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Sample records for rabbit lens epithelial

  1. Growth Inhibition, Induction of Apoptosis by Green Tea Constituent (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Cultured Rabbit Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyong Huang; Shaozhen Li; Junwen Zeng; Yizhi Liu; Mingxing Wu; Ming Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effect of green tea extract (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)in cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells in order to pave a new way to postcapsular opacity (PCO) prevention.Methods: Cell survival rate was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) coloimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by electron microscopy, Hochest 33258 stain and flow cytometer. DNA fragment was detected using agarose gel electrophoresis.Result: Proliferation of the cultured rabbit lens epithelia cells was inhibited by EGCG in a dose and time dependent manner. Morphologic study showed that the cells became shrunk, round shaped with their nuclei condensed and broken. Apoptotic bodies were also seen under electron microscope and in Hochest 33258 stain assay 24 hours after EGCG was added to the medium. DNA ladders were shown in agarose gel eletrophoresis.In flow cytometry assay, apoptosis peak was also evident.Conclusion: Green Tea Constituent(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate could inhibit cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells proliferation by inducing their apoptosis in the concentration used by us, which indicates that it is possible to prevent PCO by using herb extract.

  2. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72; meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18 were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy.

  3. Proliferative Inhibition of Rabbit Lens Epithelial Cell—Preliminary Investigation for Prevention of After Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoboSu; ShaozhenLi

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To study the ability of Homoharringtonine(Hh),5-Fluorouracil(5-Fu).and Adriamycin(ADM)on inhibiting the proliferation of rabbit lens epitthelium,Methods.Whole rabbit lenses were removed from freshly enucleated eyes under sterile condition.The rabbit lens eptithlia(RLE)were isolated and culatured:(1)The passage RLE were placed in 24-well tissue culture plates and incubated for 48hours.then exposed to different concentrations of Hh,5-Fu,and ADMfor 24and 72hours;(2)The passage RLEandHh(0.084μg/ml).5-Fu(0.058μg/ml),ADM(0.45ng/ml)were placed and cultured for 24hours;(3)The morphological changes of RLE exposed to different concentrations of Hh,5-Fu and ADM were studied under light microscope.Results:The ID50 of Hh,5-Fu and ADMexposed to RLEfor 24hours were 0.84μg/ml, 0.58μg/ml and4.50ng/ml,respectively,and those for 72hous were0.49μg/ml,0.33μg/ml and3.85ng/ml.The attachment rate of RLE after being cu-latured for 24hours with Hh,5-Fu and ADM were respectinely83.6%,89.1%and 87.3%,The morphological changes of RLE demonstrated that obvious changes in the cell membran e and cytoplasm were found even in lower concentra-tion ,but changes in the nuclei could only be found in higher concentation of these drugs.Conclusion:Hh can not only inhibit the proliferation of RLE but also reduce the number of attached cells.It is suggested that Hh may be more useful for the pre-vention of after cataract than 5-Fu and ADM.

  4. Development of an accommodating intra-ocular lens - In vitro prevention of re-growth of pig and rabbit lens capsule epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven; Terwee, Thom; Norrby, Sverker; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Cataract surgery is routinely performed to replace the clouded lens by a rigid polymeric intra-ocular lens unable to accommodate. By implanting a silicone gel into an intact capsular bag the accommodating properties of the natural lens can be maintained or enhanced. The implantation success of accom

  5. Lens regeneration in juvenile and adult rabbits measured by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A E; Jones, R L; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1992-06-01

    Secondary cataract growth commonly occurs after extracapsular cataract extraction. The proliferation of this regrowth occurs at rates related to many factors. In this study, the authors analyzed the amount of lens regeneration after endocapsular lens extraction that leaves the anterior and posterior capsules relatively intact. The analysis was performed in New Zealand albino rabbits with the aid of image analysis measurements in young and adult animals. The effect of low vacuum suction of the anterior capsule on the growth was determined. Lens regeneration was used as a measure of the growth potential of the leftover epithelial cells in the capsule bag. The results showed that lens regeneration was significantly faster in younger rabbits. However, low vacuum suction had no effect on the growth rate. Potential therapeutic agents for preventing secondary cataracts may be better analyzed with image analysis processing of lens regeneration, a precise and rapid measurement technique.

  6. Different Sensitivities to Apoptotic Induction by Camptothecin between Normal and Senescent Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haike Guo; Haiying Jin; Liya Wang; Hongyang Zhang; Xin Yang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether normal and senescent lens epithelial cells have different defense abilities to apoptotic induction factor in vitro.Methods: Rabbit lens epithelial cells were cultured, passed. When reaching confluence, cells from the first and seventh passage were stained by x-gal staining to detect cell senescence. Cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL(Roche).10μmol/L camptothecin was used to induce cell apoptosis from the lens epithelial cells of the first and seventh passage to distinguish different sensitivities to apoptotic induction factor between normal and senescent cells.Results: The senescent cells (41.17% ± 5.24% ) were detected in the lens epithelial cell culture of the seventh passage, which are higher than those of the first passage (0.98% ±0. 39% ). There was no apoptotic cell detected in the cell cultures undisturbed. Exposure of the first passage cells to camptothecin resulted in death of approximately 23.87% ± 3.45% of the cells during a 36 hour exposure period. In contrast, significantly more lens epithelial cells died through the apoptosis (38.29% ±4. 01% ) from the seventh passage.Conclusion: Senescent cells increased with cell passage. Senescence lens epithelial cells do not undergo apoptosis if they were not disturbed. But the vulnerabilities to apoptotic induction between health and senescence cells were different.

  7. Inhibitory effect of propylene glycol mannate sulfate on growth of rabbit lens epithelial cells in vitro%甘糖酯体外对兔晶状体上皮细胞增殖的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑾; 谢莉娜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察甘糖酯(propylene glycol mannate sulfate,PGMS)对囊袋培养的兔晶状体上皮细胞(RLEC)增殖、移行的抑制作用.方法:新鲜处死的兔眼,模拟白内障囊外摘除术,体外环形撕囊,水核分离,去除核与皮质,游离晶状体囊袋并固定,建立RLEC体外培养的囊袋模型.实验组分别用0.2,0.4,0.8g/L的PGMS浸泡晶状体囊袋,作用时间分别为2,5,10min,同时设空白对照组.上述处理后,囊袋标本置含50mL/L胎牛血清的DMEM营养液中培养.7d后观察RLEC增殖、移行情况并行组织病理学、电镜检查.结果:实验组随着PGMS浓度的增加和作用时间的延长,细胞增殖、移行的速度明显减慢,其中浓度为0.8g/L,作用时间5min和10min两组,显著抑制RLEC生长(P<0.05).对照组后囊上RLEC增殖、移行速度较快,培养7d后所有标本后囊细胞覆盖率达100%.电镜下对照组细胞结构完整;0.4g/L及0.8g/L实验组细胞退变明显.结论:甘糖酯能有效抑制体外培养的RLEC的增殖和移行.%AIM:To investigate the inhibitory effect of rabbit lens epithelial cell(RLEC)survival and growth by propylene glycol mannate sulfate(PGMS)on the rabbit capsular bag in vitro.METHODS;Capsular bags were prepared from rabbit eyes after extracapsular cataract extraction(ECCE)and incubated in 0.2,0.4,0.8g/L PGMS in 2,5,10 minutes incubation periods.After treatment,the capsular bags were cultured for 7 days in Dulbecco minimum essential medium(DMEM)supplemented with 50mL/L fetal calf serum(FCS).The specimens were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy(TEM).Capsular bags without receiving PGMS only served as controls.RESULTS:PGMS inhibited the proliferation of RLEC in the manner of concentration and time dependentment.At the threshold protocol of incubation in PGMS at 0.8g/L for 5 or 10 minutes,proliferative activity of cells were largely arrested and nearly no RLEC was seen on the posterior capsule(P<0.05).Control group had

  8. Coculture with intraocular lens material-activated macrophages induces an inflammatory phenotype in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintwala, Robert; Postnikoff, Cameron; Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-03-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, requiring surgical implantation of an intraocular lens. Despite evidence of leukocyte ingress into the postoperative lens, few studies have investigated the leukocyte response to intraocular lens materials. A novel coculture model was developed to examine macrophage activation by hydrophilic acrylic (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophobic acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate) commercial intraocular lens. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages and cocultured with human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3) with or without an intraocular lens for one, two, four, or six days. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, expression of the macrophage activation marker CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and production of reactive oxygen species via the fluorogenic probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were examined in macrophages. α-Smooth muscle actin, a transdifferentiation marker, was characterized in lens epithelial cells. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) intraocular lens prevented adhesion but induced significant macrophage activation (p intraocular lens), while the polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens enabled adhesion and multinucleated fusion, but induced no significant activation. Coculture with either intraocular lens increased reactive oxygen species production in macrophages after one day (p intraocular lens, with hydrophilic surfaces inducing higher activation than hydrophobic surfaces. These findings provide a new method of inquiry into uveal biocompatibility, specifically through the quantification of cell-surface markers of leukocyte activation.

  9. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  10. The Effect of Liposome Encapsulated Daunorubicin on Rabbit Eyes after Extracapsular Lens Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxing Wu; Huaming Li; Shaozhen Li; Junwen Zeng

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of liposome encapsulated daunorubicin (DNR) on rabbit eyes when it was used in prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO).Methods: The liposome encapsulated DNR was prepared by modified freeze-thawing method. Each eye was injected with 0. 1 ml liposomes (0. 2 mg/ml and 20 μg/mlDNR) into the capsular bag during the extracapsular lens extraction (ECLE) in 10 rabbit eyes respectively. The phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was injected as control. Besides biomicroscope observation and histology examination of all eyes, the concentration of DNR in aqueous humor was also determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: The morphology of liposome encapsulated DNR were similar to the blank liposome with round or ellipse shape. The encapsulated effecieney of liposome encapsulated DNR was 45.1%. The inflammatory response was much more severe both in 0. 2 mg/ml and 20 μg/ml DNR group than the control after liposome injection. All eyes in DNR group were showed severe corneal edema and opacity and lasted for 4 to 8weeks. Histopathological study revealed that lens epithelial proliferation occured by 4weeks and Soemmering' s ring developed by 8 weeks in control; However, in DNR group eye only a few LECs remained in the bag and there were obvious corneal edema and eosinophiles infiltration. Corneal endothelial cells were severely lost.Conclusion: The results suggest that liposome encapsulated DNR could inhibit metaplasia and proliferation of remnant lens epithelial cells after ECLE in rabbit eyes,but the severe toxicity must be avoided by further study.

  11. Experimental study on cyclosporine A drug delivery system in prevention of posterior capsule opacification after intraocular lens implantation in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Cheng; Sun Naixue

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of cyclosporine A drug delivery system (CsA-DDS) on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after experimental intraocular lens implantation in rabbit eyes. Methods Twenty healthy New Zealand white rabbits, whose left eyes and right eyes were used respectively as experiment eyes and controls, were subjected to extracapsular lens extraction and artificial lens implantation. During the operation, CsA-DDS with poly (lactideco-glycolide) as carriers or empty DDS was implanted in the capsular bag for the experimental eyes and controls respectively. After the operation, anterior chamber reaction, intraocular pressure (IOP) and CsA concentration were monitored and twelve weeks after the operation, the eyes were extracted for histopathological and morphological examinations. Results There were no differences between the two groups in conjunctival congestion,IOP change and anterior chamber reaction. PCO was less severe in the experimental eyes than in the controls. Light microscopy revealed that posterior capsular membrane in the experimental eyes was slick, with no obvious proliferation,whereas in the controls, there were lens epithelial cell proliferation and cortex regeneration of different degrees.Morphological examination with electron microscope showed that in the experimental eyes, lens epithelial cells did not function actively and apoptosis occurred, whereas in the controls, epithelial cells presented active function. No marked ultrastructural changes were found in either group. Conclusion Cs-DDS can inhibit PCO after intraocular lens implantation in rabbit eyes and does not have toxic effects on the surrounding ocular tissues. Therefore, it has a good potential for clinical use in prevention of PCO.

  12. Mitochondrial oxygen metabolism in primary human lens epithelial cells: Association with age, diabetes and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M; Shui, Y B; Liu, M; Bai, F; Huang, A J; Ma, N; Beebe, D C; Siegfried, C J

    2016-08-01

    The hypoxic environment around the lens is important for maintaining lens transparency. Lens epithelial cells (LECs) play a key role in lens metabolism. We measured oxygen consumption to assess the role of human LECs in maintaining hypoxia around the lens, as well as the impact of systemic and ocular diagnosis on these cells. Baseline cellular respiration was measured in rabbit LECs (NN1003A), canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), trabecular meshwork cells (TM-5), and bovine corneal endothelial cells (CCEE) using a XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, North Billerica, MA), which measures oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in vitro. Following informed written consent, lens capsule epithelial cells were obtained from patients during cataract surgery and were divided into small explants in 96-well plates. Capsules were removed when LECs became confluent. OCR was normalized to the number of cells per well using rabbit LECs as a standard. The effect of patient age, sex, race, and presence of diabetes or glaucoma on oxygen consumption was assessed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate regression analysis. Primary LECs were obtained from 69 patients. The OCR from donors aged 70 and over was lower than that of those under 70 years (2.21±1.037 vs. 2.86±1.383 fmol/min/cell; pOCR than non-diabetic patients (2.02±0.911 vs. 2.79±1.332fmol/min/cell; pOCR than non-glaucoma patients (2.27±1.19 vs. 2.83±1.286 fmol/min/cell; pOCR, independent of other variables. Gender and race had no significant effect on OCR. The lower oxygen consumption rate of human LECs in older donors and patients with diabetes or glaucoma could contribute to cataract development. Diabetes and glaucoma are particularly important factors associated with decreased OCR, independent of age. Ongoing studies are examining pO2 at the anterior surface of the lens in vivo and oxygen consumption in the patient's LECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Bevacizumab application delays epithelial healing in rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-im; Chung, Jae Lim; Hong, Jin Pyo; Min, Kyung; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2009-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for neovascularization, but the use of anti-VEGF therapies to inhibit neovascularization may influence epithelial wound healing. Here, the effects of bevacizumab on corneal epithelial wound healing time in rabbit models, cell proliferation, and expression of integrins in human corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells were evaluated. To compare epithelial wound healing times, epithelial defect sizes were measured after application of bevacizumab topical eye drops at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, or 5 mg/mL, twice daily, to mechanically debrided epithelia of rabbit corneas. The cellular covering of wounded areas and expression of Ki67 were assessed after scrape injuries in cultures of human corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells. Expression of cell surface integrins and collagens was measured using plates coated with mouse monoclonal antibodies against human adhesion molecules, and relevant mRNA levels were assessed by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The application of bevacizumab topical eye drops at 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, or 5 mg/mL delayed rabbit corneal epithelial healing. Cell cultures growing under high concentrations of bevacizumab showed delay in the proliferation of corneal epithelial and fibroblast cells. Surface expression of mRNA encoding integrins and collagens were decreased by 1.5 mg/mL of bevacizumab. Bevacizumab delayed corneal epithelial wound healing and inhibited integrin expression. When bevacizumab is used to reduce the development of new corneal vessels, slight delays in epithelial wound healing are possible and cellular proliferation is to be expected.

  14. Nanoceria have no genotoxic effect on human lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierscionek, Barbara K; Yasseen, Akeel A [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Li, Yuebin; Schachar, Ronald A; Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Colhoun, Liza M, E-mail: b.pierscionek@ulster.ac.uk, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Centre for Vision and Vascular Sciences, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    There are no treatments for reversing or halting cataract, a disease of the structural proteins in the eye lens, that has associations with other age-related degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of cataract and associated conditions is increasing as the average age of the population rises. Protein folding diseases are difficult to assess in vivo as proteins and their age-related changes are assessed after extraction. Nanotechnology can be used to investigate protein changes in the intact lens as well as for a potential means of drug delivery. Nanoparticles, such as cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) which have antioxidant properties, may even be used as a means of treating cataract directly. Prior to use in treatments, nanoparticle genotoxicity must be tested to assess the extent of any DNA or chromosomal damage. Sister chromatid exchanges were measured and DNA damage investigated using the alkaline COMET assay on cultured human lens epithelial cells, exposed to 5 and 10 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nanoceria). Nanoceria at these dosages did not cause any DNA damage or significant increases in the number of sister chromatid exchanges. The absence of genotoxic effects on lens cells suggests that nanoceria, in the doses and exposures tested in this study, are not deleterious to the eye lens and have the potential for use in studying structural alterations, in developing non-surgical cataract treatments and in investigating other protein folding diseases.

  15. Prevention of capsular opacification after accommodative lens refilling surgery in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; van Kooten, Theo G.

    2011-01-01

    Silicone gel-like polymers have been proposed to replace the cataractous lens and therewith restore both vision and accommodation. Lens replacement is associated with opacification of the capsular bag due to the lens epithelial cell response. In this study, the in vivo effectiveness of a 5 min treat

  16. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Forum Kayastha; Kaid Johar; Devarshi Gajjar; Anshul Arora; Hardik Madhu; Darshini Ganatra; Abhay Vasavada

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers -SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO.

  17. Fresh and cultured human lens epithelial cells: an electrophysiological study of cell coupling and membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T J

    1988-09-01

    Microelectrode studies of fresh human and rabbit lens epithelia revealed stable membrane potentials [VR (human) = -36 mV; VR (rabbit) = -45 mV] and low input resistances [Ri (human) = 10 M omega; Ri (rabbit) = 20 M omega]. Coupling studies, using two voltage microelectrodes, demonstrated that the low input resistance of the fresh epithelial tissue was due to electrotonic coupling, which was found to be extremely labile and sensitive to perfusion of the apical (fibrefacing) surface of the epithelium. The intercellular coupling could be stabilized by raising the calcium concentration of the perfusate. Studies performed on confluent monolayers of cultured human lens epithelial (HLE) cells demonstrated a membrane potential (VR = -33 mV) and input resistance (Ri = 29 M omega) similar to their fresh counterparts. The intercellular coupling of these cells was found to be much more robust. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the apical junction of cultured HLE cells was less complex than that found in fresh tissue, the latter exhibiting multiple interdigitations and folds. The cultured monolayer was dissociated into single cells by a variety of methods and the membrane properties of individual cells were studied. Single cells were found to have a lower membrane potential (-20 to -25 mV) and an input resistance in the range 110-170 M omega, depending on the method of dissociation. Channel blocking and ion replacement studies revealed significant conductance pathways for potassium, sodium and chloride and a cell-attached patch clamp investigation revealed three distinct channel types. Of the two channels with inward currents at the resting potential, one, with a conductance of 25 pS, is identified as a non-selective cation channel, and the other, with a conductance of 14 pS and reversal potential of - 14 mV, is a possible candidate for a chloride channel but has yet to be characterized. A third channel with an outward current at the resting potential is identified as a

  18. Epithelial ion transport in rabbit corneas following myopic keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Candia, O A; Marcus, S; Barker, B A; Kornmehl, E W

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rabbit corneas that had undergone lamellar keratectomy or myopic keratomileusis, the stimulation of chloride transport by 10(-5) M epinephrine was completely inhibited at 1 week following surgery. At 28 days following surgery, both groups responded to 10(-7) M epinephrine. The response to 10(-5) M amphotericin B was normal both at 1 week and at 28 days following surgery. We conclude that, although the Na-K pump was not affected by the lamellar keratectomy and cryolathing, that either the epithelial beta receptors and/or the cAMP pathway were temporarily inhibited for at least 1 week following surgery. A lamellar keratectomy, therefore, can have an adverse effect on the epithelial transport system of the corneal epithelium even though the epithelium may appear normal clinically.

  19. A gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 and perlecan is available to lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiju; Tholozan, Frederique M; Goldberg, Martin W; Bowen, Leon; Wu, Junjie; Quinlan, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors play a key role in regulating lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation via an anteroposterior gradient that exists between the aqueous and vitreous humours. FGF-2 is the most important for lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been proposed that the presentation of FGF-2 to the lens epithelial cells involves the lens capsule as a source of matrix-bound FGF-2. Here we used immunogold labelling to measure the matrix-bound FGF-2 gradient on the inner surface of the lens capsule in flat-mounted preparations to visualize the FGF-2 available to lens epithelial cells. We also correlated FGF-2 levels with levels of its matrix-binding partner perlecan, a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and found the levels of both to be highest at the lens equator. These also coincided with increased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2) in lens epithelial cells that localised to condensed chromosomes of epithelial cells that were Ki-67 positive. The gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 (anterior pole: 3.7 ± 1.3 particles/μm2; equator: 8.2 ± 1.9 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 4 ± 0.9 particles/μm2) and perlecan (anterior pole: 2.1 ± 0.4 particles/μm2; equator: 5 ± 2 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 1.9 ± 0.7 particles/μm2) available at the inner lens capsule surface was measured for the bovine lens. These data support the anteroposterior gradient hypothesis and provide the first measurement of the gradient for an important morphogen and its HSPG partner, perlecan, at the epithelial cell-lens capsule interface.

  20. Lens Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Cell Density in Human Age-related Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xialin Liu; Yizhi Liu; Jianliang Zheng; Qiang Huang; Huling Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the potential effect of the lens epithelial cell proliferation in age-related cataract.Methods: In vitro cell proliferation was assayed by MTT method to evaluate the lens epithelial cell density, index, and proliferation capacity in normal lens and all kinds of age-related cataract. Capsulotomy specimens from all kinds of patients who underwent cataract phacoemulsification extraction surgery were compared with the lens epithelial specimens from non-cataract lenses of Eye Bank eyes.Results: Lens epithelial cell density of central anterior capsule (LECD) in female normal lens was higher than that in male, LECD in nuclear cataract( > NⅢ ) was higher than that in normal lens, but in the mature cortical cataract, LF CD was lower. Mitotic index of three kinds of age-related cataracts in vivo had no statistical difference, neither did cell proliferation capacity of cultivated cells in vitro.Conclusion: The individual difference of lens epithelial cell density and proliferation capacity in vivo may be an important underlying cause for senile cataract in the cellular level, especially for nuclear cataract.

  1. Effect of Pyruvate on Polyol Pathway and Lens Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiu Qi; Jisong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of polyol pathway on lens epithelial cells apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3 and its reversal by pyruvate in diabetic rats.Methods: 220 Wister rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, model group and treatment group. After streptozotocin (STZ) induced cataract, the treatment group received 2% pyruvate in the diet and drinking. The opacification of lens was detected by microscope every 2 weeks. On 4W, 8W and 12W of the experiment, glucose and sorbitol in the lens were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The percentage of lens epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/PI staining. The activity of caspase-3 was analyzed by Western-blot.Results: Studies show that there was significant increase of glucose, sorbitol in lens of model group, the apoptosis rate and caspase-3 activity of lens epithelial cells were also gradually increase. Pyruvate treatment decreased the levels of sotbitol, glucose, lens epithelial cells apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. The progress of cataract was also significantly delayed.Conclusions: Polyol pathway, possibly through regulation of the activity of caspase-3,can induce apoptosis of lens epithelial cell. Pyruvate ingested orally can effective inhibit diabetic cataractogenesis in rats through inhibit polyol pathway.

  2. In vitro ultraviolet–induced damage in human corneal, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Hyun-Yi; McCanna, David J.; Sivak, Jacob G.; Jones, Lyndon W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to develop suitable in vitro methods to detect ocular epithelial cell damage when exposed to UV radiation, in an effort to evaluate UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), lens epithelial cells (HLEC), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured and Ultraviolet A/Ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) blocking filters and UVB-only blocking filters were placed between the cells and a UV light source. Cells were irradiated w...

  3. Experimental study on cyclosporine A drug delivery system in prevention of posterior capsule opacification after intraocular lens implantation in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of cyclosporine A drug delivery system (CsA-DDS) on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after experimental intraocular lens implantation in rabbit eyes. Methods Twenty healthy New Zealand white rabbits, whose left eyes and right eyes were used respectively as experiment eyes and controls, were subjected to extracapsular lens extraction and artificial lens implantation. During the operation, CsA-DDS with poly (lactideco-glycolide) as carriers or empty DDS was...

  4. Effects of x-irradiation on lens reducing systems. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, F.J.; Chakrapani, B.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of x ray on various lens reducing systems including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), and the activities of certain enzymes including glutathion reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was found that during several weeks following x irradiation but prior to cataract formation there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the x-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the x-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls one week prior to cataract formation and the ratio of NADPH to NADP/sup +/ in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the x-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in x-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled glucose. G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the x-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to x-irradiation. The data indicate that x-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that, when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates may be initiated.

  5. Comparison of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbit. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits (2.4-2.5 kg were randomly divided into two groups (Group A, n=12; Group B, n=4. In Group A, the right eyes were treated with vitrectomy and systemic hyperoxia (oxygen concentration: 80%-85%, 1 ATA, 4h/d (Group A-right, and the left eyes were treated with hyperoxia without vitrectomy surgery (Group A-left. Four rabbits in group B (eight eyes were untreated as the controls. Lens transparency was monitored with a slit lamp and recorded before and after vitrectomy. After hyperoxic treatment for 6mo, the eyeballs were removed and the lens cortices (containing the capsules and nuclei were separated for further morphological and biochemical evaluation. RESULTS: Six months after treatments, there were no significant morphological changes in the lenses in any experimental group when observed with a slit lamp. However, the levels of water-soluble proteins and ascorbate, and the activities of catalase and Na+-K+-ATPase were significantly reduced, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 were significantly elevated, in both the cortices and nuclei of eyes treated with vitrectomy and hyperoxia. The increase in protein-glutathione mixed disulfides and the reduction in water-soluble proteins were more obvious in the lens nuclei. The levels of ascorbate in the vitreous fluid were also reduced after vitrectomy, whereas TGF-β2 increased after vitrectomy and hyperoxia. Systemic hyperoxia exposure increased these effects. CONCLUSION: Removal of the intact vitreous gel with vitrectomy and exposing the lens to increased oxygen from the retina induce lens oxidation and aggregation. Thus, an intact vitreous gel structure may protect the lens from oxidative insult and maintain lens transparency.

