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Sample records for rabbit leukocyte differentiation

  1. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

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    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  2. Use of flow cytometry to identify monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes on orthologous leukocyte differentiation antigens in goats, llamas, and rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davis, W. C.; Drbal, Karel; El-Aziz, A.; Mosaad, A.E.; Elbagory, A.R.M.; TIbary, A.; Barrington, G.M.; Park, Y.H.; Hamilton, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 119, 1-2 (2007), s. 123-130 ISSN 0165-2427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : flow cytometry * monoclonal antibodies * leukocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2007

  3. HDAC inhibitors: modulating leukocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and inflammation.

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    Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Kamal, Nabilah A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in cancer models were first linked to their ability to cause growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. It is now clear that these agents also have pleiotropic effects on angiogenesis and the immune system, and some of these properties are likely to contribute to their anti-cancer activities. It is also emerging that inhibitors of specific HDACs affect the differentiation, survival and/or proliferation of distinct immune cell populations. This is true for innate immune cells such as macrophages, as well as cells of the acquired immune system, for example, T-regulatory cells. These effects may contribute to therapeutic profiles in some autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease models. Here, we review our current understanding of how classical HDACs (HDACs 1-11) and their inhibitors impact on differentiation, survival and proliferation of distinct leukocyte populations, as well as the likely relevance of these effects to autoimmune and inflammatory disease processes. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate leukocyte survival may have implications for the rationale of developing selective inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

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    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  5. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

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    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  6. Intratendon Delivery of Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Healing Compared With Leukocyte-Rich Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Rabbit Achilles Tendinopathy Model.

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    Yan, Ruijian; Gu, Yanjia; Ran, Jisheng; Hu, Yejun; Zheng, Zefeng; Zeng, Mengfeng; Heng, Boon Chin; Chen, Xiao; Yin, Zi; Chen, Weishan; Shen, Weiliang; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2017-07-01

    Chronic tendinopathy is a commonly occurring clinical problem that affects both athletes and inactive middle-aged patients. Although some studies have shown that different platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations could exert various therapeutic effects in vitro, the role of leukocytes in PRP has not yet been defined under tendinopathy conditions in vivo. This study compared the effects of the intratendon delivery of leukocyte-poor PRP (Lp-PRP) versus leukocyte-rich PRP (Lr-PRP) in a rabbit chronic tendinopathy model in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Four weeks after a local injection of collagenase in the Achilles tendon, the following treatments were randomly administered on the lesions: injections of (1) 200 μL of Lp-PRP (n = 8), (2) 200 μL of Lr-PRP (n = 8), or (3) 200 μL of saline (n = 8). Healing outcomes were assessed at 4 weeks after therapy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytokine quantification, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression, histology, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MRI revealed that the Lr-PRP and saline groups displayed higher signal intensities compared with the Lp-PRP group with T2 mapping. Histologically, the Lp-PRP group displayed significantly better general scores compared with the Lr-PRP ( P = .001) and saline ( P tendon healing and is a preferable option for the clinical treatment of tendinopathy. PRP is widely used in the clinical management of chronic tendinopathy. However, the clinical results are ambiguous. It is imperative to understand the influence of leukocytes on PRP-mediated tissue healing in vivo, which could facilitate the better clinical management of chronic tendinopathy. Further studies are needed to translate our findings to the clinical setting.

  7. Autologous leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma therapy for Achilles tendinopathy induced by collagenase in a rabbit model.

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    González, Juan C; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Pérez, Jorge E; Carmona, Jorge U

    2016-01-19

    Leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma (LR-PRP) is a therapy for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon (TAT); however, there is scarce information regarding LR-PRP effects in rabbit models of TAT. We compared, at 4 and 12 weeks (w), the LR-PRP and placebo (PBS) effects on ultrasonography, histology and relative gene expression of collagen types I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 24 rabbits with TAT induced by collagenase. The rabbits (treated with both treatments) were euthanatised after either 4 or 12 w. A healthy group (HG (n = 6)) was included. At 4 and 12 w, the LR-PRP group had a no statistically different histology score to the HG. At w 4, the COL1A1 expression was significantly higher in the LR-PRP group when compared to HG, and the expression of COL3A1 from both LR-PRP and PBS-treated tendons was significantly higher when compared to the HG. At w 12, the expression of COL3A1 remained significantly higher in the PBS group in comparison to the LR-PRP group and the HG. At w 4, the LR-PRP group presented a significantly higher expression of VEGF when compared to the PBS group and the HG. In conclusion, LR-PRP treatment showed regenerative properties in rabbits with TAT.

  8. LEUKOCYTE DIFFERENTIAL OF ANGUILLID EEL, Anguilla bicolor McClelland, EXPOSED TO VARIED SALINITIES

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    Fita Fatimah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anguillid eel is a catadromous eel capable of inhabiting freshwater growth habitat and seawater spawning habitat throughout their life cycle. At the juvenile to mature stage, they inhabit freshwater then migrate to marine water to spawn. Changes in salinity, which is one of the stressful environmental factors for the eel, affect their physiological condition by increasing the leukocytes number. This increase is an adaptation method to improve their immune system as a response to salinity change. This study intended to evaluate the leukocyte differential of anguillid eel (Anguilla bicolor McClelland exposed to various salinities. This research applied a Completely Randomized Design. The treatment was three levels of saline media including 4 ppt, 15 ppt, and 30 ppt with five replicates. The independent variable was the different salinity, and the dependent variable was the leukocyte differential. The parameters measured consisted of the different percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils in which the measurements administered after two months of the eel exposure. We analyzed the data with ANOVA at the confidence level of 95%. The results showed that exposure of salinity significantly affected the percentage of leukocyte differential (P < 0.05. The increase in salinity decreased the neutrophils and monocytes, but increased the lymphocytes, and showed no effect on eosinophils.

  9. Novel leukocyte protein, Trojan, differentially expressed during thymocyte development.

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    Petrov, Petar; Motobu, Maki; Salmi, Jussi; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2010-04-01

    "Trojan" is a novel cell surface protein, discovered from chicken embryonic thymocytes on the purpose to identify molecules involved in T cell differentiation. The molecule is predicted as a type I transmembrane protein having a Sushi and two fibronectin type III domains and a pair of intracellular phosphorylation sites. Its transcript expression is specific for lymphoid tissues and the presence of the protein on the surface of recirculating lymphocytes and macrophages was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. In thymus, about half of the double negative (CD4(-) CD8(-)) and CD8 single positive and the majority of CD4 single positive cells express Trojan with a relatively high intensity. However, only a minority of the double positive (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells are positive for Trojan. This expression pattern, similar to that of some proteins with anti-apoptotic and function, like IL-7Ralpha, makes Trojan an attractive candidate of having an anti-apoptotic role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

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    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Differential Scavenging Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Subjects.

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    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Jantz, Lee M; Mundorff, Amy; Vidoli, Giovanna M

    2018-04-12

    Different animal species have been used as proxies for human remains in decomposition studies for decades, although few studies have sought to validate their use in research aimed at estimating the postmortem interval. This study examines 45 pig, rabbit, and human subjects placed in three seasonal trials at the Anthropology Research Facility. In an earlier paper, we found that overall decomposition trends did vary between species that could be due to differential insect and scavenger behavior. This study specifically examines if scavenger behavior differs by carrion species. Daily photographs, game camera photographs, written observations, and Total Body Score (TBS) documented scavenging and decomposition changes. Results show that raccoons were the most commonly observed vertebrate scavenger, that scavenging was most extensive in winter, and that certain human subjects were preferred over other humans and all non-human subjects. Finally, scavenging activity greatly reduces the accuracy of postmortem interval estimates based on TBS. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes do not secrete endogenous pyrogens or interleukin 1 when stimulated by endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide.

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    Windle, B E; Murphy, P A; Cooperman, S

    1983-03-01

    Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes were purified from rabbit blood by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients followed by sedimentation in 4% Ficoll. The purified neutrophils had normal random motility, responded to chemotactic stimuli, phagocytosed zymosan particles, made superoxide, and phagocytosed and killed bacteria. However, they did not secret endogenous pyrogens either spontaneously or in response to stimulation with endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide. Macrophages isolated on the same gradients secreted some pyrogen spontaneously and secreted considerably more in response to the same three stimuli. This evidence reinforces the idea that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that the cell populations contain.

  13. The rabbit as an animal model for post-natal vitreous matrix differentiation and degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether rabbits are a suitable animal model to study post-natal vitreous differentiation and degeneration. Methods Human and rabbit eyes of various ages were studied by complementary anatomical techniques, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results

  14. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

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    Genoveva Keustermans

    higher numbers of immature transition B-cells and intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes combined with lower total monocyte numbers, compared to controls. Furthermore, adiponectin receptor 1 expression on nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes was consistently upregulated in obese children pre-intervention, compared to controls. However, none of the differences in leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles between obese children and controls remained significant after multiple testing correction.First, the distinct adipokine receptor profiles of circulating leukocyte subsets may partly explain the differential impact of adipokines on leukocyte subsets. Second, the similarities in adipokine receptor expression profiles between obese children and normal weight controls suggest that adipokine signaling in childhood obesity is primarily modulated by circulating adipokine levels, instead of adipokine receptor expression.

  15. Peripheral blood film review. The demise of the eyecount leukocyte differential.

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    Pierre, Robert V

    2002-03-01

    The automated hematology analyzer with CBC and differential results has replaced the traditional manual or individual assay methods for hematologic parameters and the eyecount leukocyte differential as the initial screening and detection system for hematologic abnormalities in modern hospitals and clinics. The traditional review of all automated hematology instrument results by preparation, staining, and microscopic examination of a blood film has disappeared in most institutions. The reasons are the more accurate detection of specimens with distributional or morphologic abnormalities by the instruments than by the traditional eyecount method. The opportunity for a clinician to request a microscopic examination of a blood film, whether or not it is flagged, must be preserved, because the clinician's knowledge of the patient's history, physical findings, and current or prior therapy may indicate review to discover an abnormality that may not have been apparent from the instrument results alone. There has also been a dramatic reduction of the numbers of medical technologists and technicians in medical laboratories. Automation of the CBC and differential counts has reduced the number of technologists needed for performance of these tests. But other factors have had a negative effect, such as the necessity to reduce costs. Consolidation of hematology and chemistry laboratories in core laboratories may produce savings in labor costs, but may also create problems of creating and maintaining areas of expertise, such as hematologic morphology, because of the cross-training required and the necessity of personnel to do all things. This article suggests and documents a number of measures that can be infinity stituted by the laboratory and by clinicians to reduce the number of eyecount differentials and blood film reviews that need to be performed. The first effort is to convince clinicians that valid data exist that confirm that a policy of allowing the laboratory to

  16. Effect of Leukocyte-Rich and Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing of a Horizontal Medial Meniscus Tear in a Rabbit Model

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    Kyun Ho Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited reports on the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on meniscus healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP on potential healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. A horizontal medial meniscus tear was created in both knees of nine skeletally mature adult rabbits. Left or right knees were randomly assigned to a L-PRP group, or a control group. 0.5 mL of L-PRP from 10 mL of each rabbit’s whole blood was prepared and injected into the horizontal tears in a L-PRP group. None was applied to the horizontal tears in a control group. The histological assessment of meniscus healing was performed at two, four, and six weeks after surgery. We found that there were no significant differences of quantitative histologic scoring between two groups at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery (p>0.05. This study failed to show the positive effect of single injection of L-PRP on enhancing healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. Single injection of L-PRP into horizontal meniscus tears may not effectively enhance healing of horizontal medial meniscus tears.

  17. Radiolabeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of nucleated cells that follow similar patterns of differentiation in the bone marrow. Although the various leukocyte cell types perform somewhat different functions, they act as a group to protect the host from hazards of the internal and external environment, such as infection and neoplasia, and they assist in the repair of damaged tissue. Leukocytes spend a small fraction of their life in the peripheral blood, using it only for transportation to sites where they are needed to perform their defensive functions. In adults, the mature types of leukocytes are neutrophils (59 percent of the leukocyte population), lymphocytes (34 percent), monocytes (four percent), eosinophils (three percent), and basophils (0.5 percent). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils all contain nuclei with finitely granular, evenly distributed chromatin and are collectively called granulocytes. In addition to the main categories of leukocytes listed above, there are subsets of many of these classes of cells; for example, natural killer cells are a subset of lymphocytes

  18. Epigenetic heterochromatin markers distinguish terminally differentiated leukocytes from incompletely differentiated leukemia cells in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Claxton, David F.; Lukášová, Emilie; Bird, Philip I.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 453-462 ISSN 0301-472X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : terminal cell differentiation * chromatin structure * chronic myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2006

  19. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

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    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

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    Borné, Yan; Smith, J Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and mixed cells) were analyzed in 26,667 men and women, 45-73 years old, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Information about the R262W polymorphism (rs3184504) in SH2B3 was genotyped in 24,489 subjects. Incidence of diabetes was studied during a mean follow-up of 14 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine incidence of diabetes by total and differential leukocyte counts. Mendelian randomization analysis using R262W as an instrumental variable was performed with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 2,946 subjects developed diabetes during the follow-up period. After taking several possible confounders into account, concentrations of total leukocyte count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were all significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; quartile 4 vs quartile 1) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) for total leukocytes, 1.33 (1.19-1.49) for neutrophils and 1.29 (1.15-1.44) for lymphocytes. The R262W polymorphism was strongly associated with leukocytes (0.11x109 cells/l per T allele, p = 1.14 x10-12), lymphocytes (p = 4.3 x10-16), neutrophils (p = 8.0 x10-6) and mixed cells (p = 3.0 x10-6). However, there was no significant association between R262W and fasting glucose, HbA1c or incidence of diabetes. Concentrations of total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes are associated with incidence of diabetes. However, the lack of association with the R262W polymorphism suggests that the associations

  1. Differential protein expression in alligator leukocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection.

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    Merchant, Mark; Kinney, Clint; Sanders, Paige

    2009-12-01

    Blood was collected from three juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) before, and again 24h after, injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The leukocytes were collected from both samples, and the proteins were extracted. Each group of proteins was labeled with a different fluorescent dye and the differences in protein expression were analyzed by two dimensional differential in-gel expressions (2D-DIGE). The proteins which appeared to be increased or decreased by treatment with LPS were selected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF to determine mass and LC-MS/MS to acquire the partial protein sequences. The peptide sequences were compared to the NCBI protein sequence database to determine homology with other sequences from other species. Several proteins of interest appeared to be increased upon LPS stimulation. Proteins with homology to human transgelin-2, fish glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, amphibian α-enolase, alligator lactate dehydrogenase, fish ubiquitin-activating enzyme, and fungal β-tubulin were also increased after LPS injection. Proteins with homology to fish vimentin 4, murine heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, and avian calreticulin were found to be decreased in response to LPS. In addition, five proteins, four of which were up-regulated (827, 560, 512, and 650%) and one that exhibited repressed expression (307%), did not show homology to any protein in the database, and thus may represent newly discovered proteins. We are using this biochemical approach to isolate and characterize alligator proteins with potential relevant immune function.

  2. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  3. CD Nomenclature 2015: Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops as a Driving Force in Immunology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engel, P.; Boumsell, L.; Balderas, R.; Gattei, V.; Hořejší, Václav; Jin, B.Q.; Malavasi, F.; Mortari, F.; Schwartz-Albiez, R.; Stockinger, H.; van Zelm, M.C.; Zola, H.; Clark, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 10 (2015), s. 4555-4563 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : CD nomenclature, , * leukocyte antigens * HLDA workshop Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.985, year: 2015

  4. Labeling of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with indium-111: a new method for the quantitation of in-vivo accumulation of PMNLs in rabbit skin

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    Wahba, A.V.; Barnes, B.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1984-02-01

    A precise method for quantitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation in skin in vivo, has been developed so that the proinflammatory effects of various agents can be compared. This method can also be used to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on PMNL accumulation in vivo. Rabbit PMNLs were purified from heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation, hypotonic lysis, and separation on Ficoll-Hypaque. The PMNLs were labeled with 3-5 microCi per 10(6) cells of /sup 111/In oxine and reinfused coincidentally with different concentrations of different chemotactic and proinflammatory materials injected intradermally into the back. In some experiments, varying concentrations of acetic acid were applied topically. Four to 18 hours later, the rabbits were sacrificed. Eight-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained from the injection sites and counted in a gamma counter. The number of PMNLs infiltrating the dermis was also quantitated in histologic sections. A significant correlation was found between the percent increase in radioactivity and the percent increase in PMNL accumulation morphologically. Dose-response curves were generated using such proinflammatory materials as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, activated serum, trypsin, glycogen, and acetic acid. These curves were highly reproducible from animal to animal. Using this assay, we found that as little as 1 microgram of trypsin induced detectable PMNL accumulation. This is 2-3 logs more sensitive than injecting mice intraperitoneally with trypsin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivation of trypsin inhibited PMNL accumulation. This sensitive and quantitative bioassay of PMNL accumulation permits evaluation of multiple agents in the same animal, which decreases animal to animal variation.

  5. Central effect of taurine and its analogues on fever caused by intravenous leukocytic pyrogen in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, J M; Ticknor, C B

    1979-01-01

    1. Taurine infused I.C.V. after I.V. injection of leukocytic pyrogen (LP) inhibited the initial rise in body temperature and prolonged fever when infusion was stopped. 2. Similar infusion of taurine also inhibited the hypertermic effect of I.C.V. PGE2 (0.5 microgram) but did not cause prolonged hyperthermia. 3. I.C.V. administration of the taurine analogues hypotaurine and beta-alanine, compounds which have been shown previously to compete with taurine for facilitated transport in C.N.S. tissue, also inhibited the initial increase in body temperature and prolonged LP fever. 4. These results suggest that taurine prolongs LP fever by preferentially occupying a carrier system normally required for termination of the effects of endogenous pyrogens or related central mediators of fever. There was no evidence that taurine prolongs fever by blocking inactivation of central PGE2, a substance proposed previously to be a central mediator of fever. PMID:107309

  6. EGR1 induces tenogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells and promotes rabbit rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xu; Liu, Junpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, You; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs) using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. EGR1 Induces Tenogenic Differentiation of Tendon Stem Cells and Promotes Rabbit Rotator Cuff Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1 in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Methods: Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. Results: EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. Conclusion: EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries.

  8. Reference values for maternal total and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Töz, Emrah; Ince, Onur; Özcan, Aykut; Polater, Kevser; Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Beyan, Emrah; Akkaya, Emrah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. The study population consisted of 40,325 pregnant women. A full blood count and automated differential leukocyte count were performed and all the haemogram results in the different trimesters of pregnancy were recorded. Percentiles were calculated using statistical software. A total of 82,786 complete blood count evaluations were performed in 40,325 subjects from the 6th to 41st week of pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period. The leukocyte counts increased from the 1st to the 3rd trimester and peaked in the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts may assist clinicians in distinguishing between leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood cell count during pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Impact statement Pregnancy requires profound adaptation by multiple systems to accommodate the demands of the developing foetus. Similar to all other systems, many haematological changes occur during pregnancy. Studies of normal variation in leukocyte counts were insufficient to distinguish normal from abnormal leukocyte counts during pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period, due to small numbers of patients and a lack of differential leukocyte counts. Without reference leukocyte levels, infections may be more difficult to assess during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In this study, we report the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for the total and differential leukocyte counts according to trimester in normal pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts in each trimester and the initial postpartum period may assist clinicians in distinguishing between normal leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood

  9. Association of peripheral differential leukocyte counts with dyslipidemia risk in Chinese patients with hypertension: insight from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Wen; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Yu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fan Fan; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ningling; Li, Jianping; Venners, Scott A; Jiang, Shanqun; Huo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10,866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and TG levels (all P dyslipidemia/normolipidemia), we found that patients in the highest quartile of total leukocyte count (≥7.6 × 10 9 cells/l) had 1.64 times the risk of high TG [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46, 1.85], 1.34 times the risk of high TC (95% CI: 1.20, 1.50), and 1.24 times the risk of high LDL-C (95% CI: 1.12, 1.39) compared with their counterparts in the lowest quartile of total leukocyte count. Similar patterns were also observed with neutrophils and lymphocytes. In summary, these findings indicate that elevated differential leukocyte counts are directly associated with serum lipid levels and increased odds of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. VEGF-A isoforms differentially regulate ATF-2-dependent VCAM-1 gene expression and endothelial-leukocyte interactions.

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    Fearnley, Gareth W; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Mughal, Nadeem A; Bruns, Alexander F; Burgoyne, Nicholas J; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Zachary, Ian C; Hollstein, Monica C; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) regulates many aspects of vascular physiology. VEGF-A stimulates signal transduction pathways that modulate endothelial outputs such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. Multiple VEGF-A isoforms exist, but the biological significance of this is unclear. Here we analyzed VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VCAM-1 gene expression, which controls endothelial-leukocyte interactions, and show that this is dependent on both ERK1/2 and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). VEGF-A isoforms showed differential ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation kinetics. A key feature of VEGF-A isoform-specific ERK1/2 activation and nuclear translocation was increased phosphorylation of ATF-2 on threonine residue 71 (T71). Using reverse genetics, we showed ATF-2 to be functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial VCAM-1 gene expression. ATF-2 knockdown blocked VEGF-A-stimulated VCAM-1 expression and endothelial-leukocyte interactions. ATF-2 was also required for other endothelial cell outputs, such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. In contrast, VCAM-1 was essential only for promoting endothelial-leukocyte interactions. This work presents a new paradigm for understanding how soluble growth factor isoforms program complex cellular outputs and responses by modulating signal transduction pathways. © 2014 Fearnley et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Fetal human airway smooth muscle cell production of leukocyte chemoattractants is differentially regulated by fluticasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Helen; Britt, Rodney D; Pabelick, Christine M; Prakash, Y S; Amrani, Yassine; Pandya, Hitesh C

    2015-12-01

    Adult human airway smooth muscle (ASM) produce cytokines involved in recruitment and survival of leukocytes within airway walls. Cytokine generation by adult ASM is glucocorticoid-sensitive. Whether developing lung ASM produces cytokines in a glucocorticoid-sensitive fashion is unknown. Cultured fetal human ASM cells stimulated with TNF-α (0-20 ng/ml) were incubated with TNF-α receptor-blocking antibodies, fluticasone (1 and 100 nm), or vehicle. Supernatants and cells were assayed for the production of CCL5, CXCL10, and CXCL8 mRNA and protein and glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation. CCL5, CXCL10, and CXCL8 mRNA and protein production by fetal ASM cell was significantly and dose-dependently following TNF-α treatment. Cytokine mRNA and protein production were effectively blocked by TNF-α R1 and R2 receptor neutralizing antibodies but variably inhibited by fluticasone. TNF-α-induced TNF-R1 and R2 receptor mRNA expression was only partially attenuated by fluticasone. Glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation at serine (Ser) 211 but not at Ser 226 was enhanced by fluticasone. Production of CCL5, CXCL10, and CXCL8 by fetal ASM appears to involve pathways that are both qualitatively and mechanistically distinct to those described for adult ASM. The findings imply developing ASM has potential to recruit leukocyte into airways and, therefore, of relevance to childhood airway diseases.

  12. Characterization of differential properties of rabbit tendon stem cells and tenocytes

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    Wang James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tendons are traditionally thought to consist of tenocytes only, the resident cells of tendons; however, a recent study has demonstrated that human and mouse tendons also contain stem cells, referred to as tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs. However, the differential properties of TSCs and tenocytes remain largely undefined. This study aims to characterize the properties of these tendon cells derived from rabbits. Methods TSCs and tenocytes were isolated from patellar and Achilles tendons of rabbits. The differentiation potential and cell marker expression of the two types of cells were examined using histochemical, immunohistochemical, and qRT-PCR analysis as well as in vivo implantation. In addition, morphology, colony formation, and proliferation of TSCs and tenocytes were also compared. Results It was found that TSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in vitro, and form tendon-like, cartilage-like, and bone-like tissues in vivo. In contrast, tenocytes had little such differentiation potential. Moreover, TSCs expressed the stem cell markers Oct-4, SSEA-4, and nucleostemin, whereas tenocytes expressed none of these markers. Morphologically, TSCs possessed smaller cell bodies and larger nuclei than ordinary tenocytes and had cobblestone-like morphology in confluent culture whereas tenocytes were highly elongated. TSCs also proliferated more quickly than tenocytes in culture. Additionally, TSCs from patellar tendons formed more numerous and larger colonies and proliferated more rapidly than TSCs from Achilles tendons. Conclusions TSCs exhibit distinct properties compared to tenocytes, including differences in cell marker expression, proliferative and differentiation potential, and cell morphology in culture. Future research should investigate the mechanobiology of TSCs and explore the possibility of using TSCs to more effectively repair or regenerate injured tendons.

