pyrogens, failed to produce an antipyresis. 3. Pretreatment of rabbits with methyl prednisolone for 3 days diminished the febrile effect of both bacterial and endogenous pyrogens. 4. The fever produced by intrahypothalamic micro-injections of endogenous pyrogen was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous micro-injection of methyl prednisolone. 5. These results indicate that the antipyretic effect of steroids in the rabbit is the result not of a peripheral inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production, but rather of an action on the central nervous system. PMID:7381781

  11. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  12. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  13. The effects of Vitamin C on Xylazine anaesthesia in rabbits | Kisani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin C on zylazine anaesthesia in rabbits. Ten apparently healthy rabbits of both sexes, aged 6 months and weighing 0.8-1.3 kg were grouped into two of five each. Xylazine at a dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly to rabbits in both groups. Ten minutes ...

  14. Development of a Zealand White Rabbit Deposition Model to Study Inhalation Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, A.P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  15. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future

  16. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulima Tablado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover

  17. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation

  18. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  19. Intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid in a rabbit model: preclinical safety assessment.

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    Rosa Dolz-Marco

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of a single dose of intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rabbit eyes over a short-term period. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand albino rabbits were selected for this pre-clinical study. Six concentrations of DHA (Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain were prepared: 10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µl, 50 µg/50 µl, 25 µg/50 µl, and 5 µg/50 µl. Each concentration was injected intravitreally in the right eye of two rabbits. As a control, the vehicle solution was injected in one eye of four animals. Retinal safety was studied by slit-lamp examination, and electroretinography. All the rabbits were euthanized one week after the intravitreal injection of DHA and the eyeballs were processed to morphologic and morphometric histological examination by light microscopy. At the same time aqueous and vitreous humor samples were taken to quantify the concentration of omega-3 acids by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Slit-lamp examination revealed an important inflammatory reaction on the anterior chamber of the rabbits injected with the higher concentrations of DHA (10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µ Lower concentrations showed no inflammation. Electroretinography and histological studies showed no significant difference between control and DHA-injected groups except for the group injected with 50 µg/50 µl. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that administration of intravitreal DHA is safe in the albino rabbit model up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 µg/50 µl. Further studies should be performed in order to evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of DHA as a treatment, alone or in combination, of different retinal diseases.

  20. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

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    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.