  6. Electrical inhibition of lens epithelial cell proliferation: an additional factor in secondary cataract?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Entong; Reid, Brian; Lois, Noemi; Forrester, John V.; McCaig, Colin D.; Zhao, Min

    2005-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness but is at least curable by surgery. Unfortunately, many patients gradually develop the complication of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract. This arises from stimulated cell growth within the lens capsule and can greatly impair vision. It is not fully understood why residual lens epithelial cell growth occurs after surgery. We propose and show that cataract surgery might remove an important inhibitory factor for lens cell g...

  7. Study of Topical Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum in the Treatment of Alkaline Corneal Epithelial Wounds in Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharifi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Ocular surface failure which follows a variety of endogenous and exogenous precipitating factors, the most common being: chemical trauma, infection, alkaline burn, inflammation and hereditary conditions, lid or lash abnormalities, tear deficiency or reduced sensation. The core principal underpinning management strategy for ocular surface failure is establishing or promoting new growth of healthy conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. This process is mediated by many proteins that are inducers of corneal cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The current study was performed to investigate the efficacy of umbilical cord serum on alkaline corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit model. Materials & Methods: In this study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, thirty two rabbits were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Central corneal alkali wound was formed in one eye of the rabbits by applying a 6-mm round filter paper, soaked in 1 N NaOH, for 60 seconds. Group one of animals received umbilical cord blood serum and group two received Sno*Tear in the eyes. The treatment was dosed 4 times a day with the eye drops, and epithelial wound closure was recorded using slit lamp. The data were analyzed to determine the rate of wound closure. Results: The mean wound radius closure rate was 0.77 mm/day (SD=0.013 for umbilical cord blood serum-treated eyes, 0.73 mm/day (SD=0.018 for artificial tear-treated eyes. Conclusion: This study shows that alkali-injured corneal epithelial wound heal faster when treated with umbilical cord blood serum than with artificial tear in rabbit model.

  8. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  9. AGE-RAGE interaction in the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Cibin T; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2016-08-01

    Basement membrane (BM) proteins accumulate chemical modifications with age. One such modification is glycation, which results in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In a previous study, we reported that AGEs in the human lens capsule (BM) promote the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, which we proposed as a mechanism for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract formation. In this study, we investigated the role of a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT in a human lens epithelial cell line (FHL124). RAGE was present in FHL124 cells, and its levels were unaltered in cells cultured on either native or AGE-modified BM or upon treatment with TGFβ2. RAGE overexpression significantly enhanced the TGFβ2-mediated EMT responses in cells cultured on AGE-modified BM compared with the unmodified matrix. In contrast, treatment of cells with a RAGE antibody or EN-RAGE (an endogenous ligand for RAGE) resulted in a significant reduction in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT response. This was accompanied by a reduction in TGFβ2-mediated Smad signaling and ROS generation. These results imply that the interaction of matrix AGEs with RAGE plays a role in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT of lens epithelial cells and suggest that the blockade of RAGE could be a strategy to prevent PCO and other age-associated fibrosis.

  10. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  11. The Effect of Fibronectin on Re-epithelialization of Rabbits Cornea after Alkali Burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The authors found experimentally that (1) fibronectin enhanced the healing of rabbit corneal epithelium after alkali burn and prevented the secondary breakdown; (2) it rapidly deposited on the denuded basement membrane to disappear as epithelial cells slided over, and (3) ultrastructurally, the neighbouring epithelial cells became flattened, with filopodia at the advancing edge, and extended to the wounded areas at 24 hours after the burn. However, the epithelial defects recurred 72 hours after the burn...

  12. The Effects of Vitamin A Compounds on Hyaluronic Acid Released from Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells and Keratocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOSHIDA, Hiroshi; TABUCHI, Nobuhito; KOIKE, Daisuke; KOIDE, Misao; SUGIYAMA, Keikichi; NAKAYASU, Kiyoo; KANAI, Atsushi; MURAKAMI, Akira

    2012-01-01

    .... Hyaluronic acid is produced by corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes in the eye. We investigated whether rabbit corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes release hyaluronic acid after exposure to vitamin A compounds...

  13. Nerve growth factor modulate proliferation of cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyu; Li, Zhongguo; Qiu, Liangxiu; Zhao, Changsong; Hu, Zhulin

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells, the in vitro cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of NGF. MTT assay was used to examine the clonal growth and proliferation of the cells by determining the absorbency values at 570 nm. The results showed that NGF with three concentrations ranging from 5 U/mL to 500 U/mL enhanced the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF got more increase of proliferation than that of 5 U/mL NGF did. Meanwhile, 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF could promote the proliferation of the rabbit corneal epithelial cells significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5 U/mL NGF did not enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells. It was suggested that exogenous NGF can stimulate the proliferation of both rabbit corneal endothelial and epithelial cells, but the extent of modulation is different.

  14. The protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue - Fang Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. METHODS:Subcultured human lens epithelial cell line, ultraviolet induced cell apoptosis, 20μmol/L resveratrol pretreated cell, the indicators change was observed: rate of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and apoptosis-related factors of caspses-3 and caspase-9 were detected by colorimetric detection, ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Flow cytometry instrument testing found that resveratrol can suppress the apoptosis induced by ultraviolet irradiation, caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in positive control group were significantly higher than that of the negative control group at the same time period, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05; caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in experimental group were lower than that in the positive control group at the same time, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. In addition, the damage of human lens epithelial cells was alleviated with the incubation time of resveratrol elongated. CONCLUSION:Resveratrol may inhibit ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells, it has preventive function against radioactive cataract, and it can provide reliable evidence for pursuing effective medicine to prevent and treat cataract.

  15. Negative regulation of TGFβ-induced lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by RTK antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guannan; Wojciechowski, Magdalena C; Jee, Seonah; Boros, Jessica; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2015-03-01

    An eclectic range of ocular growth factors with differing actions are present within the aqueous and vitreous humors that bathe the lens. Growth factors that exert their actions via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as FGF, play a normal regulatory role in lens; whereas other factors, such as TGFβ, can lead to an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that underlies several forms of cataract. The respective downstream intracellular signaling pathways of these factors are in turn tightly regulated. One level of negative regulation is thought to be through RTK-antagonists, namely, Sprouty (Spry), Sef and Spred that are all expressed in the lens. In this study, we tested these different negative regulators and compared their ability to block TGFβ-induced EMT in rat lens epithelial cells. Spred expression within the rodent eye was confirmed using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT over 3 days of culture, as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) immunolabeling. Cells in lens epithelial explants were transfected with either a reporter (EGFP) vector (pLXSG), or with plasmids also coding for different RTK-antagonists (i.e. pLSXG-Spry1, pLSXG-Spry2, pLXSG-Sef, pLSXG-Spred1, pLSXG-Spred2, pLSXG-Spred3), before treating with TGFβ for up to 3 days. The percentages of transfected cells that underwent TGFβ-induced morphological changes consistent with an EMT were determined using cell counts and validated with a paired two-tailed t-test. Explants transfected with pLXSG demonstrated a distinct transition in cell morphology after TGFβ treatment, with ∼60% of the cells undergoing fibrotic-like cell elongation. This percentage was significantly reduced in cells overexpressing the different antagonists, indicative of a block in lens EMT. Of the antagonists tested under these in vitro conditions, Spred1 was the most potent demonstrating the

  16. Expression of P53 during Lens Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by Ultraviolet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xufang; ZOU; Weiyu; ZHAO; Changsong

    2001-01-01

    The apoptosis of lens epithelial cells (LECs) induced by ultraviolet and the expression of P53 were investigated. Wistar rats received 100 mW/m2 ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) (λ=280 nm-315 nm) for 15 min. One, 6, 24 h after irradiation the lens capsules were dissected. The percentages of apoptotic cells were evaluated by the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique and the expression of P53 was detected by using immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the percentages of TUNEL-positive nuclei at 24 h after irradiation was significantly higher than in the control group and those 1 h, 6 h after irradiation. The percentages of P53-positive cells at 6 h,24 h after irradiation were significantly higher than in the control group and those 1 h after irradiation. It was concluded that UVR could induce the apoptosis of lens epithelial cell. The expression of P53 might be responsible for the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells.

  17. The cytokine regulation of SPARC production by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kosuke; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    SPARC (osteonectin/BM40) is detected in the corneal stroma during the wound-healing process. To understand the metabolism of SPARC in the cornea, we investigated the effects of cytokines and growth factors on SPARC synthesis by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts were cultured for 3 days with serum-containing minimal essential medium (MEM), then subcultured for 3 days on serum-free MEM with epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). SPARC concentration in the medium was measured by the ELISA method using anti-SPARC monoclonal antibody. The concentration of SPARC in the conditioned medium of the epithelial cells depended on either cell numbers or cultivation periods. When EGF was added to the medium, the amount of SPARC in the medium decreased. The addition of IL-1beta, PDGF, or TGF-beta did not affect SPARC synthesis by the epithelial cells. The production of SPARC by rabbit corneal fibroblasts was low compared with that by epithelial cells. However, the synthesis of SPARC by corneal fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by the addition of TGF-beta. The addition of IL-1beta, PDGF, or EGF slightly increased SPARC synthesis by corneal fibroblasts. Cytokines and growth factors modulate SPARC synthesis by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts. These results suggest that cytokines and growth factors modulate cell-matrix interaction in corneal wound healing, possibly by regulating SPARC synthesis.

  18. [Macroscopic observations on corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K

    1991-02-01

    A newly-developed macroscope was applied to observe the healing process of corneal epithelial wound in vivo. After removing epithelium of the central cornea, the changes of the corneal surface were observed with the macroscope and the findings were compared with histological examinations. At 12 hours after abrasion, areas unstained with Richardson's staining (R staining) appeared. In the histological section, a single layer of regenerating epithelial cells covered the same area. At 24 and 36 hours after abrasion, the epithelial defects became smaller but surrounding epithelium was rough and showed dot-like staining with R solution. By 2 days, the epithelial defects disappeared. On macroscopic observation, the central corneal surface showed a pavement-like appearance. Histology revealed that the regenerating epithelium still consisted of one or two layers. At 3 days, dot-like stainings were present only in the center and the corneal surface appeared considerably smooth. Histology also showed that regenerating epithelium became columnar and multilayered, thereby suggesting stratification. By 7 days, the abraded corneal surface had recovered its smooth appearance. Histologic sections also demonstrated that the epithelium had regained its normal structure. Thus, using this macroscope, findings suggesting the process of epithelial migration and proliferation could be observed.

  19. The Biological Study of the Cultured Human Lens Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The human lens epithelial cells (HLE) cultured in vitro was established in normal and cataractous lenses. The biological feature, histological characteristics and the ultrastructure of the cultured HLE cells were investigated. The results reveal that the proliferative capacity of the culutured HLE cells is reversely proportional to the donour age; the cultured HLE cells has the limited proliferative capacity in vitro. The relieve of the contact inhibition is the effective trigger of the HLE cell prolife...

  20. Engineered three-dimensional rabbit oral epithelial-mesenchymal-muscular hybrid sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeki Yamane; Kazunari Higa; Takashi Umezawa; Masamitsu Serikawa; Jun Shimazaki; Shinichi Abe

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative muscles are required for swallowing and mastication, and are important for functional recovery from diseases involving oral muscular defects. Therefore, we generated three-layer hybrid sheets, similar to oral mucosal structures containing submucosal muscles, using rabbit oral mucosa epithelial, mesenchymal, and myoblastic progenitor cells, and examined the structural proteins. Each cell type was obtained from rabbit oral mucosa using enzymatic digestion. Isolated mesenchymal and myoblastic cells were multi-differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes or myotubes. Isolated epithelial cells were cultured on collagen gels containing isolated mesenchymal cells for 2 weeks, and these epithelial–mesenchymal cell sheets were laminated onto myoblastic cell sheets. The engineered hybrid sheets were multi-stratified in the epithelial and myoblastic layers in a time-dependent manner, expressing intermediate cytoskeletal filament proteins of epithelium and muscle. Hybrid sheets also expressed extracellular matrix basement membrane proteins. Immature cell markers for epithelial and myoblastic cells were observed continuously in hybrid sheet cultures. We established engineered three-dimensional rabbit oral mucosa hybrid sheets containing each immature cell type in vitro.

  1. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 mRNA in Epithelial Cells of Human Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To try to find out the pathogenesis of the cataract , effects of beat and oxidative stresson heat shock proteins of tissue cultured human lens epithelial cells (LEC-B3) were investigate& Methods:Cells were exposed to heat shock (45℃) and oxidative stress(5OmMH2O2 for 30 min, and then allowed to recoverat different intervals (Oh, 2h, 4h, 6h, 16h, 24h) in physiological medium Reverse transcription polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determined the level of HSP70. Results: HSPs existed in both physiologicaland stressful situation. The level of HSP7OmRNA increased 2h later after both stresses. The expression of HSP70got to the summit during 2h to 6h in each group. Subsequently it decreased gradually in each group, maintaininga high level at 16h. Conclusion: HSP70 exists in lens epithelial cells and can be induced after stress. Thedata suggested it may play an important protective role in lens epithelial cells in respond to cellular stress.

  2. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  3. [The study of cyclosporin A modified intraocular lens preventing posterior capsular opacification in rabbit eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Zhang, H; Tian, F; Gu, H Q; Liu, X; Sun, J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of cyclosporine A sustained release from modified intraocular lens for preventing posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in rabbit eyes. Forty-five New Zealand albino rabbits undergoing phacoemulsification in their right eyes were randomly and equally divided into three groups. Group A had implanted original IOL, group B had implanted PLGA-IOL(IOL coated with polylactide-glycoli acid), and group C had implanted CsA-PLGA-IOL (CsA loaded PLGA-IOL). All the 45 eyes were examined by a slit-lamp microscope. The intraocular pressures were recorded. Anterior chamber flare and aqueous humor cells were graded at different time point after surgery. The concentrations of CsA in the aqueous humor and blood were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Anterior segment tissue was histologically examined. Wet posterior capsules were weighed. PCO was graded 6 months later. The mean concentrations of CsA in group C at 2 h,1 d,3 d,7 d,14 d,30 d,60 d after operation were (11.47±2.42) mg/L, (10.30±2.15) mg/L, (6.71±1.45) mg/L, (4.81±1.16) mg/L, (6.11±0.84) mg/L, (2.53±0.77) mg/L, (0.86±0.28) mg/L. The concentrations of CsA in blood were undetectable. During the early days after operation, the reactions of the anterior chamber in group A and B were more severe than group C. The initial appearance of PCO in group C was much later than in the other two groups, and the grade of PCO in group C was much lower than the other two groups. The mean weights of wet posterior capsules in group A(312.86±52.91) mg and B(310.64±62.42) mg were much heavier than that of group C(56.93 ± 24.24) mg. Histological observation showed that there was remarkably less accumulation of lens materials on the posterior capsules in group C than in the other two groups. No toxic actions were found in intraocular tissues in group C. Our study suggested that Cyclosporin A modified intraocular lens could effectively and safely prevent the formation and

  4. In vitro isolation and cultivation of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells using tissue explant technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Can; Lu, Dan; Li, Hai-Jia; Han, Shi; Zeng, Yan-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Epithelial cells from tracheal mucosa offer significant potential as a cell source in development of tissue-engineered trachea. The purpose of this study was to investigate and optimize a suitable culture system for tracheal epithelial cells, including the methods of primary culture, passage, identification, and cryopreservation. Epithelial cells were isolated from rabbit tracheal mucosa using tissue explant technique and were subjected to immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and cryopreservation after purification. Epithelial cells reached confluency at 14-15 d. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin showed brown yellow-positive cytoplasm and blue-counterstained nuclei, while immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin showed green-positive cytoplasm and clear cell outline, indicating that the cultured cells had properties of epithelial cells. After recovery, epithelial cells exhibited high survival and viability. The results demonstrated that in vitro isolation and cultivation model was successfully established to provide high proliferative capacity, typical morphology and characteristics of tracheal epithelial cells from trachea mucosa by the use of the tissue explant technique.

  5. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor in Cataractous Aqueous Humor and Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Liu; Yizhi Liu; Mingxing Wu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose:To study the characteristics of PEDF in cataractous aqueous humor and its expression in human lens epithelium.Methods:The PEDF concentration in the aqueous humor was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in senile (130cases) and congenital (18cases) cataract patients who underwent cataract phacoemulsification extraction surgery. Anterior lens capsular specimens were obtained from these patients to count lens epithelial cells(LEC) density. The Lens Opacities Classification System Ⅲ was used to classify the senile cataracts as cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular and mixed types of opacity, and quantitative analysis of the nuclear opacities was performed by Pentacam Scheimpflug imaging system. Anterior lens capsular specimens from another senile(10cases) and congenital (10cases) cataract were collected for immunofluorescence with polyclonal antibodies specific to human pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF).Results:The mean aqueous level of PEDF was(178. 9±87. 5)ng/ml, and there was negative linear correlation of PEDF level and age (r=0. 811, P < 0. 001) . In senile cases, the aqueous PEDF concentration decreased with increasing nuclear opacities(r=0. 447, P < 0.01 ), and the mean PEDF level in nuclear cataract was significantly lower than that in posterior subcapsular opacity (P < 0.01 ) . PEDF immunostaining was detected in LEC of all capsular specimens.Conclusion :The PEDF level in human aqueous humor is related to age, types of cataracts and lens opacity. PEDF also express in human LEC. The study results suggest PEDF may regulate and/or protect LEC by paracrine and autocrine, and lack of PEDF may play a role in cataractogenesis.

  6. The migration of human lens epithelial cells induced by UV-irradiation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yao; Guoxing Yuan; Yuan Liu; Yi Shen; Qin Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the important cataract risk factors. However, the pathogenesis is still poorly understood.The migration of human lens epithelial cells(HLECs) plays a crucial role in the remodeling of lens capsule and cataract formation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of UV inducing cataractogenesis. Methods:The toxicity of UV-irradiation on HLECs was assessed by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2) was observed by Gelatin zymography. The migration of HLECs was examined by Cell Track Motility. Results:UV-irradiation does great harm to HLECs, and may induce apoptosis in the cells when UV higher than 15 mj/cm2. UV significantly increased MMP-2 activity in a timedependent manner. In addition, the irradiation could induce the migration of HLECs. Conclusion:UV-irradiation could induce the migration of HLECs by increasing the activity of MMP-2.

  7. Caspase-3 and its inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO in rat lens epithelial cell apoptosis induced by hydrogen in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚克; 王凯军; 徐雯; 孙朝晖; 申屠形超; 邱培瑾

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of caspase-3 and its inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO in rat lens epithelial cell apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro.Methods Rat lenses were incubated in modified Eagle' s medium containing 2 mmol/L H2O2 to induce apoptosis in vitro. Apoptosis in lens epithelial cells was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) double staining flow cytometry after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation. The activity of caspase-3 was analyzed by western blotting.Results Observations under transmission electron microscopy revealed that 2 mmol/L H2O2 could effectively induce lens epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro. Caspase-3 activity increased during cell apoptosis and the peak measurement occurred at 24 h after treatment with H2O2. Cell apoptosis was blocked by caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO.Conclusions The activation of caspase-3 plays an important role in executing apoptosis in H2O2-treated lens epithelial cells and in the formation of cataract. The caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO may effectively prevent lens epithelial cell apoptosis caused by oxidative injury.

  8. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  9. Hypericin-mediated photooxidative damage of α-crystallin in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E; Mason, Ronald P

    2013-07-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a perennial herb native to Europe, is widely used for and seems to be effective in treatment of mild to moderate depression. Hypericin, a singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer that absorbs in both the visible and the UVA range, is considered to be one of the bioactive ingredients of St. John's wort, and commercial preparations are frequently calibrated to contain a standard concentration. Hypericin can accumulate in ocular tissues, including lenses, and can bind in vitro to α-crystallin, a major lens protein. α-crystallin is required for lens transparency and also acts as a chaperone to ensure its own integrity and the integrity of all lens proteins. Because there is no crystallin turnover, damage to α-crystallin is cumulative over the lifetime of the lens and can lead to cataracts, the principal cause of blindness worldwide. In this work we study hypericin photosensitization of α-crystallin and detect extensive polymerization of bovine α-crystallin exposed in vitro to hypericin and UVA. We use fluorescence confocal microscopy to visualize binding between hypericin and α-crystallin in a human lens epithelial (HLE) cell line. Further, we show that UVA irradiation of hypericin-treated HLE cells results in a dramatic decrease in α-crystallin detection concurrent with a dramatic accumulation of the tryptophan oxidation product N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Examination of actin in HLE cells indicates that this cytoskeleton protein accumulates NFK resulting from hypericin-mediated photosensitization. This work also shows that filtration of wavelengths St. John's wort cannot adequately shield their lenses from hypericin-mediated photosensitized damage.

  10. Experimental Study of Plasmid TGF-β1 DNA Gene Transfer with Lipofectamine into Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼; 胡燕华; 姜发纲; 陈宏

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether the TGF-β1 plasmid DNA carried by lipofectamine could be introduced into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, specific expression of the plasmid pMAM TGF-β1in the cultured corneal epithelial cells was studied. Two days after 12 h of transfection of pMAMTGF-β1 mediated by lipofectamine into the cultured corneal epithelial cells, the TGF-β1 protein expression specific for pMAMTGF-β1 in the cells was detected by means of immunohistochemical staining and the positive rate was 23. 37 %. The results suggested that foreign plasmid DNA could be effectively delivered into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells by means of lipofectamine, and this will provide a promising method of studying TGF-β1 on the mechanism of physiology and pathology concerned with corneal epithelial cells.

  11. Effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab on lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun JH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jong Hwa Jun,1 Wern-Joo Sohn,2 Youngkyun Lee,2 Jae-Young Kim21Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, 2Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, IHBR, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South KoreaAbstract: The molecular and cellular effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab on lens epithelial cells (LECs were examined using both an immortalized human lens epithelial cell line and a porcine capsular bag model. After treatment with various concentrations of bevacizumab, cell viability and proliferation patterns were evaluated using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The scratch assay and Western blot analysis were employed to validate the cell migration pattern and altered expression levels of signaling molecules related to the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT. Application of bevacizumab induced a range of altered cellular events in a concentration-dependent manner. A 0.1–2 mg/mL concentration demonstrated dose-dependent increase in proliferation and viability of LECs. However, 4 mg/mL decreased cell proliferation and viability. Cell migrations displayed dose-dependent retardation from 0.1 mg/mL bevacizumab treatment. Transforming growth factor-β2 expression was markedly increased in a dose-dependent manner, and α-smooth muscle actin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vimentin expression levels showed dose-dependent changes in a B3 cell line. Microscopic observation of porcine capsular bag revealed changes in cellular morphology and a decline in cell density compared to the control after 2 mg/mL treatment. The central aspect of posterior capsule showed delayed confluence, and the factors related to EMT revealed similar expression patterns to those identified in the cell line. Based on these results, bevacizumab modulates the proliferation

  12. Protective effect of resveratrol on lens epithelial cell apoptosis in diabetic cataract rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Min Wang; Guo-Xing Li; Han-Song Zheng; Xue-Zhi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the protective effect of resveratrol on lens epithelial cell apoptosis in diabetic cataract rat.Methods:A total of84Wistar rats were divided into4 groups:12 inGroupA(control group),24 inGroupB(diabetic cataract group),24 inGroupC(therapeutic-dose of resveratrol group) and24 inGroupD(low-dose of resveratrol group).Rats inGroupB-D were given with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin through intraperitoneal injection.Rats inGroupC were given with100 mg/kg resveratrol and rats inGroupD were given with20 mg/kg resveratrol.The caspase-3 expression levels and apoptosis ratios ofLEC among each group were observed; the degrees of lens opacity inGroupB-D after12 weeks were compared.Results:There were significant differences in caspase-3 expression levels, apoptosis ratios ofLEC among groups at4 w,8 w and 12 w(P<0.05).After12 weeks, inGroupB the degree of lens opacity was as follow:0(0.00%) in grade Ⅰ,3(37.50%) in gradeⅡ,2(25.00%)in grade Ⅲ,2(25.00%)grade Ⅳ, and1(12.50%) in grade Ⅴ; inGroupC:2(25.00%)in grade Ⅰ,4(50.00%) in gradeⅡ,2(25.00%)in grade Ⅲ,0(0.00%)grade Ⅳ, and0(0.00%) in grade Ⅴ; inGroupD:1(12.50%)in grade Ⅰ,4(50.00%) in gradeⅡ,2(25.00%) in grade Ⅲ,1(12.50%) grade Ⅳ, and0(0.00%) in grade Ⅴ.The difference amongGroupB-D was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusions:Resveratrol has protective effect on lens epithelial cell apoptosis in diabetic cataract rat, and the effect is relative to its dose.