  13. Leukocyte Overexpression of Intracellular NAMPT Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Regulating PPARγ-Dependent Monocyte Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Dahl, Tuva Borresdatter; Medina, Indira; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Holm, Sverre; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rousch, Mat; Otten, Jeroen; Herias, Veronica; Varela, Lourdes M; Ranheim, Trine; Yndestad, Arne; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Nagy, Laszlo; Aukrust, Pal; Muriana, Francisco J G; Halvorsen, Bente; Biessen, Erik Anna Leonardus

    2017-06-01

    Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) mediates inflammatory and potentially proatherogenic effects, whereas the role of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT), the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + generation, in atherogenesis is largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of iNAMPT overexpression in leukocytes on inflammation and atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice with hematopoietic overexpression of human iNAMPT (iNAMPT hi ), on a western type diet, showed attenuated plaque burden with features of lesion stabilization. This anti-atherogenic effect was caused by improved resistance of macrophages to apoptosis by attenuated chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2-dependent monocyte chemotaxis and by skewing macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The iNAMPT hi phenotype was almost fully reversed by treatment with the NAMPT inhibitor FK866, indicating that iNAMPT catalytic activity is instrumental in the atheroprotection. Importantly, iNAMPT overexpression did not induce any increase in eNAMPT, and eNAMPT had no effect on chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 expression and promoted an inflammatory M1 phenotype in macrophages. The iNAMPT-mediated effects at least partly involved sirtuin 1-dependent molecular crosstalk of NAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Finally, iNAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ showed a strong correlation in human atherosclerotic, but not healthy arteries, hinting to a relevance of iNAMPT/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway also in human carotid atherosclerosis. This study highlights the functional dichotomy of intracellular versus extracellular NAMPT, and unveils a critical role for the iNAMPT-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ axis in atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Guo, YiFan; So, Kam-Hei; Vijayan, Madhavi; Guo, Yue; Wong, Vera H H; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B

    2015-10-01

    What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of recombinant sHLAG5 during the differentiation process. The phenotypes and the biological activities of the resulting macrophages were compared. Recombinant sHLAG5 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 and the protein identity was verified by tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of macrophage markers were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Phagocytosis was determined by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and activity were measured by western blot analysis and kynurenine assay, respectively. Cell proliferation and cell cycling were determined by fluorometric cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokine secretion was determined by cytokine array and ELISA kits. Intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell invasion and migration were determined by trans-well invasion and migration assay, respectively. sHLAG5 drove the differentiation of macrophages with 'immuno-modulatory' characteristics, including reduced expression of M1 macrophage marker CD86 and increased expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163. sHLAG5-polarized

  15. Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology flow cytometric reference method of determining the differential leukocyte count: external quality assurance using fresh blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Y; Nagai, Y; Ogawa, E; Kondo, H

    2017-04-01

    To provide target values for the manufacturers' survey of the Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology (JSLH), accurate standard data from healthy volunteers were needed for the five-part differential leukocyte count. To obtain such data, JSLH required an antibody panel that achieved high specificity (particularly for mononuclear cells) using simple gating procedures. We developed a flow cytometric method for determining the differential leukocyte count (JSLH-Diff) and validated it by comparison with the flow cytometric differential leukocyte count of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH-Diff) and the manual differential count obtained by microscopy (Manual-Diff). First, the reference laboratory performed an imprecision study of JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff, as well as performing comparison among JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Then two reference laboratories and seven participating laboratories performed imprecision and accuracy studies of JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Simultaneously, six manufacturers' laboratories provided their own representative values by using automated hematology analyzers. The precision of both JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff methods was adequate. Comparison by the reference laboratory showed that all correlation coefficients, slopes and intercepts obtained by the JSLH-Diff, ICSH-Diff, and Manual-Diff methods conformed to the criteria. When the imprecision and accuracy of JSLH-Diff were assessed at seven laboratories, the CV% for lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils was 0.5~0.9%, 0.3~0.7%, 1.7~2.6%, 3.0~7.9%, and 3.8~10.4%, respectively. More than 99% of CD45 positive leukocytes were identified as normal leukocytes by JSLH-Diff. When JSLH-Diff method were validated by comparison with Manual-Diff and ICSH-Diff, JSLH-Diff showed good performance as a reference method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The differential effects of leukocyte-containing and pure platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tendon stem/progenitor cells - implications of PRP application for the clinical treatment of tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Wu, Haishan; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2015-09-15

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used to treat tendon injuries in clinics. These PRP preparations often contain white blood cells or leukocytes, and the precise cellular effects of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) on tendons are not well defined. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of L-PRP on tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs), which play a key role in tendon homeostasis and repair. TSCs isolated from the patellar tendons of rabbits were treated with L-PRP or P-PRP (pure PRP without leukocytes) in vitro, followed by measuring cell proliferation, stem cell marker expression, inflammatory gene expression, and anabolic and catabolic protein expression by using immunostaining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Cell proliferation was induced by both L-PRP and P-PRP in a dose-dependent manner with maximum proliferation at a 10 % PRP dose. Both PRP treatments also induced differentiation of TSCs into active tenocytes. Nevertheless, the two types of PRP largely differed in several effects exerted on TSCs. L-PRP induced predominantly catabolic and inflammatory changes in differentiated tenocytes; its treatment increased the expression of catabolic marker genes, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and their respective protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) production. In contrast, P-PRP mainly induced anabolic changes; that is, P-PRP increased the gene expression of anabolic genes, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen types I and III. These findings indicate that, while both L-PRP and P-PRP appear to be "safe" in inducing TSC differentiation into active tenocytes, L-PRP may be detrimental to the healing of injured tendons because it induces catabolic and inflammatory effects on tendon cells and may prolong the effects in healing tendons. On the other hand, when P-PRP is used to

  17. Retention of differentiated characteristics by cultures of defined rabbit kidney epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Anderson, R J; Breckon, R D; Nathrath, W; Schrier, R W

    1987-02-01

    Rabbit nephron segments of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT); proximal straight tubules (PST); cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop (CAL, MAL); and cortical, outer medullary, and inner medullary collecting tubules (CCT, OMCT, IMCT) were individually microdissected and grown in monolayer culture in hormone supplemented, defined media. Factors favoring a rapid onset of proliferation included young donor age, distal tubule origin, and the addition of 3% fetal calf serum to the medium. All primary cultures had polarized morphology with apical microvilli facing the medium and basement membrane-like material adjacent to the dish. Differentiated properties characteristic of the tubular epithelium of origin retained in cultures included ultrastructural characteristics and cytochemically demonstrable marker enzyme proportions. PCT and PST were rich in alkaline phosphatase; CAL stained strongly for NaK-ATPase; CCT contained two cell populations with regard to cytochrome oxidase reaction. A CCT-specific anti-keratin antibody (aLEA) was immunolocalized in CCT cultures, and a PST cytokeratin antibody stained PST cultures. The biochemical response of adenylate cyclase to putative stimulating agents was the same in primary cultures as in freshly isolated tubules. In PCT and PST adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by arginine vasopressin (AVP); CAL and MAL adenylate cyclase was stimulated by neither PTH nor AVP; CCT, OMCT, and IMCT adenylate cyclase was stimulated by AVP but not by PTH. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in every cultured segment. It is concluded that primary cultures of individually microdissected rabbit PCT, PST, CAL, MAL, CCT, OMCT, and IMCT retain differentiated characteristics with regard to ultrastructure, marker enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and hormone response of adenylate cyclase and provide a new system for studying normal and abnormal functions of the heterogeneous tubular

  18. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

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    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  19. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3 days healing in rabbit Achilles tendon rupture model after early kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialili, Ainuer; Jielile, Jiasharete; Abudoureyimu, Shajidan; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Redati, Darebai; Bai, Jing-Ping; Bin, Liang; Duisabai, Sailike; Aishan, Jiangaguli; Kasimu, Haxiaobieke

    2011-04-01

    Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT) rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n equal to 16) received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n equal to 16) received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C). The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, pro-alpha-1 type 1 collagen

  20. [Mechanisms of leukocyte formation of endogenous pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of endogenous pyrogen production by rabbit blood and exudate leukocytes and possible role played by the products of activated leukocytes in autoregulation of the process. It was established that accumulation of endogenous pyrogen in the cell precedes its release by stimulated cells. Then the processes of active pyrogen formation and release gel interdependent: pyrogen formed releases from the cell; the lowering of pyrogen concentration in the cell is accompanied by the decrease of its content in the medium. No stimulating effect of the products activated during leukocyte inflammation on pyrogen formation by blood leukocytes was discovered.

  1. Transfection of the IHH gene into rabbit BMSCs in a simulated microgravity environment promotes chondrogenic differentiation and inhibits cartilage aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Kuan; Liu, Jun-Feng; Xia, Kuo; Chen, Li-Yang; Wu, Xing

    2016-09-27

    The effect of overexpressing the Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene on the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was investigated in a simulated microgravity environment. An adenovirus plasmid encoding the rabbit IHH gene was constructed in vitro and transfected into rabbit BMSCs. Two large groups were used: conventional cell culture and induction model group and simulated microgravity environment group. Each large group was further divided into blank control group, GFP transfection group, and IHH transfection group. During differentiation induction, the expression levels of cartilage-related and cartilage hypertrophy-related genes and proteins in each group were determined. In the conventional model, the IHH transfection group expressed high levels of cartilage-related factors (Coll2 and ANCN) at the early stage of differentiation induction and expressed high levels of cartilage hypertrophy-related factors (Coll10, annexin 5, and ALP) at the late stage. Under the simulated microgravity environment, the IHH transfection group expressed high levels of cartilage-related factors and low levels of cartilage hypertrophy-related factors at all stages of differentiation induction. Under the simulated microgravity environment, transfection of the IHH gene into BMSCs effectively promoted the generation of cartilage and inhibited cartilage aging and osteogenesis. Therefore, this technique is suitable for cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A; Schneider, David A; White, Stephen N; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Davis, William C

    2016-06-01

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspecies comparative immune system analyses. This study describes cross-reactive mAbs that recognize leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDMs) and major histocompatibility complex antigens on DS and BHS leukocytes. Characterization of multichannel eosinophil autofluorescence in this study permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for evaluating LDMs, specifically on neutrophils, by single-label FC. Evaluation of relative abundances of LDMs by flow cytometry revealed greater CD11a, CD11b, CD18 (β2 integrins) and CD 172a (SIRPα) on DS neutrophils and greater CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) on BHS neutrophils. Greater CD25 (IL-2) was identified on BHS lymphocytes following Concavalin A stimulation. While DS and BHS have similar total peripheral blood leukocyte counts, BHS have proportionately more neutrophils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Kazakh therapy on differential protein expression of Achilles tendon healing in a 7-day postoperative rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuerai, Shawutali; Ainuer, Jialili; Jiasharete, Jielile; Darebai, Redati; Kayrat, Aldyarhan; Tang, Bin; Jiangannur, Zheyiken; Bai, Jingping; Makabel, Bolat

    2011-12-01

    To compare the effect of cast immobilization with that of early Kiymil arkili emdew (Kazakh exercise therapy) on the post-operative healing of Achilles tendon rupture in rabbits, and to observe the influence of early Kiymil arkili emdew on the differentially expressed proteins in the healing tendon. Forty-five New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (Arm A: control group; Arm B: postoperative immobilization group; and Arm C: postoperative early Kiymil arkili emdew group). After tenotomy, the rabbits of the two experimental groups received microsurgery to repair the ruptured tendons, and then received either cast immobilization or early Kiymil arkili emdew treatment. Achilles tendon tissue samples were collected 7 days after the surgery, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS technique were used to analyze differentially expressed proteins in the tendon tissue of the three Arms. A total of 462.67 +/- 11.59, 532.33 +/- 27.79, and 515.33 +/- 6.56 protein spots were detected by the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels in the Achilles tendon samples of the rabbits in Arms A, B, and C, respectively. Nineteen differentially expressed protein spots were randomly selected from Arm C. Among them, 7 were unique, and 15 had five times higher abundance than those in Arm B. These included annexin A2, gelsolin isoforms and alpha-1 Type III collagen. It was confirmed by western blot that gelsolin isoform b, annexin A2, etc. had specific and incremental expression in Arm C. The self-protective instincts of humans were overlooked in the classical postoperative treatment for Achilles tendon rupture with cast immobilization. Kiymil arkili emdew induced the specific and incremental expression of proteins in the repaired Achilles tendon in the early healing stage in a rabbit model, compared with those treated with postoperative cast immobilization. These differentially expressed proteins may contribute to the healing of the Achilles tendon via

  4. Study of differential properties of fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes in growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Li, M; Li, H; Yang, C; Cai, X

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to build a culture model of chondrocytes in vitro, and to study the differential properties between fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin so that we could analyse the histological structure of the fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Condylar fibrochondrocytes and femoral hyaline chondrocytes were cultured from four, 4-week-old, New Zealand white rabbits. The production of COL2A1, COL1OA1, SOX9 and aggrecan was detected by real time-q polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunoblotting and the differences between them were compared statistically. Histological structures obviously differed between fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. COL2A1 and SOX9 were highly expressed within cell passage 2 (P2) of both fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes, and reduced significantly after cell passage 4 (P4). The mRNA expressions of COL2A1 (p=0.05), COL10A1 (p=0.04), SOX9 (p=0.03), and aggrecan (p=0.04) were significantly higher in hyaline chondrocytes than in fibrochondrocytes, whereas the expression of COL1A1 (p=0.02) was the opposite. Immunoblotting showed similar results. We have built a simple and effective culture model of chondrocytes in vitro, and the P2 of chondrocytes is recommended for further studies. Condylar fibrocartilage and femoral hyaline cartilage have unique biological properties, and the regulatory mechanisms of endochondral ossification for the condyle should be studied independently in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteochondral defect repair using bilayered hydrogels encapsulating both chondrogenically and osteogenically pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, J.; Lu, S.; Lee, E.J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Meretoja, V.V.; Dahlin, R.L.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of cell-laden bilayered hydrogels encapsulating chondrogenically and osteogenically (OS) pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to effect osteochondral defect repair in a rabbit model. By varying the period of chondrogenic pre-differentiation from 7

  6. Differential effects of thioridazine enantiomers on action potential duration in rabbit papillary muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ask Schou; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Sevcencu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    with (+)-thioridazine. In this study we for the first time investigate the cardiotoxicity of the isolated thioridazine enantiomers and show their effects on ventricular repolarization. The effects of (+)-thioridazine, (-)-thioridazine, and racemate on the rabbit ventricular action potential duration (APD) were...... investigated in a randomized controlled blinded experiment. Action potentials were measured in papillary muscles isolated from 21 female rabbits, and the drug effect on 90% APD in comparison with control (DeltaDelta-APD90) was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of (+)-thioridazine and the racemate caused...

  7. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures.

  8. Pentosan polysulfate inhibits atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits: differential modulation of metalloproteinase-2 and -9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Zheng, Feng; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Tack, Ivan; Doublier, Sophie; Elliot, Sharon J; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

    2012-02-01

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a heparinoid compound essentially devoid of anticoagulant activity, modulates cell growth and decreases inflammation. We investigated the effect of PPS on the progression of established atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. After severe atherosclerosis developed on an atherogenic diet, WHHL rabbits were treated with oral PPS or tap water for 1 month. The aortic intima-to-media ratio and macrophage infiltration were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased, and plaque fibrous caps were preserved by PPS treatment. Plasma lipid levels and post-heparin hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged. However, net collagenolytic activity in aortic extracts was decreased, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) activity were increased by PPS. Moreover, PPS treatment decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory responses, in particular activation of nuclear factor-κB and p38, and activation of MMPs in macrophages. In conclusion, oral PPS treatment prevents progression of established atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. This effect may be partially mediated by increased MMP-2 and TIMP activities in the aortic wall and reduced TNFα-stimulated inflammation and MMP activation in macrophages. Thus, PPS may be a useful agent in inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis.

  9. Procoagulant activity of leukocytes pretreated with radiodetoxified endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, T; Csernyanszky, H; Gazdy, E [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-09-30

    Rabbits were treated with Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin detoxified by ionizing irradiation (/sup 60/Co-gamma). The leukocytes (PMNs in 90%) obtained from rabbits treated with the mother endotoxin elicited a well defined activity; those obtained from rabbits pretreated with detoxified endotoxin elicited a less pronounced, procoagulant activity. It is suggested that the procoagulant effect may play a part in the mechanism of the local Shwartzman phenomenon.

  10. Embryonic stem-like cells from rabbit blastocysts cultured with melatonin could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruxue; Zhao, Xueming; Hao, Haisheng; Du, Weihua; Zhu, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10 -7  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19.97% to 34.57%) and the longevity of passaging rES-like cells. Melatonin also enhanced the expression of pluripotent genes-including alkaline phosphatase, Pou5f1, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Line28a, and surface marker proteins-in fifth-passage rES-like cells. In vitro, these rES-like cells could spontaneously differentiate into some somatic cells, such as beating cardiomyocytes; formed embryoid bodies; expressed markers of the three germ layers after differentiation; and formed teratomas after injection into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Thus, melatonin helped coax ES-like cells from rabbit blastocysts, which raises intriguing questions about the relationship between pluripotency and proliferation in rabbit embryonic stem cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1003-1014, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hypothyroidism affects differentially the cell size of epithelial cells among oviductal regions of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Martínez-Gómez, M; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Castelán, F; Cuevas, E

    2015-02-01

    Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti-Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero-tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria-infundibulum (FIM-INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross-sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Differential Expression of Several miRNAs and the Host Genes AATK and DNM2 in Leukocytes of Sporadic ALS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vrabec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have managed to explain many cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS through mutations in several genes. However, the cause of a majority of sporadic cases remains unknown. Recently, epigenetics, especially miRNA studies, show some promising aspects. We aimed to evaluate the differential expression of 10 miRNAs, including miR-9, miR-338, miR-638, miR-663a, miR-124a, miR-143, miR-451a, miR-132, miR-206, and let-7b, for which some connection to ALS was shown previously in ALS culture cells, animal models or patients, and in three miRNA host genes, including C1orf61 (miR-9, AATK (miR-338, and DNM2 (miR-638, in leukocyte samples of 84 patients with sporadic ALS. We observed significant aberrant dysregulation across our patient cohort for miR-124a, miR-206, miR-9, let-7b, and miR-638. Since we did not use neurological controls we cannot rule out that the revealed differences in expression of investigated miRNAs are specific for ALS. Nevertheless, the group of these five miRNAs is worth of additional research in leukocytes of larger cohorts from different populations in order to verify their potential association to ALS disease. We also detected a significant up-regulation of the AAKT gene and down-regulation of the DNM2 gene, and thus, for the first time, we connected these with sporadic ALS cases. These findings open up new research toward miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and epigenetic processes involved in ALS. The detected significant deregulation of AAKT and DNM2 in sporadic ALS also represents an interesting finding. The DNM2 gene was previously found to be mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy-type CMT2M and centronuclear myopathy (CNM. In addition, as recent studies connected AATK and frontotemporal dementia (FTD and DNM2 and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP, these two genes together with our results genetically connect, at least in part, five diseases, including FTD, HSP, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (type CMT2M, CNM

  13. Differential Expression of Several miRNAs and the Host Genes AATK and DNM2 in Leukocytes of Sporadic ALS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Katarina; Boštjančič, Emanuela; Koritnik, Blaž; Leonardis, Lea; Dolenc Grošelj, Leja; Zidar, Janez; Rogelj, Boris; Glavač, Damjan; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka

    2018-01-01

    Genetic studies have managed to explain many cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through mutations in several genes. However, the cause of a majority of sporadic cases remains unknown. Recently, epigenetics, especially miRNA studies, show some promising aspects. We aimed to evaluate the differential expression of 10 miRNAs, including miR-9, miR-338, miR-638, miR-663a, miR-124a, miR-143, miR-451a, miR-132, miR-206, and let-7b, for which some connection to ALS was shown previously in ALS culture cells, animal models or patients, and in three miRNA host genes, including C1orf61 (miR-9), AATK (miR-338), and DNM2 (miR-638), in leukocyte samples of 84 patients with sporadic ALS. We observed significant aberrant dysregulation across our patient cohort for miR-124a, miR-206, miR-9, let-7b, and miR-638. Since we did not use neurological controls we cannot rule out that the revealed differences in expression of investigated miRNAs are specific for ALS. Nevertheless, the group of these five miRNAs is worth of additional research in leukocytes of larger cohorts from different populations in order to verify their potential association to ALS disease. We also detected a significant up-regulation of the AAKT gene and down-regulation of the DNM2 gene, and thus, for the first time, we connected these with sporadic ALS cases. These findings open up new research toward miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and epigenetic processes involved in ALS. The detected significant deregulation of AAKT and DNM2 in sporadic ALS also represents an interesting finding. The DNM2 gene was previously found to be mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy-type CMT2M and centronuclear myopathy (CNM). In addition, as recent studies connected AATK and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and DNM2 and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), these two genes together with our results genetically connect, at least in part, five diseases, including FTD, HSP, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (type CMT2M), CNM, and ALS

  14. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress. While these deleterious events induce hepatocyte injury, FOLE at high doses cause only minor ER and mitochondrial damage, which has no effect on hepatic function. SOLE also significantly upregulated glucose-regulated protein 94 mRNA and protein expression. These data indicate that SOLE, but not FOLE, damage the ER and mitochondria, resulting in lipid droplets accumulation and ER stress and, finally, hepatocyte injury. This likely contributes to the differential impacts of SOLE and FOLE on PNALD development and progression.

  15. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  16. Short communication: Effect of age at group housing on behavior, cortisol, health, and leukocyte differential counts of neonatal bull dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of age at grouping on behavior, health, and production of dairy bull calves, 90 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were housed in individual pens until moved to 1 of 3 treatments. Calves were housed in groups of 3 calves at 3 d old (GH3), 7 d old (GH7), or 14 d old (GH14) until 7 wk of age. Ten groups of 3 calves for each treatment were used, with 5 pens/treatment in each of 2 replications (10 pens/treatment, 3 treatments, 3 calves/treatment; 90 calves total). Direct behavioral observations using instantaneous scan sampling every 10 min were conducted twice per week for 7 wk. At the same times, video data were recorded for continuous observations at feeding time to observe the overall activity of group-housed calves. Hip height, heart girth, and health scores were recorded weekly and body weight was recorded at the start and end of the study. Calves in GH3 spent more time playing and but more time cross-sucking and displacing other calves from milk bottles. Calves engaged in social interaction as early as 3 d of age, and social interactions between 3 to 6 wk of age increased markedly. Calves housed in GH14 vocalized more than did calves in GH7 and GH3. No difference was found between treatments in growth performance. Calf fecal, cough, and nasal and ocular discharge scores, differential leukocyte counts, and plasma cortisol concentrations were not affected by age at grouping. However, during the first week of grouping, when calves were moved from individual pens to group pens, some calves were unable to find their milk bottles and required guidance. In conclusion, these data show no adverse effects on health or performance and some benefits on social behavior for early (d 3) grouping of calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Passive acquisition of leukocyte proteins is associated with changes in phosphorylation of cellular proteins and cell-cell adhesion properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibzadeh, S. S.; Kong, Q. F.; Kapur, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, we show that interaction of neoplastic epithelial cells with vesicles derived from leukocytes results in passive acquisition by tumor cells of a diverse group of leukocyte proteins. Vesicles shed from leukocytes were heterogeneous and exhibited the specific proteins expressed on leukocyte subsets. Accordingly, epithelial cells differentially acquired leukocyte proteins associated with vesicles. Ultrastructural localization demonstrated that acquired proteins were associated wi...

  18. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-12-29

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.

  19. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  20. [Stimulation of maturing and terminal differentiation by concanavalin A in rabbit permanent chondrocyte cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W Q; Yang, T S; Hou, L Z; Susuki, F; Kato, Y

    1994-12-01

    The effect of concanavalin A (Con A) on maturing and terminal differentiation in permanent chondrocyte cultures were examined. Chondrocytes isolated from permanent cartilage were seeded at low density and grown in MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 micrograms/ml of ascorbic acid and antibiotics, at 37 degrees C under 50% CO2 in air. At 0.3% of low serum concentration, addition of Con A to the culture medium increased by 3- to 4-fold the incorporation of [35S] sulfate into large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that characteristically found in cartilage. Chemical analysis showed a 4-fold increase in the accumulation of macromolecular containing hexuronic acid in Con A-maintained cultures. The effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan was greater than that of various growth factor or hormones. Brief exposure of the permanent chondrocytes to Con A (5 micrograms/ml) for 24 hours and subsequent incubation in its absence for 5-10 days resulted in 10- to 100-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase and binding of 1.25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 to cells. Treatment with Con A also resulted in 10- to 20-fold increase in calcium content and 45Ca incorporation into insoluble material. Methyl-D-mannopyranoside reversed the effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase activity. Since other lectins, such as wheat germ agglutinin, lentil lectin, phytohemagglutinin, Ulex europeasu agglutinin and garden pea lectin had been tested to have little effect on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans and induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, the Con A action on chondrocytes seems specific. These results indicate that Con A is a potent modulator of differentiation of chondrocytes, which induces the onset on a maturing and a terminal differentiation in chondrocytes, leading to extensive calcification of the extracellular matrix.

  1. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, Edith; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2013-01-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through elimination of pathogens and removal of damaged tissue. Leukocytes migrate to the site of inflammation by crawling over and through the blood vessel wall, into the tissue. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (ie,

  2. Evaluation of an automated milk leukocyte differential test and the California Mastitis Test for detecting intramammary infection in early- and late-lactation quarters and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Royster, E; Timmerman, J; Rapnicki, P; Green, H

    2017-08-01

    Study objectives were to (1) describe the diagnostic test characteristics of an automated milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify intramammary infection (IMI) in early- (EL) and late-lactation (LL) quarters and cows when using 3 different approaches to define IMI from milk culture, and (2) describe the repeatability of MLD test results at both the quarter and cow level. Eighty-six EL and 90 LL Holstein cows were sampled from 3 Midwest herds. Quarter milk samples were collected for a cow-side CMT test, milk culture, and MLD testing. Quarter IMI status was defined by 3 methods: culture of a single milk sample, culture of duplicate samples with parallel interpretation, and culture of duplicate samples with serial interpretation. The MLD testing was completed in duplicate within 8 h of sample collection; MLD results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible threshold setting (1-18 for EL; 1-12 for LL) and CMT results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible cut-points (trace, ≥1, ≥2, or 3). We created 2 × 2 tables to compare MLD and CMT results to milk culture, at both the quarter and cow level, when using each of 3 different definitions of IMI as the referent test. Paired MLD test results were compared with evaluate repeatability. The MLD test showed excellent repeatability. The choice of definition of IMI from milk culture had minor effects on estimates of MLD and CMT test characteristics. For EL samples, when interpreting MLD and CMT results at the quarter level, and regardless of the referent test used, both tests had low sensitivity (MLD = 11.7-39.1%; CMT = 0-52.2%) but good to very good specificity (MLD = 82.1-95.2%; CMT = 68.1-100%), depending on the cut-point used. Sensitivity improved slightly if diagnosis was interpreted at the cow level (MLD = 25.6-56.4%; CMT = 0-72.2%), though specificity generally declined (MLD = 61.8-100%; CMT = 25.0-100%) depending on the cut-point used. For LL

  3. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression of achilles tendon in a rabbit model by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 21 days postoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jielile, Jiasharete; Jialili, Ainuer; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Shawutali, Nuerai; Redati, Darebai; Chen, Jiangtao; Tang, Bin; Bai, Jingping; Aldyarhan, Kayrat

    2011-10-01

    Postoperative early kinesitherapy has been advocated as an optimal method for treating Achilles tendon rupture. However, an insight into the rationale of how early kinesitherapy contributes to healing of Achilles tendon remains to be achieved, and research in the area of proteomic analysis of Achilles tendon has so far been lacking. Forty-two rabbits were randomized into control group, immobilization group, and early motion group, and received postoperative cast immobilization and early motion treatments. Achilles tendon samples were prepared 21 days following microsurgery, and the proteins were separated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were first recognized by PDQuest software, and then identified using peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometry, and database searching. A total of 463  ±  12, 511  ±  39, and 513  ±  80 protein spots were successfully detected in the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels for the Achilles tendon samples of rabbits in the control group, immobilization group, and early motion group, respectively. There were 15, 8, and 9 unique proteins in these three groups, respectively, and some differentially expressed proteins were also identified in each group. It was indicated that some of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in various metabolism pathways and may play an important role in healing of Achilles tendon rupture. Postoperative early kinesitherapy resulted in differentially expressed proteins in ruptured Achilles tendon compared with those treated with postoperative cast immobilization. These differentially expressed proteins may contribute to healing of Achilles tendon rupture through a mechanobiological mechanism due to the application of postoperative early kinesitherapy.

  4. [In vitro differentiation of synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells infected by adenovirus vector mediated by bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 genes into fibrocartilage cells in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peiliang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Haishan; Cong, Ruijun; Chen, Song; Ding, Zheru; Hu, Kaimen

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of rabbit synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) differentiating into fibrocartilage cells by the recombinant adenovirus vector mediated by bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP-2/7) genes in vitro. SMSCs were isolated and purified from 3-month-old New Zealand white rabbits [male or female, weighing (2.1 +/- 0.3) kg]; the morphology was observed; the cells were identified with immunocytological fluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and cell cycles. The adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations were detected. The recombinant plasmid of pAdTrack-BMP-2-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-BMP-7 was constructed and then was used to infect SMSCs. The cell DNA content and the oncogenicity were tested to determine the safety. Then infected SMSCs were cultured in incomplete chondrogenic medium in vitro. Chondrogenic differentiation of infected SMSCs was detected by RT-PCR, immunofluorescent staining, and toluidine blue staining. SMSCs expressed surface markers of stem cells, and had multi-directional potential. The transfection efficiency of SMSCs infected by recombinant plasmid of pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 was about 70%. The safety results showed that infected SMSCs had normal double time, normal chromosome number, and normal DNA content and had no oncogenicity. At 21 days after cultured in incomplete chondrocyte medium, RT-PCR results showed SMSCs had increased expressions of collegan type I and collegan type II, particularly collegan type II; the expressions of RhoA and Sox-9 increased obviously. Immunofluorescent staining and toluidine blue staining showed differentiation of SMSCs into fibrocartilage cells. It is safe to use pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 for infecting SMSCs. SMSCs infected by pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 can differentiate into fibrocartilage cells spontaneously in vitro.