  13. Alpha lipoic acid protects lens from H2O2-induced cataract by inhibiting apoptosis of lens epithelial cells and inducing activation of anti-oxidative enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Li; Ya-Zhen Liu; Jing-Ming Shi; Song-Bai Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether alpha lipoic acid (LA) can effectively protect lenses from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cataract. Methods: Lens from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in 24-well plates and treated without or with 0.2 mM of H2O2, 0.2 mM of H2O2 plus 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM, or 2.0 mM of LA for 24 h. Cataract was assessed using cross line grey scale measurement. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH-Px), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity or level in lens homogenates was measured. Apoptosis of lens epithelial cells in each group were detected by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) Assay. Results: A total of 0.2 mM of H2O2 induced obvious cataract formation and apoptosis in lens’ epithelial cells, but 0.5-2.0 mM of LA could block the effect of 0.2 mM H2O2 in inducing cataract and apoptosis. Furthermore, 0.2 mM of H2O2 significantly decreased SOD, GSH-Px, and LDH activity and significant increased MDA level in the lens, but 0.5-2.0 mM of LA blocked the effect of 0.2 mM H2O2. One mM of LA was found to be the most effective. Conclusions: LA can protect lens from H2O2-induced cataract. LA exerts protective effects through inhibition of lens’ epithelial cell apoptosis and activation of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  14. Cx43, ZO-1, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin in cataractous lens epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anshul I Arora; Kaid Johar; Devarshi U Gajjar; Darshini A Ganatra; Forum B Kayastha; Anuradha K Pal; Alpesh R Patel; Rajkumar S; Abhay R Vasavada

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of the anterior lens capsule with an attached monolayer of lens epithelial cells (LECs) were obtained from patients (=52) undergoing cataract surgery. Specimens were divided into three groups based on the type of cataract: nuclear cataract, cortical cataract and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Clear lenses (=11) obtained from donor eyes were used as controls. Expression was studied by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blot. Statistical analysis was done using the student’s -test. Immunofluorescence results showed punctate localization of Cx43 at the cell boundaries in controls, nuclear cataract and PSC groups. In the cortical cataract group, cytoplasmic pools of Cx43 without any localization at the cell boundaries were observed. Real-time PCR results showed significant up-regulation of Cx43 in nuclear and cortical cataract groups. Western blot results revealed significant increase in protein levels of Cx43 and significant decrease of ZO-1 in all three cataract groups. Protein levels of alpha-catenin were decreased significantly in nuclear and cortical cataract group. There was no significant change in expression of beta-catenin in the cataractous groups. Our findings suggest that ZO-1 and alpha-catenin are important for gap junctions containing Cx43 in the LECs. Alterations in cell junction proteins may play a role during formation of different types of cataract.

  15. Tissue-engineered conduit using bladder acellular matrix and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Wen-biao; SONG Chao; LI Yong-wei; YANG Si-xing; MENG Lin-chao; LI Xin-hui

    2013-01-01

    Background For muscle invasive bladder cancer,radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment now and urinary diversion is often necessary.The use of intestinal tissue for urinary diversion is frequently associated with complications.In this study,we aimed to make a tissue-engineered conduit (TEC) using bladder epithelial cells and bladder acellular matrix (BAM) for urinary diversion in rabbits.Methods Bladder epithelial cells of rabbit were cultivated and expanded in vitro,then seeded on BAM,and cultured for 7 days.Then cell-seeded graft was used to make TEC.In the experimental group,most of bladder of the rabbit was removed while bladder trigone was retained.The proximal end of TEC was anastomosed with bladder trigone and the distal end was anastomosed with the abdominal stoma.In the control group,TEC was made using unseeded BAM.Haematoxylin and eosin staining was conducted,respectively,at 1,2,4,and 8 weeks postoperatively.Immunohistochemistry was performed 8 weeks postoperatively.Intravenous urography,retrograde pyelography,and cystoscopy of TEC were made at 12 weeks postoperatively.Results All animals were alive in the experimental group.Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed epithelial coverage in TEC.Immunohistochemistry showed anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody and anti-ZO1 antibody positive,confirming there were mature and functional epithelial cells on the lumen of TEC.Retrograde pyelography and intravenous urography showed that TEC developed well and that there was no obstruction.In the control group,four rabbits were dead within 2 weeks and scar formation,atresia,and severe hydronephrosis were found.Conclusions We successfully made TEC using BAM and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits.The lumen of this new TEC covered mature epithelial cells and could prevent urinary extravasation.

  16. Growth and differentiation of human lens epithelial cells in vitro on matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; McNamara, M. P.; Chang, E.; Aragon, G.; Lin, S. P.; Lui, G.; Polansky, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the growth and maturation of nonimmortalized human lens epithelial (HLE) cells grown in vitro. METHODS: HLE cells, established from 18-week prenatal lenses, were maintained on bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) extracellular matrix (ECM) in medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The identity, growth, and differentiation of the cultures were characterized by karyotyping, cell morphology, and growth kinetics studies, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: HLE cells had a male, human diploid (2N = 46) karyotype. The population-doubling time of exponentially growing cells was 24 hours. After 15 days in culture, cell morphology changed, and lentoid formation was evident. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated expression of alphaA- and betaB2-crystallin, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and major intrinsic protein (MIP26) in exponential growth. Western analyses of protein extracts show positive expression of three immunologically distinct classes of crystallin proteins (alphaA-, alphaB-, and betaB2-crystallin) with time in culture. By Western blot analysis, expression of p57(KIP2), a known marker of terminally differentiated fiber cells, was detectable in exponential cultures, and levels increased after confluence. MIP26 and gamma-crystallin protein expression was detected in confluent cultures, by using immunofluorescence, but not in exponentially growing cells. CONCLUSIONS: HLE cells can be maintained for up to 4 months on ECM derived from BCE cells in medium containing FGF-2. With time in culture, the cells demonstrate morphologic characteristics of, and express protein markers for, lens fiber cell differentiation. This in vitro model will be useful for investigations of radiation-induced cataractogenesis and other studies of lens toxicity.

  17. Posterior capsular opacification and intraocular lens decentration. Part I: Comparison of various posterior chamber lens designs implanted in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S O; Solomon, K D; McKnight, G T; Wilbrandt, T H; Gwin, T D; O'Morchoe, D J; Tetz, M R; Apple, D J

    1988-11-01

    Experimental phacoemulsification procedures were performed in 54 Rex rabbits. In 96 eyes, posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs) were implanted in the capsular sac, and 12 eyes served as controls with no lens implantation. The IOLs were divided into eight groups consisting of both one-piece and three-piece styles with various optic designs. Each lens was evaluated for the relative effect on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and optic decentration, two of the most common complications of modern cataract surgery and IOL implantation. Optics with a convex-anterior, plano-posterior design (the type of IOL optic most frequently implanted today) had the highest incidence of PCO. With capsular fixated IOLs, the features that have a statistically significant impact on reducing PCO include (1) one-piece, all-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) IOL styles, (2) a biconvex or posterior convex optic design, and (3) angulated loops. Lens decentration was not affected by the optic design, but statistical analysis showed that one-piece, all-PMMA IOL construction provided the most consistent centration.

  18. Effect of serum, fibronectin, and laminin on adhesion of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrill, P H; Bernardini, I; Kleinman, H K; Kretchmer, N

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit intestinal epithelial cells, obtained after a limited hyaluronidase digestion, were incubated in medium with or without calf serum, on bacteriological plastic dishes. The dishes, either plain or coated with an air-dried type I collagen film, were pretreated with medium alone or eith medium containing purified laminin or purified fibronectin. Cells did not attach in significant numbers to untreated bacteriological plastic, even in the presence of serum. Cells did attach to collagen-coated dishes, and were judged viable on the basis of their incorporation of radiolabeled leucine into cell protein. Cell adhesion to the collagen substrate increased in proportion to the concentration of serum in the medium, with maximal attachment of 5% serum or greater. Pretreatment of plain or collagen-coated dishes with increasing amounts of fibronectin enhanced cell adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Either serum, or fibronectin-free serum in the medium enhanced cell attachment to substrates pretreated with either fibronectin or laminin. Thus, intestinal epithelial cells appear to possess surface receptors for both laminin and fibronectin. The evidence further suggests that calf serum may contain factors, other than fibronectin, capable of enhancing intestinal epithelial cell attachment to collagen substrates.

  19. CHIP Knockdown Reduced Heat Shock Response and Protein Quality Control Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, Z; Bao, X; Qin, Y; Taylor, A; Shang, F; Wu, M

    2015-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) systems, including molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), plays an important role in maintaining intracellular protein homeostasis. Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70- interacting protein (CHIP) links the chaperone and UPPs, thus contributing to the repair or removal of damaged proteins. Over-expression of CHIP had previously been used to protect cells from environmental stress. In order to gain a more physiologic mechanism of the advantage conferred by CHIP, we induced a CHIP knockdown and monitored the ability of cells to cope with environmental stress. To knockdown CHIP, the human lens epithelial cell line HLE B3 was transfected with lentiviral particles that encode a CHIP short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or negative control lentiviral particles. Stable CHIP-knock down cells (KD) and negative control cells (NC) were selected with puromycin. After exposure to heat shock stress, there was no change observed in the expression of Hsp90. In contrast, Hsp70 levels increased significantly in NC cells but less so in KD cells. Hsp27 levels also increased after heat shock, but only in NC cells. Protein ubiquitination was reduced when CHIP was knocked down. CHIP knockdown reduced the ability to clear aggregation proteins. When same levels of aggregation-prone RFP-mutant crystallin fusion protein, RFP/V76D-γD, was expressed, there was ~9- fold more aggregates in KD cells as compared to that observed in NC cells. Furthermore, KD cells were more sensitive to toxicity of amino acid analog canavanine as compared to NC cells. Together, these data indicate that CHIP is required for PQC and that CHIP knockdown diminished cellular PQC capacity in lens cells.

  20. Canine amino acid transport system Xc(-): cDNA sequence, distribution and cystine transport activity in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takuya; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Ichihara, Nobuteru; Ochiai, Hideharu

    2014-04-01

    The cystine transport activity of a lens epithelial cell line originated from a canine mature cataract was investigated. The distinct cystine transport activity was observed, which was inhibited to 28% by extracellular 1 mM glutamate. The cDNA sequences of canine cysteine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and 4F2hc were determined. The predicted amino acid sequences were 527 and 533 amino acid polypeptides, respectively. The amino acid sequences of canine xCT and 4F2hc showed high similarities (>80%) to those of humans. The expression of xCT in lens epithelial cell line was confirmed by western blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed high level expression only in the brain, and it was below the detectable level in other tissues.

  1. Acute effects of the sigma-2 receptor agonist siramesine on lysosomal and extra-lysosomal proteolytic systems in lens epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jonhede, S.; Petersen, A; Zetterberg, M.; Karlsson, J-O

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the sigma-2 receptor agonist, siramesine, on morphology, growth, cell death, lysosomal function, and effects on extra-lysosomal proteolytic systems in human lens epithelial cells. Methods Human lens epithelial cells in culture were exposed to siramesine and examined for morphological changes using Nomarski optics or calcein. Lysosomes were evaluated using acridine orange and Magic Red (RR-cresyl violet). Nuclear morphology was...

  2. Extracellular matrix-dependent differentiation of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Squiban, A; Boisvieux-Ulrich, E; Guilianelli, C; Houcine, O; Geraud, G; Guennou, C; Marano, F

    1994-01-01

    The differentiation of tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture was investigated according to the nature of the extracellular matrix used. Cultures obtained by the explant technique were realized on a type I collagen substratum either as a thin, dried coating or as a thick, hydrated gel supplemented with culture medium and serum. These two types of substratum induced distinct cell morphology and cytokeratin expression in the explant derived cells. Where cells are less proliferating (from Day 7 to 10 of culture), differentiation was evaluated by morphologic ultrastructural observations, immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratins, and determination of cytokeratin pattern by biochemical analysis. The epithelium obtained on gel was multilayered, with small, round basal cells under large, flattened upper cells. The determination of the keratin pattern expressed by cells grown on gel revealed an expression of keratin 13, already considered as a specific marker of squamous metaplasia, that diminished with retinoic acid treatment. Present results demonstrated by confocal microscopy that K13-positive cells were large upper cells with a dense keratin network, whereas lower cells were positively stained with a specific monoclonal antibody to basal cells (KB37). Moreover, keratin neosynthesis analysis pointed out a higher expression of K6, a marker of hyperproliferation, on gel than on coating. All these data suggest a differentiation of rabbit tracheal epithelial cells grown on gel toward squamous metaplasia. By contrast, the epithelium observed on coating is nearly a monolayer of very large and spread out cells. No K13-positive cells were observed, but an increase in the synthesis of simple epithelium marker (K18) was detected. These two substrata, similar in composition and different in structure, induce separate differentiation and appear as good tools to explore the mechanisms of differentiation of epithelial tracheal cells.

  3. Lens Epithelial Cell Death Secondary to Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Absence of Capsular Bag Opacification Six Years after Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno-Montañés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show the evolution of anterior chamber structures 6 years after cataract surgery in a case with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. Methods: A 37-year-old woman with AK receiving long-term treatment with chlorhexidine, propamidine isethionate and steroids developed a white cataract and iris atrophy. Penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery were performed with subsequent intraocular pressure elevation requiring Molteno shunt implantation. Two years after the last surgery, endothelial decompensation developed and another penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Intraoperatively, the anterior and posterior capsules were completely transparent. Results: Six years after cataract surgery, the intraocular lens was centered with clear anterior and posterior capsules without lens epithelial cells proliferation. No Soemmering’s ring formation or posterior capsule opacification was found. Also, no zonular damage or pseudophacodonesis was observed. Conclusions: This case suggests that AK infection and AK treatment not only cause white progressive cataract but also lens epithelial cell death. The capsules may be completely clear 6 years after cataract surgery, with a good quality of vision regardless of intraocular lens material or design.

  4. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses activate the tumor-associated lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic.

  5. Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses Activate the Tumor-Associated Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic. PMID:24604027

  6. Expression and proteolytic activity of calpain in lens epithelial cells of oxidative cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯; 姚克; 孙朝晖; 王凯军; 申屠形超

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of calpain in the mechanism of oxidative cataract through detecting the level of intracellular free Ca2+, the expression and proteolytic activity of calpain in the lens epithelial cells (LECs) of H2O2-induced cataract. Methods: Rat lenses were cultured in vitro and cataract was induced by H2O2. The level of intracellular free Ca2+ was measured by fluorescence determination with fura-2/AM. The expression of m-calpain protein in LECs was detected with immunohistochemical method. The proteolytic activity in LECs was measured using a fluorogenic synthetic substrate. Results: There were significant differences of the level of intracellular free Ca2+ (P=0.001, 0.000, 0.000), the expression of m-calpain (P=0.001, 0.000, 0.000) and the proteolytic activity of calpain (P=0.001, 0.000, 0.000) between H2O2-induced and control group at 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. Conclusions: H2O2 can increase intracellular free Ca2+, then enhance the expression and proteolytic activity of calpain which may play a role in the mechanism of oxidative cataract of rat.

  7. Expression and proteolytic activity of calpain in lens epithelial cells of oxidative cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯; 姚克; 孙朝晖; 王凯军; 申屠形超

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of calpain in the mechanism of oxidative cataract through detecting the level of intracellular free Ca2+, the expression and proteolytic activity of calpain in the lens epithelial cells (LECs) of H2O2-induced cataract. Methods:Rat lenses were cultured in vitro and cataract was induced by H2O2. The level of intracellular free Ca2+ was measured by fluorescence determination with fura-2/AM. The expression of m-calpain protein in LECs was detected with immunohistochemical method. The proteolytic activity in LECs was measured using a fluorogenic synthetic substrate.Results: There were significant differences of the level of intracellular free Ca2+(P=0.001, 0.000, 0.000), the expression of m-calpain (P=0.001, 0.000, 0.000) and the proteolytic activity ofcalpain (P=O.O01,0.000, 0.000) between H2O2-induced and control group at 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. Conclusions: H2O2 can increase intracellular free Ca2+, then enhance the expression and proteolytic activity of calpain which may play a role in the mechanism of oxidative cataract of rat.

  8. Effect of ultraviolet A exposure on transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D Y; Zhang, J S

    2015-05-18

    Compatible organic osmolytes, such as betaine, myoinositol, and taurine, are involved in antioxidant defense, protein stabilization, and stress responses. This osmolyte strategy requires the expression of specific osmolyte transporters such as betaine (BGT-1), myoinositol (SMIT), and taurine (TAUT). In contrast to the kidney, keratinocytes, and neural cells, few studies have examined osmolytes in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). We examined the expression of mRNA specific for BGT-1, SMIT, and TAUT in HLECs. In comparison to normoosmotic (305 mOsM) controls, there was a 3-5-fold time-dependent reaction of BGT-1, SMIT, and TAUT mRNA levels in HLECs exposed to hyperosmotic stress (405 mOsM). Maximal responses were obtained for BGT-1, SMIT, and TAUT mRNA expression after 3, 24 and 9 h of hyperosmotic exposure, respectively. This expression was correlated with increased osmolyte uptake. In contrast, hypoosmotic (205 mOsM) stimulation led to a significant efflux of osmolytes. Exposure to ultraviolet A (340-400 nm) radiation significantly stimulated osmolyte uptake. Increased osmolyte uptake was associated with upregulation of mRNA steady-state levels for osmolyte transporters in irradiated cells. These results demonstrate that ultraviolet A radiation leads to the accumulation of compatible organic osmolytes in HLECs as hyperosmotic pressure, which can maintain cellular environmental homeostasis.

  9. Effects of Lutein on the Growth and Migration of Bovine Lens Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhen HU; Zhirong XU

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lutein on the growth and migration of bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) in vitro were observed in an attempt to find a drug that can prevent after-cataract. BLECs were cultured in vitro and different concentrations of lutein were added to the BLECs cultures of the second and third generations. The effects of lutein on the proliferation of BLECs in vitro were examined by the MTT method, and the migration of BLECs was evaluated by a scratch wound assay. The results showed that: (1) Lutein at concentrations of 1 to 16μmol/L could inhibit the proliferation of BLECs in a dose-and time-dependent manner (P<0.01); (2) The migration of BLECs was evaluated by wound healing rate. As compared with the control group, the wound healing rate in the experimental groups was decreased from 0.672±0.164 to -0.234±0.144 and -0.597±0.063 (P<0.01) at 1 and 2μmol/L lutein, respectively. It was concluded that lutein at concentration of ≥1μmol/L inhibited the proliferation and migration of BLECs in vitro. Lutein may become an effective drug to prevent after-cataract.

  10. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses activate the tumor-associated lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-03-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic.

  11. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  12. Primary culture and growth characteristics of four different species of lens epithelial cells%四种不同种属晶状体上皮细胞的原代培养及生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀立霞; 李彩娜; 刘泉; 环奕; 刘率男; 申竹芳

    2015-01-01

    目的::探索大鼠、兔、犬及人四种不同种属晶状体上皮细胞( lens epithelial cells, LECs)的原代培养条件,并观察其生长特性。方法:采用不同方法取出四种晶状体囊或前囊组织,改良组织块法进行原代培养,并在倒置显微镜下观察四种LECs的形态学特征及变化。结果:大鼠、兔、犬及人四种LECs均可采用改良组织块贴壁法进行原代培养。随着种属级别的升高,LECs贴壁能力逐渐增强,细胞由不规则的多角形向卵圆形发展、胞核渐渐圆润、胞浆越来越丰富,经多次传代后四种LECs均有向纤维化发展的趋势。结论:成功改良了大鼠、兔、犬及人 LECs 的原代培养方法,在细胞及分子水平为白内障及其相关领域的研究提供了技术支撑。%AlM:To explore the primary culture conditions for four kinds of lens epithelial cells ( LECs) of rat, rabbit, dog, and human, and measure their growth characteristics.METHODS:The lens capsule or anterior capsular tissue of rat, rabbit, dog and patient were removed by different methods, and they were cut into tiny pieces for primary culture by modified tissue adherent method. The morphological features of four kinds of LECs were observed under an inverted microscope.RESULTS: Four kinds of LECs of rat, rabbit, dog and human could be cultured primarily by tissue adherent method. With the evolution of tissue source, the adherent capacity of LECs gradually strengthened, cells form were changed from irregular polygon to oval, nucleus rounded and cytoplasm enriched gradually. Four kinds of LECs had fibrotic changes after several passages.CONCLUSlON: LECs of rat, rabbit, dog and human can be primarily cultured. This method lays the foundation for the mechanism research of caratact and related fields on the cellular and molecular levels.

  13. In vitro investigation of ultrasound-induced oxidative stress on human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwei, Patrick; Alex Gong, Cihun-Siyong; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lin, Meng-Bo; Lai, Jui-Yang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2017-01-22

    The effect of ultrasound exposure on human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) was investigated in vitro, specifically on the generation of oxidative stress upon ultrasound application using various clinically-relevant settings. In addition to ultrasound-induced heat effects, oxidative stress has been recently proposed as one of the main mechanisms for ultrasound-induced effects on human cells. In this work, the levels of biocompatibility and generation of oxidative stress by exposure of ultrasound to HLE-B3 were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium level. Oxidative stress induction is traditionally achieved through administrations of H2O2 and thus the administration of H2O2 was used as the positive control group for comparison herein. Concerning the administrations of H2O2 are considered invasive and may potentially have side effects, ultrasound as physical stimulation could be a safer and non-invasive method to induce similar oxidative stress environments. The effect of ultrasound on cell viability and induction of oxidative stress increases with ultrasound intensity. The result reveals that the continuous ultrasound has a positive impact on the oxidative stress levels but does negatively on the cell viability, as compared to the pulsed ultrasound. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that the exposure of 58 kPa continuous ultrasound without microbubbles can maintain acceptable cell viability and produce oxidative stress effects similar to the traditional administrations of H2O2. In summary, exposure of ultrasound can generate oxidative stress comparable to traditional administrations of H2O2. The effect of generating oxidative stress is adjustable through ultrasound parameters, including the pulsed or continuous wave, the intensity of ultrasound and addition of microbubbles.

  14. Thioredoxin Binding Protein-2 Regulates Autophagy of Human Lens Epithelial Cells under Oxidative Stress via Inhibition of Akt Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke; Zhang, Yidong; Chen, Guangdi; Lai, Kairan; Yin, Houfa

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the development of age-related cataract. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2) is a negative regulator of thioredoxin (Trx), which deteriorates cellular antioxidant system. Our study focused on the autophagy-regulating effect of TBP-2 under oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells (LECs). Human lens epithelial cells were used for cell culture and treatment. Lentiviral-based transfection system was used for overexpression of TBP-2. Cytotoxicity assay, western blot analysis, GFP/mCherry-fused LC3 plasmid, immunofluorescence, and transmission electronic microscopy were performed. The results showed that autophagic response of LECs with increased LC3-II, p62, and GFP/mCherry-LC3 puncta (P < 0.01) was induced by oxidative stress. Overexpression of TBP-2 further strengthens this response and worsens the cell viability (P < 0.01). Knockdown of TBP-2 attenuates the autophagic response and cell viability loss induced by oxidative stress. TBP-2 mainly regulates autophagy in the initiation stage, which is mTOR-independent and probably caused by the dephosphorylation of Akt under oxidative stress. These findings suggest a novel role of TBP-2 in human LECs under oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can cause cell injury and autophagy in LECs, and TBP-2 regulates this response. Hence, this study provides evidence regarding the role of TBP-2 in lens and the possible mechanism of cataract development. PMID:27656263

  15. Evaluation of a new single-piece 4% water content hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Andrew; Werner, Liliana; Fuller, Stanley R; Kavoussi, Shaheen C; McIntyre, J Steele; Mamalis, Nick

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate uveal and capsular biocompatibility of a 1-piece intraocular lens (IOL) manufactured from a new hydrophobic acrylic material that incorporates a barrier step at the optic-haptic junctions. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. The study IOL (Eternity-Uni W-60) was implanted in the right eyes of 5 New Zealand rabbits and the control IOL (Acrysof SN60WF) in the left eyes. Slitlamp examination was performed 1 through 4 weeks postoperatively. After death, the globes were enucleated and fixed in formalin. Capsular bag opacification scoring (Miyake-Apple view) was then performed followed by complete histopathology. At the 4-week examination, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) score was 1.5 ± 1.0 (SD) in the study group and 2.2 ± 1.09 in the control group (P=.02). Anterior capsule opacification (ACO) was not present in the study eyes and was mild in the control eyes. On gross examination, the mean central PCO score was 0.9 ± 0.65 in the study group and 1.7 ± 1.20 in the control group (P=.07); the mean peripheral PCO score was 1.3 ± 0.67 and 2.4 ± 1.14 (P=.01) and the mean Soemmerring ring score was 3.8 ± 0.44 and 4.2 ± 1.09, respectively (P=.47). Histopathology confirmed that both IOLs were equally tolerated by the rabbit eyes. In this rabbit study, the new hydrophobic acrylic material was biocompatible. The barrier step incorporated to the optic-haptic junctions has the potential to enhance PCO prevention. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adapting biodegradable oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for pigment epithelial cell encapsulation and lens regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mimi W; Park, Hansoo; Guo, Xuan; Nakamura, Kenta; Raphael, Robert M; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the encapsulation of newt iris pigment epithelial cells (PECs), which have the ability to regenerate a lens by trans-differentiation in vivo, within a biodegradable hydrogel of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. Hydrogel beads of initial diameter of 1 mm were fabricated by a molding technique. The swelling ratio and degradation rate of the hydrogel beads decreased with increasing crosslinking ratios. Confocal microscopy confirmed the cytocompatibility of crosslinking hydrogel formulations as evidenced by the viability of an encapsulated model cell line within a crosslinked hydrogel bead. Hydrogel beads encapsulating iris PECs were also implanted into lentectomized newts in vivo; histological evaluation of explants after 30 days revealed a regenerated lens, thus demonstrating that the presence of degrading hydrogel did not adversely affect lens regeneration. The results of this study suggest the potential of a method for lens regeneration involving oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for iris PEC encapsulation and transplantation.

  17. Raman microspectroscopy of fixed rabbit and human lenses and lens slices: New potentialities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Annet C.C.; Huizinga, Alex; Mul, de Frits F.M.; Vrensen, Gijs F.J.M.; Greve, Jan

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive, non-destructive technique for the study of the macromolecular composition of tissues. Raman spectra were obtained from intact fresh and paraformaldehyde fixed rabbit lenses and from thin slices prepared from these lenses. In addition the Raman spectrum of an int

  18. Effects of Sodium Salicylate on the Expression of HSP27 Protein during Oxidative Stress in Tissue-cultured Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of sodium salicylate on the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27)during oxidative stress in tissue-cultured human lens epithelial cells were investigated. Cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLB-3) were divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), oxidation injury group (group B) and sodium salicylate group (group C). Apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells cultured in vitro was induced in the presence of 150 μmol/L H2O2. Cells viability and the expression of HSP27 were analyzed. Viability of the cells was measured by methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT)chromatometry. The expression of HSP27 in HLB-3 cells was detected by using immunohistochemistry and image analysis system. Sodium salicylate could induce the expression of HSP27, and the cells viability in group C was significantly higher than in group B (0.2667±0.01414 vs 0.2150±0.01080, P=0.012<0.05). The average gray value of HSP27 in group B was less than that in group C (P=0.000<0.05). The increased expression of HSP27 by sodium salicylate might play an important role in the protection of hydrogen peroxide-induced injury of human lens epithelial cells,suggesting that sodium salicylate could suppress, at least in part, the apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells.

  19. Effect of sertraline on Ca²⁺ fluxes in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Sun, Te-Kung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Lee, Jenn-Kuen; Yeh, Hsiao-Chun; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-04-30

    The effect of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) in a rabbit corneal epithelial cell line (SIRC) is unclear. This study explored whether sertraline changed basal [Ca²⁺](i) levels in suspended SIRC cells by using fura-2 as a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye. Sertraline at concentrations between 10-100 μM increased [Ca²⁺](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca²⁺ signal was reduced by 23% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Sertraline induced Mn²⁺ influx, leading to quench of fura-2 fluorescence, suggesting Ca²⁺ influx. This Ca²⁺ influx was inhibited by phospholipase A₂ inhibitor aristolochic acid, but not by store-operated Ca²⁺ channel blockers and protein kinase C/A modulators. In Ca²⁺-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone greatly inhibited sertraline-induced Ca²⁺ release. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished sertraline-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rise. At concentrations of 5-50 μM, sertraline killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of 25 μM sertraline was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with BAPTA/AM. Collectively, in SIRC cells, sertraline induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises by causing phospholipase C-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ influx via phospholipase A₂-sensitive Ca²⁺ channels. Sertraline-caused cytotoxicity was mediated by Ca²⁺-independent pathways.

  20. A histological study of rabbit corneas after transepithelial corneal crosslinking using partial epithelial photoablation or ethanol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cuneyt Ozmen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the histological changes after transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL using partial thickness excimer laser ablation or epithelial ethanol application in an experimental rabbit study.METHODS: Right eyes of twenty-four rabbits were studied. Four eyes received total epithelial debridement (group I. Four eyes received partial thickness epithelial ablation with excimer laser (group II. Twelve eyes were treated with different durations (30s and 60s and concentrations (18% to 48% of ethanol (group III. Riboflavin was applied for 30min intervals along with topical proparacaine drops with benzalkonium chloride, and 370 nm irradiation was performed for 30min, while riboflavin was instilled every 3min. Four eyes (group IV received 48% ethanol for 30s without riboflavin and irradiation. Eyes were collected after 24h and examined histologically.RESULTS: All eyes in group I showed keratocyte loss in the superficial 300 µ of corneal storma. In group II, 1-4 layers of epithelium were preserved and no keratocyte loss occurred. In group III, CXL after treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s revealed no keratocyte loss. CXL after treatment with 48% and higher ethanol concentrations yielded keratocyte loss in the superficial 200 µ to 300 µ of cornea.CONCLUSION: Incomplete excimer laser ablation of the epithelium or treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s duration yielded no stromal keratocyte loss. To get the same histological appearance seen in epithelial debridement group, partial thickness excimer laser epithelial ablation or ethanol application is not adequate for transepithelial CXL.

  1. RNA Interference Targeting Snail Inhibits the Transforming Growth Factor β 2-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lens Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jing, Jiaona; Hu, Jianyan; Li, Tiejun; Sun, Yuncheng; Guan, Huaijin

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-msenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to posterior capsule opacification (PCO) type of cataract. Transcription factors Snail is a key trigger of EMT activated by transforming growth factor β (TGF β ). This study was done to investigate the effect of Snail targeting siRNA on TGF β 2-induced EMT in human lens epithelial cells. TGF β 2 treatment of cultured human epithelial cell line (HLEB3) upregulated the expression of Snail and the EMT relevant molecules such as vimentin and α -SMA but downregulated the expression of keratin and E-cadherin. After the stimulation of TGF β 2, the HLEB3 cells became fibroblast-like in morphology, and the junctions of cell-cell disappeared. TGF β 2 treatment also enhanced migration ability of HLEB3 cells. TGF β 2-induced Snail expression and EMT were significantly inhibited by Snail siRNA. By analyzing the response characteristics of HLEB3 in TGF β 2-induced EMT model with/without Snail-specific siRNA, we concluded that Snail is an element in the EMT of HLEB3 cells induced by TGF β 2. Snail siRNA targeting can block the induced EMT and therefore has the potential to suppress the development of PCO.

  2. RNA Interference Targeting Snail Inhibits the Transforming Growth Factor β2-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-msenchymal transition (EMT contributes to posterior capsule opacification (PCO type of cataract. Transcription factors Snail is a key trigger of EMT activated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. This study was done to investigate the effect of Snail targeting siRNA on TGFβ2-induced EMT in human lens epithelial cells. TGFβ2 treatment of cultured human epithelial cell line (HLEB3 upregulated the expression of Snail and the EMT relevant molecules such as vimentin and α-SMA but downregulated the expression of keratin and E-cadherin. After the stimulation of TGFβ2, the HLEB3 cells became fibroblast-like in morphology, and the junctions of cell-cell disappeared. TGFβ2 treatment also enhanced migration ability of HLEB3 cells. TGFβ2-induced Snail expression and EMT were significantly inhibited by Snail siRNA. By analyzing the response characteristics of HLEB3 in TGFβ2-induced EMT model with/without Snail-specific siRNA, we concluded that Snail is an element in the EMT of HLEB3 cells induced by TGFβ2. Snail siRNA targeting can block the induced EMT and therefore has the potential to suppress the development of PCO.

  3. The core structure of a Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide required for the inhibition of human lens epithelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xue-Qiang; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jing-Fei; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this work was to investigate the core structure of a Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide DHPD1 required for the inhibition of lens epithelial cell apoptosis. In order to obtain the fragments containing the core domain, pectinase was employed to hydrolyze DHPD1. After 24h reaction, it is interesting that the hydrolyzation seemed to be stopped, leading to a final enzymatic fragment DHPD1-24 with molecular weight about 1552Da. Compared to DHPD1, although the bioactivity is decreased, DHPD1-24 remained the ability to inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial (HLE) cells via suppressing the MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggested that DHPD1-24 might be the core domain required for DHPD1 to inhibit HLE cell apoptosis. Methylation analysis showed DHPD1-24 was composed of (1→5)-linked-Araf, (1→3,6)-linked-Manp, 1-linked-Glcp, (1→4)-linked-Glcp, (1→6)-linked-Glcp, (1→4,6)-linked-Glcp, (1→6)-linked-Galp and 1-linked-Xylp in a molar ratio of 1.06:1.53:2.11:2.04:0.93:0.91:0.36:1.01. Moreover, the primary structural features of DHPD1-24 were characterized by NMR spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diethyldithiocarbamate inhibits iNOS expression in human lens epithelial cells stimulated by IFN-gamma and LPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-xin LI; Si-ling WANG; Yoshimasa ITO; Jing-hai ZHANG; Chun-fu WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biological activity of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) in producing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO), and to assesse the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on iNOS mRNA levels and expression of NOS. Methods: The human lens epithelial cell line SRA 01/04 was used in this experiment. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect, respectively, iNOS mRNA expression and protein production. Results: A costimulation by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was necessary for iNOS expression in HLEC. The expression of iNOS was significantly reduced in a dosedependent manner by adding DDC from 10 μmol/L to 1 mmol/L. Conclusion:The expression of iNOS in HLEC needs co-stimulation with IFN-γ and LPS and it is inhibited by DDC.

  5. Activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent cation conductance with properties of TRPM2 by reactive oxygen species in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckeis, Susanne; Wernecke, Laura; Salchow, Daniel J; Reichhart, Nadine; Strauß, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Ion channels are crucial for maintenance of ion homeostasis and transparency of the lens. The lens epithelium is the metabolically and electrophysiologically active cell type providing nutrients, ions and water to the lens fiber cells. Ca(2+)-dependent non-selective ion channels seem to play an important role for ion homeostasis. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize Ca(2+)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent non-selective cation channels in human lens epithelial cells. RT-PCR revealed gene expression of the Ca(2+)-activated non-selective cation channels TRPC3, TRPM2, TRPM4 and Ano6 in both primary lens epithelial cells and the cell line HLE-B3, whereas TRPM5 mRNA was only found in HLE-B3 cells. Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, ionomycin evoked non-selective cation currents with linear current-voltage relationship in both cell types. The current was decreased by flufenamic acid (FFA), 2-APB, 9-phenanthrol and miconazole, but insensitive to DIDS, ruthenium red, and intracellularly applied spermine. H2O2 evoked a comparable current, abolished by FFA. TRPM2 protein expression in HLE-B3 cells was confirmed by means of immunocytochemistry and western blot. In summary, we conclude that lens epithelial cells functionally express Ca(2+)- and H2O2-activated non-selective cation channels with properties of TRPM2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Age-related compaction of lens fibers affects the structure and optical properties of rabbit lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ghoul Walid M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this investigation was to correlate particular age-related structural changes (compaction to the amount of scatter in rabbit lenses and to determine if significant fiber compaction occurred in the nuclear and inner cortical regions. Methods New Zealand White rabbits at 16–20 months old (adult; n = 10 and at 3.5–4 years old (aged; n = 10 were utilized for this study. Immediately after euthanising, scatter was assessed in fresh lenses by low power helium-neon laser scan analysis. Scatter data was analyzed both for whole lenses and regionally, to facilitate correlation with morphometric data. After functional analysis, lenses were fixed and processed for scanning electron microcopy (SEM; right eyes and light microscopy (LM; left eyes. Morphometric analysis of SEM images was utilized to evaluate compaction of nuclear fibers. Similarly, measurements from LM images were used to assess compaction of inner cortical fibers. Results Scatter was significantly greater in aged lenses as compared to adult lenses in all regions analyzed, however the difference in the mean was slightly more pronounced in the inner cortical region. The anterior and posterior elliptical angles at 1 mm (inner fetal nucleus were significantly decreased in aged vs. adult lenses (anterior, p = 0.040; posterior, p = 0.036. However, the average elliptical angles at 2.5 mm (outer fetal nucleus were not significantly different in adult and aged lenses since all lenses examined had comparable angles to inner fetal fibers of aged lenses, i.e. they were all compacted. In cortical fibers, measures of average cross-sectional fiber area were significantly different at diameters of both 6 and 7 mm as a function of age (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated fiber volume was significantly decreased in aged as compared to adult lenses at both 6 mm diameter (p = 0.016 and 7 mm diameter (p = 0.010. Conclusion Morphometric data indicates

  7. Expression of transcription factors Slug in the lens epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by connective tissue growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Na Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the expression of transcription factors Slug in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT induced by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF.METHODS: HLECs were treated with CTGF of different concentrations (20, 50 and 100 ng/mL or without CTGF (control for 24h. The morphological changes of HLECs were analysed by microscopy. The expression and cellular localization of Slug was evaluated by immumo-fluorescence. Expressions of Slug, E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were further determined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: HLECs showed spidle fibrolasts-like characteristics and loosely connected each other after CTGF treatment. The immuno-fluorescence staining indicated that Slug was localized in the nuclei and its expression was induced by CTGF. The relative expressions of Slug protein were 1.64±0.11, 1.96 ±0.03, 3.12 ±0.10, and 4.08±0.14, respectively, in response to control group and treatment with CTGF of 20, 50 and 100 ng/mL (F=443.86, PCONCLUSION: Transcription factor Slug may be involved in EMT of HLECs induced by CTGF in vitro.

  8. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rabbit retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chang; Tai, Ming-Hong; Hu, Dan-Ning; Lai, Chien-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Hao; Wu, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Kuo, Hsi-Kung

    2008-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play essential roles in the intracellular control of the cell cycle. It has been postulated that roscovitine, a potent CDK2, CDK5, and CDC2 inhibitor, might inhibit cellular proliferation by arresting the cell cycle. This in vitro study investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of roscovitine in cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Experiments using rabbit RPE from young pigmented rabbits were carried out using roscovitine dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 micromol. Cell proliferation was measured by an MTT assay. The cell cycle response of RPE cells to roscovitine was analyzed by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained nuclei. Proteins related to DNA damage in the RPE cells were then assayed by Western blot. Roscovitine inhibited proliferation of RPE cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after treatment demonstrated an accumulation of cells arrested in the S- and G2/M phases. Flow cytometry showed that 40 microM of roscovitine increased the cell population in the sub-G1 peak, which is considered a marker of cell death by apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed Bcl-2 decreased and Bax increased after treatment of RPE cells with roscovitine. This study of the response of RPE cells to roscovitine demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between cell cycle control and apoptosis.

  9. FoxO3a Serves as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells under Conditions of Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilangovan Raju

    Full Text Available Forkhead box 'O' transcription factors (FoxOs are implicated in the pathogenesis of type2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Abnormal activity of FoxOs was reported in the glucose and insulin metabolism. Expression of FoxO proteins was reported in ocular tissues; however their function under hyperglycemic conditions was not examined.Human lens epithelial cell line was used to study the function of FoxO proteins. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blotting were employed to detect the FoxO proteins under the conditions of hyperglycemia.In this study we examined the role of FoxO3a in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells. FoxO3a protein expression was elevated in a dose- and time-dependent fashion after high glucose treatment. Anti-oxidant defense mechanisms of the lens epithelial cells were diminished as evidenced from loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity and lowered MnSOD after 72 h treatment with high glucose. Taken together, FoxO3a acts as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress and cell homeostasis in human lens epithelial cells during diabetic conditions.FoxO3a is an early stress response protein to glucose toxicity in diabetic conditions.

  10. Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 on the Proliferation of Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells in Rabbit Alkali Burned Cornea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Yongping; Shuqi; Huang; Jianxian; Lin; Wenxin; Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the topical application of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) can enhance corneal epithelial healing in rabbit alkali burned cornea. In addition, the distribution and proliferation of corneal epithelial stem cells in KGF-2-treated and control corneas were investigated to explain their mechanisms of effects on the epithelium.Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand eyes were divided into four groups, treated with KGF-2 solution (1, 50, 100 μg/ml) and PBS solution. Eighth millimeter filter paper discs, produced by standard paper punch, were soaked for 15 sec in 0.5N NaOH solution. The alkali-soaked discs were applied to the central cornea, centered on the pupil and held gently in position with forceps for 1 min. The cornea was finally irrigated over 1 min with 100 ml balanced salt solution (BSS). Keratinocyte growth factor-2 was then applied topically three times a day. The phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group was served as a control. Each corneal epithelial defect was subsequently photographed every 24 hours with a slit lamp and was measured by computer-assisted digitizer. In each group, two rabbits were sacrificed for light microscopic examination after the interval of 7, 14 and 21 days. Meanwhile, the cornea epithelium was examined by immunohistochemistry for P63, AE5, EGFR.Results: Topical application of 10 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml KGF-2 significantly accelerated corneal epithelial wound healing when compared with controls. After 24 hours,epithelial healing rate of the 100 μg/ml KGF-2 group and the PBS treated group was (74±6)% and (40±8)% (P < 0.05). After 48 hours, the rate of the C group was (94±6)%, whereas in the control group it was (73±12)% (P < 0.05). Epithelial defects were often recurrent, which happened only two times in the 100 μg/ml KGF-2-treated group, but many times in the control group. In the corneal epithelial stem cell analysis, the number of the P63 positive cells was higher in the KGF-2-treated corneal

  11. Effect of Zebularine loaded MePEG-PCL nanoparticles on viability, attachment of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of zebularine(Zebloaded Poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactonemethyl ether(MePEG-PCLnanoparticles(NPson the viability, attachment, and apoptosis of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells(LECs. METHODS: In vitro cultured infant human lens tissue HLE B-3 immortalized cells were distributed randomly divided into six groups. Each group was administered with free Zeb 50μmol/L(ZebF1 group, 100μmol/L(ZebF2 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 50μmol/L(ZebNP1 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 100μmol/L(ZebNP2 group, MePEG-PCL empty NPs(NPs groupor blank medium(group Crespectively. A tetrazolium dye assay(MTTtest and modified MTT test were performed to determine cell viability and cell attachment. DNA ladder was used to detect the cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Determined by MTT colorimetric method: Cell proliferation rate of LECs were suppressed by all Zeb administration groups in a concentration-time dependent manner(PPP ZebNP1>ZebF2(PCONCLUSION: Zeb loaded MePEG-PCL NPs had better effect on suppressing the viability and attachment of in vitro cultured LECs than the free Zeb groups, as well as enhancing the apoptosis.

  12. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-β AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR INDUCE LENS EPITHELIAL EXPLANT METAPLASIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF SUBCAPSULAR OPACIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颉; 叶俊杰

    1998-01-01

    Objective. This study was to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor-β(TGFβ) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the subcapsular opaeification formation of the lens. Methods. Lens epithelial explants from 10-day-old rats were cultured with TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 in the presence of FGF for 5 days, then were examined by light and electron microscopy, and by immunolocalization of α-smooth muscle(α-sm) actin and type Ⅰ collagen. Resets. In TGFβ/FGF-treated explants,extensive proliferation oeeured, with formation of spindle and star-shaped cells. These cells showed ultrastructure and biochemical features of fibroblast or myofibroblast.Prominent Golgi apparatus and rough endoplaie reticulum were observed in scene cells, Intracellular microfilaments with cytoplasmic dense bodies and membrane associated dense bodies, features of smooth muscle cells, were also observed. Some cells showed reactivity to α-sin actin antibody. TGFβ/FGF-treated explants were strongly stained with type I collagen antibody. Conclusion. In the presence of FGF, TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 induced lens epithelial cell(LEC)proliferation and transformation into fibroblast or myofibroblast like ceils, with producing of abundant collagen matrix in the explants. The changes are similar to the metaplasia that oeeurrs in subeapsular opacification of the lens. The findings suggest that TGFβ and FGF plays a role in the pathogenesis of subcapsular opacification of the lens.

  13. Parkin elimination of mitochondria is important for maintenance of lens epithelial cell ROS levels and survival upon oxidative stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lisa; Khoury, Josef; Kantorow, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Age-related cataract is associated with oxidative stress and death of lens epithelial cells (LECs) whose survival is dependent on functional mitochondrial populations. Oxidative stress-induced depolarization/damage of LEC mitochondria results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and cell death suggesting the need for a LEC mechanism to remove mitochondria depolarized/damaged upon oxidative stress exposure to prevent ROS release and LEC death. To date, a mechanism(s) for removal of depolarized/damaged LEC mitochondria has yet to be identified and the importance of eliminating oxidative stress-damaged mitochondria to prevent LEC ROS release and death has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that Parkin levels increase in LECs exposed to H2O2-oxidative stress. We establish that Parkin translocates to LEC mitochondria depolarized upon oxidative stress exposure and that Parkin recruits p62/SQSTM1 to depolarized LEC mitochondria. We demonstrate that translocation of Parkin results in the elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria and that Parkin clearance of LEC mitochondria is dependent on its ubiquitin ligase activity. Importantly, we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of damaged LEC mitochondria results in reduced ROS levels and increased survival upon oxidative stress exposure. These results establish that Parkin functions to eliminate LEC mitochondria depolarized/damaged upon oxidative stress exposure and that elimination of damaged mitochondria by Parkin is important for LEC homeostasis and survival. The data also suggest that mitochondrial quality control by Parkin could play a role in lens transparency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The expression of transcription factors Snail and Slug in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells induced by transforming growth factor-β2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y N; Pei, C; Qin, L; Li, J M; Yi, J L; Chen, L

    2016-04-11

    To investigate the expression of transcription factors snail and slug in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) induced by transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2). Experimental research. HLEC were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β2 (1.0 and 10.0 μg/L) for different time. The morphological changes were observed under inverted microscope. The expression and cellular localization of snail and slug were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Expressions of snail, slug, E-Cadherin and α-SMA were further determined by Western blot analysis. Single factor analysis of variance, rank sum test and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Cultured HLEC were polygonal monolayer cells with tight intercellular adhesion closely and patchy distribution. After treatment of different doses of TGF-β2 for 24 h, HLEC became isolated, exhibited long spindle-like shape as fibroblastic phenotype. The immunofluorescence staining indicated that snail and slug were localized in the nuclei. The expressions of snail and slug appeared to be positive correlative to TGF-β2 dose (snail protein expression: 0.74±0.16, 1.13±0.03, 1.54±0.18 and slug protein expression: 1.96±0.02, 3.12±0.09, 4.07±0.12 in HLEC treated with 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/L TGF-β2 respectively) (χ(2)=9.62,P=0.022;F=241.10,Psnail and slug in HLEC were also increased with extending duration of TGF-β2 (1.0 μg/L). The expression levels of both proteins were modestly up-regulated at 8 hours, robustly increased at 24 h, reached peak at 48h and began to decline at 72 h (snail protein expression: 0.90±0.13, 1.43±0.14, 1.96±0.27, 1.57±0.16 and slug protein expression: 0.91±0.36, 1.24±0.16, 2.44±0.26, 1.43±0.16 in HLEC treated with 1.0 μg/L TGF-β2 for 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively) (F=12.49,P=0.001;F=14.03,Psnail and slug might be time and dose-dependently involved in in-vitro TGF-β2-induced EMT of HLEC. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 285-290).

  15. Pseudopregnancy induces the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta and its target gene aminopeptidase N in rabbit endometrium via the epithelial promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Classen-Linke, I; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1995-01-01

    The rabbit endometrium is an excellent model system allowing experimental manipulation of aminopeptidase N (APN) mRNA expression in vivo. By RNase mapping and sequencing of cloned PCR-amplified primer-extended RNA, it was demonstrated that endometrial APN expression is directed by the epithelial...... APN promoter and is increased in human-choriogonadotropin-induced pseudopregnancy. Cloning and sequencing of the rabbit APN epithelial promoter revealed conservation of the upstream footprint (UF), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF1) and Sp1 elements known to be present in the pig and human promoters...... as well. The pseudopregnancy-induced APN expression was found to be accompanied by a parallel increase in the level of the transcription factor HNF1 beta, whereas a much smaller increase in Sp1 and UF-binding proteins was observed. This indicates that HNF1 beta acts as a switch triggering the pregnancy...

  16. [Research on effects of vitamin A palmitate on repair of mechanical corneal epithelial defects and conjunctival goblet cells in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-di; Gong, Lan; Chen, Min-jie

    2010-02-01

    Randomized controlled experimental study to investigate the influence of vitamin A palmitate and bovine recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on repair of mechanical corneal epithelial defects, conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells in rabbits. One hundred and twenty New Zealand rabbits (all males) were selected to establish the mechanical corneal epithelial defects models (scratching out a round area with the diameter of 8 mm in the centre of cornea). Forty eight New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A used lincomycin hydrochloride eye drops (LED) after the model had been established; group B used vitamin A palmitate eye gel and LED; group C used recombinant bFGF eye gel and LED; group D used vitamin A palmitate eye gel, bFGF eye gel and LED. Photo slit lamp examination and measurement of repaired area were performed on day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7; transmission electron microscopy, histological microscope examination and impression cytology were performed on day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7 to analysis the morphology and repairment of corneal epithelium, conjunctival epithelial cells and the goblet cells. The variants were tested using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Statistic analysis showed that on day 1, the size of areas of repaired corneal epithelium was: group A(53.512 +/- 18.850) mm(2), group B (92.194 +/- 14.367) mm(2), group C (89.779 +/- 20.535) mm(2), group D (127.816 +/- 16.379) mm(2). The difference in size of repaired areas between different groups was statistically significant (F = 17.663, P = 0.000), with exception of the difference between groups B and C (P = 0.995). Conjunctival impression cytology showed that, the average number of conjunctival goblet cells per 740 microm x 550 microm at day 1 was decreased, group A (10.083 +/- 4.441), group B (10.667 +/- 3.551), group C (9.583 +/- 4.502), group D (9.167 +/- 5.606). The difference between these four groups was not significant (F = 0.239, P = 0

  17. Three-hundred-sixty degree barrier effect of a square-edged and an enhanced-edge intraocular lens on centripetal lens epithelial cell migration Two-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ashokkumar V; Narendran, Rajesh; Bacon, Peter J; Apple, David J

    2007-01-01

    To study the 360-degree barrier effect of an intraocular lens (IOL) with a square edge at the optic and an enhanced square edge at the optic-haptic junctions (Rayner 570C C-flex) on centripetal migration of lens epithelial cells (LECs) over a 2-year period. Department of Ophthalmology, Scarborough Hospital, Scarborough, United Kingdom. In a prospective study of 40 consecutive eyes, a C-flex IOL was implanted in the bag after phacoemulsification surgery. Eyes with intraoperative complications, requiring additional procedures, without 360-degree overlap of the optic, or with capsule block syndrome were excluded. Follow-up was at 6, 10, 18, and 24 months. At each visit, high-magnification retroillumination digital photographs were taken using a slitlamp-attached digital camera. The barrier effect to LEC migration across the optic edge and the enhanced square edge at the optic-haptic junction was graded as complete (no epithelial pearls or sheet), partial (few epithelial pearls without sheet), and minimal/none (epithelial sheet behind the IOL optic). Twenty-four patients came to the final follow-up at 24 months. Fifteen of these eyes (63%) had a complete barrier effect throughout the 360 degrees of the IOL. Three eyes (13%) had a partial barrier effect throughout the 360 degrees of the IOL. Three eyes had a complete optic barrier effect but a partial optic-haptic junction barrier effect. Three eyes had a partial optic barrier effect but a complete optic-haptic junction barrier effect. No eye had epithelial sheets extending behind the optic at any location. This study showed the barrier effect of the edge design of the C-flex IOL and the efficacy of the enhanced edge in preventing LEC migration at the optic-haptic junction. The enhanced edge was as effective as a sharp square edge in restricting the LEC migration.