  5. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  6. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Xu, Yumin; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Cui, Ningxun; Cui, Mingling; Li, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resu...

  7. Blastema cells derived from New Zealand white rabbit's pinna carry stemness properties as shown by differentiation into insulin producing, neural, and osteogenic lineages representing three embryonic germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeinasab, Morvarid; Matin, Maryam M; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are known as undifferentiated cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Regeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in a limited number of animals after injury, during which blastema tissue is formed. It has been hypothesized that upon injury, the dedifferentiation of surrounding tissues leads into the appearance of cells with SC characteristics. In present study, stem-like cells (SLCs) were obtained from regenerating tissue of New Zealand white rabbit's pinna and their stemness properties were examined by their capacity to differentiate toward insulin producing cells (IPCs), as well as neural and osteogenic lineages. Differentiation was induced by culture of SLCs in defined medium, and cell fates were monitored by specific staining, RT-PCR and flow cytometry assays. Our results revealed that dithizone positive cells, which represent IPCs, and islet-like structures appeared 1 week after induction of SLCs, and this observation was confirmed by the elevated expression of Ins, Pax6 and Glut4 at mRNA level. Furthermore, SLCs were able to express neural markers as early as 1 week after retinoic acid treatment. Finally, SLCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining and RT-PCR studies. In conclusion, SLCs, which could successfully differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers, can be considered as a valuable model to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

  8. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Differentially Facilitate Leukocyte Recruitment and Utilize Chemokines for T Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Man

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells that functionally express blood brain barrier (BBB properties are useful surrogates for studying leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions at the BBB. In this study, we compared two different endothelial cellular models: transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. With each grow under optimal conditions, confluent THBMEC cultures showed continuous occludin and ZO-1 immunoreactivity, while HUVEC cultures exhibited punctate ZO-1 expression at sites of cell-cell contact only. Confluent THBMEC cultures on 24-well collagen-coated transwell inserts had significantly higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and lower solute permeability than HUVECs. Confluent THBMECs were more restrictive for mononuclear cell migration than HUVECs. Only THBMECs utilized abluminal CCL5 to facilitate T-lymphocyte migration in vitro although both THBMECs and HUVECs employed CCL3 to facilitate T cell migration. These data establish baseline conditions for using THBMECs to develop in vitro BBB models for studying leukocyte-endothelial interactions during neuroinflammation.

  9. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  10. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  11. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  12. Human leukocytic pyrogen: purification and development of a radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A; Renfer, L; Wolff, S M

    1977-10-01

    Leukocytic pyrogen is a small endogenous protein that mediates fever. Because of the limitations of bioassays, circulating leukocytic pyrogen has not been demonstrated during fever in humans. The pyrogen was produced in vitro after phagocytosis of staphylococci by blood monocytes. Antibody against the pyrogen was obtained from rabbits immunized with leukocytic pyrogen and the antiserum was purified by solid-phase immunoadsorbants. Purified antibody to the pyrogen was attached to activated Sepharose 4B and used in conjunction with gel filtration to purify the pyrogen. The pyrogen was labeled with 125I and further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The final preparation of 125I-labeled pyrogen demonstrated a homogeneous band during isoelectric focusing and other separation procedures. With antibody to pyrogen attached to Sepharose, less than 0.1 of a rabbit pyrogenic dose of human leukocytic pyrogen inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled pyrogen to this immunoadsorbant, and this inhibition was not affected by the presence of human serum. Thus, a radioimmunoassay for human leukocytic pyrogen has been developed that may be used to detect circulating pyrogen during fever in humans.

  13. Differential responses of rabbit ventricular and atrial transient outward current (Ito) to the Ito modulator NS5806.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Cannell, Mark B; Hancox, Jules C

    2017-03-01

    Transient outward potassium current (I to ) in the heart underlies phase 1 repolarization of cardiac action potentials and thereby affects excitation-contraction coupling. Small molecule activators of I to may therefore offer novel treatments for cardiac dysfunction, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. NS5806 has been identified as a prototypic activator of canine I to This study investigated, for the first time, actions of NS5806 on rabbit atrial and ventricular I to Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of I to and action potentials were made at physiological temperature from rabbit ventricular and atrial myocytes. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 increased ventricular I to with a leftward shift in I to activation and accelerated restitution. At higher concentrations, stimulation of I to was followed by inhibition. The EC 50 for stimulation was 1.6  μ mol/L and inhibition had an IC 50 of 40.7  μ mol/L. NS5806 only inhibited atrial I to (IC 50 of 18  μ mol/L) and produced a modest leftward shifts in I to activation and inactivation, without an effect on restitution. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 shortened ventricular action potential duration (APD) at APD 20 -APD 90 but prolonged atrial APD NS5806 also reduced atrial AP upstroke and amplitude, consistent with an additional atrio-selective effect on Na + channels. In contrast to NS5806, flecainide, which discriminates between Kv1.4 and 4.x channels, produced similar levels of inhibition of ventricular and atrial I to NS5806 discriminates between rabbit ventricular and atrial I to, with mixed activator and inhibitor actions on the former and inhibitor actions against the later. NS5806 may be of significant value for pharmacological interrogation of regional differences in native cardiac I to . © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Serum from plasma rich in growth factors regenerates rabbit corneas by promoting cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, adhesion and limbal stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Jaime; Sanz-Lázaro, Sara; Hernáez-Moya, Raquel; Freire, Vanesa; Durán, Juan A; Morales, María-Celia; Andollo, Noelia

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the regenerating potential and the mechanisms through which the autologous serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors (s-PRGF) favours corneal wound healing in vitro and in vivo. We compared the effect of various concentrations of s-PRGF versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and control treatment in rabbit primary corneal epithelial and stromal cells and wounded rabbit corneas. Cell proliferation was measured using an enzymatic colorimetric assay. In vitro and in vivo wound-healing progression was assessed by image-analysis software. Migration and invasion were evaluated using transfilter assays. Histological structure was analysed in stained sections. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. s-PRGF promoted the robust proliferation of epithelial cultures at any concentration, similar to FBS. Likewise, s-PRGF and FBS produced similar re-epithelialization rates in in vitro wound-healing assays. In vivo, s-PRGF treatment accelerated corneal wound healing in comparison with control treatment. This difference was significant only for 100% s-PRGF treatment in our healthy rabbit model. Histological analysis confirmed normal epithelialization in all cases. Immunohistochemistry showed a higher expression of cytokeratins 3/76 and 15, zonula occludens-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin proteins as a function of s-PRGF concentration. Notably, keratocyte density in the anterior third of the stroma increased with increase in s-PRGF concentration, suggesting an in vivo chemotactic effect of s-PRGF on keratocytes that was further confirmed in vitro. s-PRGF promotes proliferation and migration and influences limbal stemness, adhesion and fibrosis during corneal healing. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conventional and real time RT-PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) and its recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Arnal, J L; Benito, A A; Chacón, G; Martín Alonso, J M; Parra, F

    2018-01-01

    Since its emergence, variant RHDV (RHDVb/RHDV2) has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula aided by the apparent lack of cross protection provided by classic (genogroup 1; G1) strain derived vaccines. In addition to RHDVb, full-length genome sequencing of RHDV strains has recently revealed the circulation of recombinant viruses on the Iberian Peninsula. These recombinant viruses contain the RHDVb structural protein encoding sequences and the non-structural coding regions of either pathogenic RHDV-G1 strains or non-pathogenic (np) rabbit caliciviruses. The aim of the work was twofold: firstly to validate a diagnostic real time RT-PCR developed in 2012 for the detection of RHDVb strains and secondly, to design a conventional RT-PCR for the differentiation of RHDVb strains from RHDVb recombinants by subsequent sequencing of the amplicon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Leukocyte scintiscanning for the diagnosis of inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1988-01-01

    The value of leukocyte scintiscanning for clinical diagnostics is examined with regard to various areas of indications, and as a method of first examination, or as an alternative to, or additional method to be combined with, the other usual techniques. Leukocyte scintiscanning is indicated as a good first examination method in case of chronic enteritis in a highly active stage, stenosis of the colon, or when abscess is suspected, or infected renal cysts, or infection of angioplasty, osteomyelitis, or in case of fiever of unknown origin and impossible focal diagnosis. It also is applicable for follow-up diagnostics in chronic enteritis, suspected abdominal abscess, prosthetic valvular endocarditis, and infection of hip joint prothesis. The method also may yield additional information in case of renal graft rejection, coronary inflammations, for differential diagnosis of brain tumor or abcess, edematous or antodigestive pancreatitis, and in chronic polyarthritis. For leukocyte labelling, indium-111 and Tc-99m are primarily used. (ECB) [de

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the oviduct of two rabbit lines divergently selected for uterine capacity using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M; Castelló, A; Peiró, R; Argente, M J; Santacreu, M A; Folch, J M

    2013-06-01

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries from oviduct at 62 h post-mating of two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity were generated to identify differentially expressed genes. A total of 438 singletons and 126 contigs were obtained by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 704 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which 54% showed homology to known proteins of the non-redundant NCBI databases. Differential screening by dot blot validated 71 ESTs, of which 47 showed similarity to known genes. Transcripts of genes were functionally annotated in the molecular function and the biological process gene ontology categories using the BLAST2GO software and were assigned to reproductive developmental process, immune response, amino acid metabolism and degradation, response to stress and apoptosis terms. Finally, three interesting genes, PGR, HSD17B4 and ERO1L, were identified as overexpressed in the low line using RT-qPCR. Our study provides a list of candidate genes that can be useful to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences observed in early embryo survival and development traits. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Enhancement of chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells by oriented nanofiber yarn-collagen type I/hyaluronate hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xianyou; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shen; Wu, Jinglei; Li, Fengfeng; Cao, Lei; Liu, Xu-dong; Mo, Xiumei; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage defects cause joint pain and loss of mobility. It is crucial to induce the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by both biological and structural signals in cartilage tissue engineering. Sponge-like scaffolds fabricated using native cartilage extracellular matrix components can induce the BMSC differentiation by biological signals and limited structural signals. In this study, an oriented poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) P(LLA-CL)/collagen type I (Col-I) nanofiber yarn mesh, fabricated by dynamic liquid electrospinning served as a skeleton for a freeze-dried Col-I/hyaluronate (HA) chondral phase (SPONGE) containing both structural and biological signals to guide BMSC chondrogenic differentiation. In vitro results show that the Yarn Col-I/HA hybrid scaffold (Yarn-CH) promotes orientation, adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs better than SPONGE. Furthermore, BMSCs seeded on the Yarn-CH scaffold demonstrated a large increase in the glycosaminoglycan content and expression of collagen type II following a 21-day culture. - Highlights: • An oriented yarn was used as the skeleton of the sponge-like scaffold. • Both structural and biological signals were given for BMSC chondrogenic differentiation. • Yarn-CH promotes orientation and chondrogenesis differentiation of BMSCs. • Yarn-CH reproduces the superficial zone of the cartilage.

  20. ISSLS PRIZE IN BASIC SCIENCE 2018: Growth differentiation factor-6 attenuated pro-inflammatory molecular changes in the rabbit anular-puncture model and degenerated disc-induced pain generation in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Diwan, Ashish D; Kato, Kenji; Cheng, Kevin; Bae, Won C; Sun, Yang; Yamada, Junichi; Muehleman, Carol; Lenz, Mary E; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Kawakami, Mamoru; Masuda, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    To elucidate the effects of growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) on: (i) gene expression of inflammatory/pain-related molecules and structural integrity in the rabbit intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration model, and (ii) sensory dysfunction and changes in pain-marker expression in dorsal nerve ganglia (DRGs) in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model. Forty-six adolescent rabbits received anular-puncture in two non-consecutive lumbar IVDs. Four weeks later, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GDF6 (1, 10 or 100 µg) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (NP) of punctured discs and followed for 4 weeks for gene expression analysis and 12 weeks for structural analyses. For pain assessment, eight rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-injection and NP tissues of injected discs were transplanted onto L5 DRGs of 16 nude rats to examine mechanical allodynia. The rat DRGs were analyzed immunohistochemically. In GDF6-treated rabbit NPs, gene expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and nerve growth factor were significantly lower than those in the PBS group. GDF6 injections resulted in partial restoration of disc height and improvement of MRI disc degeneration grades with statistical significance in rabbit structural analyses. Allodynia induced by xenograft transplantation of rabbit degenerated NPs onto rat DRGs was significantly reduced by GDF6 injection. Staining intensities for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat DRGs of the GDF6 group were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. GDF6 injection may change the pathological status of degenerative discs and attenuate degenerated IVD-induced pain.

  1. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  2. In vitro host erythrocyte specificity and differential morphology of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia sp. from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela M; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R; Holman, Patricia J

    2006-04-01

    A Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is morphologically similar and genetically identical, based on SSU rRNA gene comparisons, to 2 agents responsible for human babesiosis in the United States. This zoonotic agent is closely related to the European parasite, Babesia divergens. The 2 organisms were characterized by in vitro comparisons. In vitro growth of the rabbit Babesia sp. was supported in human and cottontail rabbit erythrocytes, but not in bovine cells. Babesia divergens was supported in vitro in bovine and human erythrocytes, but not in cottontail rabbit cells. Morphometric analysis classifies B. divergens as a small babesia in bovine erythrocytes, but the parasite exceeds this size in human erythrocytes. The rabbit Babesia sp. is large, the same size in both human or rabbit erythrocytes, and is significantly larger than B. divergens. Eight or more rabbit Babesia sp. parasites may occur within a single erythrocyte, sometimes in a floret array, unlike B. divergens. The erythrocyte specificity and morphological differences reported in this study agree with previous in vivo results and validate the use of in vitro methods for characterization of Babesia species.

  3. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  4. A new sensitive method for detecting human endogenous (leukocyte) pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodel, P; Miller, H

    1978-03-01

    Endogenous, or leukocyte pyrogen (EP), the mediator of fever, is currently detected by injection of pyrogen-containing supernatants into rabbits. This assay has been of little value in the study of human fever because it required injection of relatively large amounts of pyrogen. We now report that injection of medium containing human EP produces fever in mice. Supernatant from 1 c 10(5) granulocytes, stimulated by phagocytosis of staphylococci and incubated overnight, or 1 x 10(4) monocytes similarly treated, produce clear pyrogenic responses. This method for detecting EP is about 100-fold more sensitive than the rabbit assay, and it appears to be specific for EP. Preliminary studies of EP released by small samples of needle liver biopsies from febrile and afebrile patients suggests that this sensitive assay may be useful for investigations into the mechanisms of clinical fever.

  5. The hemostatic agent ethamsylate promotes platelet/leukocyte aggregate formation in a model of vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Rosa; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Escolar, Ginés; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Hannaert, Patrick; Garay, Ricardo P

    2004-08-01

    The hemostatic agent ethamsylate enhances membrane expression of P-selectin in human platelets, but whether this promotes platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation is unknown. Here we investigated this point by flow cytometry determination of human platelet-leukocyte aggregates under basal conditions and after whole-blood perfusion through a damaged rabbit aorta segment. Actions of ethamsylate on adhesive molecules of platelets and leukocytes were investigated in parallel. Under basal conditions, ethamsylate was unable to modify whole-blood platelet-leukocyte aggregation, but following whole-blood perfusion through a damaged vessel, ethamsylate produced a modest, but significant increase in platelet-leukocyte aggregates (48+/-21 and 45+/-26% above control levels at ethamsylate 20 and 40 microm respectively). In isolated leukocyte plasma membranes, 14C-ethamsylate specifically bound up to an amount of 660 pmol/mg protein. Moreover, at concentrations > or =1 microm, ethamsylate induced an important (100-200%) and significant increase in the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) fluorescence signal in isolated leukocytes and was unable to significantly modify the percentage of CD11b-positive cells. However, no significant changes in aggregate formation were found when ethamsylate was incubated with isolated leukocytes and blood was reconstituted and perfused. In isolated platelet cell membranes, anti-P-selectin antibody and the anti-integrin RGD-containing pentapeptide (GRDGS) were unable to displace 14C-ethamsylate binding. In conclusion, ethamsylate specifically binds to plasma membranes of leukocytes, enhances membrane PSGL-1 expression and promotes leukocyte-platelet aggregation in whole-blood perfused through a damaged vascular segment. These results together with the previously observed enhancement of platelet P-selectin membrane expression [Thromb. Res. (2002)107:329-335] confirms and extends the view that ethamsylate acts on the first step of hemostasis, by

  6. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-12-01

    Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.

  7. Fate of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells following autologous transplantation in a rabbit model of osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Mishima, Hajime; Gao, Ran; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Aoto, Katsuya; Li, Meihua; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing quantum dots (i-QDs) are a useful tool for tracking cells in vivo in models of tissue regeneration. We previously synthesized i-QDs by conjugating QDs with a unique internalizing antibody against a heat shock protein 70 family stress chaperone. In the present study, i-QDs were used to label rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that were then transplanted into rabbits to assess differentiation potential in an osteonecrosis model. The i-QDs were taken up by bone marrow-derived MSCs collected from the iliac of 12-week-old Japanese white rabbits that were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)81 and negative for CD34 and human leukocyte antigen DR. The average rate of i-QD internalization was 93.3%. At 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after transplantation, tissue repair was evaluated histologically and by epifluorescence and electron microscopy. The i-QDs were detected at the margins of the drill holes and in the necrotized bone trabecular. There was significant colocalization of the i-QD signal in transplanted cells and markers of osteoblast and mineralization at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-transplantation, while i-QDs were detected in areas of mineralization at 12 and 24 weeks post-transplantation. Moreover, i-QDs were observed in osteoblasts in regenerated tissue by electron microscopy, demonstrating that the tissue was derived from transplanted cells. These results indicate that transplanted MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts and induce tissue repair in an osteonecrosis model and can be tracked over the long term by i-QD labeling. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  9. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  10. Comparison of Plasmagel with LeucoPREP-Macrodex methods for separation of leukocytes for virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G L; Proffitt, M R

    1987-10-01

    Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, NY), which can separate both polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells from other blood components, and LeucoPREP (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, Mountain View, CA), which can separate mononuclear cells from other blood components, were used to harvest leukocytes from whole blood for the purpose of virus isolation. Macrodex was combined with the later, in a second step, for recovery of PMN. Of 90 peripheral blood specimens examined, cytomegalovirus was recovered from 10: in six by both methods, in three from Plasmagel prepared cells only, and in one from cells from the LeucoPREP-Macrodex preparation only. Total leukocyte counts, differential counts, and leukocyte viability did not differ significantly for the two methods. Plasmagel provided an efficient, inexpensive means of harvesting leukocytes from whole blood for virus isolation.

  11. Hypoxia, leukocytes, and the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Davie, Neil J; Reeves, John T; Frid, Maria G

    2005-02-01

    Data are rapidly accumulating in support of the idea that circulating monocytes and/or mononuclear fibrocytes are recruited to the pulmonary circulation of chronically hypoxic animals and that these cells play an important role in the pulmonary hypertensive process. Hypoxic induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, stromal cell-derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, endothelin-1, and tumor growth factor-beta(1) in pulmonary vessel wall cells, either directly or indirectly via signals from hypoxic lung epithelial cells, may be a critical first step in the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the pulmonary circulation. In addition, hypoxic stress appears to induce release of increased numbers of monocytic progenitor cells from the bone marrow, and these cells may have upregulated expression of receptors for the chemokines produced by the lung circulation, which thus facilitates their specific recruitment to the pulmonary site. Once present, macrophages/fibrocytes may exert paracrine effects on resident pulmonary vessel wall cells stimulating proliferation, phenotypic modulation, and migration of resident fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. They may also contribute directly to the remodeling process through increased production of collagen and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts. In addition, they could play a critical role in initiating and/or supporting neovascularization of the pulmonary artery vasa vasorum. The expanded vasa network may then act as a conduit for further delivery of circulating mononuclear cells to the pulmonary arterial wall, creating a feedforward loop of pathological remodeling. Future studies will need to determine the mechanisms that selectively induce leukocyte/fibrocyte recruitment to the lung circulation under hypoxic conditions, their direct role in the remodeling process via production of extracellular matrix and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts, their impact on the phenotype of resident smooth muscle

  12. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  13. Chemotaxis of nurse shark leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauf, S D; Smith, S H

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the ability of leukocytes from the nurse shark to migrate in an in vitro micropore filter chemotaxis assay and to determine optimal assay conditions and suitable attractants for such an assay. A migratory response was seen with several attractants: activated rat serum, activated shark plasma, and a pool of shark complement components. Only the response to activated rat serum was chemotactic, as determined by the checkerboard assay.

  14. Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.

    2003-10-01

    Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.

  15. CHONDROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF BEE-VENOM MELITTIN AND CRAB SHELL CHITIN ON PAPAIN INDUCED OSTEOARTHRITIS IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Babu Sajja*, Prasad K, Eswar Kumar K and G.Phani C Reddy

    2018-01-01

    In the present study the chondroprotective effect of melittin and chitin from bee venom and crab shell was examined against papain induced osteoarthritis in rabbits. The leukocyte count in synovial fluid, X-ray radiography of ankle joints and histopathology of joint cartilage were performed to assess chondroprotective activity. There is a significant fall in leukocyte count of bee venom (1.2mg/kg, s.c) treated group when compared with osteoarthritic control and the standard groups. Histopatho...

  16. The history of fever, leukocytic pyrogen and interleukin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    There has been great progress in the 30 y since the reporting in 1984 of the cDNA for interleukin1 (IL1) β in the human and IL1α in the mouse. However, the history of IL1 begins in the early 1940s with investigations into the nature of an endogenous fever-producing protein released rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. Most researchers in immunology today are unaware that the field of cytokines, particularly the field of inflammatory cytokines. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity traces back to studies on fever. Researchers in infectious diseases wanted to know about an endogenous protein that caused fever, independent of infection. The endogenous fever-producing protein was called by various names: granulocyte, endogenous or leukocytic pyrogen. It is a fascinating and sometimes controversial story for biology and medicine and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Few imagined that this fever-producing protein would play such a major role in nearly every cell and in most diseases. This paper reviews the true background and milestones of interleukin1 from the purification of leukocytic pyrogen to the first cDNA of IL1β and the validation of cytokine biology from ill-defined factors to its present day importance.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of leukocyte lineage derived from human hematopoietic cells in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Otsuka, Kensuke; Yoshino, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Nakasono, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    Recently, humanized animals whereby a part of the animal is biologically engineered using human genes or cells have been utilized to overcome interspecific differences. Herein, we analyzed the detail of the differentiation states of various human leukocyte subpopulations in humanized mouse and evaluated comprehensively the similarity of the leukocyte lineage between humanized mice and humans. Humanized mice were established by transplanting human CD34(+) cord blood cells into irradiated severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice, and the phenotypes of human cells contained in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood from the mice were analyzed at monthly intervals until 4 months after cell transplantation. The analysis revealed that transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells via the caudal vein homed and engrafted themselves successfully at the mouse bone marrow. Subsequently, the differentiated leukocytes migrated to the various tissues. Almost all of the leukocytes within the thymus were human cells. Furthermore, analysis of the differentiation states of human leukocytes in various tissues and organs indicated that it is highly likely that the human-like leukocyte lineage can be developed in mice. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative changes in leukocytes of psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Khand, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a disease concerned with inflammation and scaling of skin. In psoriasis, cells of the skin come on surface quickly before their complete maturation. In psoriatic patients, T-cells produce an abnormally large amount of toxic chemicals and cause inflammation. This study was undertaken to find out values of prognostic significance for worsening of the disease at early stage and to evaluate the changes (quantitative and qualitative) occurring in white blood cells of psoriatic patients. Methods: A total of 158 subjects, 79 psoriatic patients (44 males and 35 females) and same numbers of normal control volunteers were recruited. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts (TLC and DLC) were determined. Morphological examination was also undertaken. All results of patients were compared with normal control volunteers. Results : In 47.7% male and 54.2% female patients TLC was higher than controls while variation in differential count was observed in 61.3% male and 62.8% female patients. Overall, neutrophils in 45% patients, basophils in 30.3%, eosinophils in 65.8%, and monocytes in 15% of patients were elevated. In 77.2% psoriatic patients, lymphocytes were decreased. In volunteers total and differential leukocyte counts were within normal range. Total leukocyte count in normal males was 5,136 +- 31, and in psoriatic male subjects it was 10,498 +- 43, and it was 5,023 +- 35 against 11,390 +- 31 in normal versus psoriatic females ( p<0.001). Conclusion: Total leukocyte count was elevated in psoriatics while on DLC neutrophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly raised where as lymphocytes were significantly decreased in psoriatic patients. Morphological changes were also noted. (author)

  19. Conteo diferencial de leucocitos del líquido cefalorraquídeo y tiempo de evolución de la infección en recién nacidos con meningitis aséptica Differential leukocyte count in cerebrospinal fluid and time of infection progression in children with aseptic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    cytochemical test and their association with the time of infection progression. Results: most of the 291 patients had slightly high median values in their leukocyte count. Regarding the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the average values were below 40 % for any of the time intervals of the infection progression. The analysis of the infection duration prior to the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis with leukocyte count and with absolute and differential polymophonuclear count in the cerebrospinal fluid showed that there was neither significant statistical association nor linear dependence on the length of time of infection duration. Conclusions: the predominance of polymorphonuclears in the cerebrospinal fluid is not restricted to the first hours of infection and does not depend on the time of infection duration.

  20. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust H

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that leukocytes of the elderly display ultra-short telomeres. It was reported that in some elderly persons leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shows age-dependent elongation. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal models, we characterized LTL dynamics in participants...

  3. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  4. [Reversibility of the leukocyte activation state studied in a model of endogenous pyrogen formation by granulocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1980-08-01

    The pyrogen-releasing capacity of rabbit exudate granulocytes can be temporarily suppressed during incubation in the whole plasma and then recovered during cell transfer into 0.15 M NaCl or stimulation with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, pyrogenal. The inhibitors of protein synthesis added to the granulocytes when they are being transferred from plasma to 0.15 M NaCl do not suppress the pyrogen release. The inhibitory action of the whole plasma on the pyrogen release is due to the presence in it of potassium and calcium ions. The inhibitory factors of plasma reversibly suppress the pyrogen release but do not eliminate the leukocyte activation.

  5. Leukocyte integrins and their ligand interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Lefort, Craig T.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Although critical for cell adhesion and migration during normal immune-mediated reactions, leukocyte integrins are also involved in the pathogenesis of diverse clinical conditions including autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Leukocyte integrins therefore have been targets for anti-adhesive therapies to treat the inflammatory disorders. Recently, the therapeutic potential of integrin antagonists has been demonstrated in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. However, current therapeutics broadly affect integrin functions and, thus, yield unfavorable side effects. This review discusses the major leukocyte integrins and the anti-adhesion strategies for treating immune diseases. PMID:19184539

  6. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  7. Leukocyte Reference Intervals for Free-Ranging Hummingbirds in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Christopher, Mary M; Ernest, Holly B; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-04-04

      Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts. Reference Value Advisor was used for descriptive statistics and calculation of reference intervals. Blood smears from 42 Anna's Hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) and 33 Black-chinned Hummingbirds ( Archilochus alexandri) were included. The only significant differences in leukocyte counts were due to age, and juvenile hummingbirds had significantly higher lymphocyte counts than adult hummingbirds ( Phummingbirds.