  18. Methylglyoxal induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA demethylation in the Keap1 promoter of human lens epithelial cells and age-related cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Bidasee, Keshore R; Ayaki, Masahiko; Augusteyn, Robert C; Chan, Jefferson Y; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2014-07-01

    Age-related cataracts are a leading cause of blindness. Previously, we have demonstrated the association of the unfolded protein response with various cataractogenic stressors. However, DNA methylation alterations leading to suppression of lenticular antioxidant protection remains unclear. Here, we report the methylglyoxal-mediated sequential events responsible for Keap1 promoter DNA demethylation in human lens epithelial cells, because Keap1 is a negative regulatory protein that regulates the Nrf2 antioxidant protein. Methylglyoxal induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response leading to overproduction of reactive oxygen species before human lens epithelial cell death. Methylglyoxal also suppresses Nrf2 and DNA methyltransferases but activates the DNA demethylation pathway enzyme TET1. Bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing confirms the methylglyoxal-mediated Keap1 promoter DNA demethylation leading to overexpression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Similarly, bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing shows that human clear lenses (n = 15) slowly lose 5-methylcytosine in the Keap1 promoter throughout life, at a rate of 1% per year. By contrast, diabetic cataractous lenses (n = 21) lose an average of 90% of the 5-methylcytosine regardless of age. Overexpressed Keap1 protein is responsible for decreasing Nrf2 by proteasomal degradation, thereby suppressing Nrf2-dependent stress protection. This study demonstrates for the first time the associations of unfolded protein response activation, Nrf2-dependent antioxidant system failure, and loss of Keap1 promoter methylation because of altered active and passive DNA demethylation pathway enzymes in human lens epithelial cells by methylglyoxal. As an outcome, the cellular redox balance is altered toward lens oxidation and cataract formation.

  19. 紫外光诱导晶状体上皮细胞凋亡的研究%APOPTOSIS OF LENS EPITHELIAL CELL INDUCED BY ULTRAVIOLET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长松; 邹尉玉; 孙旭芳

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the apoptosis of lens epithelial cell induced by ultraviolet.Methods:Vistar rats received 100mw/m2 ultraviolet irradition(UVR)(λ 280nm-315nm) for 15 minutes.At h1,6,24 after irradition the lens capsules were dissected and the percentage of apoptotic cells were evaluted by the TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling(TUNEL) technique.The morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscope.Results:TUNEL-positive nuclei were found at only 24 hours after UVR exposure and the percentage is 14.3%.Cell chromatin condensation was observed by transmission electron microscope.Conclusions:Our results showed that UVR can induce the rapid apoptotic death of the lens epithelial cells.%目的:研究紫外光(ultraviolet UV)诱导的晶状体上皮细胞(lens epithelial cell LEC)凋亡特征。方法:100mw/m2紫外光照射Vistar大鼠双眼15min,照射后1,6,24h剥取晶状体囊膜。DNA缺口末端原位标记法定量检测凋亡的晶状体上皮细胞并通过透射电镜观察其形态学改变。结果:DNA缺口末端原位标记法检测仅在照射后24h组发生凋亡特染细胞,其百分比为14.3%。透射电镜下可见染色质边集浓缩现象。结论:紫外光照射可快速诱导晶状体上皮细胞凋亡。

  20. Study of oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells exposed to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to determine oxidative stress and to explore possible reasons of reactive oxygen species (ROS increase in human lens epithelial (HLE B3 cells exposed to low intensity 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields (RF. METHODS: The HLE B3 cells were divided into RF exposure and RF sham-exposure groups. The RF exposure intensity was at specific absorption rate (SAR of 2, 3, or 4 W/kg. The ROS levels were measured by a fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA assay in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 h. Lipid peroxidation and cellular viability were detected by an MDA test and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assays, respectively, in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 genes and the expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 proteins was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 1 h. RESULTS: The ROS and MDA levels significantly increased (P<0.05 in the RF exposure group and that the cellular viability, mRNA expression of four genes, and expression of four proteins significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with the RF sham-exposure group. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress is present in HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz low-intensity RF and that the increased production of ROS may be related to down-regulation of four antioxidant enzyme genes induced by RF exposure.

  1. Study of oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells exposed to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuang; Yu, Yibo; Zhang, Yidong; Wu, Wei; Lai, Kairan; Yao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine oxidative stress and to explore possible reasons of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in human lens epithelial (HLE) B3 cells exposed to low intensity 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields (RF). The HLE B3 cells were divided into RF exposure and RF sham-exposure groups. The RF exposure intensity was at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2, 3, or 4 W/kg. The ROS levels were measured by a fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 h. Lipid peroxidation and cellular viability were detected by an MDA test and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, respectively, in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 genes and the expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 proteins was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 1 h. The ROS and MDA levels significantly increased (PRF exposure group and that the cellular viability, mRNA expression of four genes, and expression of four proteins significantly decreased (PRF sham-exposure group. Oxidative stress is present in HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz low-intensity RF and that the increased production of ROS may be related to down-regulation of four antioxidant enzyme genes induced by RF exposure.

  2. ERK1/2 signaling is required for the initiation but not progression of TGFβ-induced lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Magdalena C; Mahmutovic, Leila; Shu, Daisy Y; Lovicu, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) potently induces lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The resultant mesenchymal cells resemble those found in plaques of human forms of subcapsular cataract. Smad signaling has long been implicated as the sole driving force of TGFβ-mediated activity. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the role of the Smad-independent signaling, namely the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, in the initiation and progression of TGFβ-induced EMT. Phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT in this model, including cell elongation, cell membrane blebbing, cell loss as indicated by the area of bare capsule and capsular wrinkling. The levels of Smad2, Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation measured using western blotting confirmed that the addition of UO126 was sufficient in blocking all TGFβ-induced ERK1/2 activation, as well as reducing Smad signaling at 18 h. Immunofluorescent labeling and further western blotting confirmed that TGFβ-induced EMT was associated with an increase in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and a reduction of E-cadherin at cell borders. Pre-treatment with UO126 was effective at blocking the TGFβ-induced EMT, as evidenced by a reduction of α-SMA expression and protein labeling, E-cadherin labeling at cell borders, and a reduction of cell loss, cell elongation and capsular wrinkling. Post-treatment with UO126 at 2 and 6 h after TGFβ addition was also effective at blocking EMT while post-treatment with UO126 at 24 and 48 h was not sufficient in hampering TGFβ-induced EMT. Our data implicates ERK1/2 signaling in the initiation but not the progression of TGFβ-induced EMT in rat lens epithelial cells. The tight regulation of intracellular signaling pathways such as ERK1/2 are required for the maintenance of lens epithelial cell integrity and hence tissue transparency. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the

  3. Effects of hydroxypyridine derivatives mexidol and emoxypin on the reparative processes in rabbit eye on the models of corneal epithelial defect and conjunctival ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Pavlenko, T A; Zabozlaev, A A; Pavlova, M V

    2015-01-01

    Deepithelialization of the cornea (diameter 7 mm) was performed in rabbits and the rate of defect epithelialization was evaluated. Conjunctival ischemia was modeled by application of graduated alkaline burn. Antioxidant activity and content of nitrates and nitrites was measured in the tear fluid before and after burn by chemiluminescence and Griess methods, respectively. Emoxypin and mexidol promoted healing of corneal epithelial defect at the stage of epitheliocyte migration to the defect area and at the stage of their proliferation, respectively. After treatment with both agents, the area of conjunctival ischemia decreased more rapidly, but the efficiency of mexidol was higher. Antioxidant activity and content of products of NO metabolism in tear fluid decreased after burn. Mexidol, but not emoxypin, increased these parameters. Thus, mexidol and emoxypin have different effects on corneal epithelialization and conjunctival ischemia and effects of mexidol are more pronounced.

  4. Effect Of Heparin Sodium In Protection Of The Lens Against Cataract Induced With Intravitreal Injection Of Sodium Selenite- In Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa A. Abdul-Hussein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the possible protective role of heparin sodium eye drops against sodium selenite induced cataract in rabbits.Materials and Methods A group of 18 adult rabbits Oryctologus cuniculus were divided into 3 groups each one of 6 rabbits normal group without treatment and induction control group received DW pre and post induction of cataract and heparin sodium group received heparin sodium eye drops pre and post induction of cataract. The cataract had been induced by intravitreal injection of 0.1ml sodium selenite 0.01 wv in the right eye. Results Heparin sodium was effective in prevention of cataract and the mean score of opacity was 0.170.01 at the end of trial period in stead of the expected score 4 0.00 which observed in DW group and there was non significant difference comparing to pre induction p0.05. Conclusions Heparin sodium eye drops exerted a detectable preventive effect against sodium selenite - induced cataract in rabbits also it was found to be apparently safe and tolerable along the trial period.

  5. Advanced research on mechanisms of apoptosis in lens epithelial cells induced by ultraviolet irradiation%紫外线辐射致晶状体上皮细胞凋亡机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋欣; 毕宏生; 郭大东

    2011-01-01

    许多流行病学调查和实验研究结果已经证实:紫外线辐射与非先天性白内障的发生、发展有密切的关系;研究表明,晶状体上皮细胞凋亡是非先天性白内障形成的共同细胞学基础.近年来,越来越多的研究发现,晶状体上皮细胞凋亡与非先天性白内障的形成密切相关.本文就紫外线辐射诱导晶状体上皮细胞凋亡的分子机理与白内障发生作一综述.%Many epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that ultraviolet radiation is associated with non-congenital cataractogenesis. Some study indicates that apoptosis of lens epithelial cells appears to be a common cellular basis for initiation of non-congenital cataract formation. In recent years,an increasing number of researches have proved that the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells is associated with non-congenital cataractogenesis. The mechanisms of non-congenital cataractogenesis in lens epithelial cells induced by ultraviolet radiation are discussed in this paper,and the relationship between the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells and non-congenital cataract is also reviewed.

  6. Expression of TGF-β2 mRNA and PCNA, FN Protein in Lens Epithelial Cells in Age-related Nuclear and Cortex Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    By using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, the expressions of transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) mRNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fibronection (FN) protein in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of age-related nuclear and cortex cataract were detected and compared. The results of RT-PCR revealed that the expression of TGF-β2 mRNA was higher in cortex cataract than in nuclear cataract. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of PCNA protein was lower and the expression of FN protein was higher in cortex cataract than in nuclear cataract. It was suggested that TGF-β2, PCNA and FN might take important parts in the process of age-related cataract. Cortex cataract was related to the transdifferentiation of LECs, and nuclear cataract to the proliferation of LECs.

  7. Effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on human lens epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping; Gu, Yangshun; Shen, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause for legal blindness in the world. Oxidative stress on the lens epithelial cells (hLECs) is the most important factor in cataract formation. Cumulative light-exposure from widely used light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may pose a potential oxidative threat to the lens epithelium, due to the high-energy blue light component in the white-light emission from diodes. In the interest of perfecting biosafety standards for LED domestic lighting, this study analyzed the photobiological effect of white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on cultured hLECs. The hLECs were cultured and cumulatively exposed to multichromatic white LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K. Cell viability of hLECs was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. Compared with 2954 and 5624 K LED light, LED light having a CCT of 7378 K caused overproduction of intracellular ROS and severe DNA damage, which triggered G2 /M arrest and apoptosis. These results indicate that white LEDs with a high CCT could cause significant photobiological damage to hLECs. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Mitochondrial "movement" and lens optics following oxidative stress from UV-B irradiation: cultured bovine lenses and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantseev, Vladimir; Youn, Hyun-Yi

    2006-12-01

    Mitochondria provide energy generated by oxidative phosphorylation and at the same time play a central role in apoptosis and aging. As a byproduct of respiration, the electron transport chain is known to be the major intracellular site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure to solar and occupational ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and thus production of ROS and subsequent cell death, has been implicated in a large spectrum of skin and ocular pathologies, including cataract. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis generates photoreceptor dysfunction and ultimately visual impairment. The purpose of this article was to characterize in vitro changes following oxidative stress with UV-B radiation in (a) ocular lens optics and cellular function in terms of mitochondrial dynamics of bovine lens epithelium and superficial cortical fiber cells and (b) human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. Cultured bovine lenses and confluent cultures of ARPE-19 cells were irradiated with broadband UV-B radiation at energy levels of 0.5 and 1.0 J/cm(2). Lens optical function (spherical aberration) was monitored daily up to 14 days using an automated laser scanning system that was developed at the University of Waterloo. This system consists of a single collimated scanning helium-neon laser source that projects a thin (0.05 mm) laser beam onto a plain mirror mounted at 45 degrees on a carriage assembly. This mirror reflects the laser beam directly up through the scanner table surface and through the lens under examination. A digital camera captures the actual position and slope of the laser beam at each step. When all steps have been made, the captured data for each step position is used to calculate the back vertex distance for each position and the difference in that measurement between beams. To investigate mitochondrial movement, the mitochondria-specific fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123 was used. Time series were acquired with a Zeiss 510 (configuration Meta

  9. Inhibition of pirfenidone on TGF-beta2 induced proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells line SRA01/04.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Posterior capsular opacification (PCO is a common complication of cataract surgery. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2 plays important roles in the development of PCO. The existing pharmacological treatments are not satisfactory and can have toxic side effects. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effect of pirfenidone on proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cell line SRA01/04 (HLECs in vitro. After treatment with 0, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/ml pirfenidone, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion assay and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity released from the damaged cells. And cell migration was measured by scratch assay in the absence or presence of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2. The expressions of TGF-β2 and SMADs were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The mesenchymal phenotypic marker fibronectin (FN was demonstrated by Immunocytofluorescence analyses. The cells had high viability, which did not vary across different concentrations of pirfenidone (0 [control] 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/ml after 24 hours. Pirfenidone (0∼0.5 mg/ml had no significant cytotoxicity effect on SRA01/04 by LDH assay. Pirfenidone significantly inhibited the proliferation and TGF-β2-induced cell migration and the effects were dose-dependent, and inhibited TGF-β2-induced fibroblastic phenotypes and TGF-β2-induced expression of FN in SRA01/04 cells. The cells showed dose-dependent decreases in mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β2 and SMADs. Pirfenidone also depressed the TGF-β2-induced expression of SMADs and blocked the nuclear translocation of SMADs in cells. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β2-induced proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells line SRA01/04 at nontoxic concentrations. This effect may be achieved by

  10. The expression of receptors for estrogen and epithelial growth factor in the male rabbit prostate and prostatic urethra following castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Iversen, H G

    1997-01-01

    were included as controls. In the control group, ERs were found in the urothelial lining and lamina propria of the prostatic urethra, and in the prostatic stroma. EGF receptors were demonstrated in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra and the glandular epithelium of the prostate. Following...

  11. [Lens platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of NO-Fluvastatin on Proliferation of Human Lens Epithelial Cells in vitro by Modulating Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi WANG; Ruiying GAO; Qianqian SHI; Yukan HUANG; Wen CHEN; Kaiying SHI

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The effects of NO-Fluvastatin on proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and the action mechanism were investigated. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins CyclinE mRNA and P21wafl mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MTT staining colorimetry showed that HLECs proliferation was markedly inhibited by NO-Fluvastatin and the effect was dependently related to time (24, 48 and 72 h) and dosage (1, 5 and 20 μmol/L). Flow cytometry revealed that NO-Fluvastatin could significantly block HLECs in the G0/G1 phase, resulting in the increased cells in the G0G1 phase and decreased in the S phase (P<0.05). RT-PCR showed that NO-Fluvastatin could obviously inhibit the CyclinE mRNA expression and induce the P21wafl mRNA expression as compared with the negative control groups (P<0.05). This experiment suggested that NO-Fluvastatin could suppress the proliferation of HLECs by regulating cell cycle regulatory proteins (inhibiting the expression of CyclinE mRNA and inducing the expression of P21wafl mRNA), resulting in the arrest of HLECs in the G0/G1 phase, which can offer theory basis for NO-Fluvastatin in treating posterior capsular opacification in clinic practice.

  13. Rabbit model of aspergillus keratitis induced by modified corneal surface lens method%改良角膜表面镜片术法建立兔曲霉菌性角膜炎动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘廷; 徐园园; 陈豪; 谢立信

    2011-01-01

    子/ml组仅在造模3d时可见菌丝生长.结论 改良角膜表面镜片术法可成功制备兔曲霉菌性角膜炎动物模型,是一种简便、易于操作的真菌性角膜炎动物模型制作方法.%Background Animal model of fungal keratitis is an available tool to the experimental study of the pathogenesis mechanism of fungal keratitis. Current modeling methods of fungal keratitis include corneal scratching, corneal stroma injection and corneal surface lens methods. But these methods still have their own shortages. Objective This experiment was to create a fungal keratitis animal model by modifying corneal surface lens method. Methods Modified animal models of fungal keratitis were created by modified corneal surface lens method in 12 general adult New Zealand white rabbits. The filter papers soaked 108 spores / ml or A106spores / ml of spergillus fumigatus suspension were attached on the de-epithelial cornea surface and fixed with contact lens and tarsorrhaphy for 2 days, and the filter paper with physiological saline was used as control group. The symptoms of anterior segment were examined under the slit lamp in 3 ,7 and 14 days after surgery and scored based on the criteria of Dong. Corneal scraping was stained with 10% potassium hydroxide and calcofluor white stain to observed mycelium under the fluorescence microscope. Corneal tissue sections were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid Schiff staining under the light microscope. The use of animal followed the Standard of Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Results Fungal keratitis models were successfully established in 6 eyes and 4 eyes in 108 spores/ml group (6/6) and 106 spores/ml group respectively. The symptom was more severer and score was higher in the eyes of 108 spores/ml group than that in 106 spores/ml group. At 3 and 7 days after surgery,the symptom scores of fungal keratitis models were higher than those of control group from 3 through 7 days with the statistically

  14. Treatment with retinoic acid and lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium in vitro directed the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards corneal endothelial cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Chen, Jun-Zhao; Shao, Chun-Yi; Li, Chuan-Yin; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Lu, Wen-Juan; Fu, Yao; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-02-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have extensive self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into all tissue-specific cell lineages, including corneal endothelial cells (CECs). They are a promising prospect for the future of regenerative medicine. The method of derivation of CECs from ESCs and iPSCs, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, mouse ESCs and iPSCs were induced to differentiate into CECs using CEC embryonic development events as a guide. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) treatment during the embryoid body (EB) differentiation step was used to promote neural crest (NC) cell differentiation as first step and was followed by a second induction in CEC- or lens epithelial cell (LEC)-conditioned medium (CM) to ultimately generate CEC-like cells. During the corresponding differentiation stages, NC developmental markers and CEC differentiation markers were detected at the protein level using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). During the first stage, the data indicated that 4 days of treatment with 1 μM RA starting on day 4 of EB formation favored NC cell differentiation and that plating on gelatin-coated plates led to cell migration out of the EBs. The second-stage differentiation results showed that the CM, particularly the LEC-CM, enhanced the yield of polygonal cells with CEC-specific marker expression shown by ICC and RT-qPCR. This study demonstrates that mouse ESCs and iPSCs were induced and expressed CEC differentiation markers when subjected to a two-step inducement process, suggesting that they are a promising resource for corneal endothelium failure replacement therapy in the future.

  15. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS Tracking of Chelerythrine, a Na+/K+ Pump Inhibitor, into Cytosol and Plasma Membrane Fractions of Human Lens Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Dorney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The quaternary benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid (QBA chelerythrine (CET is a pro-apoptotic drug and Na+/K+ pump (NKP inhibitor in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs. In order to obtain further insight into the mechanism of NKP inhibition by CET, its sub-cellular distribution was quantified in cytosolic and membrane fractions of HLEC cultures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs prepared by the Creighton method were concentrated, and size-selected using a one-step tangential flow filtration approach. HLECs cultures were exposed to 50 μM CET in 300 mOsM phosphate-buffered NaCl for 30 min. A variety of cytosolic extracts, crude and purified membranes, prepared in lysing solutions in the presence and absence of a non-ionic detergent, were incubated with AgNPs and subjected to SERS analysis. Determinations of CET were based on a linear calibration plot of the integrated CET SERS intensity at its 659 cm-1 marker band as a function of CET concentration. Results: SERS detected chemically unaltered CET in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions. Normalized for protein, the CET content was some 100 fold higher in the crude and purified plasma membrane fraction than in the soluble cytosolic extract. The total free CET concentration in the cytosol, free of membranes or containing detergent-solubilized membrane material, approached that of the incubation medium of HLECs. Conclusion: Given a negative membrane potential of HLECs the data suggest, but do not prove, that CET may traverse the plasma membrane as a positively charged monomer (CET+ accumulating near or above passive equilibrium distribution. These findings may contribute to a recently proposed hypothesis that CET binds to and inhibits the NKP through its cytosolic aspect.

  16. A pathological study of lens subcapsular epithelial proliferation%晶状体前囊膜下上皮细胞增殖性病变的临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂秋; 孙为荣; 牛膺筠; 王传富; 刘绍辉

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the histopathological changes of lens subcapsular epithelial proliferation and analyze their etiology. Methods Sixty-four enucleated eyes with lens subcapsular epithelial proliferation were observed with light microscopy and analyzed retrospectively. Among all the cases of lens subcapsular epithelial proliferation, there were 36 ones enucleated because of trauma, 10 absolute glaucoma, 6 corneoscleral staphyloma, 5 intraocular tumor, 2 after cataract extraction, 4 endophthalmitis, 1 cataract combined with ocular atrophy (diabetes type II). Results Proliferated lens subcapsular epithelial cells were atypical, irregularly arranged, and extended to the posterior subcapsule. In cases with lens capsular rupture or partial absence, there were subcapsular fibro-connective tissue metaplasia, scar tissue formation, cortical collapse, local liquefaction and calcification. Conclusion Lens subcapsular epithelial proliferation is caused by some intraocular pathological conditions. In cases with endophthalmitis and ocular trauma, its severity is the most serious.%目的观察晶状体前囊膜下上皮细胞增殖的组织病理学变化,并探讨其发生原因。方法取不同病因致手术摘除的伴晶状体前囊膜下上皮细胞增殖的眼球标本64例,其中眼外伤36例,绝对期青光眼10例,角巩膜葡萄肿6例,视网膜母细胞瘤5例,眼内炎4例,白内障手术后2例,糖尿病性白内障1例,在光镜下进行组织病理学观察研究。结果增殖的晶状体前囊膜下上皮细胞形态不规则、排列不整齐,向后囊膜下延伸;囊膜破裂或部分缺如者前囊膜下纤维结缔组织化生,纤维组织形成;晶状体纤维崩解、液化和钙化。结论眼内多种病理状态,如眼外伤、眼内炎、青光眼,以及糖尿病等全身疾患均可使晶状体前囊膜下上皮细胞增殖,导致晶状体发生病变。眼内炎和眼外伤后晶状体发生增殖的程度最重。

  17. rs78378222 polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of TP53 contributes to development of age-associated cataracts by modifying microRNA-125b-induced apoptosis of lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Li, Xiao; Zhu, Siquan

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate the expression of the target genes by binding to 'seed sequences' in the 3'‑untranslated region (3'‑UTR) mRNA transcripts, and the variants within or nearby 'seed sequences' may compromise or enhance miRNA/mRNA interaction leading to either 'loss‑of‑function' or 'gain‑of‑function' effects. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and are characterized by progressive aggregation and precipitation of lens proteins, and the development of age‑related cataracts is associated with dysregulated cellular activities of lens epithelial cells. Luciferase assays and online miRNA databases were used to validate that tumor protein p53 (TP53) is the target gene of miR‑125b. Furthermore, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted to detect expression levels of miR‑125b and TP53 in different groups of cells transfected with miR‑125b mimics or inhibitors. In addition, flow cytometry analysis and the MTT assay were conducted to detect the effects of miR‑125b on apoptosis and cell viability. The current study demonstrated that the rs78378222 polymorphism minor allele introduces a novel potential miR‑125b binding site in the TP53 3'‑UTR with a consecutive 8‑bp perfect match, creating a 'gain‑of‑function' variant and affecting the regulation of TP53 expression. A luciferase assay demonstrated that transfection of lens epithelial cells with wild type TP53 3'‑UTR significantly reduced the luciferase activity of the miR‑125b overexpressing cells compared with scramble controls. In addition, the luciferase activity of miR‑125b overexpressing cells transfected with the construct containing the rs78378222 polymorphism minor allele was also reduced compared with cells transfected with the wild type 3'‑UTR. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the expression level of miR‑125 was comparable in epithelial cells from patients with age

  18. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  19. Efeito do mel e do soro autólogo na cicatrização do epitélio corneano em coelhos Effect of honey and autologous serum on corneal epithelial healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ricci Malavazzi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de substâncias consideradas estimulantes da cicatrização, como o mel puro e o soro autólogo a 20% na cicatrização do epitélio corneal de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada a remoção do epitélio corneal de dois grupos de coelhos que receberam a instilação de solução de mel puro (G1 ou soro autólogo (G2 a cada 4 horas. O olho contralateral foi usado como controle e submetido ao mesmo procedimento de remoção do epitélio, recebendo a instilação de BSS®. A área de desepitelização corneal foi avaliada 12, 24 e 48 horas após a indução do defeito epitelial. RESULTADOS: Os grupos estudados foram estatisticamente semelhantes: mel (48 horas e controle (48 horas pPURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of pure honey and 20% autologous serum and BSS® in corneal epithelial healing in rabbits after 48 hours. METHODS: All solutions were applied after an epithelial removal of 13-millimeters diameter area. Areas of epithelial healing were studied at 12, 24 and 48 hours. The eyes were treated every four hours during 2 days. All treated eyes were assigned to a control group (contralateral eye treated with a balanced saline solution. RESULTS: All studied groups were not significantly differents. In group one, the eyes treated with honey and the control were similar (p<0.87. In the second group the eyes treated with autologos serum and the control presented no difference in the mean score (p<0.072. CONCLUSION: Corneal epithelial healing in rabbits did not show improvement after application of either honey or autologous serum. It was possible to stabilish that the autologous serum treated eyes were clinicaly better than the control group but without statistical significance.

  20. 海水对兔眼晶状体的Na,K-ATP酶及Ca2,Mg2-ATP酶功能的影响%Experimental Study on the Effects of Seawater on Na+,K+-ATP ase and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP ase in Lens of Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍娟; 彭秀军; 魏翠荣; 竹颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of Na+,K+-ATP ase and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP ase in lens of rabbits with seawater injected into anterior chambers.Methods:After 0.2 ml seawater were injected into anterior chambers,the rabbit’s eye balls were enucleated respectively in deferent time to examine the activity of Na+,K+-ATP ase and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP ase in lens by biochemistry method.Results:The activity of Na+,K+-ATP ase and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP ase in lens of seawater group decreased significantly at first,then increased and recovered partly or completely at last.No significant difference of the activity of two kinds of enzyme in lens was found between control group and normal group.Conclusion:The activity of Na+,K+-ATP ase and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP ase in rabbit lens are damaged in deferent degree with seawater injected into anterior chamber.%  目的:观察海水对兔眼晶状体Na+,K+-ATP酶及Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP酶功能的影响.方法:在兔眼前房内注入0.2 ml海水后不同时间摘除眼球,分别测定其Na+,K+-ATP酶及Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP酶活性.结果:海水组兔眼晶状体两酶活性均先降低,再增高,最终完全或部分恢复正常;而对照组两酶的活性与正常组比较没有显著差别.结论:海水可使晶状体的Na+,K+-ATP酶及Ca2+,Mg2+-ATP酶的活性不同程度受损.

  1. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on the Lens of the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Keklikçi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF on lens epithelial cells. Twenty adult female Spraque Dawley rats were divided into two groups, each containing 10 rats. The experimental group received magnetic field 2 hours/day for 7 days. The second group receiving standard laboratory care, was used as a control. The specimens were evaluated for cataractogenesis alteretion of lens and histological changes in lens epithelial cells.On biomicroscopic examination, no pathological damage to the lens was detected. In addition, on microscopic examination of materials in the controls, there were also no changes in lens fibrils and lens epithelial cells. In experimental group, however, only a slight pleomorphism was determined at the surface of epithelial cells.In the study, it is cocluded that ELF MF exposure do might not lead to histopathological alterations of the lens fibrils and lens epithelial cells.

  2. A single-pixel wireless contact lens display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingley, A. R.; Ali, M.; Liao, Y.; Mirjalili, R.; Klonner, M.; Sopanen, M.; Suihkonen, S.; Shen, T.; Otis, B. P.; Lipsanen, H.; Parviz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the design, construction and in vivo rabbit testing of a wirelessly powered contact lens display. The display consists of an antenna, a 500 × 500 µm2 silicon power harvesting and radio integrated circuit, metal interconnects, insulation layers and a 750 × 750 µm2 transparent sapphire chip containing a custom-designed micro-light emitting diode with peak emission at 475 nm, all integrated onto a contact lens. The display can be powered wirelessly from ~1 m in free space and ~2 cm in vivo on a rabbit. The display was tested on live, anesthetized rabbits with no observed adverse effect. In order to extend display capabilities, design and fabrication of micro-Fresnel lenses on a contact lens are presented to move toward a multipixel display that can be worn in the form of a contact lens. Contact lenses with integrated micro-Fresnel lenses were also tested on live rabbits and showed no adverse effect.

  3. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on ALDHI expression in human lens epithelial cells%紫外线照射对人晶状体上皮细胞内ALDH1蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶明; 贾松柏; 陈翾; 唐罗生

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the apoptosis-inducing effect of ultraviolet light (UV) on human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) and to explore the involvement of changes in ALDH1 (blowing UV radiation.Methods: HLEC was exposed to the same UV light source and was subsequently divided into 6 groups according to UV radiation time of 0 (control group), 5,10, 15, and 30 min. Apoptosis was detected by AO/EB staining. Changes of ALDH1 in HLEC were detected by inimunohistochemical staining and Western blot.Results: The intensity of immunohistochemical staining and the rate of positive cells decreased with increase of UV time (P<0.05). The rate of positive ALDH1 cells was negatively correlated with the rate of apoptosis (r= -0.92, P<0.05). Western blot showed the integrated absorbance values significantly decreased with the increase of UV time (P<0.05).Conclusion: ALDH1 in HLEC decreases with an increase of UV exposure, which may be related to UV induced apoptosis of HLEC.%目的:通过对紫外线(ultraviolet,uv)照射后人晶状体上皮细胞(human lens epithelial cell,HLEC)ALDH1蛋白表达变化的观察,探讨UV诱导HLEC凋亡的可能机制.方法:以实验室培养的HLEC细胞株为研究模型,采用同一UV光源对HLEC进行照射.按UV照射时间将HLEC分为0,5,10,15及30min组,用AO/EB染色法检测细胞凋亡,用免疫组织化学的方法观察ALDHI在各组的表达,用Western印迹对其蛋白含量进行测定.结果:ALDHI免疫组织化学染色阳性细胞率随着UV照射时间延长而降低(P<0.05),与HLEC凋亡率间呈负相关(r=-0.92,P<0.05); Western印迹灰度值随UV照射时间延长逐渐下降(P<0.05).结论:HLEC内ALDH1含量随UV照射时间及剂量增加而下降,这可能与UV导致的HLEC凋亡相关.

  4. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  5. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. A comparative study on rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic epithelial cells transplantation for rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency%兔骨髓间充质干细胞及人羊膜上皮细胞移植治疗兔角膜缘干细胞缺损的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建民; 吕秀丽; 马翔

    2011-01-01

    Background Limbal stem cell deficiency usually leads to blindness, and traditional therapy is limited. Recent research demonstrated that bone mesenchymal stem cells ( BMSCs ) and human amniotic epithelial cells(AECs) could differentiate into many kinds of cells including corneal epithelial cells, but the outcome and effect of these cells on corneal stem cell deficiency are still unclear. Objective This study aimed to observe and compare the effects of rabbit BMSCs and human AECs transplantation for rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods Eighteen clean New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the amniotic stroma(AS) group, rabbit BMSCs group and human AECs group with 6 rabbits for each group. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were established by putting a piece of filter paper that had been soaked in a NaOH solution at the corneal center. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and purified by density gradient centrifugation combined with the attachment culture method, and human AECs were collected by a sequential trypsin digestion technique,and the third generation rabbit BMSCs and the first generation human AECs were identified with RT-PCR. After that,cells were inoculated onto the denuded AS and grafted to the corneal surface of the experimental animals. Twenty-eight days after cell transplantation, the therapeutic effects were evaluated based on the corneal neovascularization and opacity scores. Corneal histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness among AS,rabbit BMSCs and human AECs on corneal stem cell deficiency. The procedure complied with the Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by State Science and Technology Commission. Results The third generation of rabbit BMSCs grew well after 12 hours, and the first generation of human AECs formed a membrane-like monolayer after 48 hours of incubation on AS. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that, 28 days after

  8. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  9. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, T. M.

    1930-01-01

    The virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits (Sanarelli) induces multiple lesions in the skin, lymph glands, tunica vaginalis,epididymis, testicle, spleen, and lungs. Growth and destruction of cells in the epidermis overlying the myxomatous masses leads to the formation of vesicles. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in affected epidermal cells. Occasionally, similar inclusions are seen in other involved epithelial cells. The nature of the inclusions is an open question. In the myxomatous masses situated in the subcutaneous and other tissues, evidences of alteration and growth of certain cells are observed. PMID:19869741

  10. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  11. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  12. 胶原性眼内接触镜兔眼植入术后的生物相容性研究%Study of biocompatibility on implantation of collagen intraocular contact lens in rabbit eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜臻晟; 盛耀华; 祝肇荣; 高金榜

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Implantation of intraocular contact lens(ICL) in crystal eyes is a kind of new operation which can correct high myopia. As a kind of new material, collagen has been applied abroad to research and manufacture of ICL, while there is no similar domestic products. OBJECTIVE:To observe the cellular response after implantation of collagen ICL in rabbit eyes and evaluate biocompatibility of collagen by animal experiments. DESIGN:A randomized and control grouping experiment was designed. SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The exporment was carried out in Department of Ophthalmology in the Affiliated Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai second Medical University.Twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits weighing from 2.0 kg to 2.5 kg,were selected without distinction of sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:The morphological changes of histocytes on the surface of ICL and ocular anterror tissue were observed. RESULTS: In ICL implantation group, the infiltration of plenty of phagocytes was major in ocular anterior segment tissues in the earlier period after operation,and the phagocytes were functionally active.There were only a few fibroblasts.The number of macrophages decreased in the later period,while the number of fibroblasts increased. In surgical control group many macrophages existed in ocular anterior tissue in the earlier period after operation and the number of fibroblasts increased significantly accompanied with fibrous tissue formation in the later period. CONCLUSION:Changes of inflammatory cells after ICL implantation showed a progress of classic foreign-body granulomatous inflammation.There was excellent ocular biocompatibility in collagen ICL.%背景:有晶体眼眼内接触镜植入术是一种矫治高度近视的新型手术,胶原作为一种新型材料已在国外应用于眼内接触镜(ICL)的研制,国内尚无同类产品.目的:通过兔眼的动物实验,观察胶原性眼内接触镜植入眼内后的组织细胞学反应,评定胶原的生物相容性.设计:随机

  13. 胎兔视网膜色素上皮移植的初步研究%Primary study of transplanted embryonic retinal pigment epithelial cells in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲毅; 周芳; 李艳; 李剑桥; 冯进波

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察受体Bruch膜和视网膜色素上皮(retrial pigment epithelial,RPE)受损情况下供体RPE细胞的增殖、分化和凋亡状况.方法:制备有色素胎兔RPE细胞悬液,移植至破坏了Bruch膜和RPE细胞的12只成年新西兰大白兔的视网膜下腔.左眼作为实验组,右眼作为对照,于术后3、7和14d,采用Ki-67免疫组化和TUNEL染色,并提取RPE细胞DNA作琼脂糖凝胶电泳,观察Ki-67阳性RPE细胞及移植的RPE细胞和受体ONL细胞的凋亡百分率,行统计学分析.结果:术后随着时间的延长,实验组或对照组Ki-67阳性RPE细胞数显著增加(P<0.05);术后14 d实验组或对照组的TUNEL染色ONL核阳性百分率较术后3 d显著减少(P<0.05);术后实验组TUNEL染色阳性和细胞核深染的RPE细胞无显著增加(P>0.05);细胞核深染的RPE细胞百分率明显高于TUNEL阳性的细胞(P<0.01).对照组未见TUNEL阳性的RPE细胞.术后14d,移植的RPE细胞DNA电泳出现典型的凋亡带.结论:在受体Bruch膜、RPE受损状态下,供体的RPE细胞具有良好的增殖和分化能力.

  14. Expression of heat shock protein mRNA in epithelial cells of human lens%人晶状体上皮细胞内热休克蛋白mRNA的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪岩; 贾琳琳; 刘宏伟

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Special anatomical location makes eye lens expose to stressful situation in a long term, so it needs persistent protection to resist stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) exert self-protective defensive effect under the stress.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in mRNA expression of HSPs in the lens under the condition of exogenous stress.DESIGN: Repeated measurement, controlled observation trial.SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, First Hospital Affiliated to Jiamusi University.PARTICIPANTS: Human lens endothelial cells B3 (LEC-B3) were obtained from the Department of Ophthalmology, First Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit was purchased from Bao Biotechnology Company, Japan.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Congenital Malformation, Ministry of Public Health,China Medical University between September 2003 and September 2004. LEC-B3 of the exponential growth was used for the experiment. Thermal or oxidative stress on LEC-B3 cells were produced by 30-minute exposure at 45 ℃ or incubated for 30 minutes in DMEM supplemented with 50 mmol/L H2O2. Some stressful cells were allowed to recuperate after exposure to stress in normal culture medium at 37 ℃ for 0, 2, 4, 6, 16 and 24 hours, separately. The expressions of HSP27 and HSP70 in the LEC-B3 were detected by RT-PCR.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expressions of HSP27 and HSP70 in LEC-B3.RESULTS: HSPs existed in both physiological and stressful situation. The levels of HSPmRNA were increased 2 hours after both stresses. But the expressions of HSP27 and HSP70 got to the summit at different intervals from 2 hours to 6 hours in each group. Subsequently, they were decreased gradually in each group, but they all could maintain a high level at 16 hours.CONCLUSION: Stressful environment induces the over-expressions of HSP27 mRNA and HSP70 mRNA in LEC-B3. This may play an important protective role in lens epithelial

  15. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  16. 高强度聚焦超声对离体兔眼晶状体组织形态和弹性变化的影响%Effect of HIFU on the histomorphology and elasticity change of crystalline lens in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔俐; 杜之渝; 晏丕松; 黄正; 白晋; 张丹; 张玙; 龚晓波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of high intensity focused ultrasound on the histology and elasticity change of crystalline lens in rabbit. Methods: 184 eyes were randomly divided into blank group and HIFU group. The blank group didn't give irradiation. The eyes of HIFU group was exposed to HIFU with the acoustic power of 1,2W respectively for 3s,5s,8s, 10s, 15s, 20s and 25s; the acoustic power of 3,4,5 W respectively for 3s, 5s, 8s, 10s and 15s. After irradiation eyes fixed for histology. Based on the studies by Fisher, the elastic deformation of the crystalline lens was determinated before and after rotating. Results: Histology observation:when energy was lesser, morphology of the irraditon area was regular like the droplet. Their morphology was irregular when the energy increased,seeing lots of cavitation hubble generated by cavitational mechanisms. The irradiation by HIFU could change the elasticity of lens. Multiple comparison showed that there were no significantly difference in the elastic deformation of lens between blank group, 1 W, 3 S and 15 S group, 2 W, 15 S group and 3 - 5 W, 8 S greup(P 〉 0.05) .For the remaining groups as compared with the blank group there we,re statistical differences(P 〈 0.05). Couclusions: HIFU irradiation in vitro rabbit lens can be affected their elasticity change,and in a certain energy cavitation effect could regain the flexibility of the lens.%目的:探讨不同治疗剂量高强度聚焦超声(high intensity focused ultrasound,HIFU)对兔眼晶状体组织形态和弹性变化的影响。方法:184只兔眼球随机分为空白组和HIFU组,空白组未给予HIFU辐照,HIFU组选取功率1、2W分别辐照时间3、5、8、10、15、20、25s;功率3,4、5W分别辐照时间3、5、8、10、15s;辐照完后进行组织学观察以及弹性变化检测。结果:当HIFU剂量较小时,组织学观察可见晶状体辐照区形态规则,呈水滴状;当剂量增大达到

  17. 非瑟酮对人晶状体上皮细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%Effects of fisetin on proliferation and apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼华; 李开明; 康刚劲

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究非瑟酮(fisetin,Fis)在生理状态下及氧化应激状态下对人晶状体上皮细胞(human lens epithelial cell,HLEC)增殖和凋亡的影响.方法 体外培养HLEC,通过H2O2氧化损伤建立氧化应激模型,设置空白对照组、H2O2组、Fis组和Fis+ H2O2组,其中Fis组和Fis+ H2 O2组按Fis浓度(5μg·mL-1、10 μg· mL-1和20 μg·mL-1)分为3个亚组.分别于培养12h及24 h后,倒置相差显微镜下观察各组细胞的形态学改变,运用MTT法检测细胞增殖的变化,运用流式细胞技术检测细胞凋亡率的变化.结果 与空白对照组比较,H2O2组较多细胞出现典型的形态学改变,细胞增殖能力明显降低(12 h、24 h后分别为0.117 6±0.015 0和0.117 2±0.006 1),凋亡率明显增加(24 h后为12.35%±1.23%),差异均有统计学意义(均为P<O.01).不同浓度Fis组间的细胞在培养12 h及24 h后细胞形态均无明显改变,细胞增殖也无明显变化(P>0.05).培养12及24 h后,与H2O2组比较,Fis+H2O2组发生形态改变的细胞减少,细胞增殖能力明显改善,且随时间、Fis浓度增加其作用更明显(最高为0.399 4±0.025 7)(P<0.05).培养24 h后,与H2O,组凋亡率比较,不同浓度Fis+H2O2组的细胞凋亡率逐渐降低,依次为(9.99±1.53)%、(5.80±1.55)%、(3.58±0.73)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 一定浓度的Fis在一定时段对生理状态下的HLEC增殖无明显影响.在氧化应激状态下,Fis呈时间和浓度依赖性地改善HLEC增殖能力,呈浓度依赖性地降低HLEC凋亡率.

  18. Ontogeny and localization of γ-crystallin antigen in the developing pigeon (Columba livia) lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Rabaey, M.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van

    Ontogeny and localization of the lens γ-crystallin antigen were investigated in the embryonic and post-embryonic pigeon lenses by the indirect immunofluorescence with antiserum from rabbit immunized with isolated pigeon lens γ-crystallin. The results show that γ-crystallin appears for the first time

  19. Ontogeny and localization of γ-crystallin antigen in the developing pigeon (Columba livia) lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Rabaey, M.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van

    1972-01-01

    Ontogeny and localization of the lens γ-crystallin antigen were investigated in the embryonic and post-embryonic pigeon lenses by the indirect immunofluorescence with antiserum from rabbit immunized with isolated pigeon lens γ-crystallin. The results show that γ-crystallin appears for the first time

  20. Clinical symptoms and diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Gruber, Andrea; Tichy, Alexander; Edelhofer, Renate; Nell, Barbara; Hassan, Jasmin; Leschnik, Michael; Thalhammer, Johann G; Joachim, Anja

    2008-02-14

    Infections with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits are observed at increasing frequency and are known as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised humans. 191 pet rabbits with suspected encephalitozoonosis, presented at the Animal Hospital of the Veterinary University of Vienna (Austria), were included in this study. Rabbits were serologically examined for antibodies against E. cuniculi (144 positive out of 184 rabbits with suspected encephalitozoonosis compared to 14 positive out of 40 clinically healthy rabbits tested as part of a standard health check) and Toxoplasma gondii (8 positive out of 157). Of the 144 seropositive rabbits with clinical signs, 75% showed neurological symptoms, 14.6% demonstrated phacoclastic uveitis and 3.5% suffered from renal failure. 6.9% of the animals had combined symptoms. Vestibular disease dominated within the rabbits that showed neurological symptoms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could not detect parasite DNA in urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but did so in 4 out of 5 samples of liquefied lens material in cases with phacoclastic uveitis due to lens capsule rupture. Additionally further diagnostic procedures, such as inspection of the external ear canal (N=69), radiography of the tympanic bullae (N=65) were performed to rule out differential diagnosis. 54.2% of the patients exhibiting neurological symptoms recovered within a few days, while 87.5% of the rabbits suffering from renal failure died or had to be euthanized.

  1. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  2. Rabbit hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  3. c-myc Regulates Cell Proliferation during Lens Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anielle L.; Rodrigues, Paulo M. G.; Martins, Rodrigo A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Myc protooncogenes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and survival during development. In various developing organs, c-myc has been shown to control the expression of cell cycle regulators and its misregulated expression is detected in many human tumors. Here, we show that c-myc gene (Myc) is highly expressed in developing mouse lens. Targeted deletion of c-myc gene from head surface ectoderm dramatically impaired ocular organogenesis, resulting in severe microphtalmia, defective anterior segment development, formation of a lens stalk and/or aphakia. In particular, lenses lacking c-myc presented thinner epithelial cell layer and growth impairment that was detectable soon after its inactivation. Defective development of c-myc-null lens was not caused by increased cell death of lens progenitor cells. Instead, c-myc loss reduced cell proliferation, what was associated with an ectopic expression of Prox1 and p27Kip1 proteins within epithelial cells. Interestingly, a sharp decrease in the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxe3 was also observed following c-myc inactivation. These data represent the first description of the physiological roles played by a Myc family member in mouse lens development. Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens. PMID:24503550

  4. c-Myc regulates cell proliferation during lens development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available Myc protooncogenes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and survival during development. In various developing organs, c-myc has been shown to control the expression of cell cycle regulators and its misregulated expression is detected in many human tumors. Here, we show that c-myc gene (Myc is highly expressed in developing mouse lens. Targeted deletion of c-myc gene from head surface ectoderm dramatically impaired ocular organogenesis, resulting in severe microphtalmia, defective anterior segment development, formation of a lens stalk and/or aphakia. In particular, lenses lacking c-myc presented thinner epithelial cell layer and growth impairment that was detectable soon after its inactivation. Defective development of c-myc-null lens was not caused by increased cell death of lens progenitor cells. Instead, c-myc loss reduced cell proliferation, what was associated with an ectopic expression of Prox1 and p27(Kip1 proteins within epithelial cells. Interestingly, a sharp decrease in the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxe3 was also observed following c-myc inactivation. These data represent the first description of the physiological roles played by a Myc family member in mouse lens development. Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens.

  5. Election Spin Resonance Studies of Free Radical Formation and Oxygen Consumption of Lens Epithelium During Ultraviolet Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    A long life election spin resonance (ESR) signal at g=2.0006 was observed in the normal lens epithelium and cortical fibers. During ultraviolet (UV) exposure, a new ESR signal at g = 2.0060 was found in the lens epithelium. But this specific signal was not detected in the lens cortical fibers. This suggested that lens epithelial cells were more susceptible to the free radical formation which was induced by UV light. By means of ESR spin probe oxymetry, the oxygen uptake of lens epithelial cells was meas...

  6. Clinical trial of anterior stromal puncture and bandage contact lens in treating patients with recurrent epithelial defects%角膜浅基质针刺术联合绷带镜治疗复发性角膜上皮糜烂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓静; 李建南

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapy using anterior stromal puncture ( ASP ) and bandage contact lens for recurrent epithelial defects. METHODS:ASP was used as a treatment for 23 eyes of 22 outpatients with recurrent epithelial defects. At the mean time, they wore bandage contact lens and used eyedrops.All patients report foreign-body sensation, blepharospasm, tearing and photophobia in the morning or evening, some with visual impairment. ASP was performed on every patient with a self-made 41/2 needle under surface anesthesia.The patients worn contact lens after the surgery.We observed symptoms of foreign-body sensation, photophobia, vision , epithelial and stromal scar healing at 3d; 1,2,4,8,12wk.The average follow-up period was 3 months, range 4wk-10mo. RESULTS: Twenty -two eyes became completely asymptomatic and 19 eyes (83%) were once cured. CONCLUSION:ASP with bandage contact lens turns out to be an effective, convenient, economical and repeatable therapeutic option for patients with recurrent epithelial defects, which can control the severe foreign -body sensation quickly.%目的:探讨角膜浅基质针刺( anterior stromal puncture , ASP)联合绷带式隐形眼镜针对角膜上皮反复糜烂治疗的有效性和安全性。  方法:复发性角膜上皮糜烂的门诊患者22例23眼,最初均采用保守药物治疗无效或反复后,采用角膜浅基质针刺联合配戴绷带式隐形眼镜治疗。治疗前所有患者均表现晨起或晚间异物感、流泪、眼睑痉挛、畏光,部分伴有轻度视力下降。表面麻醉后,在裂隙灯下,用4号半针头制成截囊针形状,尖端长0.3mm,垂直穿过疏松的上皮和前弹力层行角膜浅基质多点针刺,术毕配戴月抛式绷带式隐形眼镜。在治疗后3 d;1,2,4,8,12 wk共6个时间点观察患者异物感、视力、畏光、上皮愈合情况及基质瘢痕情况。平均随访3 mo。  结果:患者22

  7. The Experimental Study on Implantation of Intraocular Lens in Different Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGui-qin; PENGXiu-jun; GUHan-qing

    2004-01-01

    To prevent the complications in cataract surgeries, the eyes of rabbits and monkeys were implanted with intraocular lens for 360 days. Methods: The eyes of the rabbits were performed with phacoemulsification and soft intraocular lens implantation. The eyes of the monkeys were performed with extracapsular cataract extraction and hard intraocular lens implantation. Results: The postoperative reactions included corneal edema, anterior chamber exudation, posterior capsule opacification and so on. The complications in the eyes of the rabbits were more than that in the eyes of the monkeys. Conclusion: The different postoperative reactions happened in different animals. In clinical the choice of the operative method and intraocular lens depended on the case in order to acquire the best sight.