  8. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  9. Effect of mechanical vs dilute ethanol epithelial removal on keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, K; Sezer, C; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-03-01

    To investigate keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration to the corneal stroma after mechanical epithelial scraping and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol solution. Twelve New Zealand Albino rabbits (24 eyes) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was the control group with no epithelial removal. Group B underwent a 7.5-mm mechanical epithelial removal with a blunt spatula. Group C underwent 7.5-mm chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol-balanced salt solution. Corneas were stained with terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay after 24 h. Only nuclear staining in keratocytes was counted. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte densities were also assessed by light microscopy. Mechanical de-epithelialization (group B) and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol (group C) showed no difference in keratocyte apoptosis compared with the control group. There was also no difference between groups B and C. Group B showed no difference in PMN leukocyte counts compared with the control group. But the number of PMN leukocytes observed in group C was significantly higher than those encountered in the corneas of the control group (P < 0.05) and group B (P < 0.05). Dilute alcohol induces more PMN cell infiltration when compared with mechanical de-epithelialization although there is no difference in the apoptosis rates.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  12. Leukocyte scintiscanning for the diagnosis of inflammations. Leukozytenszintigraphie zur Diagnostik entzuendlicher Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W

    1988-01-01

    The value of leukocyte scintiscanning for clinical diagnostics is examined with regard to various areas of indications, and as a method of first examination, or as an alternative to, or additional method to be combined with, the other usual techniques. Leukocyte scintiscanning is indicated as a good first examination method in case of chronic enteritis in a highly active stage, stenosis of the colon, or when abscess is suspected, or infected renal cysts, or infection of angioplasty, osteomyelitis, or in case of fiever of unknown origin and impossible focal diagnosis. It also is applicable for follow-up diagnostics in chronic enteritis, suspected abdominal abscess, prosthetic valvular endocarditis, and infection of hip joint prothesis. The method also may yield additional information in case of renal graft rejection, coronary inflammations, for differential diagnosis of brain tumor or abcess, edematous or antodigestive pancreatitis, and in chronic polyarthritis. For leukocyte labelling, indium-111 and Tc-99m are primarily used. (ECB).

  13. Release of an endogenous pyrogen in vitro from rabbit mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, E; Bodel, P; Francis, L

    1967-08-01

    The capacity of rabbit mononuclear cells to release an endogenous pyrogen (EP) in vitro has been studied. After incubation with tuberculin, preparations of predominantly monocytic cells, derived from the respiratory passages of the lungs of rabbits sensitized with BCG, were activated to release EP. Pyrogen production occurred more slowly with lung monocytes than with blood leukocytes of similarly sensitized rabbits and 9 to 10 hr incubation in a fully supportive medium was required to produce clear-cut results. As previously reported with blood leukocytes, mononuclear cells from the lungs of normal animals were also activated by tuberculin but to a lesser degree than were those from specifically sensitized rabbits. Under a variety of conditions, mononuclear cells from either spleen or lymph nodes of the same sensitized rabbits failed to release detectable amounts of pyrogen when incubated with tuberculin in vitro but were activated in a majority of instances when phagocytosis of heat-killed staphylococci was used as the stimulus. Release of pyrogen from lung monocytes appears to be an active process that is both temperature-dependent and requires protein synthesis. Neither serum antibody nor complement appears to play a role in this process. Evidence is presented that the granulocyte is the main source of pyrogen evolved by blood leukocytes incubated in vitro with OT or heat-killed staphylococci, whereas the lung macrophage and/or monocyte is responsible for most of the pyrogen released from the lung cell preparations. From these studies, it is concluded that mononuclear cells can be activated in vitro by several microbial stimuli and must be considered an additional cellular source of EP. The clinical implications of these findings for the pathogenesis of fever in granulomatous diseases where the monocyte is the predominant cell are discussed.

  14. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  15. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  16. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  17. Leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus volume: a meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Nilsonne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma.

  18. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  19. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  20. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  1. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gritti

    Full Text Available The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  2. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  3. Longitudinal evaluation of leukocyte transcripts in killer whales (Orcinus Orca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lee, Chia-Shan; Blanchard, Myra; McBain, James; Dold, Christopher; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify “insults” and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value. To this end, a modest number of peripheral blood leukocyte gene transcripts were selected for application to a domestic killer whale population with a focus on broad representation of inducible immunologically relevant genes. Normalized leukocyte transcript values, longitudinally acquired from 232 blood samples derived from 26 clinically healthy whales, were not visibly influenced temporally nor by sex or the specific Park in which they resided. Stability in leukocyte transcript number during periods of health enhances their potential use in diagnostics through identification of outliers. Transcript levels of two cytokine genes, IL-4 and IL-17, were highly variable within the group as compared to the other transcripts. IL-4 transcripts were typically absent. Analysis of transcript levels on the other genes of interest, on an individual animal basis, identified more outliers than were visible when analyzed in the context of the entire population. The majority of outliers (9 samples) were low, though elevated transcripts were identified for IL-17 from 2 animals and one each for Cox-2 and IL-10. The low number of outliers was not unexpected as sample selection was intentionally directed towards animals that were clinically healthy at the time of collection. Outliers may reflect animals experiencing subclinical disease that is transient and self-limiting. The

  4. Palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor proteins in leukocyte signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Ondřej; Dráber, Peter; Hořejší, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 895-902 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leukocyte * Adaptor * Palmitoylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.315, year: 2014

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  6. Characterization of New Zealand White Rabbit Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Use as Viral Oncology Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Robyn A; Urbiztondo, Rebeccah A; Haynes, Rashade A H; Simpson, Elaine; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Our data indicate that rabbits have similar distribution of leukocyte subsets as humans, both in the GALT inductive and effector sites and in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. GALT inductive sites, including appendix, cecal tonsil, Peyer's patches, and ileocecal plaque, had variable B cell/T cell ratios (ranging from 4.0 to 0.8) with a predominance of CD4 T cells within the T cell population in all four tissues. Intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments contained mostly T cells, with CD4 T cells predominating in the lamina propria compartment and CD8 T cells predominating in the intraepithelial compartment. Mesenteric lymph node, peripheral blood, and splenic samples contained approximately equal percentages of B cells and T cells, with a high proportion of CD4 T cells compared with CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data indicate that New Zealand White rabbits are comparable with humans throughout their GALT and support future studies that use the rabbit model to study human gut-associated disease or infectious agents that gain entry by the oral route. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  8. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  9. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  10. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  11. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in postoperative joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Aziz, A.; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the patients with suspected postoperative joint infection, 41 scintigraphic examinations were performed in 24 patients. Scintigrams were interpreted by the degree of accumulation of labeled leukocytes, and were classified into 3 groups: positive, intermediate, and negative. In the cases of positive leukocyte scans, definite diagnosis of infection was made in all cases except one. In the cases of negative scans, there was no evidence of infection. In 13 cases, leukocyte scintigrams were interpreted in conjunction with bone scintigrams. Definite diagnosis of infection was made in all of the cases with positive combined leukocyte/bone scan, and there was no evidence of infection in cases with negative combined leukocyte/bone scan. This study demonstrates that In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful method in diagnosis of postoperative joint infection, and accuracy of the examination improves when combined with bone scintigraphy. (author)

  12. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Michel, J.; Ferne, M.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.; Ginsburg, I.

    1979-01-01

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  13. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  14. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, CRP, leukocytes and BAL neutrophils for pulmonary complications in the immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Stolz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory biomarkers and BAL differential cell count for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in severe immunosuppressed patients. One-hundred and seven consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected pulmonary infection were included in this study. Assessment included history, clinical examination, chest image studies, CRP, procalcitonin (ProCT, leukocyte counts, and BAL results. Patients were classified as having proven, possible, and non-bacterial infection.

  15. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  16. Kit development for labelling erythrocytes or leukocytes with technetium-99m in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuebin; Han Quansheng; Wang Jingcheng; Mi Hongzhi

    1996-01-01

    This study developed a modified pre tinning method for labeling erythrocytes with technetium-99m in vitro using a kit which contains stannous chloride stabilized with geneticist acid (GA) in lyophilized form. This GA-kit a sterile closed system that does not require centrifugation,washing and separation of the RBCs. The kit is simple to use and labeling takes ∼ 30 min with a typical labeling efficiency of 97.3% ± 1.2% for 60 determinations. Imaging studies were performed in rabbit using GA-kit in vitro labeling procedure and PYP-kit in vivo labeling. It shows that the heart-to-background ratio with GA in vitro labeling were significantly higher than with in vivo labeling. Leukocytes labeling with technetium-99m using the same GA kit also was studied. The labeling efficiency was 20 ∼ 41%. Thus, the GA kit is versatile and cost-effective. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Proteinases of human epidermis; a possible mechanism for polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, N; Hatcher, V B; Lazarus, G S [Albert Einstein Coll. of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y. (USA); Montefiore Hospital, New York (USA); Duke Univ., Durham, N.C. (USA))

    1976-12-08

    Three neutral proteinases (EC 3.4.-,-) and cathepsin D have been identified in human epidermis utilizing a highly sensitive radioactive method. The proteinases were extracted in 1.0 M KCl and 0.1% Triton X-100 and separated by Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The neutral proteinase peaks were all inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and thus were serine proteinases. Incubation of the enzyme fractions with (/sup 3/H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the two larger molecular weight proteinases were enzyme mixtures. The small molecular weight (/sup 3/H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate proteinase migrated as a single band. Injection of the small molecular weight neutral proteinase into rabbit skin produced a polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and edema. The reaction was not observed with the diisopropul fluorophosphate-inhibited enzyme fraction. The release of neutral proteinases may be one of the signal events in the epidermal inflammatory response.

  18. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  19. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  20. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichorova, Raina N., E-mail: rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F. [CONRAD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  1. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  2. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P 4 ) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with 125 I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  3. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  4. Antiatherogenic effect of quercetin is mediated by proteasome inhibition in the aorta and circulating leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashevin, Denis A; Tumanovska, Lesya V; Dosenko, Victor E; Nagibin, Vasyl S; Gurianova, Veronika L; Moibenko, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention as promising compound for heart disease prevention and therapy. It has been linked to decreased mortality from heart disease and decreased incidence of stroke. Here, we report new data showing the angioprotective properties of quercetin mediated by its effect on proteasomal proteolysis. This study was designed to investigate the ability of quercetin to modulate proteasomal activity in a rabbit model of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. First, we show proteasomal trypsin-like (TL) activity increased up to 2.4-fold, chymotrypsin-like (CTL) activity increased by up to 43% and peptidyl-glutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing (PGPH) activity increased by up to 10% after 8 weeks of a cholesterol-rich diet. A single intravenous injection of the water-soluble form of quercetin (Corvitin) significantly decreased proteasomal TL activity 1.85-fold in monocytes, and decreased the CTL and PGPH activities more than 2-fold in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) after 2 h. Prolonged administration (1 month) of Corvitin to animals following a cholesterol-rich diet significantly decreased all types of proteolytic proteasome activities both in tissues and in circulating leukocytes and was associated with the reduction of atherosclerotic lesion areas in the aorta. Additionally, the pharmacological form of quercetin (Quertin) was shown to have an antiatherogenic effect and an ability to inhibit proteasome activities.

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of [ 111 In]leukocytes. No accumulation of [ 111 In]leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by [ 111 In]leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and [ 111 In]leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that [ 111 In]leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response

  6. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  7. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.; Sawicki, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Indium- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was applied to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Thirty-two patients observed in the hospital for possible appendicitis were prospectively studied. Scanning was done 2 hr after radiopharmaceutical injection. Thirteen scans were positive for acute appendicitis, and all but one were confirmed at laparotomy. In addition, two cases of colitis and two cases of peritonitis were detected. Of 15 negative studies, 11 had a benign course. Four patients with negative studies had laparotomy; two were found to have appendicitis and two had a normal appendix. Of 14 proven cases of appendicitis, 12 scans were positive for appendicitis with one false-positive scan, providing a sensitivity of 86%. Specificity was 93%: all negative cases except one had negative scans. Overall accuracy was 91% (29 of 32), comparing favorably with the accepted false-positive laparotomy rate of 25%. Use of In- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy serves to reduce the false-positive laparotomy rate and to shorten the clinical observation time in patients with acute appendicitis

  8. PAMP INDUCED EXPRESSION OF IMMUNE RELEVANT GENES IN HEAD KIDNEY LEUKOCYTES OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holten-Andersen, Lars; Kania, Per Walter

    mykiss) to different PAMPs mimicking bacterial (flagellin and LPS), viral (poly I:C) and fungal infections (zymosan and ß-glucan). Transcript of cytokines related to inflammation (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a) were highly up-regulated following LPS exposure whereas flagellin or poly I:C induced merely...... of the invader. Phagocytic cells are known to initiate a respiratory burst following an exposure to the pathogen, but the underlying and associated specific elements are poorly elucidated in fish. The present study describes the differential response of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus...... of LPS and zymosan became evident after 4 h exposure. This study suggests that rainbow trout leukocytes respond differently to viral, bacterial and fungal PAMPs, which may reflect activation of specific signaling cascades eventually leading to activation of different immune effector molecules....

  9. 99mTc-leukocyte scintigraphy in prosthetic vascular graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorne, M.; Laitinen, J.; Lehtonen, J.; Toivio, I.; Mokka, R.; Soini, I.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leukocytes for the detection of prosthetic vascular graft infection. 51 scans were recorded in 19 patients with suspected vascular graft infection and 8 control patients. Three-phase scanning was used at 0.5, 3-6 and 18-24 h. 13 vascular graft infections (10 early, 3 late) were found. 12 of these healed with antibiotics and only one patient with late infection had to be reoperated. None of them died during the follow-up period. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 96%. 99m Tc-leukocyte scintigraphy seems a useful tool to detect vascular graft infection and to differentiate it from infections elsewhere. The results suggest that the incidence of vascular graft infection may be greater, and the mortality rate lower, than supposed before. (orig.) [de

  10. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  11. Advances in RNAi therapeutic delivery to leukocytes using lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramishetti, Srinivas; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Peer, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) therapeutics has advanced into clinical trials for liver diseases and solid tumors, but remain a challenge for manipulating leukocytes fate due to lack of specificity and safety issues. Leukocytes ingest pathogens and defend the body through a complex network. They are also involved in the pathogeneses of inflammation, viral infection, autoimmunity and cancers. Modulating gene expression in leukocytes using siRNAs holds great promise to treat leukocyte-mediated diseases. Leukocytes are notoriously hard to transduce with siRNAs and are spread throughout the body often located deep in tissues, therefore developing an efficient systemic delivery strategy is still a challenge. Here, we discuss recent advances in siRNA delivery to leukocyte subsets such as macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. We focus mainly on lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) comprised of new generation of ionizable lipids and their ability to deliver siRNA to primary or malignant leukocytes in a targeted manner. Special emphasis is made on LNPs targeted to subsets of leukocytes and we detail a novel microfluidic mixing technology that could aid in changing the landscape of process development of LNPs from a lab tool to a potential novel therapeutic modality.

  12. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675 Leukocyte...

  13. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of the rabbit C-C chemokine receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdouchi Chafiq

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Results Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1 with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1α or MIP-1β. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusion In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1.

  13. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  14. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  15. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  16. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  17. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  18. Evaluation of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint employing technetium-99m-labelled autologous leukocytes in an animal model; Avaliacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular empregando leucocitos autologos marcados com tecnecio-99m em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges [Centro Universitario Newton Paiva, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiabb.prof@newtonpaiva.br; cbbrasileiro@bol.com.br; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Ruckert, Bianca [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2006-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at identifying temporomandibular joint inflammatory processes employing technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labeled autonomous leukocytes. Materials and methods: we have utilized an experimental model of arthritis induction in ten adult male New Zealand rabbits by means of ovalbumin intra-articular injection into each left temporomandibular joint. For control purposes, saline solution was injected. After leukocytes radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO and injection into rabbits, scintigraphic images were obtained. Results: a higher 99mTc-HMPAO-leukocytes uptake was observed in left temporomandibular joint in comparison with the contralateral joint. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between counts of radioactivity per minute in the inflamed joint and the contralateral one (p = 0.0073). Conclusion: the method employing 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leukocytes allows an early and accurate detection of inflammatory processes, contributing to the adoption of a therapeutic conduct for patients before structural alterations have occurred. (author)

  19. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  20. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  1. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  2. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients

  3. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  4. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  5. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Leukocyte Sphingolipid Pathway in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa P. Maia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism pathway is essential in membrane homeostasis, and its dysfunction has been associated with favorable tumor microenvironment, disease progression, and chemotherapy resistance. Its major components have key functions on survival and proliferation, with opposing effects. We have profiled the components of the sphingolipid pathway on leukocytes of breast cancer (BC patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment and without, including the five sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptors, the major functional genes, and cytokines, in order to better understand the S1P signaling in the immune cells of these patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the sphingolipid pathway in whole blood of BC patients. Skewed gene profiles favoring high SPHK1 expression toward S1P production during BC development was observed, which was reversed by chemotherapy treatment, and reached similar levels to those found in healthy donors. Such levels were also correlated with high levels of TNF-α. Our data revealed an important role of the sphingolipid pathway in immune cells in BC with skewed signaling of S1P receptors, which favored cancer development even under chemotherapy, and may probably be a trigger of cancer resistance. Thus, these molecules must be considered as a target pathway for combined BC therapeutics.

  7. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2 facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (O2*1 is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism.

  8. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus. Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often

  9. Technique of leukocyte harvesting and labeling: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Gagne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mixed leukocyte suspensions obtained after gravity sedimentation of red cells and labeled with 111 In lipophilic chelates are now widely used clinically for abscess localization at many medical centers. So far, labeling with 111 In-oxine or tropolone has been more successful than any 99 mTc method. More sophisticated approaches are available for isolation and labeling of specific leukocyte cell types, to study their migration in vivo. The most significant advances in cell harvesting include newer density gradients for isopyknic centrifugation, centrifugal elutriation, and flow cytometry. Unlike current radioactive agents which label many cell types indiscriminately, more selective ligands are being developed which bind to specific cell surface receptors. These will label certain leukocyte populations or subtypes while not reacting with others, thereby avoiding laborious separation techniques. Monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte cell-surface antigens appear particularly promising as agents for selective cell labeling

  10. Influence of glucose on the leukocyte response in women athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of glucose on the leukocyte response in women athletes during ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... Total WBC counts were raised at all stages in all three trials when compared with ...

  11. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  12. Modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication between human smooth muscle cells by leukocyte-derived growth factors and cytokines in relation to atherogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, A.

    1997-01-01


    In this thesis, the effect of leukocyte-derived growth factors and cytokines on GJIC between SMC was investigated. GJIC is regarded as an important mechanism in the control of cell growth, cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Disturbance of SMC growth control is regarded to be a

  13. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  14. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  15. Arachidonic acid triggers an oxidative burst in leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompeia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The change in cellular reducing potential, most likely reflecting an oxidative burst, was investigated in arachidonic acid- (AA stimulated leukocytes. The cells studied included the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 (undifferentiated and differentiated into macrophage-like and polymorphonuclear-like cells, Jurkat and Raji, and thymocytes and macrophages from rat primary cultures. The oxidative burst was assessed by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. AA increased the oxidative burst until an optimum AA concentration was reached and the burst decreased thereafter. In the leukemia cell lines, optimum concentration ranged from 200 to 400 µM (up to 16-fold, whereas in rat cells it varied from 10 to 20 µM. Initial rates of superoxide generation were high, decreasing steadily and ceasing about 2 h post-treatment. The continuous presence of AA was not needed to stimulate superoxide generation. It seems that the NADPH oxidase system participates in AA-stimulated superoxide production in these cells since the oxidative burst was stimulated by NADPH and inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, diphenyleneiodonium and superoxide dismutase. Some of the effects of AA on the oxidative burst may be due to its detergent action. There apparently was no contribution of other superoxide-generating systems such as xanthine-xanthine oxidase, cytochromes P-450 and mitochondrial electron transport chain, as assessed by the use of inhibitors. Eicosanoids and nitric oxide also do not seem to interfere with the AA-stimulated oxidative burst since there was no systematic effect of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, but lipid peroxides may play a role, as indicated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction promoted by tocopherol.

  16. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  17. Rescue from acute neuroinflammation by pharmacological chemokine-mediated deviation of leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghmans Nele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil influx is an important sign of hyperacute neuroinflammation, whereas the entry of activated lymphocytes into the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory processes, as observed in multiple sclerosis (MS and its animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Clinically approved or experimental therapies for neuroinflammation act by blocking leukocyte penetration of the blood brain barrier. However, in view of unsatisfactory results and severe side effects, complementary therapies are needed. We have examined the effect of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM, a potent antiviral polycarboxylic acid on EAE. Methods EAE was induced in SJL/J mice by immunization with spinal cord homogenate (SCH or in IFN-γ-deficient BALB/c (KO mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55. Mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with COAM or saline at different time points after immunization. Clinical disease and histopathology were compared between both groups. IFN expression was analyzed in COAM-treated MEF cell cultures and in sera and peritoneal fluids of COAM-treated animals by quantitative PCR, ELISA and a bioassay on L929 cells. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS were quantified at different stages of disease development by flow cytometry and differential cell count analysis. Expression levels of selected chemokine genes in the CNS were determined by quantitative PCR. Results We discovered that COAM (2 mg i.p. per mouse on days 0 and 7 protects significantly against hyperacute SCH-induced EAE in SJL/J mice and MOG35-55-induced EAE in IFN-γ KO mice. COAM deviated leukocyte trafficking from the CNS into the periphery. In the CNS, COAM reduced four-fold the expression levels of the neutrophil CXC chemokines KC/CXCL1 and MIP-2/CXCL2. Whereas the effects of COAM on circulating blood and splenic leukocytes were limited, significant

  18. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  20. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  1. Oral warfarin affects peripheral blood leukocyte IL-6 and TNFα production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksandra; Belij, Sandra; Subota, Vesna; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Mirkov, Ivana; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin is a Vitamin K (VK) antagonist that affects Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) processes, including blood coagulation, as well as processes unrelated to hemostasis such as bone growth, calcification, and growth of some cell types. In addition, warfarin exerts influence on some non-VKD-related activities, including anti-tumor and immunomodulating activity. With respect to the latter, both immune stimulating and suppressive effects have been noted in different experimental systems. To explore the in vivo immunomodulatory potential of warfarin on one type of activity (i.e., cytokine production) in two different immune cell populations (i.e., mononuclear or polymorphonuclear cells), effects of subchronic oral warfarin intake in rats on pro-inflammatory cytokine (i.e., TNFα, IL-6) production by peripheral blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells (granulocytes) was examined. Differential effects of warfarin intake on TNFα and IL-6 were noted, depending on the type of peripheral blood leukocytes and on the cytokine examined. Specifically, a lack of effect on TNFα and a priming of IL-6 production by mononuclear cells along with a decrease in TNFα and a lack of effect on IL-6 in polymorphonuclear cells were seen in warfarin-exposed hosts. The cell- and cytokine-dependent effects from subchronic oral warfarin intake on peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrated in this study could, possibly, differentially affect reactions mediated by these cells. Ultimately, the observed effects in rats might have implications for those humans who are on long-term/prolonged warfarin therapy.

  2. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-01-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH 4 Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10 7 /ml) consisted of incubation with [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10 9 /ml) were incubated with [ 125 ]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner

  3. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  4. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  5. Identification of chemokines associated with the recruitment of decidual leukocytes in human labour: potential novel targets for preterm labour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface. Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL and term labour (TL, thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL, idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI. Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid

  6. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  7. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  8. Radioprotection of salivary glands by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic (amifostine) obtained in a rabbit animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohuslavizki, Karl H.; Klutmann, Susanne; Jenicke, Lars; Brenner, Winfried; Feyerabend, Bernd; Henze, Eberhard; Clausen, Malte

    1999-01-01

    Background: Impairment of salivary gland function following high-dose radioiodine treatment (HDRIT) is a well-recognized side effect of the treatment. Because differentiated thyroid cancer has an excellent prognosis, reduction of long-term side-effects is mandatory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of amifostine in a rabbit animal model. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in a total of 16 New Zealand White rabbits. Uptake of 99m Tc-pertechnetate was calculated in percentage of injected activity as a quantitative measure of both salivary gland and thyroid function. Reproducibility of salivary gland scintigraphy was evaluated in one rabbit without any intervention. Fifteen rabbits were studied prior to and up to 6 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment applying 2 GBq 131 I. Ten animals received 200 mg/kg amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 served as controls. Salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Results: Variation coefficient of parenchymal function was less than 3.8% in salivary glands. Prior to HDRIT, thyroid uptake was 0.417 ± 0.373% and 0.421 ± 0.241% in control and amifostine-treated rabbits, respectively. Four weeks after HDRIT, complete ablation of the thyroid was achieved in both groups. Prior to HDRIT, uptake of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in salivary glands of five control rabbits was not significantly different from ten amifostine-treated rabbits. In control rabbits 6 months after HDRIT, parenchymal function was reduced significantly (p 0.05) in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Histopathologically, marked lipomatosis was observed in control animals but was negligible in amifostine-treated animals. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine in this rabbit animal model. This corresponds to data obtained in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

  9. Rabbit seminal plasma proteome: The importance of the genetic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Crespo, Lucía; Fernández-Serrano, Paula; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Viudes-de-Castro, María Pilar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterise rabbit seminal plasma proteins (SP proteins) focusing on the influence of the genetic origin and seasonality. In addition, β-NGF protein quantity in SP was determined. Semen samples were recovered from January to December 2014 using 6 males belonging to genotype A and six from genotype R. For each genotype, one pooled sample at the beginning, middle and end of each season was selected to develop the experiment. A total of 24 pools (3 for each season and genetic line) were analysed. SP proteins of the two experimental groups were recovered and subjected to in-solution digestion nano LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The resulting library included 402 identified proteins validated with ≥95% Confidence (unused Score ≥ 1.3). These data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006308. Only 6 proteins were specifically implicated in reproductive processes according to Gene Ontology annotation. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed between genotypes, 11 over-expressed in genotype A and 12 in genotype R. Regarding the effect of season on rabbit SP proteome, results showed that there is no clear pattern of protein variation throughout the year. Similar β-NGF relative quantity was observed between seasons and genotypes. In conclusion, this study generates the largest library of SP proteins reported to date in rabbits and provides evidence that genotype is related to a specific abundance of SP proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  11. Morphological Studies on the Postnatal Development of the Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissues of the Rabbit Cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmohaimen M. Saleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic, morphometric, light and scanning electron microscopic structure of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of cecum were studied in the rabbits aged from birth to 16 weeks. The GALT were formed of lymph follicles covered by low columnar epithelium containing intraepithelial lymphocytes and leukocytes. They were concentrated at the ileocecal entrance (ileocecal patch and in the blind end of the cecum vermiform appendix. In the ileocecal patch, GALT were in direct contact with the lumen, while those of the appendix were covered by the interval intestinal villi in young rabbits and mucosal folds in the adult rabbits. The lymphoid follicles of the ileocecal patch were composed of dome region and germinal center and were separated by narrow inter-follicular areas. Whereas, the lymphoid follicles of the appendix were composed dome region and germinal center in the newly born rabbits and up to the 2nd week of age, the follicles became composed of four different sites: dome region, germinal center, coronal area, and a wide interfollicular area between neighboring follicles. Morphometrically; the dimensions of the lymphoid follicles of the cecal GALT increased in size with the advancement of the age. By SEM the lymphoid structures covered with special epithelium consisted of two types of cell absorptive enterocytes and M cells. The M cells in the cecal patch were microvilliated and present on the tips and sides of the dome lymphoid regions while in the appendix were non-microvilliated and present only on the sides of the dome regions.