  8. 姜黄素抑制人晶状体上皮细胞增殖与胶原蛋白合成的研究%Inhibitive effects of curcumin on proliferation and collagen synthesis of human lens epithelial cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳红; 黄秀榕; 祁明信; 侯补元

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Curcumin (Cur) on proliferation and collagen synthesis of human lens epithelial cells B3 (HLE-B3). Methods: Recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) was utilized to induce proliferation of HLE-B3. Proliferative HLE-B3 was incubated with 20 mg/L Cur in CO2 incubator for 24 hours. Then the inhibitory effect of Cur on proliferation of HLE-B3 was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The effect of Cur onHLE-B3 morphology was observed under the optical microscope. The effect of Cur on HLE-B3 cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometer (FCM). Then the contents of collagen I and collagen HI of HLE-B3 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: MTT test showed that the optical density (OD) value of rhbFGF group was remarkably higher than that of control group, and mat of Cur group was obviously declined in comparison to rhbFGF group. The inhibitory rate of Cur was 53.70 %; In proliferation group, the number of HLE-B3 was increased with the normal cell structure and abundant cytoplasm under the optical microscope. However, in Cur group, the number of HLE-B3 was evidently decreased with less cytoplasm, undistinguished cell structure, condensed and aggregated nucleuses; The result of flow cytometer showed that the percentage of HLE-B3 in Gl phase in Cur group was evidently increased in comparison with rhbFGF group. HLE-B3 in S phase in Cur group was lower than rhbFGF group HLE-B3 in G2 phase in Cur group was no difference than rhbFGF group; The Collagen I contents of HLE-B3 was (2458±1.68)ug/L in Cur, which decreased obviously to compare with rhbFGF group. The Collagen III contents of HLE-B3 were (0.18+0.05)jig/L in Cur groups, which decreased obviously to compare with rhbFGF group. Conclusion: Cur could effectively inhibit HLE-B3 proliferation induced by rhbFGF. Cur could inhibite the synthesis of collagen I and collagen III in HLE-B3, as well. The inhibitive effects of Cur on the HLE

  9. Adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer into rabbit ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N G; da Silva, J L; Lavrovsky, Y; Stoltz, R A; Kappas, A; Dunn, M W; Schwartzman, M L

    1995-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress protein induced up to 100-fold within a few hours after exposure to oxidative stress, and it has been shown to counteract oxidative injury induced by ultraviolet light or free radicals. The current study was undertaken to determine whether the HO-1 gene can be introduced into adult rabbit ocular tissues by microinjection of a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus human HO-1 cDNA (Adv-HHO). Human HO-1 gene was used for transfection studies to differentiate endogenous from transfected HO. The purified Adv-HHO construct (10(8) pfu/ml) was mixed with lipofectamine and microinjected into the anterior chamber, vitreous cavity, and subretinal space of New Zealand rabbit eyes. After 2 weeks, total RNA was extracted from different ocular tissues, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific human HO-1 primers, and amplification products were subjected to Southern hybridization. Transfection with the Adv-HHO construct into rabbit corneal epithelial cells in culture resulted in a functional expression of the human HO-1 gene; the human HO-1 mRNA was detected, and enzyme activity increased threefold. Human HO-1 mRNA was detected in the retina after microinjection of the Adv-HHO construct into the subretinal space. Microinjection into the vitreous resulted in HO-1 mRNA expression in the corneal endothelium, iris, lens, and retina; after intracameral injection of the Adv-HHO construct, human HO-1 mRNA was detected in corneal epithelium and endothelium, ciliary body, lens, and iris. Regardless of the injection site, transfected human HO-1 mRNA was undetectable in tissues outside the eye, that is, brain, liver, and kidney. These results demonstrated a tissue-selective functional transfer of the human HO-1 gene into rabbit ocular tissues in vivo. This technique may be a promising means for delivering HO-1 gene in vivo as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of

  10. Differentiation state-specific mitochondrial dynamic regulatory networks are revealed by global transcriptional analysis of the developing chicken lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauss, Daniel; Basu, Subhasree; Rajakaruna, Suren; Ma, Zhiwei; Gau, Victoria; Anastas, Sara; Brennan, Lisa A; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Menko, A Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2014-06-13

    The mature eye lens contains a surface layer of epithelial cells called the lens epithelium that requires a functional mitochondrial population to maintain the homeostasis and transparency of the entire lens. The lens epithelium overlies a core of terminally differentiated fiber cells that must degrade their mitochondria to achieve lens transparency. These distinct mitochondrial populations make the lens a useful model system to identify those genes that regulate the balance between mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination. Here we used an RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approach to identify the transcript levels of all genes expressed by distinct regions of the lens epithelium and maturing fiber cells of the embryonic Gallus gallus (chicken) lens. Our analysis detected more than 15,000 unique transcripts expressed by the embryonic chicken lens. Of these, more than 3000 transcripts exhibited significant differences in expression between lens epithelial cells and fiber cells. Multiple transcripts coding for separate mitochondrial homeostatic and degradation mechanisms were identified to exhibit preferred patterns of expression in lens epithelial cells that require mitochondria relative to lens fiber cells that require mitochondrial elimination. These included differences in the expression levels of metabolic (DUT, PDK1, SNPH), autophagy (ATG3, ATG4B, BECN1, FYCO1, WIPI1), and mitophagy (BNIP3L/NIX, BNIP3, PARK2, p62/SQSTM1) transcripts between lens epithelial cells and lens fiber cells. These data provide a comprehensive window into all genes transcribed by the lens and those mitochondrial regulatory and degradation pathways that function to maintain mitochondrial populations in the lens epithelium and to eliminate mitochondria in maturing lens fiber cells.

  11. Fibrosis in the lens. Sprouty regulation of TGFβ-signaling prevents lens EMT leading to cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovicu, F J; Shin, E H; McAvoy, J W

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a common age-related condition that is caused by progressive clouding of the normally clear lens. Cataract can be effectively treated by surgery; however, like any surgery, there can be complications and the development of a secondary cataract, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), is the most common. PCO is caused by aberrant growth of lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the capsular bag after surgical removal of the fiber mass. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is central to fibrotic PCO and forms of fibrotic cataract, including anterior/posterior polar cataracts. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been shown to induce lens EMT and consequently research has focused on identifying ways of blocking its action. Intriguingly, recent studies in animal models have shown that EMT and cataract developed when a class of negative-feedback regulators, Sprouty (Spry)1 and Spry2, were conditionally deleted from the lens. Members of the Spry family act as general antagonists of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated MAPK signaling pathway that is involved in many physiological and developmental processes. As the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway is a well established target of Spry proteins, and overexpression of Spry can block aberrant TGFβ-Smad signaling responsible for EMT and anterior subcapsular cataract, this indicates a role for the ERK/MAPK pathway in TGFβ-induced EMT. Given this and other supporting evidence, a case is made for focusing on RTK antagonists, such as Spry, for cataract prevention. In addition, and looking to the future, this review also looks at possibilities for supplanting EMT with normal fiber differentiation and thereby promoting lens regenerative processes after cataract surgery. Whilst it is now known that the epithelial to fiber differentiation process is driven by FGF, little is known about factors that coordinate the precise assembly of fibers into a functional lens. However, recent research

  12. Pathology and Therapy in Naturally Eimeria stiedae-Infected Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, L. D.; Juyal, P. D.; B S Sandhu

    2000-01-01

    Clinical hepatic coccidiosis in New Zealand white rabbits (n=24) of either sex (aged 1-2month) with clinical signs, pathology an therapy is presented. The infected rabbits showedanorexia, reluctance to move and death within 3-4 days. Liver showed irregular whitish nodulesscattered on its surface and in deeper parenchyma. Characteristic histopathologjcal changes inliver with different developmental stages of Eimeria stiedae in the epithelial cells of bile ductshave been recorded. Treatment of ...

  13. Lens regeneration in axolotl: new evidence of developmental plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetsugu-Maki Rinako

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among vertebrates lens regeneration is most pronounced in newts, which have the ability to regenerate the entire lens throughout their lives. Regeneration occurs from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells. Interestingly, the ventral iris never contributes to regeneration. Frogs have limited lens regeneration capacity elicited from the cornea during pre-metamorphic stages. The axolotl is another salamander which, like the newt, regenerates its limbs or its tail with the spinal cord, but up until now all reports have shown that it does not regenerate the lens. Results Here we present a detailed analysis during different stages of axolotl development, and we show that despite previous beliefs the axolotl does regenerate the lens, however, only during a limited time after hatching. We have found that starting at stage 44 (forelimb bud stage lens regeneration is possible for nearly two weeks. Regeneration occurs from the iris but, in contrast to the newt, regeneration can be elicited from either the dorsal or the ventral iris and, occasionally, even from both in the same eye. Similar studies in the zebra fish concluded that lens regeneration is not possible. Conclusions Regeneration of the lens is possible in the axolotl, but differs from both frogs and newts. Thus the axolotl iris provides a novel and more plastic strategy for lens regeneration.

  14. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  15. Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating network hydrogel by intrastromal implantation in rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Luo Luo; Vanchinathan, Vijay; Dalal, Roopa; Noolandi, Jaan; Waters, Dale J; Hartmann, Laura; Cochran, Jennifer R; Frank, Curtis W; Yu, Charles Q; Ta, Christopher N

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of a poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating network hydrogel designed for artificial cornea in a rabbit model. PEG/PAA hydrogel measuring 6 mm in diameter was implanted in the corneal stroma of twelve rabbits. Stromal flaps were created with a microkeratome. Randomly, six rabbits were assigned to bear the implant for 2 months, two rabbits for 6 months, two rabbits for 9 months, one rabbit for 12 months, and one rabbit for 16 months. Rabbits were evaluated monthly. After the assigned period, eyes were enucleated, and corneas were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were clear corneas in three of six rabbits that had implantation of hydrogel for 2 months. In the six rabbits with implant for 6 months or longer, the corneas remained clear in four. There was a high rate of epithelial defect and corneal thinning in these six rabbits. One planned 9-month rabbit developed extrusion of implant at 4 months. The cornea remained clear in the 16-month rabbit but histology revealed epithelial in-growth. Intrastromal implantation of PEG/PAA resulted in a high rate of long-term complications.

  16. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V., E-mail: viosimon@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rosca, C. [Optilens Clinic of Ophthalmology, 400604 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Eniu, D. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Sciences, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Changes on intraocular lens (IOL) surface after implantation. • Partial opacification of IOL central area. • Elemental composition on IOL surface prior to and after implantation. • First XPS depth profiling examination of the opacifying deposits. • Cell-mediated hydroxyapatite structuring. - Abstract: The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  18. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  19. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha M Rathi; Preeji S Mandathara; Srikanth Dumpati

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  20. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  1. Iatrogenic Lens Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kamış

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During intraocular surgery, undesired damages of various etiology may occur in adjacent tissues. One of these tissues is the crystalline lens, which may be traumatized both in anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries, and when damaged, it usually causes marked decrease in visual acuity. The leading causes of iatrogenic lens injuries are intravitreal injection, laser iridotomy, phakic intraocular lens implantation, anterior chamber paracentesis, and vitreoretinal surgery. When crystalline lens damage occurs, its negative effect on visual function may be eliminated by performing cataract surgery intraoperatively or in elective conditions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 27-30

  2. Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis after contact lens usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Song, Nang Hee; Koh, Jae Woong

    2012-02-01

    To report on Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis in two healthy patients who had worn contact lenses foran extended period of time. A 36-year-old female and a 21-year-old female visited our hospital with ocular pain and blurred vision. Both patients had a history of wearing soft contact lenses for over fve years with occasional overnight wear. At the initial presentation, a slit lamp examination revealed corneal stromal infiltrations and epithelial defects with peripheral neovascularization in both patients. Microbiological examinations were performed from samples of corneal scrapings, contact lenses, contact lens cases, and solution. The culture resulting from the samples taken from the contact lenses, contact lens cases, and solution were all positive for Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Confrming that the direct cause of the keratitis was the contact lenses, the frst patient was prescribed ceftazidime and amikacin drops sensitive to Achromobacter xylosoxidans. The second patient was treated with 0.3% gatifoxacin and fortifed tobramycin drops. After treatment, the corneal epithelial defects were completely healed, and subepithelial corneal opacity was observed. Two cases of Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis were reported in healthy young females who wore soft contact lenses. Achromobacter xylosoxidans should be considered a rare but potentially harmful pathogen for lens-induced keratitis in healthy hosts.

  3. A role for smoothened during murine lens and cornea development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Y Choi

    Full Text Available Various studies suggest that Hedgehog (Hh signalling plays roles in human and zebrafish ocular development. Recent studies (Kerr et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53, 3316-30 showed that conditionally activating Hh signals promotes murine lens epithelial cell proliferation and disrupts fibre differentiation. In this study we examined the expression of the Hh pathway and the requirement for the Smoothened gene in murine lens development. Expression of Hh pathway components in developing lens was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. The requirement of Smo in lens development was determined by conditional loss-of-function mutations, using LeCre and MLR10 Cre transgenic mice. The phenotype of mutant mice was examined by immunofluorescence for various markers of cell cycle, lens and cornea differentiation. Hh pathway components (Ptch1, Smo, Gli2, Gli3 were detected in lens epithelium from E12.5. Gli2 was particularly localised to mitotic nuclei and, at E13.5, Gli3 exhibited a shift from cytosol to nucleus, suggesting distinct roles for these transcription factors. Conditional deletion of Smo, from ∼E12.5 (MLR10 Cre did not affect ocular development, whereas deletion from ∼E9.5 (LeCre resulted in lens and corneal defects from E14.5. Mutant lenses were smaller and showed normal expression of p57Kip2, c-Maf, E-cadherin and Pax6, reduced expression of FoxE3 and Ptch1 and decreased nuclear Hes1. There was normal G1-S phase but decreased G2-M phase transition at E16.5 and epithelial cell death from E14.5-E16.5. Mutant corneas were thicker due to aberrant migration of Nrp2+ cells from the extraocular mesenchyme, resulting in delayed corneal endothelial but normal epithelial differentiation. These results indicate the Hh pathway is required during a discrete period (E9.5-E12.5 in lens development to regulate lens epithelial cell proliferation, survival and FoxE3 expression. Defective corneal development occurs

  4. Biological performance of functionalized biomedical polymers for potential applications as intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwen; Wang, Yingjun; Jiao, Yan; Zhai, Zhichen

    2016-08-01

    To study the biological performance of surface-modified biomedical polymer materials, a model of the functional mechanism of nonspecific adsorption resistance was constructed. Cell behavior on the surface and in vivo transplantation features of intraocular lens (IOL) materials, such as hydrophobic acrylic ester and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were investigated. The results of cell adhesion and proliferation studies showed that the addition of hirudin can significantly resist epithelial cell adhesion, better than the pure amination process, and thereby inhibit excessive proliferation on the surface. Experiments on the eyes of rabbits indicated that the IOL surfaces with hirudin modification reduced the incidence of cell aggregation and inflammation. Combined with a study of protein-resistant layer construction with recombinant hirudin on the material surface, the mechanism of surface functionalization was determined. The biological performance indicated that nonspecific adsorption is greatly decreased due to the existence of amphiphilic ions or hydration layers, which lead to stability and long-term resistance to nonspecific adsorption. These results offer a theoretical basis for the use of traditional biomedical polymer materials in long-term clinical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1961-1967, 2016.

  5. Mammary Tumor Development: Stromal-Epithelial Interactions in Oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    to EGF (2). It is encoded by malignant fibroma virus (MV), which produces malignant tumors of fibroblasts. Epithelial proliferation overlies fibrosarco...expression of an epidermal growth factor related gene in Shope fibroma virus. Virol., 179:926-930, 1990. 3. Strayer, DS, Cabirac, GF, Sell, S, Leibowitz, JL...Malignant rabbit fibroma virus: Observa- tions on the cultural and histopathologic characteristics of a new virally-induced rabbit tumor. JNCI, 71:91

  6. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  7. Serum amyloid A gene expression in rabbit, mink and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Hackett, B; Dowton, S B

    1997-02-01

    The expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a major acute-phase reactant in most species, was examined by in situ hybridization in multiple organs of rabbit, mink and mouse. In livers of unstimulated mice and rabbits a heterogeneous pattern of SAA expression in hepatocytes was observed. In all three species, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration resulted in extensive uniform hybridization of SAA probes to hepatocytes and in the rabbit SAA transcripts were detected in cells in the white pulp of the spleen, the adrenal cortex and ovary as well as in the mucosa and lymphatic vessels of the small intestine. Examination of hybridizing SAA signals in the rabbit myocardium showed a speckled distribution in myocytes. The rabbit endocardium was strongly positive, and in the kidney rabbit SAA mRNA was mainly confined to epithelial cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. In the unstimulated mouse, SAA mRNA was detected in the liver and epithelial cells of the small and large intestine. After stimulation of an acute-phase response with LPS a strong response was seen in these organs as well as in the convoluted tubules of the kidney. In extrahepatic organs of the mink, no SAA mRNA was detectable in unstimulated animals, while the convoluted tubules of the kidney and uterine endometrium were strongly positive after systemic LPS injection.

  8. Micronucleation in the lens epithelium following in vivo exposure to physical and chemical mutagens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odrich, S.; Medvedovsky, C.; Merriam, G. R. Jr; Worgul, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Rats were exposed to cataractogenic doses of known physical and chemical genotoxic agents in order to study the efficacy of using micronuclei to monitor mutagenicity in the lens epithelium. The total numbers of micronuclei were counted in lens epithelia from rats exposed to graded doses of either 250 kVp X-rays or the anti-leukemic drug, 1,4 dimethanesulfonoxybutane (Myleran (R)). The results indicate a dose-dependent incidence of micronucleation in the lens epithelium following exposure. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cataractogenicity of certain agents may be related to their effect on the genome of lens epithelial cells.

  9. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  10. The Preliminary Experimental Study of Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yu; Jian Ge; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Keming Yu; Chongde Long; Xigu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To study preliminarily induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells intocorneal epithelial cells in vitro.Methods: Murine embryonic stem cells were co-cultured with Rabbit limbal cornealepithelial cells in Transwell system to induce differentiation. Mophological andimmunohistochemical examination were implemented.Results: The induced cells from embryonic stem cells have an epithelial appearance.The cells formed a network and were confluent into film gradually after beingco-cultured with rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells for 24 ~ 96 hours. The cells rangedmosaic structure and localized together with clear rim. Most of the cells showedpolygonal appearance. Transmission electron microscope showed lots of microvilli on thesurface of induced cells and tight junctions between them. These epithelial-like cellsexpressed the corneal epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin3/cytokeratinl2.Conclusion: The potential mechanism of the differentiation of murine embryonic stemcells into corneal epithelial cells induced by limbal corneal epithelial cell-derivedinducing activity is to be further verified.

  11. Poly-ε-caprolactone mesh as a scaffold for in vivo tissue engineering in rabbit esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Pernille; Markoew, S.; Le, Dang Quang Svend

    2015-01-01

    Repair of long-gap esophageal atresia is associated with a high degree of complications. Tissue engineering on a scaffold of a bioresorbable material could be a solution. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo tissue engineering of smooth muscle cells and epithelium on a poly......-ε-caprolactone mesh in rabbit esophagus. Twenty female rabbits had a window of 0.6 × 1 cm cut in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The defect was covered with a poly-ε-caprolactone mesh. The rabbits were killed on postoperative day 28–30, and mesh with surrounding esophagus was removed for histological examination....... Fifteen rabbits survived the trial period. Six had no complications and had the mesh in situ. They all had ingrowth of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and an almost completely degraded mesh. Nine rabbits developed pseudo-diverticula. It proved possible to engineer both epithelial and smooth muscle...

  12. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  13. Corneal epithelial bullae after short-term wear of small diameter scleral lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alex D; Barr, Joseph T; VanNasdale, Dean A

    2017-04-01

    Complications of scleral lens wear are not well documented or understood. While multiple studies focus on oxygen transmission during scleral lens wear and associated corneal swelling, little is known about the effects of varying scleral lens fitting relationships, especially when there is corneal interaction. Scleral lenses, by convention, are designed to completely clear the corneal surface and rest on the conjunctival and scleral tissue. However, some designs maximize oxygen transmission by reducing the lens diameter, thickness, and recommended corneal clearance.While the modifications increase oxygen transmission in any scleral lens design, they also distribute the lens mass closer to the limbus and make visualization of corneal clearance, especially narrow in the limbal region, more difficult. The sequelae from mechanical interaction between scleral lenses and the ocular surface, in particular the cornea, remain uncertain. This case series will describe corneal epithelial bullae, molding, and epithelial erosions as unintended scleral lens complications. These corneal changes corresponded to areas of contact lens-corneal bearing confirmed utilizing a combined scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and anterior segment OCT. This case series will discuss epithelial bullae detection, their etiology, and suggestions for application of this information into scleral lens fitting protocols. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of AND-34/BCAR3 expression in mice results in rupture of the adult lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Richard I.; Smith, Richard S.; Toselli, Paul A.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Bloom, Alexander B.; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Seldin, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose AND-34/BCAR3 (Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 3) associates with the focal adhesion adaptor protein, p130CAS/BCAR1. Expression of AND-34 regulates epithelial cell growth pattern, motility, and growth factor dependence. We sought to establish the effects of the loss of AND-34 expression in a mammalian organism. Methods AND-34−/− mice were generated by homologous recombination. Histopathology, in situ hybridization, and western blotting were performed on murine tissues. Results Western analyses confirmed total loss of expression in AND-34−/− splenic lymphocytes. Mice lacking AND-34 are fertile and have normal longevity. While AND-34 is widely expressed in wild type mice, histologic analysis of multiple organs in AND-34−/− mice is unremarkable and analyses of lymphocyte development show no overt changes. A small percentage of AND-34−/− mice show distinctive small white eye lesions resulting from the migration of ruptured cortical lens tissue into the anterior chamber. Following initial vacuolization and liquefaction of the lens cortex first observed at postnatal day three, posterior lens rupture occurs in all AND-34−/− mice, beginning as early as three weeks and seen in all mice at three months. Western blot analysis and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of AND-34 RNA and protein in lens epithelial cells, particularly at the lens equator. Prior data link AND-34 expression to the activation of Akt signaling. While Akt Ser 473 phosphorylation was readily detectable in AND-34+/+ lens epithelial cells, it was markedly reduced in the AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Basal levels of p130Cas phosphorylation were higher in AND-34+/+ than in AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Conclusions These results demonstrate the loss of AND-34 dysregulates focal adhesion complex signaling in lens epithelial cells and suggest that AND-34-mediated signaling is required for maintenance of the structural integrity of the adult ocular lens. PMID:19365570

  15. Improvement of Uveal and Capsular Biocompatibility of Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lens by Surface Grafting with 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine-Methacrylic Acid Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Zhan, Jiezhao; Zhu, Yi; Cao, Ji; Wang, Lin; Liu, Sa; Wang, Yingjun; Liu, Zhenzhen; Qin, Yingyan; Wu, Mingxing; Liu, Yizhi; Ren, Li

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatibility of intraocular lens (IOL) is critical to vision reconstruction after cataract surgery. Foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL is vulnerable to the adhesion of extracellular matrix proteins and cells, leading to increased incidence of postoperative inflammation and capsule opacification. To increase IOL biocompatibility, we synthesized a hydrophilic copolymer P(MPC-MAA) and grafted the copolymer onto the surface of IOL through air plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and static water contact angle were used to characterize chemical changes, topography and hydrophilicity of the IOL surface, respectively. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) showed that P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs were resistant to protein adsorption. Moreover, P(MPC-MAA) modification inhibited adhesion and proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. To analyze uveal and capsular biocompatibility in vivo, we implanted the P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs into rabbits after phacoemulsification. P(MPC-MAA) modification significantly reduced postoperative inflammation and anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and did not affect posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Collectively, our study suggests that surface modification by P(MPC-MAA) can significantly improve uveal and capsular biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic IOL, which could potentially benefit patients with blood-aqueous barrier damage. PMID:28084469

  16. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide in contact lens disinfectants is a potential preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flavin nucleotides in human lens: regional distribution in brunescent cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, K S; Nayak, S

    1998-12-01

    The biochemical mechanism(s) underlying brunescent cataracts remain unclear. Oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species may have a role in the pigmentation process in eye lens. We have analysed human cataractous lenses for flavins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), since flavins are light sensitive and act as endogenous sensitizers generating reactive oxygen species in the eye. The most significant observation in this study is that higher levels of flavin nucleotides occur in brown lens compared to yellow lens. The concentration of flavin nucleotides (flavin monouncleotide, FMN + flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) was highest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by the cortical and capsule-epithelial regions. However, the ratio of FAD/FMN was lowest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by other regions. On the other hand, riboflavin was not detected in any of the lens (cataractous) regions. These results suggest that the observed increase in flavin nucleotides in the ocular tissue could contribute towards deepening of lens pigmentation.

  18. 特异性启动子LEP503介导的自杀基因系统对晶状体上皮细胞增殖的抑制作用%Selective cytotoxicity of LEP503 promotermediated suicide gene system on human lens epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晋; 卢奕; 刘天津; 蒋永祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建晶状体上皮细胞(lens epithelial cells,LEC)特异性启动子LEP503(lens epithelium gene product 503)调控的Lenti- LEP503 -HSV-tk-EGFP载体,观察慢病毒介导的单纯疱疹病毒胸苷激酶/丙环鸟苷系统(herps simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir,HSV-tk/GCV)自杀基因系统对人晶状体上皮细胞(HLEC)增殖的靶向性抑制作用.方法 用RT-PCR方法从HLEC基因组中克隆LEP503启动子序列,构建单纯LEP503启动子调控HSV-tk基因表达的慢病毒载体Lenti-LEP503 - HSV-tk-EGFP,同时构建广谱启动子巨细胞病毒(cytomegalo virus,CMV)调控的HSV-tk载体Lenti- CMV-HSV-tk-EGFP.将特异性表达载体Lenti-LEP503-HSV-tk-EGFP分别转入HLEC和Hela细胞,用荧光显微镜观察荧光强度,用RT-PCR方法评估相关蛋白的组织特异性表达.将Lenti-LEP503 -HSV-tk-EGFP和Lenti-CMV -HSV-tk-EGFP分别转入HLEC,通过荧光显微镜观察EGFP的袁达,用流式细胞仪及PT-PCR比较CMV与LEP503启动子介导下游靶基因HSV-tk的表达差异.结果 Lenti-LEP503-HSV -tk-EG FP能在HLEC中特异性表达,但Lenti-LEP503-HSV-tk-EGFP的表达效率明显低干Lenti-CMV-HSV-tk-EGFP.转染Lenti-LEPS03-HSV-tk-EGFP的HLEC在20mg· L-1 GCV作用48h后EGFP阳性细胞的形态发生明显变化;GCV作用24h后Lenti-LEP503 -HSV-tk-EGFP转染HLEC较正常HLEC和Lenti-LEP503 -HSV-tk-EGFP转染Hela细胞活性有明显抑制,且随时间的延长抑制效果逐渐增强.结论 LEP503启动子能介导HSV-tk基因在HLEC中特异表达,并介导HSV-tk/GCV自杀基因系统靶向性抑制 HLEC增殖,但该启动子表达效率较低,所介导的HSV-tk/G CV系统对HLECs增殖的抑制效率低于CMV启动子.%Objective To construct human lens epithelial cells(HLEC) specific promoter lens epithelium gene product 503 (EP503)-mediated Lenti-HSV-tk-EGFP vector and investigate the selective eytotaricity of lenrivirus mediated suicide system of herps simplen virus thymidine ldnase/gandolovir( HSV-tk/GCV) on

  19. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A.; Rosca, C.; Eniu, D.