  12. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  13. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qasim, Waseem; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Davies, E Graham

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder caused by defects of the CD18 beta-integrin molecule on immune cells. The condition usually presents in early infancy and is characterized by deep tissue infections, leukocytosis with impaired formation of pus, and delayed...... of leukocyte adhesion deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between 1993 and 2007 was retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected by the registries of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies/European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the Center for International......, with full donor engraftment in 17 cases, mixed multilineage chimerism in 7 patients, and mononuclear cell-restricted chimerism in an additional 3 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation offers long-term benefit in leukocyte adhesion deficiency and should be considered as an early...

  14. Technetium-99m HMPAO labeled leukocytes in inflammation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Yoshikawa, Kyousan; Imazeki, Keiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1991-01-01

    Technetium-99m-HMPAO (Tc-99m-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte imaging was carried out in 19 patients at 3-5 hr after reinjection. There were no side effects noted. Tc-99m leukocyte images showed gall bladder, colon, kidney, and urinary bladder activity in normal distribution as a result of excretion of the eluted Tc-99m complex. They yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 95%. They were correctly positive in 14 out of 19 cases. But one false negative case was seen in a patient with pyonephrosis showing a lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow. It was concluded that they have some advantages over In-111 leukocyte images, but we have to consider the fact that the ureteral obstruction or the lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow may result in a false positive or a false negative case. (author)

  15. Detection of occult abscesses with 111In-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Gurevich, N.; Goris, M.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Clinicians are frequently faced with the problem of a patient in whom they suspect an occult abscess. In such a situation, there may be no clinical signs to localize the site of the abscess and often extensive investigations do not provide additional useful information. This report illustrates the efficacy of autologous leukocytes labeled with 111 In oxine in detecting the site and extent of occult abscesses in two patients. The technique of in vitro lebeling of leukocytes is simple and has been mastered by all of our nuclear medicine technologists

  16. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  18. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. Methods: The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROIs were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Results: Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  19. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 99mTc-exametazime-labeled leukocytes is not useful for follow-up of systemic vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherer, A.; Dudczak, R.; Deicher, R.; Haas, M.; Hoerl, W.H.; Jilma, B.; Staudenherz, A.; Kletter, K.

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of systemic vasculitis, for instance Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), was greatly improved by the introduction of immunosuppressive treatment. However, relapses are frequent and predictors are scarce. 111 In-leukocytes have been found to indicate unknown manifestations of WG and to predict later relapse. We prospectively investigated the value of 99m Tc-Exametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labeled leukocytes with regard to specific patterns and for their usefulness in the follow-up of patients with WG. The vasculitis group consisted of 8 patients with WG and 2 with idiopathic necrotizing glomerulonephritis (ING). Seven patients with different inflammatory diseases served as controls. Leukocyte labeling with 99m Tc-HMPAO was done using a slightly modified Hammersmith protocol. Cell viability after labeling was verified in vivo by the exclusion of early lung and splenic uptake and in vitro by means of propidium iodide and FACS analysis. Static gamma camera images from the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were obtained up to 18 hours after injection of approximately 300 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled leukocytes. Scintigrams were analyzed visually; for semiquantitative analysis ROls were drawn over the nasal region, the right lung, kidneys, and liver. Increased nasal leukocyte accumulation was found in 7/8 patients with WG and in 2/2 patients with ING. Of 2 patients who had a relapse 6 months later, one presented with, and one without nasal uptake. The kidney/liver ratio was higher in controls (0.24 ± 0.07 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11, p 99m Tc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy failed to indicate or exclude a later relapse and is therefore not suitable as a diagnostic tool in the management of patients with systemic vasculitis. (author)

  20. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghafourian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat.Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second ex­perimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sam­pling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub­populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods.Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05, six (P<0.01 and 24 (P<0.05 hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05. The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible.

  1. Expression of Neuropeptides and Cytokines in a Rabbit Model of Diabetic Neuroischemic Wound-Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabzdyk, Leena Pradhan; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Guthrie, Patrick; Chun, Maggie; Auster, Michael E; Nabzdyk, Christoph; Deso, Steven; Andersen, Nicholas; LoGerfo, Frank W.; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study is designed to understand the contribution of peripheral vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy to the wound-healing impairment associated with diabetes. Using a rabbit model of diabetic neuroischemic wound-healing we investigated rate of healing, leukocyte infiltration and expression of cytokines, Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, and, neuropeptides, Substance P (SP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Design of study Diabetes was induced in White New Zealand rabbits by administering alloxan while control rabbits received saline. Ten days later animals in both groups underwent surgery. One ear served as a sham and the other was made ischemic (ligation of central+rostral arteries), or neuroischemic (ischemia+ resection of central+rostral nerves). Four, 6mm punch biopsy wounds were created in both ears and wound-healing was followed for ten days using computerized planimetry. Results Non-diabetic sham and ischemic wounds healed significantly more rapidly than diabetic sham and ischemic wounds. Healing was slowest in neuroischemic wounds, irrespective of diabetic status. A high M1/M2 macrophage ratio and a high pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, both indicators of chronic-proinflammatory state, and low neuropeptide expression were seen in pre-injury diabetic skin. Post-injury, in diabetic wounds M1/M2 ratio remained high, the reactive increase in cytokine expression was low and neuropeptide expression was further decreased in neuroischemic wounds. Conclusion This rabbit model illustrates how a combination of a high M1/M2 ratio, a failure to mount post-injury cytokine response as well as a diminished neuropeptide expression contribute to wound-healing impairment in diabetes. The addition of neuropathy to ischemia leads to equivalently severe impaired wound-healing irrespective of diabetes status, suggesting that in the presence of ischemia, loss of neuropeptide function contributes to the impaired healing associated with diabetes. PMID:23755976

  2. Disintegrins: integrin selective ligands which activate integrin-coupled signaling and modulate leukocyte functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barja-Fidalgo C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cytoskeleton mobilization. Once leukocytes are guided to sites of infection, inflammation, or antigen presentation, integrins can participate in the initiation, maintenance, or termination of the immune and inflammatory responses. The modulation of neutrophil activation through integrin-mediated pathways is important in the homeostatic control of the resolution of inflammatory states. In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. Disintegrins are a family of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich peptides first identified in snake venom, usually containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif, which confers the ability to selectively bind to integrins, inhibiting integrin-related functions in different cell systems. In this review we show that, depending on the cell type and the microenvironment, disintegrins are able to antagonize the effects of integrins or to act agonistically by activating integrin-mediated signaling. Disintegrins have proven useful as tools to improve the understanding of the molecular events regulated by integrin signaling in leukocytes and prototypes in order to design therapies able to interfere with integrin-mediated effects.

  3. A genome-wide gene expression signature of environmental geography in leukocytes of Moroccan Amazighs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Idaghdour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The different environments that humans experience are likely to impact physiology and disease susceptibility. In order to estimate the magnitude of the impact of environment on transcript abundance, we examined gene expression in peripheral blood leukocyte samples from 46 desert nomadic, mountain agrarian and coastal urban Moroccan Amazigh individuals. Despite great expression heterogeneity in humans, as much as one third of the leukocyte transcriptome was found to be associated with differences among regions. Genome-wide polymorphism analysis indicates that genetic differentiation in the total sample is limited and is unlikely to explain the expression divergence. Methylation profiling of 1,505 CpG sites suggests limited contribution of methylation to the observed differences in gene expression. Genetic network analysis further implies that specific aspects of immune function are strongly affected by regional factors and may influence susceptibility to respiratory and inflammatory disease. Our results show a strong genome-wide gene expression signature of regional population differences that presumably include lifestyle, geography, and biotic factors, implying that these can play at least as great a role as genetic divergence in modulating gene expression variation in humans.

  4. Aberration of miRNAs Expression in Leukocytes from Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YongPing; Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Li, ChunYu; Cao, Bei; Ou, RuWei; Hadano, Shinji; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most of previous studies on miRNA dysregulation in ALS focused on the alterative expression in ALS animal model or in limited samples from European patients with ALS. In the present study, the miRNA expression profiles were investigated in Chinese ALS patients to explore leukocytes miRNAs as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS. We analyzed the expression profiles of 1733 human mature miRNAs using microarray technology in leukocytes obtained from 5 patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and 5 healthy controls. An independent group of 83 SALS patients, 24 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 61 controls was used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. In addition, target genes and signaling information of validated differential expression miRNAs were predicted using Bioinformatics. Eleven miRNAs, including four over-expressed and seven under-expressed miRNAs detected in SALS patients compared to healthy controls were selected for validation. Four under-expressed microRNAs, including hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-451, and hsa-miR-3935, were confirmed in validation stage by comparison of 83 SALS patients and 61 HCs. Moreover, we identified a miRNA panel (hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-451, and hsa-miR-3935) having a high diagnostic accuracy of SALS (AUC 0.857 for the validation group). However, only hsa-miR-183 was significantly lower in SALS patients than that in PD patients and in HCs, while no differences were found between PD patients and HCs. By bioinformatics analysis, we obtained a large number of target genes and signaling information that are linked to neurodegeneration. This study provided evidence of abnormal miRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood leukocytes of SALS patients. Leukocytes

  5. Aberration of miRNAs Expression in leukocytes from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Most of previous studies on miRNA dysregulation in ALS focused on the alterative expression in ALS animal model or in limited samples from European patients with ALS. In the present study, the miRNA expression profiles were investigated in Chinese ALS patients to explore leukocytes miRNAs as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS.Methods: We analyzed the expression profiles of 1733 human mature miRNAs using microarray technology in leukocytes obtained from 5 patients with sporadic ALS (SALS and 5 healthy controls. An independent group of 83 SALS patients, 24 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and 61 controls was used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. In addition, target genes and signaling information of validated differential expression miRNAs were predicted using Bioinformatics.Results: Eleven miRNAs, including four over-expressed and seven under-expressed miRNAs detected in SALS patients compared to healthy controls were selected for validation. Four under-expressed microRNAs, including hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-451 and hsa-miR-3935, were confirmed in validation stage by comparison of 83 SALS patients and 61 HCs. Moreover, we identified a miRNA panel (hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-451 and hsa-miR-3935 having a high diagnostic accuracy of SALS (AUC 0.857 for the validation group. However, only hsa-miR-183 was significantly lower in SALS patients than that in PD patients and in HCs, while no differences were found between PD patients and HCs. By bioinformatics analysis, we obtained a large number of target genes and signaling information that are linked to neurodegeneration. Conclusion: This study provided evidence of abnormal miRNA expression patterns in the

  6. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  7. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune multifactorial disease which has a great socio-economic impact. In Morocco, less is known about the contribution of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles to type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Our study focused on evaluating the distribution of class II ...

  8. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  9. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  10. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions

  11. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660...

  12. Osteomyelitis in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that affects one per million people yearly and usually presents with recurrent, indolent bacterial infections of the skin, mouth, and respiratory tract and impaired pus formation and wound healing. A 13-year-old girl...

  13. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections

  14. Fundamental studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) of human peripheral blood leukocytes using sheep red blood cells as target cells, and the effect of erythrophagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    We investigated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human peripheral blood leukocytes by using 51 Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells and anti-SRBC rabbit antibody. Lysis of SRBC was mediated by either human peripheral lymphoid cells or phagocytes (Monocytes and granulocytes). SRBC were useful as target cells in ADCC assay against human lymphoid cells, since decreased cytotoxic activity of phagocyte-contaminated crude lymphocyte fraction was recovered by elimination of contaminating phagocytes. The monocytes inhibited ADCC of lymphoid cells through phagocytosis of SRBC. This assay system may be useful for estimating not only Fc receptor-mediated cytotoxicity but also Fc receptor-mediated phagocytic activity of human peripheral blood leukocytes. (author)

  15. Preparation of antisera specific for human B cells by immunization of rabbits with immune complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, K.I.; Turner, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Three rabbit antisera are described which are specific without absorption (titer 1:100) for separated human B cells, as measured by complement and non-complement fixing assays. The method of production of these sera involved injections of rabbits with precipitin lines formed between 10μ1 of three separate detergent solubilized membrane preparations and 4μ1 aliquots of rabbit antisera to human B cells. In addition to being B cell specific, the three sera block the MLC reaction, inhibit aggregated IgG binding to B cells, and show differential degrees of B cell lysis when tested on a panel of separated B and T cells. These and other properties suggest that the target specificities of the antibodies are the human equivalent of the murine Ia antigens. (author)

  16. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  17. Clumping of labeled leukocyte suspension. A simple measure for avoiding it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.; Hardeman, M.R.; State Univ., Amsterdam

    1988-01-01

    Leukocytes in mixed suspensions can clump together, resulting in cell clusters which are responsible for false positive hot spots in lungs of patients, in the case of abscess localization studies using 111 In labeled leukocytes. Addition of extra ACD (acid-citrate-dextrose) in those labeled leukocyte suspensions prevented cell clumping and avoided occurrence of focal radioactivity accumulation in lungs. The acidification did not interfere in leukocyte migration under agar. (author)

  18. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  19. Bacterial metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, T C; Muller, M; Sztelma, K

    1992-05-01

    Evidence for transcellular bacterial metabolism of phagocyte-derived arachidonic acid was sought by exposing human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, prelabelled with [3H]arachidonic acid, to opsonized, stationary-phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria-to-phagocyte ratio of 50:1) for 90 min at 37 degrees C. Control leukocytes were stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 (5 microM) for 5 min. Radiochromatograms of arachidonic acid metabolites, extracted from A23187-stimulated cultures and then separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, revealed leukotriene B4, its omega-oxidation products, and 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. In contrast, two major metabolite peaks, distinct from known polymorphonuclear leukocyte arachidonic acid products by high-performance liquid chromatography or by thin-layer chromatography, were identified in cultures of P. aeruginosa with [3H]arachidonic acid-labelled polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Respective chromatographic characteristics of these novel products were identical to those of two major metabolite peaks produced by incubation of stationary-phase P. aeruginosa with [3H]arachidonic acid. Production of the metabolites was dependent upon pseudomonal viability. UV spectral data were consistent with a conjugated diene structure. Metabolism of arachidonic acid by P. aeruginosa was not influenced by the presence of catalase, superoxide dismutase, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, or ferrous ions but was inhibited by carbon monoxide, ketoconazole, and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Our data suggest that pseudomonal metabolism of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived arachidonic acid occurs during phagocytosis, probably by enzymatic epoxidation and hydroxylation via an oxygenase. By this means, potential proinflammatory effects of arachidonic acid or its metabolites may be modulated by P. aeruginosa at sites of infection in vivo.

  20. Efficiency and safety of leukocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    Background. Leukocyte filtration of systemic blood during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to reduce post-operative morbidity has not yet been established because of the enormous leukocyte release from the third space. This study was designed to examine the efficiency and safety of leukocyte

  1. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Establishment of a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based EGFP reporter system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longquan Quan

    Full Text Available Rabbits are commonly used as laboratory animal models to investigate human diseases and phylogenetic development. However, pluripotent stem cells that contribute to germline transmission have yet to be established in rabbits. The transcription factor Oct4, also known as Pou5f1, is considered essential for the maintenance of the pluripotency of stem cells. Hence, pluripotent cells can be identified by monitoring Oct4 expression using a well-established Oct4 promoter-based reporter system. This study developed a rabbit Oct4 promoter-based enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter system by transfecting pROP2-EGFP into rabbit fetal fibroblasts (RFFs. The transgenic RFFs were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. The EGFP expression was detected in the blastocysts and genital ridges of SCNT fetuses. Fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs were derived from the SCNT fetuses. EGFP was also reactivated in blastocysts after the second SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were obtained after reprogramming using Yamanaka's factors. The results above indicated that a rabbit reporter system used to monitor the differentiating status of cells was successfully developed.

  14. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  15. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  16. Decreased angiogenesis and arthritic disease in rabbits treated with an αvβ3 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgard, Chris M.; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Jonczyk, Alfred; Goodman, Simon L.; Fox, Robert I.; Cheresh, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with intense angiogenesis and vascular expression of integrin αvβ3. Intra-articular administration of a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrin αvβ3 to rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis early in disease resulted in inhibition of synovial angiogenesis and reduced synovial cell infiltrate, pannus formation, and cartilage erosions. These effects were not associated with lymphopenia or impairment of leukocyte function. Furthermore, when administered in chronic, preexisting disease, the αvβ3 antagonist effectively diminished arthritis severity and was associated with a quantitative increase in apoptosis of the angiogenic blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis appears to be a central factor in the initiation and persistence of arthritic disease, and antagonists of integrin αvβ3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. PMID:9884333

  17. Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes in Patients with Recurrent Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Ungaro, Ricardo F; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Robertson, Alison; Abbott, Margaret; Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) is a common clinical syndrome in areas where there is dependence on tropical reef fish for food. A subset of patients develops recurrent and, in some instances, chronic symptoms, which may result in substantial disability. To identify possible biomarkers for recurrent/chronic disease, and to explore correlations with immune gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression in 10 ciguatera patients (7 recurrent, 3 acute) from the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 5 unexposed Florida controls were evaluated. Significant differences in gene expression were noted when comparing ciguatera patients and controls; however, it was not possible to differentiate between patients with acute and recurrent disease, possibly due to the small sample sizes involved.

  18. Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes and murine monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1992-01-01

    Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes (In-111- oxin; Tc-99m-HMPAO) and murine monoclonal antibodies (Tc-99m-anti- NCA-95; BW250/183; I-123-anti-NCA-95; AK-47) has been evaluated in different diseases and revealed comparable results. The use of one of these radiopharmaceuticals is dependant both from the diagnostic accuracy in different diseases and stages of disease and from its ready availability and ease of preparation. Tc-99m- HMPAO should be prefered when autologous leucocytes are labeled, except of differential diagnosis of circumscript inflammatory bowel disease from abdominal abscesses and of chronic osteomyelitis. In these cases In-111-oxin is superior. Immunoscintigraphic techniques are superior regarding the ease of preparation and the unnecessity of handling patients blood. Disadvantageous are the possible human antimouse antibodies, especially regarding the development of human antimouse antibodies. (orig.) [de

  19. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  20. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  1. Local and systemic effects of fibrin and cyanoacrylate adhesives on lung lesions in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V.H. Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Tissue adhesives can be used to prevent pulmonary air leaks, which frequently occur after lung interventions. The objective of this study is to evaluate local and systemic effects of fibrin and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives on lung lesions in rabbits. METHODS: Eighteen rabbits were submitted to videothoracoscopy + lung incision alone (control or videothoracoscopy + lung incision + local application of fibrin or cyanoacrylate adhesive. Blood samples were collected and assessed for leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and interleukin-8 levels preoperatively and at 48 hours and 28 days post-operatively. After 28 days, the animals were euthanized for gross examination of the lung surface, and lung fragments were excised for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Fibrin and cyanoacrylate produced similar adhesion scores of the lung to the parietal pleura. Microscopic analysis revealed uniform low-cellular tissue infiltration in the fibrin group and an intense tissue reaction characterized by dense inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, giant cells and necrosis in the cyanoacrylate group. No changes were detected in the leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte count at any time-point, while the interleukin-8 levels were increased in the fibrin and cyanoacrylate groups after 48 hours compared with the pre-operative control levels (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Both adhesive agents promoted normal tissue healing, with a more pronounced local inflammatory reaction observed for cyanoacrylate. Among the serum markers of inflammation, only the interleukin-8 levels changed post-operatively, increasing after 48 hours and decreasing after 28 days to levels similar to those of the control group in both the fibrin and cyanoacrylate groups.

  2. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  3. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  4. Characteristics of experimental Candida albicans infection of the central nervous system in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, H S; Sáez-Llorens, X; Grimprel, E; Argyle, J C; Olsen, K D; McCracken, G H

    1991-08-01

    Different concentrations (10(7), 10(5), 10(3) cfu/ml) of Candida albicans were injected intracisternally in rabbits. The highest inoculum was fatal within 14 h in all animals. In recipients of 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inocula, the mean +/- SD peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations were 1.6 +/- 2.42 and 0.3 +/- 0.59 ng/ml, respectively, at 6 h; the mean +/- SD CSF leukocyte and protein concentrations were 6291 +/- 6515 and 453 +/- 674 cells/mm3 (at 24 h) and 118 +/- 90 and 109 +/- 122 mg/dl (at 12 and 24 h), respectively. At 6-10 days after inoculation, a second peak of TNF alpha activity was accompanied by increased CSF inflammation. Mortality in the 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inoculum groups was 56% and 22%, respectively. Fatal infection was associated with higher second CSF peak TNF alpha and leukocyte concentrations and a larger proportion of culture-positive CSF samples. Histopathology revealed hyphal invasion, vasculitis, abscesses, and acute and chronic inflammatory infiltration of meninges and brain parenchyma. This model can be useful for evaluation of the pathogenesis and therapy of central nervous system fungal infections.

  5. Correlation between Leukocyte Numbers and Body Size of Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar; Otani, Maki; Kania, Per Walter

    2016-01-01

    wild and cultured fish and we show that the size of the leukocyte population increases exponentially with body size of rainbow trout. Four groups (5 fish/group) of naive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a mean body weight of 2 - 4 g (group I), 4 - 6 g (group II), 25 - 30 g (group III), and 650...... towards an antigen to be initiated even in fry. The number of leukocytes in individual fish at different developmental stages is likely to influence the capacity of the fish to respond simultaneously to several antigens (pathogens and vaccine components). This parameter may therefore be crucial for both...... - 780 g (group IV) were investigated. The number of lymphocytes was generally higher in head kidney compared to blood and spleen but they dominated in all samples (blood, head kidney and spleen) and their numbers increased exponentially with fish size. Percentages of lymphocytes in relation...

  6. Role of flexural stiffness of leukocyte microvilli in adhesion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Hsien; Qi, Dewei

    2018-03-01

    Previous work reported that microvillus deformation has an important influence on dynamics of cell adhesion. However, the existing studies were limited to the extensional deformation of microvilli and did not consider the effects of their bending deformation on cell adhesion. This Rapid Communication investigates the effects of flexural stiffness of microvilli on the rolling process related to adhesion of leukocytes by using a lattice-Boltzmann lattice-spring method (LLM) combined with adhesive dynamics (AD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that the flexural stiffness of microvilli and their bending deformation have a profound effect on rolling velocity and adhesive forces. As the flexural stiffness of the microvilli decreases, their bending angles increase, resulting in an increase in the number of receptor-ligand bonds and adhesive bonding force and a decrease in the rolling velocity of leukocytes. The effects of flexural stiffness on deformation and adhesion represent crucial factors involved in cell adhesion.

  7. [The use of programmed microcalculators for automation of leukocyte count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plykin, D L

    1989-01-01

    Soviet programmed microcalculators are recommended to be used for the calculation of the leukocytic formulae when making serial blood analyses at clinical laboratories. The suggested program helps completely automate the process of estimating the leukocyte types, detectable in microscopic examination of the blood smears; the results may be obtained as a per cent ratio of the cells (a form most prevalent nowadays) and as their quantity per microliter of blood. The presence of service elements in the program essentially simplifies the work, making it convenient for an untrained user of the microcalculator. Since commercial Soviet programmed microcalculators somewhat differ in the systems of program steps, two variants of the program are suggested, adapted to the two most prevalent designs.

  8. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Section, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Hakim, R.; Schulman, G. [Department of Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significat activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these dsata serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  9. Effect of radiographic contrast agents on leukocyte metabolic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Vanholder, R.; Waterloos, M.A.; Hakim, R.; Schulman, G.

    2000-01-01

    Barium, at clinical dilutions, causes a significant increase of baseline ''resting state'' phagocytic activity, which in turn leads to significant blunting of subsequent response to phagocytic challenge and adversely affects the response to all bacteria tested. There is no baseline activation of leukocytes by the water-soluble media, although there was some inhibition (rather than activation) of leukocyte metabolic activity. The effect of the water-soluble media in bacteria was more complex (although inhibition is minor compared to barium). Our data demonstrate that barium is a significant activator of phagocytic cells, which results in deactivation of phagocytic response when challenged; these data serve to explain the enhanced adverse effect of barium in cased of fecal peritonitis. (orig.)

  10. Inhibition of the mixed leukocyte reaction by alloantisera in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.; Leeuwen, A. van; Rood, J.J. van

    1977-01-01

    The incidence of MLC(mixed leukocyte culture)-inhibiting antibodies was determined in 42 pregnancy sera. MLC's were carried out between the cells from the serum donor and her husband in the presence of nonimmune AB serum and the test serum. Fifty per cent of the sera reduced the MLC response to less than 40% of the control values. Only four sera had lymphocytotoxic activity. The inhibition was strong against the specific immunizor, less strong against random unrelated cells and weak against cells which were SD(serologically defined)-identical with the serum donor. Absorptions with lymphocytes and platelets were carried out. Lymphocytes removed activity in three of the four sera tested. Platelets removed activity from one serum. It was concluded that both anti-LD(lymphocyte defined) and anti-SD antibodies were able to inhibit the MLR (mixed leukocyte reaction) at the stimulator cell level. (author)

  11. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  12. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  13. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  14. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection

  15. Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness during late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Lopez Nardhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parturition has been widely described as an immunological response; however, it is unknown how this is triggered. We hypothesized that an early event in parturition is an increased responsiveness of peripheral leukocytes to chemotactic stimuli expressed by reproductive tissues, and this precedes expression of tissue chemotactic activity, uterine activation and the systemic progesterone/estradiol shift. Methods Tissues and blood were collected from pregnant Long-Evans rats on gestational days (GD 17, 20 and 22 (term gestation. We employed a validated Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results We found that GD20 maternal peripheral leukocytes migrated more than those from GD17 when these were tested with GD22 uterus and cervix extracts. Leukocytes on GD20 also displayed a significant increase in chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 gene expression and this correlated with an increase in peripheral granulocyte proportions and a decrease in B cell and monocyte proportions. Tissue chemotactic activity and specific chemokines (CCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1/CXCL1, and CXCL10 were mostly unchanged from GD17 to GD20 and increased only on GD22. CXCL10 peaked on GD20 in cervical tissues. As expected, prostaglandin F2α receptor and oxytocin receptor gene expression increased dramatically between GD20 and 22. Progesterone concentrations fell and estradiol-17β concentrations increased in peripheral serum, cervical and uterine tissue extracts between GD20 and 22. Conclusion Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness, which leads to their infiltration into the uterus where they may participate in the process of parturition.

  16. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  17. Effectiveness of leukocyte immunotherapy in primary recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Foroughinia, Leila; Tavazoo, Fahimeh; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2007-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the twentieth week of gestation. There are evidences to support an allo-immunologic mechanism for RSA. One of the methods for treatment of RSA is leukocyte therapy; however there is still controversy about effectiveness of this method. To evaluate the effectiveness of leukocyte therapy for treatment of RSA. Ninety two non-pregnant women with at least three sequential abortions (60 primary & 32 secondary aborters) recognized as RSA were referred to our Laboratory for immunotherapy. All the cases were immunized by isolated lymphocytes from their husbands. Fifty to 100 million washed and resuspended mononuclear cells were injected by I.V., S.C., and I.D. route. The result of each injection was checked by WBC cross matching between couples after four weeks of injections. Immunization was repeated in fifth week to a maximum of 3 times if needed. Eighty one age-matched non-pregnant RSA women (52 primary and 29 secondary aborters) with at least three sequential abortions were also included in this study as controls. The control group was not immunized. 67 out of 92 (72.8%) immunized cases and 44 out of 81 controls (54.3%) showed a successful outcome of pregnancy (pRSA patients. Despite the current controversy and limitation of leukocyte therapy in RSA, the results of our investigation provide evidence supporting the use of allo-immunization in improving the outcome of pregnancy in primary RSA patients.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA levels in Huntington disease leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrak, Paulina; Krygier, Magdalena; Tońska, Katarzyna; Drozd, Małgorzata; Kaliszewska, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Sołtan, Witold; Sitek, Emilia J; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Limon, Janusz; Sławek, Jarosław; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Barańska, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the huntingtin gene. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in, and especially influence of the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on, development of this disease is unclear. Here, samples of blood from 84 HD patients and 79 controls, and dermal fibroblasts from 10 HD patients and 9 controls were analysed for mtDNA levels. Although the type of mitochondrial haplogroup had no influence on the mtDNA level, and there was no correlation between mtDNA level in leukocytes in HD patients and various parameters of HD severity, some considerable differences between HD patients and controls were identified. The average mtDNA/nDNA relative copy number was significantly higher in leukocytes, but lower in fibroblasts, of symptomatic HD patients relative to the control group. Moreover, HD women displayed higher mtDNA levels in leukocytes than HD men. Because this is the largest population analysed to date, these results might contribute to explanation of discrepancies between previously published studies concerning levels of mtDNA in cells of HD patients. We suggest that the size of the investigated population and type of cells from which DNA is isolated could significantly affect results of mtDNA copy number estimation in HD. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration in studies on mtDNA in HD, and perhaps also in other diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs.

  19. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.it; Bellandi, Serena [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Pitozzi, Vanessa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Fabbri, Paolo [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2004-11-22

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo.

  20. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannelli, Lisa; Bellandi, Serena; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Fabbri, Paolo; Dolara, Piero; Moretti, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo

  1. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency: Report of Two Family Related Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nLeukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder resulting from deficiency of CD18, characterized by recurrent bacterial infections. We report two consanguineous patients with Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1( LAD1. These two infant boy patients were referred to us, within a short period of time, with the complaints of recurrent infections at the age of 38 and 75 days -old, respectively. Parents of two patients were first cousins and their grandmothers also were first cousins. The history of delayed umbilical cord separation was shown in both patients. Patient 1 had history of omphalitis, conjunctivitis, skin lesion of groin area and abscess formation of vaccination site, and had infective wound of eye-lid at the last admission. Patient 2 had history of omphalitis and soft tissue infection of right wrist at the last admission. Laboratory findings showed marked leukocytosis and low CD18 levels (6.6% in Patient 1 and 2.4 % in Patient 2. In Patient 1 recurrent infections were treated with antibiotic regimens and received bone marrow transplantation but Patient 2 died because of septicemia, generalized edema, ascites and progression to acute renal failure at 4 months of age. Due to considerable rate of consanguineous marriages in parents of Leukocyte adhesion deficiency patients, sequence analysis especially for prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies and genetic counseling is recommended.

  2. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  3. Evaluation of four radiopharmaceuticals for imaging inflammation in a rabbit model of arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinol, M.; Paganelli, G.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the utility of four radiopharmaceuticals; 111 In-chloride, 67 Ga-citrate, 111 In labeled leukocytes (WBCs) and 99m Tc-MDP for assessing the inflammatory response in antigen induced arthritis in a rabbit model. A total of 20 rabbits, divided into four equal groups, were included in this study-Each group was studied twice with a single radiotracer: a baseline study and a follow-up study after induction of the arthritis. Knee to knee, knee to whole body, and knee to liver (except for the group studied with 99m Tc-MDP) ratios were generated. Knee to knee ratios showed no significant change from baseline to arthritis studies in any of the four groups. Significantly increased knee to total body ratios were seen in all of the groups, except for the group studied with 99m Tc-MDP. The greatest increase was seen in the group studied with 111 In-chloride. Significantly increased knee to liver ratios were observed in all three groups for which these ratios were generated and again the greatest increase was observed in the group studied with 111 In-chloride. Based on the higher uptake observed in this group, of the four radiotracers evaluated, 111 In-chloride is probably the most useful for monitoring the inflammatory response in antigen induced arthritis. The symmetry of the response suggests that it may also be useful in monitoring the response to therapy. (author)

  4. DNA methylation map in circulating leukocytes mirrors subcutaneous adipose tissue methylation pattern: a genome-wide analysis from non-obese and obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A. B.; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; Milagro, F. I.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Carreira, M. C.; Gomez, A.; Hervas, D.; Monteiro, M. P.; Casanueva, F. F.; Esteller, M.; Martinez, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n = 45) and non-obese (n = 8–10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC > 0.80; p obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue. PMID:28211912

  5. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Curcuma Longa on the Biochemical Profile and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Rabbits under Summer Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen four week’s old weaned broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with turmeric rhizome powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mgand T2 (basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Different hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as packed cell volume, Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count and serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase due to the dietary inclusion of turmeric powder rhizome supplementation at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 percent did not show significant difference between the treatment groups. Carcass parameters and chemical composition of meat were closer to the standard values. The results of the study indicated no beneficial effect of dietary inclusion of turmeric (Curcuma longa rhizome powder at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 per cent on blood biochemical and meat characteristics of broiler rabbits reared under summer stress [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 15-18

  6. Effect of lithium carbonate on leukocyte number after influence of ionizing radiation. 2. Influence of lithium carbonate on peripheral leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, H.; Kehrberg, G.; Saul, G.; Pradel, I. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1985-01-01

    The increase of leukocyte number in peripheral blood, found after application of lithium carbonate, is attributed to a rise in granulocytes first of all. The reduced period of acute leukopenia after whole-body irradiation, caused by lithium, is the result of the stimulating the myeloid progenitor cells. Increased syntheses of colony stimulating factor or influencing factors on the microecology of bone marrow are discussed.

  7. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  8. Role of early growth response 1 in arteriogenesis: impact on vascular cell proliferation and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Judith-Irina; Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Heil, Matthias; Fischer, Silvia; Fernández, Borja; Schaper, Wolfgang; Preissner, Klaus T; Deindl, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Based on previous findings that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) participates in leukocyte recruitment and cell proliferation in vitro, this study was designed to investigate its mode of action during arteriogenesis in vivo. In a model of peripheral arteriogenesis, Egr-1 was significantly upregulated in growing collaterals of wild-type (WT) mice, both on mRNA and protein level. Egr-1(-/-) mice demonstrated delayed arteriogenesis after femoral artery ligation. They further showed increased levels of monocytes and granulocytes in the circulation, but reduced levels in adductor muscles under baseline conditions. After femoral artery ligation, elevated numbers of macrophages were detected in the perivascular zone of collaterals in Egr-1(-/-) mice and mRNA of leukocyte recruitment mediators was upregulated. Other Egr family members (Egr-2 to -4) were significantly upregulated only in Egr-1(-/-) mice, suggesting a mechanism of counterbalancing Egr-1 deficiency. Moreover, splicing factor-1, downregulated in WT mice after femoral artery ligation in the process of increased vascular cell proliferation, was upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice. αSM-actin on the other hand, significantly downregulated in WT mice, showed no differential expression in Egr-1(-/-) mice. While cell cycle regulator cyclin E and cdc20 were upregulated in Egr-1(-/-) mice, cyclin D1 expression decreased below the detection limit in collaterals, and the proliferation marker ki67 was not differentially expressed. In conclusion, compensation for deficiency in Egr-1 function in leukocyte recruitment can presumably be mediated by other transcription factors; however, Egr-1 is indispensable for effective vascular cell cycle progression in arteriogenesis.

  9. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  10. Nigella Sativa and Oriental Spices with Protective Role in Iron Intoxication: in vivo Experiments on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.

  11. Experimental abscess in the thigh of rabbit : magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Chung, Yoong Ki; Jang, Ja June

    1996-01-01

    To understand MR imaging characteristics, of abscesses by correlation with pathologic findings, with emphasis on the hypointense rim of the abscess wall on T2-weighted images. We experimentally induced twenty abscesses on both thighs of ten New Zealand white rabbits by innoculation of E. coli. Spin-echo axial T1-weighted images(T1WI), proton density weighted images(PDWI), T2-weighted images(T2WI) and gadolinium enhanced T1WI of two rabbits were each obtained at 1 and 3 days, and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks following innoculation of pathogens. Rabbits were sacrificed after MR imaging, and freezing, sectioning along MR imaging planes and histopathologic examination were subsequently carried out. MR-pathologic correlation was performed, with emphasis on the MR signal characteristics of the abscess wall. In 19 abscesses, necrotic portions except gas showed hypointensity or hyperintensity on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI. Peripheral inflammatory reaction showed hypointensity on T1WI, hyperintensity on PDWI and T2WI, and contrast enhancement. Abscess wall showed slightly increased signal intensity on T1WI. A hypointense rim on PDWI and T2WI appeared from 3 days after pathogen innoculation. The rim was thickest at 1 week, and showed multilayers at 2 weeks and double layers at 4 weeks after pathogen innoculation. Cellular and necrotic debris was accumulated at the inner portion of the abscess wall. Inflammatory cells were mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes. Macrophages, which appeared at 3 days, suggested active phagocytosis at 1 week after innoculation. Thereafter, inflammatory reactions decreased and fibrosis progressed. The hypointense rim of the abscess wall on T2WI reflects the accumulation of cellular debris, the paramagnetic effect of free radicals due to active phagocytosing macrophages during the abscess forming stage, and fibrosis during the maturation stage

  12. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  13. Radioprotection of salivary glands by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic (amifostine) obtained in a rabbit animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, Karl H; Klutmann, Susanne; Jenicke, Lars; Brenner, Winfried; Feyerabend, Bernd; Henze, Eberhard; Clausen, Malte

    1999-08-01

    Background: Impairment of salivary gland function following high-dose radioiodine treatment (HDRIT) is a well-recognized side effect of the treatment. Because differentiated thyroid cancer has an excellent prognosis, reduction of long-term side-effects is mandatory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of amifostine in a rabbit animal model. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in a total of 16 New Zealand White rabbits. Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was calculated in percentage of injected activity as a quantitative measure of both salivary gland and thyroid function. Reproducibility of salivary gland scintigraphy was evaluated in one rabbit without any intervention. Fifteen rabbits were studied prior to and up to 6 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment applying 2 GBq {sup 131}I. Ten animals received 200 mg/kg amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 served as controls. Salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Results: Variation coefficient of parenchymal function was less than 3.8% in salivary glands. Prior to HDRIT, thyroid uptake was 0.417 {+-} 0.373% and 0.421 {+-} 0.241% in control and amifostine-treated rabbits, respectively. Four weeks after HDRIT, complete ablation of the thyroid was achieved in both groups. Prior to HDRIT, uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in salivary glands of five control rabbits was not significantly different from ten amifostine-treated rabbits. In control rabbits 6 months after HDRIT, parenchymal function was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) by 75.3 {+-} 5.3% and 53.6 {+-} 17.4% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. In contrast, in amifostine-treated rabbits, parenchymal function was reduced by 10.6 {+-} 3.4% and 6.5 {+-} 4.3% (p > 0.05) in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Histopathologically, marked lipomatosis was observed in control animals but was negligible in amifostine-treated animals. Conclusion

  14. Dwarfism and Altered Craniofacial Development in Rabbits Is Caused by a 12.1 kb Deletion at the HMGA2 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Miguel; Hu, Dou; Archer, John; Feng, Chungang; Afonso, Sandra; Chen, Congying; Blanco-Aguiar, José A; Garreau, Hervé; Boucher, Samuel; Ferreira, Paula G; Ferrand, Nuno; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Leif

    2017-02-01

    The dwarf phenotype characterizes the smallest of rabbit breeds and is governed largely by the effects of a single dwarfing allele with an incompletely dominant effect on growth. Dwarf rabbits typically weigh under 1 kg and have altered craniofacial morphology. The dwarf allele is recessive lethal and dwarf homozygotes die within a few days of birth. The dwarf phenotype is expressed in heterozygous individuals and rabbits from dwarf breeds homozygous for the wild-type allele are normal, although smaller when compared to other breeds. Here, we show that the dwarf allele constitutes a ∼12.1 kb deletion overlapping the promoter region and first three exons of the HMGA2 gene leading to inactivation of this gene. HMGA2 has been frequently associated with variation in body size across species. Homozygotes for null alleles are viable in mice but not in rabbits and probably not in humans. RNA-sequencing analysis of rabbit embryos showed that very few genes (4-29 genes) were differentially expressed among the three HMGA2/dwarf genotypes, suggesting that dwarfism and inviability in rabbits are caused by modest changes in gene expression. Our results show that HMGA2 is critical for normal expression of IGF2BP2, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Finally, we report a catalog of regions of elevated genetic differentiation between dwarf and normal-size rabbits, including LCORL-NCAPG, STC2, HOXD cluster, and IGF2BP2 Levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the LCORL-NCAPG locus further suggest that small size in dwarf breeds was enhanced by crosses with wild rabbits. Overall, our results imply that small size in dwarf rabbits results from a large effect, loss-of-function (LOF) mutation in HMGA2 combined with polygenic selection. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Application of radionuclide imaging to hepatic impact injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金榕兵; 麻晓林; 温建良; 唐维佳

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role and clinical value of radionuclide imaging in hepatic impact injuries in rabbits.Methods: Rabbits were experimentally impacted on the liver with BIM-IV bio-impact machine. Liver imaging was performed with 99mTc labeled sodium phytate. Liver blood pool imaging was performed with 99mTc -stannous pyrophosphate labeled red blood cells. The results of radionuclide imaging were compared with the anatomic results.Results: There was significant difference between the images of the injured liver and the control. Radio diminution and defect were shown in the injured liver areas. Various sorts of abnormal radioactivity distribution were observed with hepatic blood pool imaging. The results of the liver imaging and liver blood pool imaging were accorded with the results of the anatomic findings.Conclusions: Radionuclide imaging may well display the changes of hepatocellular structures and functions after injury, which is valuable in locating the concrete injured position and differentiating the injured degrees of liver.

  16. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  18. Isolation and Characterization of the Progenitor Cells From the Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. ...

  19. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  20. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  1. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  2. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  3. Bacterial reduction by cell salvage washing and leukocyte depletion filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan H; Tuohy, Marion J; Hobson, Donna F; Procop, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Blood conservation techniques are being increasingly used because of the increased cost and lack of availability of allogeneic blood. Cell salvage offers great blood savings opportunities but is thought to be contraindicated in a number of areas (e.g., blood contaminated with bacteria). Several outcome studies have suggested the safety of this technique in trauma and colorectal surgery, but many practitioners are still hesitant to apply cell salvage in the face of frank bacterial contamination. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of bacterial removal when cell salvage was combined with leukocyte depletion filtration. Expired packed erythrocytes were obtained and inoculated with a fixed amount of a stock bacteria (Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collections [ATCC] 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, or Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) in amounts ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 colony forming units/ml. The blood was processed via a cell salvage machine. The washed blood was then filtered using a leukocyte reduction filter. The results for blood taken during each step of processing were compared using a repeated-measures design. Fifteen units of blood were contaminated with each of the stock bacteria. From the prewash sample to the postfiltration sample, 99.0%, 99.6%, 100%, and 97.6% of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. fragilis were removed, respectively. Significant but not complete removal of contaminating bacteria was seen. An increased level of patient safety may be added to cell salvage by including a leukocyte depletion filter when salvaging blood that might be grossly contaminated with bacteria.

  4. Role of Gallium and labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in AIDS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Because AIDS patients frequently present with minimal symptomatology, radionuclide imaging with its ability to survey the entire body, is especially valuable. Gallium-67 citrate, the most commonly performed radionuclide study for localizing infection in these patients, is most useful for detecting opportunistic infections, especially in the thorax. A negative gallium scan, particularly when the chest X-ray is unremarkable, rules strongly against pulmonary disease. A negative gallium scan in a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and Kaposi's sarcoma, suggests that the patient's respiratory distress is related to the neoplasm. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal uptake of gallium in the HIV (+) patient is most often associated with PCP. While there are other causes of diffuse pulmonary uptake, the more intense or heterogeneous the uptake, the more likely the patient is to have PCP. Focal pulmonary uptake is usually associated with bacterial pneumonia although PCP may occasionally present in this fashion. Lymph node uptake of gallium is usually associated with Mycob acterium avium complex, tuberculosis, or Iymphoma. When corresponding abnormalities are present on thallium scintigraphy lymphoma is likely. Gallium positive, thallium negative, studies suggest mycobacterial disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for detecting opportunistic infections probably because of the inflammatory response incited by these organisms. Leukocyte imaging is, however, more sensitive for detecting bacterial pneumonia. In the abdomen, gallium imaging is most useful for identifying lymphadenopathy, while labeled leukocyte imaging is superior for detecting AlDS-associated colitides. In summary, radionuclide studies are valuable diagnostic modalities in AIDS. Their success can be maximized by tailoring the study to the individual's needs

  5. Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Md Abdus Shabur; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Shirozu, Takahiro; Kim, Sung Woo; Kunii, Hiroki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tsukino; Kimura, Koji; Takahashi, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) - mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  6. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits: diagnosis and optimal management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latney LV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La'Toya V Latney,1 Charles W Bradley,2 Nicole R Wyre1 1Departments of Clinical Studies, 2Departments of Pathobiology, Matthew J Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Encephalitozoonosis is a significant microsporidial disease of captive pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. This article overviews the life cycle, pathogenesis, and host immune response to the parasite. Clinical presentation, differential diagnoses, antemortem diagnostics, and postmortem diagnosis will be discussed. International seroprevalence data and histologic prevalence estimates in the US are presented. A review of current treatment and control recommendations are discussed based on extensive review of controlled studies, which have found fenbendazole to be effective for limiting spread of the disease. Keywords: Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Oryctolagus cuniculi, microsporidia, encephalitozoonosis

  7. Subacute Low Dose Nerve Agent Exposure Causes DNA Fragmentation in Guinea Pig Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as

  8. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  9. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in...

  10. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G during pregnancy part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Louise; Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a class Ib molecule with restricted tissue distribution expressed on trophoblast cells and has been proposed to have immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy. Soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) can be generated by the shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G molecules; however...... of importance for production of sHLA-G in the mother and child, or it may support the theory that sHLA-G in the pregnant woman and the fetus is partly derived from a "shared organ", the placenta....

  11. 3H-histamine release from human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl Skov, P.; Norn, S.; Weeke, B.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for large scale screening of patients suspected of type I allergy has been developed. The method is based on in vitro incorporation of 3 H-histamine in the leukocytes of the patient, whereafter release of labelled histamine is measured after provocation of the cells with the suspected allergen. The new method was compared with the conventional basophil histamine release technique by in vitro provocation of six asthmatic patients under suspicion of type I allergy against animal dander, house dust, and mite, and an almost identical release of histamine was observed in both assays. (author)

  12. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  13. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  14. Monitoring of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in mice by serial leukocyte counting using a microcavity array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Asami, Marie; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2013-02-15

    Monitoring of hematotoxicity, which requires serial blood collection, is difficult to carry out in small animals due to a lack of non-invasive, individual animal-appropriate techniques that enable enumeration of leukocyte subsets from limited amounts of whole blood. In this study, a microfluidic device equipped with a microcavity array that enables highly efficient separation of leukocytes from submicroliters of whole blood was applied for hematotoxicity monitoring in mice. The microcavity array can specifically separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size and deformability between leukocytes and other blood cells. Mouse leukocytes recovered on aligned microcavities were continuously processed for image-based immunophenotypic analysis. Our device successfully recovered almost 100% of mouse leukocytes in 0.1 μL of whole blood without the effect of serial blood collection such as changes in body weight and total leukocyte count. We assessed benzene-associated hematotoxicity in mice using this system. Mice were administered with benzene once daily and the depression of leukocyte numbers induced in individual mice was successfully monitored from tail vein blood collected every other day for 2 weeks. Serial monitoring of the leukocyte number in individual mice will contribute to the understanding of hematotoxicity and reduction of the number of animal experiment trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  16. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  17. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  18. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  19. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  20. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  1. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  2. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  3. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  4. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  5. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion

  6. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-01-01

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K M 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V max . PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping

  7. Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking in congeneric hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbo, S D; Dhabhar, F S; Viswanathan, K; Saul, A; Nelson, R J

    2003-11-01

    Sex differences in immune function are well documented. These sex differences may be modulated by social and environmental factors. Individuals of polygynous species generally exhibit more pronounced sex differences in immune parameters than individuals of monogamous species, often displaying an energetic trade-off between enhanced immunity and high mating success. During winter, animals contend with environmental conditions (e.g. low temperatures and decreased food availability) that evoke energetic-stress responses; many mammals restrict reproduction in response to photoperiod as part of an annual winter coping strategy. To test the hypothesis that extant sex and species differences in immune surveillance may be modulated by photoperiod, we examined leukocyte numbers in males and females of two closely related hamster species (Phodopus). As predicted, uniparental P. sungorus exhibited a robust sex difference, with total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells higher in females than males, during long days when reproduction occurs, but not during short days when reproduction usually stops. In contrast, biparental male and female P. campbelli exhibited comparable leukocyte numbers during both long and short days. To study sex differences in stress responses, we also examined immune cell trafficking in response to an acute (2 h) restraint stressor. During stressful challenges, it appears beneficial for immune cells to exit the blood and move to primary immune defense areas such as the skin, in preparation for potential injury or infection. Acute stress moved lymphocytes and monocytes out of the blood in all animals. Blood cortisol concentrations were increased in P. sungorus females compared to males at baseline (52%) and in response to restraint stress (38%), but only in long days. P. campbelli males and females exhibited comparable blood cortisol and stress responses during both long and short days. Our results suggest that interactions among

  8. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  9. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Social Regulation of Leukocyte Homeostasis: The Role of Glucocorticoid Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steve W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent small-scale genomics analyses suggest that physiologic regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression by endogenous glucocorticoids may be compromised in individuals who experience chronic social isolation. This could potentially contribute to the elevated prevalence of inflammation-related disease previously observed in social isolates. The present study assessed the relationship between leukocyte distributional sensitivity to glucocorticoid regulation and subjective social isolation in a large population-based sample of older adults. Initial analyses confirmed that circulating neutrophil percentages were elevated, and circulating lymphocyte and monocyte percentages were suppressed, in direct proportion to circulating cortisol levels. However, leukocyte distributional sensitivity to endogenous glucocorticoids was abrogated in individuals reporting either occasional or frequent experiences of subjective social isolation. This finding held in both nonparametric univariate analyses and in multivariate linear models controlling for a variety of biological, social, behavioral, and psychological confounders. The present results suggest that social factors may alter immune cell sensitivity to physiologic regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in ways that could ultimately contribute to the increased physical health risks associated with social isolation. PMID:18394861

  12. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  13. Histopathology of murine toxoplasmosis under treatment with dialyzable leukocyte extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Fuentes-Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs contain molecules smaller than 10 kDa with biological activity in receptor organisms. Primarily, they participate in the regulation of the Th1 immune response, which is essential for the control of several intracellular infections, such as toxoplasmosis. This disease is associated with congenital infection, encephalitis or systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The clinical course of this infection fundamentally depends on a well-regulated immune response and timely treatment with the appropriate drugs. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with a leukocyte extract, derived from crocodile lymphoid tissue, on the histopathology and brain parasite load in NIH mice that had been infected with cysts of Toxoplasma gondii (ME-49 strain. METHODS The treatment was applied during the acute and chronic stages of the infection. Histopathological changes were evaluated in the ileum, liver and spleen at one, four and eight weeks after infection and in the brain at week 8. The parasite load was evaluated by counting the cysts of T. gondii found in the brain. FINDINGS Compared to the control mouse group, the mice infected with T. gondii and under treatment with DLE showed less tissue damage, mainly at the intestinal, splenic and hepatic levels. In addition, a greater percentage of survival was observed, and there was a considerable reduction in the parasite load in the brain. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that DLE derived from crocodile is a potential adjunctive therapy in the conventional treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  14. Spatial correlation of action potential duration and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odening, Katja E; Jung, Bernd A; Lang, Corinna N; Cabrera Lozoya, Rocio; Ziupa, David; Menza, Marius; Relan, Jatin; Franke, Gerlind; Perez Feliz, Stefanie; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Föll, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a major contributor to long QT syndrome (LQTS)-related arrhythmias. To investigate spatial correlations of regional heterogeneities in cardiac repolarization and mechanical function in LQTS. Female transgenic LQTS type 2 (LQT2; n = 11) and wild-type littermate control (LMC) rabbits (n = 9 without E4031 and n = 10 with E4031) were subjected to phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess regional myocardial velocities. In the same rabbits' hearts, monophasic APDs were assessed in corresponding segments. In LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits, APD was longer in all left ventricular segments (P < .01) and APD dispersion was greater than that in LMC rabbits (P < .01). In diastole, peak radial velocities (Vr) were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated compared to LMC rabbits in LV base and mid (LQT2: -3.36 ± 0.4 cm/s, P < .01; E4031-treated: -3.24 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .0001; LMC: -4.42 ± 0.5 cm/s), indicating an impaired diastolic function. Regionally heterogeneous diastolic Vr correlated with APD (LQT2: correlation coefficient [CC] 0.38, P = .01; E4031-treated: CC 0.42, P < .05). Time-to-diastolic peak Vr were prolonged in LQT2 rabbits (LQT2: 196.8 ± 2.9 ms, P < .001; E4031-treated: 199.5 ± 2.2 ms, P < .0001, LMC 183.1 ± 1.5), indicating a prolonged contraction duration. Moreover, in transgenic LQT2 rabbits, diastolic time-to-diastolic peak Vr correlated with APD (CC 0.47, P = .001). In systole, peak Vr were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits (P < .01) but longitudinal velocities or ejection fraction did not differ. Finally, random forest machine learning algorithms enabled a differentiation between LQT2, E4031-treated, and LMC rabbits solely based on "mechanical" magnetic resonance imaging data. The prolongation of APD led to impaired diastolic and systolic function in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits. APD correlated with regional diastolic dysfunction, indicating that LQTS is not purely an

  15. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  16. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  17. HLA-A alleles differentially associate with severity to Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B and class II alleles have been differentially associated with disease outcomes in different populations following infection with the malaria Plasmodium falciparum. However, the effect of HLA-A on malaria infection and/or disease is not fully understood. Recently, HLA-A ...

  18. Effect of lithium carbonate on leukocyte number after influence of ionizing radiation. 3. Influence of lithium carbonate on peripheral leukocytes after fractionated caudal half-body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, H.; Saul, G.; Kehrberg, G. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated half-body irradiation of rats resulted in leukopenia of the peripheral blood. The decrease of leukocytes was smaller in animals pretreated with an orally administered dose of lithium carbonate for 14 days.

  19. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    . annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within

  20. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits of combinative application of probiotic, enterocin M-producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 and Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika Pogány; Chrastinová, Ľubica; Plachá, Iveta; Čobanová, Klaudia; Formelová, Zuzana; Chrenková, Mária; Ondruška, Ľubomír; Strompfová, Viola

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the effects of the probiotic and enterocin M-producing strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 on microbiota, phagocytic activity (PA), oxidative stress, performance and biochemical parameters when applied individually or in combination with Eleutherococcus senticosus in rabbits. The novelty of the study lies in the use of our non-rabbit-derived strain (AL41 = CCM8558) which produces new enterocin M. Ninety-six post-weaned rabbits (Hyplus breed) aged 5 weeks were divided into three experimental groups, 24 in each: E. senticosus (ES, 30 g/100 kg) in feed, E. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU/mL marked by rifampicin to differentiate it from other enterococci) in water, and ES + AL. AL41 colonized sufficiently in rabbits to reduce coliforms, staphylococci, pseudomonads and clostridia. Slight decrease in bacteria was also found in the caecum and appendix. Phagocytic activity was significantly increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group (CG) (p < 0.001; p < 0.05). Applications did not evoke oxidative stress. Biochemical parameters in blood and caecal organic acids were slightly influenced. Average daily weight gain was slightly higher in ES and AL + ES. Combinative application of E. faecium with E. senticosus can be beneficial in rabbits. AL41 strain alone and in combination with ES produced reduction in spoilage bacteria; the highest stimulation of PA was in the AL41 + ES group.

  2. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  3. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  4. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  5. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  6. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  7. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  8. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  9. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  10. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  11. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  12. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  13. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis

  14. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the general population, older age is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and with high risk of infections. In a recent study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, long donor leukocyte telomere length was associated with improved survival...

  15. Leukocyte infiltration and tumor cell plasticity are parameters of aggressiveness in primary cutaneous melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, F.; Baeten, C.I.M.; Winkel, van de A.; Creytens, D.; Schaft, van der D.W.J.; Winnepenninckx, V.; Griffioen, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Various clinical and experimental observations detected an immunological host defense in cutaneous melanoma. In order to investigate the prognostic value of leukocyte effector mechanisms, we examined the presence of different subsets of leukocytes in tumor samples of 58 patients diagnosed with

  16. Indium-111 labeled leukocyte images demonstrating a lung abscess with prominent fluid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, J.D.; Winer-Muram, H.

    1986-01-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte images show an abscess cavity with a fluid level on 24-hour upright images. Fluid levels, frequently seen on radiographs, are uncommon on nuclear images. This finding demonstrates rapid migration of labeled leukocytes into purulent abscess fluid

  17. Effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojima, Hiromi; Sawada, Umihiko; Horie, Takashi; Itoh, Takeyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency, we studied platelet recovery, leukocyte reduction rate, content of platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin in platelet products, platelet functions, and positive rates of platelet surface membranes CD42 and CD62, prior to and after treatment. We also evaluated the efficiency of platelet transfusion by estimating post- transfusion (1 and 24 hour) corrected count increment (CCI), and transfusion side effects. Recovery of platelets was 91.8±6.5% and depletion rate of leukocytes was 1.7±1.1 log. There was no significant difference in platelet activation markers or function tests prior to and after the procedure. The mean post-transfusion CCI and 1 and 24 hours were 16,550 (n=114) and 13,310 (n=93), respectively, with 30-Gy irradiation and leukocyte reduction filter. Those treated solely with leukocyte reduction filter were 14,970 (n=114) and 10,880 (n=118), respectively. There was no increase in transfusion side effects after the treatment of platelet concentrate with 30-Gy irradiation combined with leukocyte reduction filter compared with treatment by leukocyte reduction filter alone. These results indicate that treatment with 30 Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter is safe and effective in platelet transfusion. (author)

  18. Leukocyte removal efficiency of cell-washed and unwashed whole blood: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, M. ten; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Feron, JC; Meer, W. van der; Brouwer, René

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte filtration of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) perfusate after cardiac surgery has evolved as an important technique to prevent effector functions mediated by activated leukocytes. However, little is known about the filtration efficiency. Therefore, an in vitro study was conducted to

  19. Hug tightly and say goodbye: role of endothelial ICAM-1 in leukocyte transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2009-04-01

    Stable adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium is crucial for transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes evoked during inflammatory responses, immune surveillance, and homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The basis of stable adhesion involves expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible endothelial adhesive protein that serves as a counter-receptor for beta(2)-integrins on leukocytes. Interaction of ICAM-1 with beta(2)-integrins enables leukocytes to adhere firmly to the vascular endothelium and subsequently, to migrate across the endothelial barrier. The emerging paradigm is that ICAM-1, in addition to firmly capturing leukocytes, triggers intracellular signaling events that may contribute to active participation of the endothelium in facilitating the TEM of adherent leukocytes. The nature, duration, and intensity of ICAM-1-dependent signaling events may contribute to the determination of the route (paracellular vs. transcellular) of leukocyte passage; these aspects of ICAM-1 signaling may in turn be influenced by density and distribution of ICAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface, the source of endothelial cells it is present on, and the type of leukocytes with which it is engaged. This review summarizes our current understanding of the "ICAM-1 paradigm" of TEM with an emphasis on the signaling events mediating ICAM-1 expression and activated by ICAM-1 engagement in endothelial cells.

  20. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphic detection of myocardial abscess formation in patients with endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, M.D.; Jacobson, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Myocardial abscess formation in patients with bacterial endocarditis in most clinical settings, especially in patients with prosthetic valves, is a primary indicator for surgical valve replacement. We report the detection of myocardial abscesses using 111 In leukocyte scintigraphy in three patients with prosthetic or native valve endocarditis and nondiagnostic echocardiograms. Leukocyte scintigraphy may allow identification of myocardial abscess formation earlier than other imaging modalities

  1. In-111-labeled leukocyte imaging: false-positive study due to acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.F.; Rudd, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A case is reported in which In-111-labeled leukocytes accumulated in the left colon on a 24-hr delayed image. This was found to be secondary to an upper gastrointestinal bleed in progress at the time of injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes

  2. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2 w...

  3. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused by e...

  4. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keustermans, Genoveva; Van Der Heijden, Laila B.; Boer, Berlinda; Scholman, Rianne; Nuboer, Roos; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Prakken, Berent; De Jager, Wilco; Kalkhoven, Eric; Janse, Arieke J; Schipper, Henk S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating

  5. LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS - EXPRESSION OF LEUKOCYTE CELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULES SUGGESTS ABNORMAL HOMING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, JH; TAMMINGA, RYJ; KAMPS, WA; TIMENS, W

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by an accumulation of cells with a Langerhans' cell (LC) phenotype. Most patients present with solitary skin or bone lesions, but multi-organ lesions may appear Twenty-two LCH-tissue sections from 13 children and adolescents, with lesions at

  6. Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Kraan, Yvonne M.; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2005-01-01

    Cellular imaging techniques based on vibrational spectroscopy have become powerful tools in cell biology because the molecular composition of subcellular compartments can be visualized without the need for labeling. Using high-resolution, nonresonant confocal Raman microscopy on individual cells, we demonstrate here that lipid bodies (LBs) rich in arachidonate as revealed by their Raman spectra associate with latex bead-containing phagosomes in neutrophilic granulocytes. This finding was corroborated in macrophages and in PLB-985 cells, which can be induced to differentiate into neutrophil-like cells, by selective staining of LBs and visualization by confocal fluorescence microscopy. We further show that the accumulation of LBs near phagosomes is mediated at least in part by the flavohemoprotein gp91phox (in which “phox” is phagocyte oxidase), because different LB distributions around phagocytosed latex beads were observed in WT and gp91phox-deficient PLB-985 cells. gp91phox, which accumulates in the phagosomal membrane, is the catalytic subunit of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase, a critical enzyme in the innate immune response. Finally, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy experiments on neutrophils revealed that the LB-phagosome association is transient, similar to the “kiss-and-run” behavior displayed by endosomes involved in phagosome maturation. Because arachidonic acid (AA) has been shown to be involved in NADPH oxidase activation and phagosome maturation in neutrophils and macrophages, respectively, the findings reported here suggest that LBs may provide a reservoir of AA for local activation of these essential leukocyte functions. PMID:16002471

  7. Comparison of metabolic, hematological, and peripheral blood leukocyte cytokine profiles of dairy cows and heifers during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Fortes, M R S; Piper, E K; Vankan, D M; de Cisneros, J Prada J; Wittek, T

    2013-04-01

    The periparturient period presents major physiological challenges for the dairy cow. It is a period that is affected by metabolic stressors, major changes in endocrine status, and altered immune function, which together result in an increased risk of disease. Immunological, hematological, and metabolic profiles from the periparturient period of heifers (primipara) were compared with those of cows (pluripara) to test the hypothesis that at the time of calving they have qualitatively different peripheral blood profiles. Blood samples were collected from 22 Holstein-Friesian animals on 3 occasions: approximately 2 wk before calving, within 24h after calving, and approximately 2 wk after calving. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression of a selected set of cytokines and receptors by peripheral blood leukocytes. Additional analyses included hemoglobin concentration, red cell, platelet and white cell counts (total and differentiated), and clinical diagnostic biochemical profiles. Total leukocyte counts, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were higher in heifers than cows before calving and within 24h after calving. Alkaline phosphatase was consistently higher in heifers than cows and several significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with regards to cytokine and cytokine-receptor mRNA expression. The results warrant further investigation from the perspective of identifying risk factors for metabolic and parturient disease in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  9. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  10. Enhancing the bioavailability of magnolol in rabbits using melting solid dispersion with polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi; Liao, Tzu-Yun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Preparation of magnolol-loaded amorphous solid dispersion was investigated for improving the bioavailability. A solid dispersion of magnolol was prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) by melting method, and the physical properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. In addition, dissolution test was also performed. Subsequently, the bioavailability of magnolol pure compound, its physical mixture and solid dispersion were compared in rabbits. The blood samples withdrawn via marginal ear vein at specific time points were assayed by HPLC method. Oral administration of the solid dispersion of magnolol with PVP significantly increased the systemic exposures of magnolol and magnolol sulfates/glucuronides by 80.1% and 142.8%, respectively, compared to those given with magnolol pure compound. Magnolol-loaded amorphous solid dispersion with PVP has demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of magnolol in rabbits.

  11. Proteomic analysis of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach. Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days......Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile...... the eyes were enucleated and the vitreous was removed. The vitreous samples were evaluated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the differentially expressed proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Ten protein spots were found to be at least twofold...

  12. The Many Faces of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an immunological paradox, where fetal antigens encoded by polymorphic genes inherited from the father do not provoke a maternal immune response. The fetus is not rejected as it would be theorized according to principles of tissue transplantation. A major contribution to fetal tolerance...... is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a nonclassical HLA protein displaying limited polymorphism, restricted tissue distribution, and a unique alternative splice pattern. HLA-G is primarily expressed in placenta and plays multifaceted roles during pregnancy, both as a soluble and a membrane-bound molecule......, differences in HLA-G isoform expression, and possible differences in functional activity. Furthermore, we highlight important observations regarding HLA-G genetics and expression in preeclampsia that future research should address....

  13. Leukocyte apoptosis as a predictor of radiosensitivity in Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Sandra; Leskovac, Andreja; Joksic, Ivana; Filipovic, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Vujic, Dragana; Guc-Scekic, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare cancer-prone genetic disease characterized by impaired oxygen metabolism and defects in DNA damage repair. Response of FA cells to ionizing radiation has been an issue intensively debated in the literature. To study in vitro radiosensitivity in patients suffering from FA and their parents (heterozygous carriers), we determined radiation-induced leukocyte apoptosis using flow cytometry. As TP53 gene is involved in the control of apoptosis, we studied its status in FA lymphocytes using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FA patients and female heterozygous carriers display radiosensitive response to ionizing radiation seen as abnormal elimination of cells via apoptosis. By employment of FISH, the TP53 allele loss in FA lymphocytes was not observed. In diseases related to oxidative stress, determination of radiation-induced apoptosis is the method of choice for testing the radiosensitivity. (author)

  14. Diterpenoids from Tetraclinis articulata that inhibit various human leukocyte functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Quílez del Moral, José F; Lucas, Rut; Payá, Miguel; Akssira, Mohamed; Akaad, Said; Mellouki, Fouad

    2003-06-01

    Ten new compounds, eight of them pimarane derivatives (1-8), together with a menthane dimer (9) and a totarane diterpenoid (10), were isolated from the leaves and wood of Tetraclinis articulata. The structures of 1-10 were established by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra. Pimaranes 1-5 were found to possess an unusual cis interannular union of the B and C rings, which, from a biogenetic perspective, could be derived from the hydration of a carbocation at C-8. Compounds 4-6 and a mixture of 7 and 11 modulated different human leukocyte functions at a concentration of 10 microM, mainly the degranulation process measured as myeloperoxidase release and, to a lesser extent, the superoxide production measured by chemiluminescence.

  15. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  16. Inhibtion of the mixed leukocyte reaction by alloantisera in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.; Rood, J.J. van

    1977-01-01

    Some technical aspects of MLC (mixed leukocyte culture) inhibition by sera obtained from multiparous women were studied. The variability of the MLC response was very high. The serum source in the cultures was probably to a large extent responsible for this variability. A specific inhibition, which was observed with some test sera, could be removed by dialysis against PBS (phosphate buffered saline). To make the evaluation of inhibition by immune sera objective, a scoring system was introduced for the degree of inhibition. Test sera were usually added to the cultures. Alternatively, stimulator and responder cells were preincubated with the test serum. Preincubation of the stimulator cells did not show a difference in inhibition pattern when this was compared with serum addition. Preincubation of the responder cells showed a completely different inhibition pattern. The MLC inhibition test compared very well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and a cytotoxicity test using B-cell enriched cell suspensions. (author)

  17. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-09-29

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success.

  18. Human leukocyte antigen-G within the male reproductive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    by “priming” the woman’s immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast......In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly...... plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings....

  19. Radioisotopic 51Cr-leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) assay. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, P.H.; Tangnavarad, K.; Lesnick, G.; Holland, J.F.; Bekesi, J.G.; Perloff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified radioisotopic leukocyte adherence inhibition assay ( 51 Cr-LAI assay) was used to determine tumor-directed immune responses in patients with cancer of the breast. Essential steps in development of this assay are the standardization of conditions for optimal 51 Cr uptake by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the inclusion of autologous or normal AB serum in the incubation media. A dextrose salt mixture (GNK) was found to enhance intracellular uptake of 51 Cr significantly (8-fold) without affecting viability of the cells or without causing selective loss of lymphocyte subpopulations. The presence of 10% autologous or normal AB serum prevented non-specific LAI responses to unrelated tumor antigens. Experimental results are presented and it is seen that this short term (4 h) 51 Cr-LAI assay provides reproducible and specific results analogous to those using tube-LAI assay. The test has the advantages of being accurate, sensitive and free from technical bias. (Auth.)

  20. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan

    2017-11-01

    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive.

  1. Lymphatic pump treatment mobilizes leukocytes from the gut associated lymphoid tissue into lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lisa M; Bearden, Melissa K; Schander, Artur; Huff, Jamie B; Williams, Arthur; King, Hollis H; Downey, H Fred

    2010-06-01

    Lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) are used clinically by osteopathic practitioners for the treatment of edema and infection; however, the mechanisms by which LPT enhances lymphatic circulation and provides protection during infection are not understood. Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation. This study is the first to document LPT-induced mobilization of leukocytes from the GALT into the lymphatic circulation. Catheters were inserted into either the thoracic or mesenteric lymph ducts of dogs. To determine if LPT enhanced the release of leukocytes from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) into lymph, the MLN were fluorescently labeled in situ. Lymph was collected during 4 min pre-LPT, 4 min LPT, and 10 min following cessation of LPT. LPT significantly increased lymph flow and leukocytes in both mesenteric and thoracic duct lymph. LPT had no preferential effect on any specific leukocyte population, since neutrophil, monocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, IgG+B cell, and IgA+B cell numbers were similarly increased. In addition, LPT significantly increased the mobilization of leukocytes from the MLN into lymph. Lymph flow and leukocyte counts fell following LPT treatment, indicating that the effects of LPT are transient. LPT mobilizes leukocytes from GALT, and these leukocytes are transported by the lymphatic circulation. This enhanced release of leukocytes from GALT may provide scientific rationale for the clinical use of LPT to improve immune function.

  2. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  3. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CdlU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant

  4. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  5. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection.

  6. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on defense function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sakatani, Tatsuichiro; Brooks, G.T.; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of radiation on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied following irradiation with 60 Co γ radiation (30 - 3,000 rad) using PMN separated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The migration distances for all three measures of chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe (10 -8 M), chemokinesis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe, and random migration tended to decrease with increasing dose, showing 0.0054 μm/rad (p -5 M) in conjunction with cytochalasin B (CB, 5 μg/ml) there was a significant dose trend, showing the dose effects of decreasing 0.0022 % release/rad for BGL and 0.0030 % release/rad for LYZ with increasing dose. In superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, a slight and marginally significant linear dose trend was found. These results suggest that the defense function of PMN is not so resistant to radiation as predicted from the fact that PMN in the peripheral blood are differentiated and mature. It is thought that radiation inflicts substantially harmful effects on the defense function of peripheral PMN. (author)

  7. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  8. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  9. Inflammation Scan Using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Labelled Leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Hoon Kyo [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-07-15

    Inflammation scan using radiolabelled leukocytes has high sensitivity and specificity. Several methods for labelling leukocytes have been evaluated using P-32 diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP -32), H-3 thymidine, Cr-51 chromate, Ga-67 citrate and {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid. In-111-oxine has proved so far to be the most reliable agent for labelling leukocytes. In-111-oxine is, however, expensive, not easily available when needed, and its radiation dose to leukocytes is relatively high. Moreover, resolution of the resultant image is relatively poor. {sup 99m}Tc is still the agent of choice because of, as compared with the indium, its favorable physical characteristics, lower cost and availability. Now the technique for labelling the leukocytes with technetium is successfully obtained using the lipophilic HMPAO with higher efficiency for granulocytes than for other cells. With this technique it is possible to label leukocytes in plans to improve the viability of the leukocytes. Inflammation scan using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO has been evaluated in several laboratories, and difference in methods for separation and labelling accounts for difference in efficiency, viability and biodistribution of the labelled leukocytes. We performed inflammation scan using leukocytes labelled with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in three dogs 24 hours after inoculation of live E. Coli and S. Aureus in their right abdominal wall. We separated mixed leukocytes by simple sedimentation using 6% hetastarch (HES) and labelled the leukocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in 20% cell free plasma diluted with phosphate buffer solution. Uptake was high in the liver and spleen but is was minimal in the lungs on whole body scan. Kidneys and intestine showed minimal activity although it was high in the urinary bladder. Uptake of labelled leukocytes in the inflammation site was definite on 2 hour-postinjection scan and abscess was clearly delineated on 24 hour-delayed scan with high target-to-nontarget ratio. 4). Inflammation

  10. Identification of rabbit annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF injuries can lead to substantial deterioration of intervertebral disc (IVD which characterizes degenerative disc disease (DDD. However, treatments for AF repair/regeneration remain challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue at cellular, biochemical, and biomechanical levels. In this study, we isolated and characterized a sub-population of cells from rabbit AF tissue which formed colonies in vitro and could self-renew. These cells showed gene expression of typical surface antigen molecules characterizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Meanwhile, they did not express negative markers of MSCs such as CD4, CD8, and CD14. They also expressed Oct-4, nucleostemin, and SSEA-4 proteins. Upon induced differentiation they showed typical osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis potential. Together, these AF-derived colony-forming cells possessed clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multi-potential differentiation capability, the three criteria characterizing MSCs. Such AF-derived stem cells may potentially be an ideal candidate for DDD treatments using cell therapies or tissue engineering approaches.

  11. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Variation in sister chromatid exchange frequencies between human and pig whole blood, plasma leukocyte, and mononuclear leukocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larramendy, M.L.; Reigosa, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by ultraviolet (UV) light was studied in both human and pig whole blood cultures (WBC) and plasma leukocyte cultures (PLC). No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig WBC and PLC in control as well as in treated cells. Conversely, SCE frequencies of human PLC were consistently higher than those of WBC in control and UV-exposed cells. Thus, red blood cells (RBCs) do not influence the sensitivity of lymphocytes to UV LIGHT exposure, and there must be some different culture condition(s) in the inducation of SCEs between human WBC and PLC but not in swine lymphocyte cultures. Since the BrdUrd/lymphocyte ratio of WBC was halved in PLC, the effect of BrdUrd concentration in inducing the SCE baseline frequency of PLC may be ruled out. Neither the cell separation technique nor polymorphonuclear leukocytes had a significant role in the elevated SCE frequency of human PLC or MLC. Experiments where human RBCs were titrated into human PLC showed that the induction of an elevated SCE frequency of PLC was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the presence of RBCs in the culture medium. Since the incorporation of pig or human RBCs into human PLC as well as into MLC reduced the SCE frequency to that of WBC, a common component and/or function existing in these cells is suggested. Analysis of different RBC components showed that RBCs, specifically RBC ghosts, release a diffusible but not dialyzable corrective factor into culture medium that is able to reduce the SCE frequencies of PLC

  13. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  14. Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes and murine monoclonal antibodies. Entzuendungsszintigraphie mit autologen Leukozyten und murinen monoklonalen Antikoerpern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1992-10-01

    Scintigraphy of infection and inflammation with autologous leukocytes (In-111- oxin; Tc-99m-HMPAO) and murine monoclonal antibodies (Tc-99m-anti- NCA-95; BW250/183; I-123-anti-NCA-95; AK-47) has been evaluated in different diseases and revealed comparable results. The use of one of these radiopharmaceuticals is dependant both from the diagnostic accuracy in different diseases and stages of disease and from its ready availability and ease of preparation. Tc-99m- HMPAO should be prefered when autologous leucocytes are labeled, except of differential diagnosis of circumscript inflammatory bowel disease from abdominal abscesses and of chronic osteomyelitis. In these cases In-111-oxin is superior. Immunoscintigraphic techniques are superior regarding the ease of preparation and the unnecessity of handling patients blood. Disadvantageous are the possible human antimouse antibodies, especially regarding the development of human antimouse antibodies. (orig.).

  15. PAMP induced expression of immune relevant genes in head kidney leukocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    ) on the surface of the invader. Phagocytic cells are known to initiate a respiratory burst following an exposure to the pathogen, but the underlying and associated specific elements are poorly elucidated in fish. The present study describes the differential response of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different PAMPs mimicking viral (poly I:C), bacterial (flagellin and LPS) and fungal infections (zymosan and ß-glucan). Transcript of cytokines related to inflammation (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a) was highly up-regulated following LPS exposure whereas flagellin or poly I:C induced...... merely moderate reactions. In contrast, IFN-¿ expression was significantly higher in the poly I:C stimulated group compared to the LPS group. When head kidney cells were exposed to zymosan or ß-glucan, genes encoding IL-1ß, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-10 became up-regulated. Their level of up...

  16. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  17. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  18. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  19. In vivo imaging of leukocyte recruitment to glomeruli in mice using intravital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A Richard; Kuligowski, Michael P; Hickey, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Leukocytes mediate some forms of glomerulonephritis, particularly severe proliferative and crescentic forms. The renal glomerulus is one of the few sites within the microvasculature in which leukocyte recruitment occurs in capillaries. However, due to the difficulty of directly visualising the glomerulus, the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to glomerular capillaries are poorly understood. To overcome this, a murine kidney can be rendered hydronephrotic, by ligating one ureter, and allowing the mouse to rest for 12 weeks. This allows the visualisation of the glomerular microvasculature during inflammatory responses. In inflammation, in this example induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody, leukocytes can be observed undergoing adhesion in glomerular capillaries using intravital microscopy. Leukocyte adhesion can be quantitated using this approach. An observation protocol involving few, limited periods of epifluorescence avoids phototoxicity-induced leukocyte recruitment. The process of hydronephrosis does not alter the ability of anti-GBM-antibody to induce a glomerular inflammatory response. This approach allows detailed investigation of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment within glomeruli.

  20. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  1. Detection of acute synthetic vascular graft infection with IN-111 labeled leukocyte imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 μCi In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection

  2. Measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease: clinical rationale and methodology. International Society of Clinical Hemorheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, J L; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Nash, G B

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of leukocyte rheology in vascular disease is a recent development with a wide range of new opportunities. The International Society of Clinical Hemorheology has asked an expert panel to propose guidelines for the investigation of leukocyte rheology in clinical situations. This article first discusses the mechanical, adhesive and related functional properties of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) which influence their circulation, and establishes the rationale for clinically-related measurements of parameters which describe them. It is concluded that quantitation of leukocyte adhesion molecules, and of their endothelial receptors may assist understanding of leukocyte behaviour in vascular disease, along with measurements of flow resistance of leukocytes, free radical production, degranulation and gene expression. For instance, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) is abnormally present on endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory conditions. Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) or VCAM can be found elevated in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or infections disease. In the second part of the article, possible technical approaches are presented and possible avenues for leukocyte rheological investigations are discussed.

  3. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  4. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  5. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  6. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  7. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María C; Rossetti, Víctor; Grondona, Ezequiel; Lo Presti, Silvina; Paglini, Patricia M; Rivero, Virginia; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose was to investigate the effects of essential plant-oil of Schinus areira L. on hemodynamic functions in rabbits, as well as myocardial contractile strength and airways inflammation associated to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. This study shows the important properties of the essential oil (EO) of S. areira studied and these actions on lung with significant inhibition associated to LPS, all of which was assessed in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and evidenced by stability of the percentage of alveolar macrophages, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and without pathway modifications in conjugated dienes activity. Clinical status (morbidity or mortality), macroscopic morphology and lung/body weight index were unaffected by the administration of the EO S. areira. Furthermore, the ex vivo analysis of isolated hearts demonstrated the negative inotropic action of the EO of S. areira in a mice model, and in rabbits changes in the hemodynamic parameters, such as a reduction of systolic blood pressure. We conclude that EO S. areira could be responsible for modifications on the cardiovascular and/or airway parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meisoindigo, but not its core chemical structure indirubin, inhibits zebrafish interstitial leukocyte chemotactic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baixin; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Deng, Xu; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi; Gao, Xiang; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Yueying

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory disease is a big threat to human health. Leukocyte chemotactic migration is required for efficient inflammatory response. Inhibition of leukocyte chemotactic migration to the inflammatory site has been shown to provide therapeutic targets for treating inflammatory diseases. Our study was designed to discover effective and safe compounds that can inhibit leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. In this study, we used transgenic zebrafish model (Tg:zlyz-EGFP line) to visualize the process of leukocyte chemotactic migration. Then, we used this model to screen the hit compound and evaluate its biological activity on leukocyte chemotactic migration. Furthermore, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the hit compound on the AKT or ERK-mediated pathway, which plays an important role in leukocyte chemotactic migration. In this study, using zebrafish-based chemical screening, we identified that the hit compound meisoindigo (25 μM, 50 μM, 75 μM) can significantly inhibit zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.01, p = 0.0006, p migration (p = 0.43). Furthermore, our results unexpectedly showed that indirubin, the core structure of meisoindigo, had no significant effect on zebrafish leukocyte chemotactic migration (p = 0.6001). Additionally, our results revealed that meisoindigo exerts no effect on the Akt or Erk-mediated signalling pathway. Our results suggest that meisoindigo, but not indirubin, is effective for inhibiting leukocyte chemotactic migration, thus providing a potential therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases.

  9. An agent-based model of leukocyte transendothelial migration during atherogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery. The approach integrates cellular behaviors via agent-based modeling (ABM and hemodynamic effects via computational fluid dynamics (CFD. In this computational framework, the ABM implements the diffusion kinetics of key biological proteins, namely Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interlukin-10 (IL-10 and Interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β, to predict chemotactic driven leukocyte migration into and within the artery wall. The ABM also considers wall shear stress (WSS dependent leukocyte TEM and compensatory arterial remodeling obeying Glagov's phenomenon. Interestingly, using fully developed steady blood flow does not result in a representative number of leukocyte TEM as compared to pulsatile flow, whereas passing WSS at peak systole of the pulsatile flow waveform does. Moreover, using the model, we have found leukocyte TEM increases monotonically with decreases in luminal volume. At critical plaque shapes the WSS changes rapidly resulting in sudden increases in leukocyte TEM suggesting lumen volumes that will give rise to rapid plaque growth rates if left untreated. Overall this multi-scale and multi-physics approach appropriately captures and integrates the spatiotemporal events occurring at the cellular level in order to predict leukocyte transmigration and plaque evolution.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of the stress response to weaning at housing in bovine leukocytes using RNA-seq technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Loughlin Aran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning of beef calves is a necessary husbandry practice and involves separating the calf from its mother, resulting in numerous stressful events including dietary change, social reorganisation and the cessation of the maternal-offspring bond and is often accompanied by housing. While much recent research has focused on the physiological response of the bovine immune system to stress in recent years, little is known about the molecular mechanisms modulating the immune response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response to weaning at housing in beef calves using Illumina RNA-seq. Results The leukocyte transcriptome was significantly altered for at least 7 days following either housing or weaning at housing. Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that four main pathways, cytokine signalling, transmembrane transport, haemostasis and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPRC signalling were differentially regulated between control and weaned calves and underwent significant transcriptomic alterations in response to weaning stress on day 1, 2 and 7. Of particular note, chemokines, cytokines and integrins were consistently found to be up-regulated on each day following weaning. Evidence for alternative splicing of genes was also detected, indicating a number of genes involved in the innate and adaptive immune response may be alternatively transcribed, including those responsible for toll receptor cascades and T cell receptor signalling. Conclusions This study represents the first application of RNA-Seq technology for genomic studies in bovine leukocytes in response to weaning stress. Weaning stress induces the activation of a number of cytokine, chemokine and integrin transcripts and may alter the immune system whereby the ability of a number of cells of the innate and adaptive immune system to locate and destroy pathogens is

  11. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  13. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  14. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  15. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  16. Evaluation of possible hip prosthesis infection with In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, R.B.; Alavi, A.; Star, A.M.; Cuckler, J.M.; Eisenberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of In-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with possible hip prosthesis infection, the authors retrospectively reviewed 44 such scans without clinical history. The results of In-111 leukocyte scans were compared with intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of prosthesis revision in 34 patients, with hip aspirates and/or clinical follow-up obtained in the remaining ten patients. This comparison yielded a 71% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 77% overall accuracy. They conclude that In-111 leukocyte scans can be helpful in the evaluation of suspected hip prosthesis infection, but they are not as accurate as has been previously reported elsewhere

  17. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Matyunin, S N [Section of Applied Problems at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  18. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  19. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  20. Blocking of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid augments bacteremia and increases lethality in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2005-01-01

    , blocking leukocyte entry to the central nervous system in experimental pneumococcal meningitis compromises the survival prognosis but does not affect the risk of brain damage or level of infection in this compartment. Conversely, poorer prognosis was associated with an increase in bacterial load in blood......The role of leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the evolution of the pathophysiological changes that occur in bacterial meningitis is unclear. Here, we investigate how leukocyte recruitment to the CSF, modulated by the leukocyte blocker fucoidin, affects the extent of brain......, suggesting that leukocyte blockage affects the host's ability to control systemic infection....

  1. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  2. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  3. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  4. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  5. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  6. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  7. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  8. Enhancing influence of carbon monoxide on the development of atheromatosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P; Kjeldsen, K; Wanstrup, J

    1967-01-01

    Rabbits were fed chow plus 2% cholesterol and 12 of 24 were exposed to 170 ppM CO for 8 wks and 350 ppM CO for the 2 following wks. COHb was 15 to 19% through the 8th wk and 33% in the 10th wk. Hemoglobin in exposed rabbits rose from 10.1 to 12.2 and then to 13.5 in response to increasing CO. Degree of visible atheromatosis and content of total cholesterol in aortic tissue were significantly higher in CO-exposed rabbits. Rise in serum cholesterol was also greater in this group. Mean heart weights were higher; 7 of 12 had small multiple subendocardial and subpericardial hemorrhages; 8 of 12 had focal degenerative changes (only 1 control had such changes). Microscopic findings supported the above differentiation between control and CO-exposed animals: fibrosis, valvular edema, vascular lipoidal infiltration. Hypoxia per se is an important pathogenetic factor as well as decreased activity of certain CO-bound enzymes.

  9. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  10. αMβ2-integrin-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interactions drive the flow-dependent trafficking of Guillain-Barré syndrome patient derived mononuclear leukocytes at the blood-nerve barrier in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of hematogenous leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) are largely unknown. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We developed a cytokine-activated human in vitro BNB model using primary endoneurial endothelial cells. Endothelial treatment with 10 U/mL tissue necrosis factor-α and 20 U/mL interferon-γ resulted in de novo expression of proinflammatory chemokines CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL11 and CCL20, with increased expression of CXCL2-3, CXCL8 and CXCL10 relative to basal levels. Cytokine treatment induced/ enhanced ICAM-1, E- and P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the alternatively spliced pro-adhesive fibronectin variant, fibronectin connecting segment-1 expression in a time-dependent manner, without alterations in junctional adhesion molecule-A expression. Lymphocytes and monocytes from untreated GBS patients express ICAM-1 counterligands, αM- and αL-integrin, with differential regulation of αM-integrin expression compared to healthy controls. Under flow conditions that mimic capillary hemodynamics in vivo, there was a >3-fold increase in total GBS patient and healthy control mononuclear leukocyte adhesion/ migration at the BNB following cytokine treatment relative to the untreated state. Function neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human αM-integrin (CD11b) and ICAM-1 reduced untreated GBS patient mononuclear leukocyte trafficking at the BNB by 59% and 64.2% respectively. Monoclonal antibodies against αL-integrin (CD11a) and human intravenous immunoglobulin reduced total leukocyte adhesion/migration by 22.8% and 17.6% respectively. This study demonstrates differential regulation of αM-integrin on circulating mononuclear cells in GBS, as well as an important role for αM-integrin-ICAM-1 interactions in pathogenic GBS patient leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. PMID:22552879

  11. Isolation and characterization of the progenitor cells from the blastema tissue formed at experimentally-created rabbit ear hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-02-01

    Objective(s) : Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  12. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  13. Role of bacteria in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-associated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I (LAD-I)-associated periodontitis is an aggressive form of inflammatory bone loss that has been historically attributed to lack of neutrophil surveillance of the periodontal infection. However, this form of periodontitis has proven unresponsive to antibiotics and/or mechanical removal of the tooth-associated biofilm. Recent studies in LAD-I patients and relevant animal models have shown that the fundamental cause of LAD-I periodontitis involves dysregulation of a granulopoietic cytokine cascade. This cascade includes interleukin IL-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 that drive inflammatory bone loss in LAD-I patients and animal models and, moreover, foster a nutritionally favorable environment for bacterial growth and development of a compositionally unique microbiome. Although the lack of neutrophil surveillance in the periodontal pockets might be expected to lead to uncontrolled bacterial invasion of the underlying connective tissue, microbiological analyses of gingival biopsies from LAD-I patients did not reveal tissue-invasive infection. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide was shown to translocate into the lesions of LAD-I periodontitis. It is concluded that the bacteria serve as initial triggers for local immunopathology through translocation of bacterial products into the underlying tissues where they unleash the dysregulated IL-23-IL-17 axis. Subsequently, the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory response sustains and shapes a unique local microbiome which, in turn, can further exacerbate inflammation and bone loss in the susceptible host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food Security and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adult Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mazidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999–2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. Results. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0% being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7% had less than high school, 2787 (25.6% had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5% had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25–35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35–45 years, (p<0.001. Conclusion. The association between food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.

  15. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes

  16. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  17. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  18. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  19. Leukocyte and bacteria imaging in prosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AWJM Glaudemans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the number of joint prosthesis replacements worldwide. Although relatively uncommon, complications can occur with the most serious being an infection. Various radiological and nuclear imaging techniques are available to diagnose prosthetic joint infections (PJI. In this review article, we describe the pathophysiology of PJI, the principles of nuclear medicine imaging and the differences between Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET. The value of nuclear medicine techniques for clinical practice is also discussed.Then we provide an overview of the most often used radionuclide imaging techniques that may be helpful in diagnosing prosthetic joint infection: the 67Ga-citrate, labelled white blood cells in vitro and in vivo (monoclonal antibodies directed against specific targets on the leukocytes, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG. We describe their working methods, the pitfalls, and the interpretation criteria. Furthermore, we review recent advances in imaging bacteria, a molecular imaging method that holds promises for the detection of occult infections. We conclude proposing two diagnostic flow-charts, based on data in the literature, that could help the clinicians to choose the best nuclear imaging method when they have a patient with suspicion of or with proven PJI.

  20. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-01-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. [ 3 H]Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes

  1. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  2. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  3. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  4. In vitro studies of leukocyte labeling with /sup 99m/Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Vincent, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for labeling leukocytes in vitro with /sup 99m/Tc is described. Separated leukocytes are incubated with /sup 99m/Tc, followed by reduction with stannous chloride and washing with acid citrate dextrose solution. Maximum labeling occurs after at least 5 min incubation with pertechnetate, followed by at least 10 min incubation with stannous chloride. Labeling is similar at room temperature and at 37 0 C. The labeled leukocytes are viable, and reutilization of label does not occur in vitro. In acid conditions (pH 5.2), the elution of /sup 99m/Tc from leukocytes is comparable with that of 32 P-diisopropylfluorophosphate, but /sup 99m/Tc elution is greater at pH 7.2 to 7.4. Neutrophils label more heavily with /sup 99m/Tc than do monocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets

  5. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy

  6. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... of mobilized cells at the time of maximum LMR response. The median cumulative leukocyte count was 1.412 x 10(6) leukocytes/cm2/48 h. In the same period a statistically significant increase in the basophils for all the nickel allergic patients was observed. In 8 out of 10 patients a statistically significant...

  7. Transepithelial activation of human leukocytes by probiotics and commensal bacteria: Role of Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeuerlein, Annette; Ackermann, Stefanie; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to clarify whether commercially available probiotics induce greater trans-epithelial activation of human leukocytes than do commensal, food-derived and pathogenic bacteria and to identify the compounds responsible for this activation. Eleven different bacterial...... Escherichia coli K12, probiotic E. coli Nissle, EPEC) induced basolateral production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL 6, 8, and 10. Gram-positive probiotics (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.) had virtually no effect. In addition, commensals (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides vulgatus) and food...... (polymyxin, colistin) completely abrogated transepithelial activation of leukocytes. Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin is a crucial factor in transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes, regardless of whether it is produced by probiotics or other bacteria. Hence, transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes...

  8. Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran; Ström, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods......: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans...... was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and...

  9. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout.

  10. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  11. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus

  12. Leukocyte extravasation as a target for anti-inflammatory therapy - Which molecule to choose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehncke, W-H; Schön, M P; Girolomoni, G

    2005-01-01

    In view of the central pathogenic importance of leukocyte extravasation in inflammatory skin diseases, therapeutic interference with this - surprisingly complex - process is clearly a promising new approach for treating these dermatoses. Despite some disappointments during the clinical use of the...

  13. Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclean Kirsty M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Methods During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1 and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H2O2 and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 were measured as markers of endothelial activation. Results The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H2O2 production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery. Conclusion In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1

  14. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  15. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  16. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphic detection of myocardial abscess formation in patients with endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, M.D.; Jacobson, A.F.

    1989-05-01

    Myocardial abscess formation in patients with bacterial endocarditis in most clinical settings, especially in patients with prosthetic valves, is a primary indicator for surgical valve replacement. We report the detection of myocardial abscesses using /sup 111/In leukocyte scintigraphy in three patients with prosthetic or native valve endocarditis and nondiagnostic echocardiograms. Leukocyte scintigraphy may allow identification of myocardial abscess formation earlier than other imaging modalities.

  17. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  18. Reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral leukocytes after onset of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Hvidberg; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Sørensen, Sven Asger

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by movement disorder, cognitive symptoms and psychiatric symptoms with predominantly adult-onset. The mutant huntingtin protein leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in blood leukocytes. This discovery led to the inve......Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by movement disorder, cognitive symptoms and psychiatric symptoms with predominantly adult-onset. The mutant huntingtin protein leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in blood leukocytes. This discovery led...

  19. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Koya

    2013-01-01

    The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

  20. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  1. Therapeutic relevance of penicillin-induced hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C; Georgopoulos, A; Laber, G; Schütze, E

    1984-01-01

    There is an overwhelming body of evidence that certain Staphylococcus aureus strains become more sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes after their growth in media containing subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin. However, it is not clear to what extent this phenomenon contributes to the curative effect of penicillin in vivo. To explore its therapeutic relevance, we evaluated the interaction of staphylococci pretreated with penicillin in vitro with leukocytes in cell-proof ...

  2. Identifying the rules of engagement enabling leukocyte rolling, activation, and adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The LFA-1 integrin plays a pivotal role in sustained leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface, which is a precondition for leukocyte recruitment into inflammation sites. Strong correlative evidence implicates LFA-1 clustering as being essential for sustained adhesion, and it may also facilitate rebinding events with its ligand ICAM-1. We cannot challenge those hypotheses directly because it is infeasible to measure either process during leukocyte adhesion following rolling. The alternative approach undertaken was to challenge the hypothesized mechanisms by experimenting on validated, working counterparts: simulations in which diffusible, LFA1 objects on the surfaces of quasi-autonomous leukocytes interact with simulated, diffusible, ICAM1 objects on endothelial surfaces during simulated adhesion following rolling. We used object-oriented, agent-based methods to build and execute multi-level, multi-attribute analogues of leukocytes and endothelial surfaces. Validation was achieved across different experimental conditions, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, at both the individual cell and population levels. Because those mechanisms exhibit all of the characteristics of biological mechanisms, they can stand as a concrete, working theory about detailed events occurring at the leukocyte-surface interface during leukocyte rolling and adhesion experiments. We challenged mechanistic hypotheses by conducting experiments in which the consequences of multiple mechanistic events were tracked. We quantified rebinding events between individual components under different conditions, and the role of LFA1 clustering in sustaining leukocyte-surface adhesion and in improving adhesion efficiency. Early during simulations ICAM1 rebinding (to LFA1 but not LFA1 rebinding (to ICAM1 was enhanced by clustering. Later, clustering caused both types of rebinding events to increase. We discovered that clustering was not necessary to achieve adhesion as long as LFA1 and

  3. Fine-grained leukocyte classification with deep residual learning for microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feiwei; Gao, Nannan; Peng, Yong; Wu, Zizhao; Shen, Shuying; Grudtsin, Artur

    2018-08-01

    Leukocyte classification and cytometry have wide applications in medical domain, previous researches usually exploit machine learning techniques to classify leukocytes automatically. However, constrained by the past development of machine learning techniques, for example, extracting distinctive features from raw microscopic images are difficult, the widely used SVM classifier only has relative few parameters to tune, these methods cannot efficiently handle fine-grained classification cases when the white blood cells have up to 40 categories. Based on deep learning theory, a systematic study is conducted on finer leukocyte classification in this paper. A deep residual neural network based leukocyte classifier is constructed at first, which can imitate the domain expert's cell recognition process, and extract salient features robustly and automatically. Then the deep neural network classifier's topology is adjusted according to the prior knowledge of white blood cell test. After that the microscopic image dataset with almost one hundred thousand labeled leukocytes belonging to 40 categories is built, and combined training strategies are adopted to make the designed classifier has good generalization ability. The proposed deep residual neural network based classifier was tested on microscopic image dataset with 40 leukocyte categories. It achieves top-1 accuracy of 77.80%, top-5 accuracy of 98.75% during the training procedure. The average accuracy on the test set is nearly 76.84%. This paper presents a fine-grained leukocyte classification method for microscopic images, based on deep residual learning theory and medical domain knowledge. Experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. Extended experiments support that the fine-grained leukocyte classifier could be used in real medical applications, assist doctors in diagnosing diseases, reduce human power significantly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiotic-Enhanced Phagocytosis of ’Borrelia recurrentis’ by Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-30

    hours after Butler 7 institution of antibiotic treatment. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are known to release endogenous pyrogen after phagocytosis of...other bacteria (6), and endogenous pyrogen may be one of the mediators of the rigor and temperature rise in the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (2). Release...the pathogenesis of fever. XII. The effect of phagocytosis on the release of endogenous pyrogen by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 119:715

  5. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients: Value of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; Brown, M.L.; Sutton, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients with currently available radiologic and radionuclide imaging techniques is often difficult. Recently, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy has been proposed as an attractive alternative. Accordingly, the authors retrospectively reviewed 51 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, 49 technetium-99m bone scans, and 49 plain radiographs obtained in 51 adults with diabetes in whom osteomyelitis of the foot was suspected. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques were evaluated in all patients, as well as in a subgroup of 11 patients with neuroarthropathy. Results with 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were also examined in subsets of patients with soft-tissue ulcers (n = 35) and those receiving antibiotics during investigation (n = 20). Confirmation or exclusion of osteomyelitis was made surgically in 28 patients and clinically in 23. Fourteen patients had osteomyelitis. Bone scans were most sensitive (93%) but least specific (43%); plain radiographs were most specific (83%) but least sensitive (43%). 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were both sensitive (79%) and specific (78%), and remained useful in patients with neuroarthropathy, soft-tissue ulcers, and antibiotic treatment. Poor spatial resolution contributed to the false-negative and false-positive 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, suggesting that this technique should not be interpreted independent of other tests. 111In-labeled leukocyte scans are a valuable diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients

  6. Uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by synovial lining macrophages inhibits immune complex-mediated arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, P L; Licht, R; Dijkman, H; Holthuysen, A E; Berden, J H; van den Berg, W B

    2001-11-01

    Previously we have shown that synovial lining macrophages (SLMs) determine the onset of experimental immune complex-mediated arthritis (ICA). During joint inflammation, many leukocytes undergo apoptosis, and removal of leukocytes by SLMs may regulate resolution of inflammation. In this study we investigated binding and uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by SLMs and its impact on the onset of murine experimental arthritis. We used an in vitro model to evaluate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells on chemotaxis. Phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes resulted in a significant decrease (58%) of chemotactic activity for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). If apoptotic cells were injected directly into a normal murine knee joint, SLMs resulted in a prominent uptake of cells. After ICA induction, electron micrographs showed that apoptotic leukocytes were evidently present in SLMs on days 1 and 2. Injection of apoptotic leukocytes into the knee joint 1 h before induction of ICA significantly inhibited PMN infiltration into the knee joint at 24 h (61% decrease). This study indicates that uptake of apoptotic leukocytes by SLM reduces chemotactic activity and inhibits the onset of experimental arthritis. These findings indicate an important mechanism in the resolution of joint inflammation.

  7. Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection

  8. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Peffect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  9. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  10. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the sensitivity of indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although 111 In-labeled leukocytes have been shown to be a useful technique for detecting infection, it has been postulated that antibiotic therapy may reduce the sensitivity of the leukocyte scan. Many patients with suspected bacterial infections are placed on antibiotics before a definite site of infection has been identified. Three hundred twelve leukocyte scans on 271 patients were retrospectively reviewed and classified as positive or negative, and as to whether or not they were being treated with antibiotics at the time the leukocyte scan was performed. The overall sensitivity, considering all 312 studies, was 90%. One hundred sixty-nine patient studies were on patients receiving antibiotics; 143 studies were on patients not on antibiotics. The sensitivity of the leukocyte scan was 88.7% in patients on antibiotic therapy; it was 92.1% in those who were not receiving antibiotics. The differences in sensitivity between the two groups were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). We conclude that antibiotic therapy does not affect the sensitivity of the 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan

  11. A robust automatic leukocyte recognition method based on island-clustering texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A leukocyte recognition method for human peripheral blood smear based on island-clustering texture (ICT is proposed. By analyzing the features of the five typical classes of leukocyte images, a new ICT model is established. Firstly, some feature points are extracted in a gray leukocyte image by mean-shift clustering to be the centers of islands. Secondly, the growing region is employed to create regions of the islands in which the seeds are just these feature points. These islands distribution can describe a new texture. Finally, a distinguished parameter vector of these islands is created as the ICT features by combining the ICT features with the geometric features of the leukocyte. Then the five typical classes of leukocytes can be recognized successfully at the correct recognition rate of more than 92.3% with a total sample of 1310 leukocytes. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method. Further analysis reveals that the method is robust and results can provide important information for disease diagnosis.

  12. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  13. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  14. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  15. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  16. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  17. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  18. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  19. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  20. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  1. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  2. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  3. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  4. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  5. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  6. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  7. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  8. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  9. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  10. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  11. Imputing amino acid polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jia

    Full Text Available DNA sequence variation within human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes mediate susceptibility to a wide range of human diseases. The complex genetic structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC makes it difficult, however, to collect genotyping data in large cohorts. Long-range linkage disequilibrium between HLA loci and SNP markers across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC region offers an alternative approach through imputation to interrogate HLA variation in existing GWAS data sets. Here we describe a computational strategy, SNP2HLA, to impute classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms at class I (HLA-A, -B, -C and class II (-DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 loci. To characterize performance of SNP2HLA, we constructed two European ancestry reference panels, one based on data collected in HapMap-CEPH pedigrees (90 individuals and another based on data collected by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC, 5,225 individuals. We imputed HLA alleles in an independent data set from the British 1958 Birth Cohort (N = 918 with gold standard four-digit HLA types and SNPs genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and Illumina Immunochip microarrays. We demonstrate that the sample size of the reference panel, rather than SNP density of the genotyping platform, is critical to achieve high imputation accuracy. Using the larger T1DGC reference panel, the average accuracy at four-digit resolution is 94.7% using the low-density Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K, and 96.7% using the high-density Illumina Immunochip. For amino acid polymorphisms within HLA genes, we achieve 98.6% and 99.3% accuracy using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500 K and Illumina Immunochip, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate how imputation and association testing at amino acid resolution can facilitate fine-mapping of primary MHC association signals, giving a specific example from type 1 diabetes.

  12. Analysis of leukocyte binding to depletion filters: role of passive binding, interaction with platelets, and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschler, R; Rüster, B; Steimle, A; Hansmann, H L; Walker, W; Montag, T; Seifried, E

    2005-08-01

    Since limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms which regulate cell binding to leukocyte removal filter surfaces, we investigated the binding patterns of leukocytes to individual layers of leukocyte depletion filters. After passage of 1 unit of whole blood, blotting of isolated filter layers on glass slides or elution of cells from filter layers revealed that most leukocytes were located within the first 10 of a total of 28 filter layers, peaking at layers 6 to 8, with granulocytes binding on average to earlier filter layers than lymphocytes. Leukocytes preincubated with inhibitors of actin activation showed unchanged distribution between filter layers, suggesting that cytoskeletal activation does not significantly contribute to their binding. When leukocytes were directly incubated with single filter layers, binding of up to 30% of input cells was recorded in the absence of Ca(2+). Immunohistological analyses showed colocalization of platelets and leukocytes, with co-clustering of platelets and leukocytes. Monocytes and to some degree lymphocytes but not granulocytes competed with platelets for filter binding. Precoating of filter layers with individual plasma components showed that hyaluronic acid, plasma type fibronectin, and fibrinogen all increased the binding of leukocytes compared with albumin coating. In conclusion, leukocytes can bind passively to filters in a process which does not require Ca(2+), which is independent of cytoskeletal activation and which may depend on individual plasma components. These results are of importance when new selective cell enrichment or depletion strategies through specific filters are envisaged.

  13. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  14. The link between some alleles on human leukocyte antigen system and autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Shehab, Abeer A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-02-15

    The reason behind the initiation of autoimmunity to brain in some patients with autism is not well understood. There is an association between some autoimmune disorders and specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Thus, we examined the frequency of some HLA-DRB1 alleles in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy matched-children by differential hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The risk of association between acquisition or absence of these alleles and autism and also a history of autoimmune diseases in autistic relatives was studied. Autistic children had significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 allele than controls (P<0.001). In contrast, autistic children had significantly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 allele than controls (P<0.001). Acquisition of HLA-DRB1*011 and absence of HLA-DRB1*3 had significant risk for association with autism (odds ratio: 3.21 and 0.17, respectively; 95% CI: 1.65-6.31 and 0.06-0.45, respectively). HLA-DRB1*11 had a significant risk for association with a family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.07-16.3). In conclusions, the link of some HLA alleles to autism and to family history of autoimmunity indicates the possible contributing role of these alleles to autoimmunity in some autistic children. Despite a relatively small sample size, we are the first to report a probable protective association of HLA-DRB1*03 allele with autism. It warrants a replication study of a larger sample to validate the HLA-DRB1 genetic association with autism. This is important to determine whether therapeutic modulations of the immune function are legitimate avenues for novel therapy in selected cases of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  16. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  17. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  18. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  19. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  20. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances leukocyte rolling and adhesion in human microvasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mokarram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional signaling molecule that regulates important cellular events in inflammation including leukocyte recruitment. Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of NO synthesis induces leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and animal models. However, it is not known whether NO modulation has similar effects on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions within the human microvasculature. The present study explored the effect of systemic L-NAME treatment on leukocyte recruitment in the SCID-hu mouse model. Methods Human skin xenografts were transplanted in SCID mice to study human leukocyte dynamics in human vasculature. Early events of human leukocyte recruitment in human vasculature were studied using intravital microscopy. NO synthesis was pharmacologically inhibited using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to elucidate E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. Human neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions were also studied in an in vitro flow chamber assay system. P- and E-selectin expression on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was measured using ELISA. Platelet-activating factor (PAF synthesis was detected using a TLC-based assay. Results L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced the rolling and adhesion of human leukocytes to the human vasculature. Functional blocking of P- and E-selectins significantly inhibited rolling but not adhesion induced by inhibition of NO synthesis. Systemic L-NAME treatment enhanced E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced P- and E-selectin expression on HUVECs. L-NAME treatment did not significantly modify neutrophil rolling or adhesion to HUVECs indicating that L-NAME−induced subtle P- and E-selectin expression was insufficient to elicit dynamic neutrophil-HUVEC interactions in vitro. Moreover, synthesis of endothelial