    2015-01-01

    The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  20. Anterior lens epithelium in cataract patients with retinitis pigmentosa - scanning and transmission electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelic, Sofija; Drašlar, Kazimir; Hvala, Anastazija; Hawlina, Marko

    2017-05-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients, relatively minor lens opacity in central part of posterior pole of the lens may cause disproportionate functional symptoms requiring cataract operation. To investigate the possible structural reasons for this opacity development, we studied the structure of the lens epithelium of patients with RP. The anterior lens capsule (aLC: basement membrane and associated lens epithelial cells, LECs) was obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Both SEM and TEM show a number of abnormal features in the anterior lens epithelium of cataract patients with RP. The abnormalities appear mainly as holes, thinning and degradation of the epithelium, with the dimensions from <1 μm to more than 50 μm. Other types of holes in size up to 20 μm were seen that may be formed by gradual stretching of the lens epithelium. Another type of abnormalities was cracks that were seen between adjacent LECs, with dimensions 0.1-2 μm × up to 10 μm. Abnormal structural features were observed in the anterior lens epithelium that may cause water influx into the lens. This may lead to clouding along the water clefts leading towards the posterior pole in the RP cataractous lens. We suggest that the lens epithelium has a role in the development of the cataract in patients with RP. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  2. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  3. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  4. 紫外线对人晶状体上皮细胞凋亡的诱导及Bcl-2,Bax基因的影响%Ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells and its effect on Bcl-2 and Bax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾松柏; 石晶明; 陈翾; 唐罗生

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究紫外线照射体外培养人晶状体上皮细胞(human lens epithelial cell,HLEC)对凋亡的诱导、凋亡调控基因(Bax,Bcl-2)表达的变化,探讨紫外线诱导HLEC凋亡的机制.方法:以实验室培养的HLEC细胞株为研究模型,采用同一紫外线光源对HLEC进行照射.按紫外线照射时间将HLEC分为0,5,10,15及30 min组.采用Annexin V+PI双染流式细胞计数对HLEC凋亡进行检测,用原位杂交的方法检测各组Bax,Bcl-2 mRNA的表达.结果:随紫外线照射时间的延长HLEC凋亡率增加,Bcl-2阳性细胞率逐渐降低;而Bax阳性细胞率逐渐增加.HLEC凋亡率与Bcl-2和Bax的比率呈负相关(r=-0.874,P<0.05).结论:紫外线照射可诱导HLEC凋亡,Bax和Bcl-2可能参与了紫外线诱导的HLEC凋亡的基因调控过程.%Objective: To explore the apoptosis-inducing effect of ultraviolet(UV) radiation on human lens epithelial cells (HLEC), with particular focus on changes in Bcl-2 or Bax expression as possible mechanisms.Methods: All experimental groups were exposed to the same UV light source. HLEC were divided into 6 groups according to duration of UV radiation : 0 min group (control group), 5 min group, 10 min group, 15 min group, and 30 min group. Analysis on apoptosis of HLEC was performed by flow cytometry analysis (FCA, Annexin V + PI staining). Changes of Bax and Bcl-2 expression in HLEC were detected by hybridization in situ.Results: Apoptosis in HLEC increased with UV exposure time. The expression level of Bax mRNA was increased with the increase of UV exposure time, whereas the expression level of Bcl-2 mRNA decreased with the increase of UV exposure time. The proportion of apoptotic cells was negatively correlated with ratio of Bcl-2/Bax (r=-0.874, P<0.05).Conclusion: UA radiation can induce apoptosis of HLEC in vitro. Bcl-2 and Bax genes may play an important role in regulating this apoptotic process.

  5. 超声乳化术后联合及不联合人工晶状体植入术建立后囊膜混浊兔眼模型的比较%Comparison of posterior capsular opacification models by phacoemulsification with or without intraocular lens implantation in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩; 李兰; 李云川; 张远平; 查旭; 戴红梅; 梁毓琳; 杨文艳; 李静华

    2012-01-01

    背景 后发性白内障(PCO)的防治是目前研究的热点问题之一.建立PCO动物模型常用的方法为超声乳化术后植入或不植入人工晶状体(IOL),但二者造模的效果评价尚不一致. 目的 比较兔眼PCO模型建立过程中植入与不植入IOL对PCO的影响. 方法 选择新西兰白兔20只,用随机数字表法将实验动物分为超声乳化联合IOL植入组和超声乳化不植入IOL组,每组10只兔,两组兔右眼超声乳化手术过程一致,术后共随访3个月,裂隙灯下观察2个组术后晶状体的反应及PCO情况,按Odrich PCO分级系统对术眼PCO情况进行分级.结果 术后1~3d,超声乳化联合IOL植入组术眼结膜充血、角膜水肿和房水混浊的严重程度均明显比超声乳化不植入IOL组严重,而术后2周至3个月2个组兔眼的炎性反应均消失;术后ld至3个月,2个组兔术眼的瞳孔直径变化及PCO分级一致.术后2个月,超声乳化不植入IOL组及超声乳化联合IOL植入组兔眼1~3级PCO者分别为8只眼和9只眼,0级PCO者分别为2只眼和1只眼,组间差异无统计学意义(P=0.39).裂隙灯下检查发现2个组实验眼均于术后1个月开始出现PCO,术后2个月PCO的范围扩大并快速发展,术后3个月形成致密纤维化层.结论 采用超声乳化联合IOL植入术建立PCO模型的效果与不植入IOL者相同,但后者术后早期的前房炎性反应较轻,可作为研究PCO的理想动物模型.%Background Prevention and treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a hot issue.To establish a PCO animal model is the basis of relevant studies.The most common methods of creating a PCO model are phacoemulsification surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.But the suitability of different methods is unclear.Objective This experiment was to compare the outcome between the two methods of establishing a PCO model in rabbit eyes.Methods Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were collected and

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... lenses without a prescription in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a ... no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted ...

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    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal abrasion. ... Studies Look at Effects of Marijuana on Vision FEB ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

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  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  19. Sorbitol production in the lens: a means of counteracting glucose-derived osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, L T; Tung, W; Harding, R

    1986-01-01

    Heretofore, the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol has been associated exclusively with deleterious (cataractogenic) changes in the lens. This study demonstrates a beneficial role for the sorbitol pathway in the rabbit lens, namely that of counteracting extracellular, glucose-derived, osmotic stress with the intracellular production of osmotically active sorbitol. Large and sudden increases in the extracellular glucose concentration lead to dehydration of the lens, a response that can be diminished by intracellular sorbitol and fructose production. These results are discussed in light of the impact (beneficial/detrimental) of aldose reductase inhibitors on the lens. Sugar cataract formation appears to result from continuous, rather than cyclical, activity of a pathway which normally may have a protective function in the lens.

  20. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Neizhang pill on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in lens epithelial cells of rats with oxidative damage%内障丸加减方对氧化损伤大鼠晶状体上皮细胞中Bcl-2及Bax表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹敏; 李志英; 王燕

    2012-01-01

    Chinese medicine on Bel -2 and Bax expression in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of rats with oxidative damage, explore action mechanism of Neizhang pill on prevention or delay of cataract development. Methods Rat serum containing Neizhangwanjiajian -decoction substances were prepared with 5 SD rats were taken orally with Neizhangwanjiajian - decoction to prepare drug - conditioned serum. Lens and its epithelial cells were cultured in M199 for 24 hours and were divided into five groups,control group,model group,Quercetin group,serum containing drug group and serum group. Oxidative Damages model of rat Lens Epithelial Cell was copied by Fenton response. Immunohistochemical staining was explored to detect the expression of Bcl - 2 and Bax in LECs with optical microscope. Results The expression of Bel - 2 and Bax in control group, Quercetin group and serum containing drug group was different from that in model group ( P 0.05). There was obvious difference between control group,Quercetin group,serum group and serum containing drug group on the expression of Bcl - 2 and Bax ( P < 0. 05 ). In hydrogen peroxide - induced apoptosis of rat LECs Bax expression significantly increased and the expression of Bcl -2 down in model group and serum group. But when treated with Quercetin and decoction, Bcl - 2 expression in LECs in-creases significantly,while Bax expression was significantly reduced compared with the model group and blank serum group. The decoction group had a better effect in increase of Bel - 2 expression and reduction of Bax expression when compared with quercetin. The difference was significant statistically. Conclusion Serum active ingredients of Neizhang pill can effectively protect the cell structure of the LECs to increase the expression of Bcl - 2 gene and inhibit apoptosis.

  2. N-cadherin regulates signaling mechanisms required for lens fiber cell elongation and lens morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Caitlin M; Rajakaruna, Suren; Bowen, Caitlin; Radice, Glenn L; Robinson, Michael L; Menko, A Sue

    2017-08-01

    Tissue development and regeneration involve high-ordered morphogenetic processes that are governed by elements of the cytoskeleton in conjunction with cell adhesion molecules. Such processes are particularly important in the lens whose structure dictates its function. Studies of our lens-specific N-cadherin conditional knockout mouse (N-cadcKO) revealed an essential role for N-cadherin in the migration of the apical tips of differentiating lens fiber cells along the apical surfaces of the epithelium, a region termed the Epithelial Fiber Interface (EFI), that is necessary for normal fiber cell elongation and the morphogenesis. Studies of the N-cadcKO lens suggest that N-cadherin function in fiber cell morphogenesis is linked to the activation of Rac1 and myosin II, both signaling pathways central to the regulation of cell motility including determining the directionality of cellular movement. The absence of N-cadherin did not disrupt lateral contacts between fiber cells during development, and the maintenance of Aquaporin-0 and increased expression of EphA2 at cell-cell interfaces suggests that these molecules may function in this role. E-cadherin was maintained in newly differentiating fiber cells without interfering with expression of lens-specific differentiation proteins but was not able to replace N-cadherin function in these cells. The dependence of migration of the fiber cell apical domains along the EFI for lens morphogenesis on N-cadherin provides new insight into the process of tissue development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lens development requires DNMT1 but takes place normally in the absence of both DNMT3A and DNMT3B activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh V; Horowitz, Evan R; Chaffee, Blake R; Qi, Peipei; Flake, Rachel E; Bruney, Devin G; Rasor, Blake J; Rosalez, Savana E; Wagner, Brad D; Robinson, Michael L

    2017-01-02

    Despite the wealth of knowledge of transcription factors involved in lens development, little information exists about the role of DNA methylation in this process. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in lens development and fiber cell differentiation using mice conditionally lacking maintenance or de novo methyltransferases in the lens lineage. We found that while Dnmt1 inactivation at the lens placode stage (via the Le-Cre transgene) led to lens DNA hypomethylation and severe lens epithelial apoptosis, lens fiber cell differentiation remained largely unaffected. The simultaneous deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) elevated the level of phosphorylated AKT and rescued many of the morphological defects and cell death in DNMT1-deficient lenses. With a different Cre driver (MLR10) we demonstrated that a small number of lens epithelial cells escaped Dnmt1-deletion and over-proliferated to compensate for the loss of Dnmt1-deleted cells, suggesting that lens epithelium possess a substantial capacity for self-renewal. Unlike lenses deficient for Dnmt1, inactivation of both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b by either the Le-Cre or MLR10-Cre transgene did not result in any obvious lens phenotype prior to 10 months of age. Taken together, while lens epithelial cell survival requires DNMT1, morphologically normal lenses develop in the absence of both DNMT3A and DNMT3B.

  4. Contact lens-related acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Ozkan, Jerome; Jalbert, Isabelle; Holden, Brien A; Petsoglou, Con; McClellan, Kathy

    2009-10-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but severe disease, with more than 95% of cases occurring in contact lens wearers. With a worldwide resurgence of contact lens-related disease, this report illustrates the clinical characteristics and treatment challenges representative of this disease. This report describes Acanthamoeba keratitis in a 47-year-old female using extended wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses, with a history of swimming in a home pool and failure to subsequently disinfect the contact lenses. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs, disease course, and confocal microscopy results despite a negative result for corneal smear and culture. The corneal signs included an epithelial defect, epithelial irregularities, anterior stromal infiltrates, perineural infiltrates, an anterior stromal ring infiltrate, and hypopyon. The case was diagnosed as an infective keratitis and treated promptly using intensive topical administration of fortified gentamicin and cephalothin. The high likelihood Acanthamoeba prompted immediate use of polyhexamethylbiguanide and chlorhexidine, with propamide and adjunct treatment using atropine and oral diclofenac. Steroids were added on day 3, and the frequency of administration of antibacterial treatment was gradually reduced and ceased by day 10. The analgesia was stopped at 3 months. The frequency of administration of antiamoeba therapy and steroid treatment was slowly reduced and all treatment was ceased after 18 months. Despite considerable morbidity in terms of the treatment duration, hospitalization, outpatient appointments, and associated disease costs, the final visual outcome (6/6) was excellent.

  5. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-3 gene in lens epithelial cell and its significance%基质金属蛋白酶3在晶状体上皮细胞中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶晶; 何湘珍; 向浩天; 周晓敏; 王云; 蔡素萍

    2012-01-01

    Background Posterior capsular opacification(PCO) is common complication after extrecapsular extract of cataract.Matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) can degrade all the extracellular matrix except polyose.The gene therapy of PCO upon MMP-3 is the researching hot topic.Fibronectin ( FN ) is a degrade gelatin,so its expression can reflect the effect of MMP-3 on LECs indirectly. Objective The aim of this study was to construct MMP-3 eukaryotic recombination plasmid and transfect to lens epithelium cells(LECs) for the observation of MMP3 expression,and to explore the feasibility of gene therapy for after cataract. Methods Six fresh lenses were obtained from pigs.LECs were cultured using explant method.The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 was reconstructed with MMP-3 and pEGFP-N1 plasmids.The accuracy of MMP-3 gene fragment was confirmed by double enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing analysis.After transfecting pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 into LECs of pig,the expression of MMP-3 protein in the cells was indirectly observed by green fluorescent protein.The expression of FN in LECs was detected using Western blot. Results The result of double enzyme digestion was consistent with the base number of pEGFP-N1 plasmids and target fragment.By enlacing the result of DNA sequencing analysis with software,the resemblance of the DNA sequence of MMP-3 from recombination plasmid pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 and that of homo MMP-3 was 99.6%,indicating that the target fragment was inserted to pEGFP-N1 plasmids successfully.Green fluorescence for GFP was seen in the LECs in pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 transfected group,but absent response for GFP was in empty vector group.Western blot revealed that the relative expression level of FN in LECs was 0.666±0.008 in pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 trasfected group and 0.326 ±0.071 in empty vector group,with a significant difference between these two groups(P=0.000). Conclusions Eukaryotic recombination plasmid pEGFP-N1-MMP-3 is successfully constructed,and MMP-3 can be expressed in

  6. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, G. L.; Rose, M. Elaine

    1963-01-01

    The finding that the serum of apparently healthy rabbits fixed complement with rabbit liver and kidney has been confirmed. Experimental infection of rabbits with Eimeria stiedae, the cause of hepatic coccidiosis, led to a rise in the titre of serum complement-fixing factors. The rise was statistically significant 14, 21 and 28 days after infection. The factors were regarded as antibodies because they behaved as macroglobulins on diethylaminoethyl—cellulose chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as autoantibodies because they fixed complement with the kidney of the rabbits in which they occurred. The antibody reacted with widely distributed antigen(s) with high activity in brain and low activity in skeletal muscle. The possibility that coccidial infection may be responsible for the natural autoantibody of rabbits is discussed. PMID:13965167

  7. Retroviral expression of connexins in embryonic chick lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J X; Goodenough, D A

    1998-03-01

    To develop an in vivo model system in which exogenous proteins can be expressed in embryonic chick lens and to further understand the function of connexin-mediated gap junction intercellular communication in lens cell biology. RCAS(A) is a replication-competent chicken retrovirus that infects dividing cells. Retroviral constructs were prepared containing alkaline phosphatase (AP) and FLAG-tagged connexins. Chick lenses were infected in situ by injecting virus into the lumen of lens vesicles at stage 18, cultures were taken at various periods. The lenses were then dissected, and the expressed proteins were visualized by AP histochemical examination and immunostaining. Twenty-four hours after infection, alkaline phosphatase could be seen in epithelia and fibers. As lens fiber maturation progressed, however, the alkaline phosphatase staining was lost as the fibers matured, presumably because of the proteolytic removal of the enzyme. By 72 hours, alkaline phosphatase staining could still be observed in epithelial cells and in differentiating fibers in the bow region but not in the mature lens fibers. FLAG-tagged exogenous lens connexins were also abundantly expressed by viral infection. The exogenous connexins were localized at the cell surfaces in junctional maculae and showed the same cell-type specific distribution as that of their endogenous connexin counterparts. An in vivo model system has been developed in the chick that provides opportunities to study the expression of wild-type and mutant proteins during lens differentiation. Expression of wild-type connexins has revealed that the characteristic distribution of the three different lens connexins is maintained even when expression is driven by a viral promoter.

  8. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  9. Rabbit orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Gregory A

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  10. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  11. CTGF对体外人晶状体上皮细胞表达MMP-2、TIMP-2的影响%Effect of CTGF on Expression of MMP-2 ,TIMP-2 of Human Lens Epithelial Cells Incubated in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟英; 徐国兴

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)对体外培养人晶状体上皮细胞(HLECs)基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)及基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂-2(TIMP-2)表达的影响.方法 采用免疫细胞化学染色法及反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)法检测不同浓度CTGF对HLECs诱导MMP-2及TIMP-2的表达.结果 在无CTGF刺激的情况下,HLECs基本不表达MMP-2及TIMP-2;随着CTGF浓度增加,HLECs表达MMP-2增加,并且这种作用随浓度的增加而增强,每两组之间的比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);对TIMP-2的表达无明显影响(P>0.05).结论 CTGF能诱导HLECs表达MMP-2,对HLECs表达TIMP-2无影响;MMP-2/TIMP-2的比例失调,引起ECM的代谢紊乱,可能是后发性白内障的发病机制之一.%Objective To investigate the effect of connective tissue growth factor( CTGF) on the expression of matrix metalloprotein-ases -2(MMP -2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases -2(TIMP -2) of human lens epithelial cells(HLECs) in vitro,thus to evaluate the role of CTGF in the pathogenesis of post - cataract. Methods The expression of MMP - 2 and TIMP - 2 was detected by immunocytochemical stain and RT - PCR when HLECs were incubated for 24h. Results In a dose - dependent manner,CTGF increased MMP -2 mRNA and protein expression in HLECs(P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion CTGF can induce the expression of MMP - 2 in HLECs, but has no effect on TIMP - 2. This leads to in balance between MMP -2 and TIMP -2. This might be an important pathway leading to post - cataract.

  12. An experimental study on the effects of curcumin on posterior capsule opacification in young rabbit eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-ying; ZHANG Zhu-jun; WANG Jun; WANG Hai-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) compromises vision development in infants after cataract surgery and lead to amblyopia.To observe the effects of curcumin on PCO in infant rabbits,curcumin was injected under the capaule and into the anterior chamber during phacoemulsification.Methods Seventy-five 1-month-old healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups,one eye of each rabbit was randomly selected to be operated.The operation involved continuous circular capsulorhexis,followed by hydrodissection with 0.6 ml each of balanced salt solution (BSS,group A),hydroxypropyl-β-dodextrin (HP-β-CD,90μg/ml,group B) or CUR-HP-β-CD (123 μg/ml,group C),respectively.After phacoemulsification,0.4 ml of each drug solution was injected into the anterior chamber via an incision.The extent of corneal edema and the inflammatory response within the anterior chamber were considered as measures PCO and observed postoperatively.All eyes were examined 1 and 2 months postoperative by slit lamp microscopy and photography after pupil dilation.On the third day postoperative,6 rabbits from each group were executed.Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL,indicative of apoptosis).Stained sections were observed under light microscopy.Proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) was observed microscopically on day 3,day 7,month 1 and month 2 after the operation with HE staining.Results The remission of cornea edema occurred earlier in group C than in groups A and B (P <0.05); there were no significant differences between groups A and B.The remission of anterior chamber exudation in group C was earlier than those in groups A and B (P <0.05).No significant difference in the times when PCO occurred,was observed among groups.Compared to groups A and B,the extent of PCO was less severe (P <0.05).Three days after the operation,LECs aggregated

  13. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  14. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 More Eye ... EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also ...

  16. Efficient generation of lens progenitor cells from cataract patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Qiu

    Full Text Available The development of a technique to induce the transformation of somatic cells to a pluripotent state via the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors was a transformational event in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of this technique also impacted ophthalmology, as patient-specific induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs may be useful resources for some ophthalmological diseases. The lens is a key refractive element in the eye that focuses images of the visual world onto the retina. To establish a new model for drug screening to treat lens diseases and investigating lens aging and development, we examined whether human lens epithelial cells (HLECs could be induced into iPSCs and if lens-specific differentiation of these cells could be achieved under defined chemical conditions. We first efficiently reprogrammed HLECs from age-related cataract patients to iPSCs with OCT-4, SOX-2, and KLF-4. The resulting HLEC-derived iPS (HLE-iPS colonies were indistinguishable from human ES cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, pluripotent marker expression and their ability to generate all embryonic germ-cell layers. Next, we performed a 3-step induction procedure: HLE-iPS cells were differentiated into large numbers of lens progenitor-like cells with defined factors (Noggin, BMP and FGF2, and we determined that these cells expressed lens-specific markers (PAX6, SOX2, SIX3, CRYAB, CRYAA, BFSP1, and MIP. In addition, HLE-iPS-derived lens cells exhibited reduced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT markers compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Our study describes a highly efficient procedure for generating lens progenitor cells from cataract patient HLEC-derived iPSCs. These patient-derived pluripotent cells provide a valuable model for studying the developmental and molecular biological mechanisms that underlie cell determination in lens development and cataract

  17. Activated Ras alters lens and corneal development through induction of distinct downstream targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Lixing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian Ras genes regulate diverse cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation and are frequently mutated in human cancers. Tumor development in response to Ras activation varies between different tissues and the molecular basis for these variations are poorly understood. The murine lens and cornea have a common embryonic origin and arise from adjacent regions of the surface ectoderm. Activation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling pathway induces the corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and the lens epithelial cells to exit the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the differential responses of these two related tissues have not been defined. We have generated transgenic mice that express a constitutively active version of human H-Ras in their lenses and corneas. Results Ras transgenic lenses and corneal epithelial cells showed increased proliferation with concomitant increases in cyclin D1 and D2 expression. This initial increase in proliferation is sustained in the cornea but not in the lens epithelial cells. Coincidentally, cdk inhibitors p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were upregulated in the Ras transgenic lenses but not in the corneas. Phospho-Erk1 and Erk2 levels were elevated in the lens but not in the cornea and Spry 1 and Spry 2, negative regulators of Ras-Raf-Erk signaling, were upregulated more in the corneal than in the lens epithelial cells. Both lens and corneal differentiation programs were sensitive to Ras activation. Ras transgenic embryos showed a distinctive alteration in the architecture of the lens pit. Ras activation, though sufficient for upregulation of Prox1, a transcription factor critical for cell cycle exit and initiation of fiber differentiation, is not sufficient for induction of terminal fiber differentiation. Expression of Keratin 12, a marker of corneal epithelial differentiation, was reduced in the Ras transgenic corneas. Conclusions Collectively, these

  18. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  19. Trefoil peptides promote restitution of wounded corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, M N; Cook, J R; Kunert, K S; Fini, M E; Gipson, I K; Podolsky, D K

    2001-04-01

    The ocular surface shares many characteristics with mucosal surfaces. In both, healing is regulated by peptide growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. However, these factors are not sufficient to ensure most rapid healing. Trefoil peptides are abundantly expressed epithelial cell products which exert protective effects and are key regulators of gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, the critical early phase of cell migration after mucosal injury. To assess the role of trefoil peptides in corneal epithelial wound healing, the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) and spasmolytic polypeptide (SP/TFF2) on migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells were analyzed. Both ITF and SP enhanced restitution of primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. While the restitution-enhancing effects of TGF-alpha and TGF-beta were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta-antibodies, trefoil peptide stimulation of restitution was not. Neither trefoil peptide significantly affected proliferation of primary corneal epithelial cells. ITF but not SP or pS2 mRNA was present in rabbit corneal and conjunctival tissues. In summary, the data indicate an unanticipated role of trefoil peptides in healing of ocular surface and demand rating their functional actions beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eRojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes.Over a thirty year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been litlle employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  1. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  2. 鼻渊舒口服液对兔慢性鼻-鼻窦炎模型鼻窦黏膜上皮NF-κB p65蛋白表达的影响%Influence of Biyuanshu on NF-κB p65 Expression of Nasal Sinuses Mucosa Epithelial in Rabbit Chronic Rhinosinusitis Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 朱天民

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察兔慢性鼻-鼻窦炎( chronic rhinosinusitis,CRS)模型鼻窦黏膜上皮核因子-κB(NF-κB) p65蛋白表达的变化及鼻渊舒口服液对其的影响,探索鼻渊舒治疗CRS的可能机制.方法:取新西兰大白兔100只,适应性喂养1周后,随机分为正常组、模型组、假手术组、鼻渊舒组、西药治疗组,每组20只,建立CRS模型;鼻渊舒组、西药治疗组分别给予鼻渊舒口服液ig 4.05 g·kg -1,克拉霉素ig 25 mg· kg -1,共14 d,处死后取鼻窦黏膜组织HE染色光镜观察鼻窦黏膜病理变化,Western blotting法检测鼻窦黏膜上皮细胞胞质及细胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达.结果:模型组鼻窦黏膜呈慢性炎症表现,黏膜炎细胞浸润,上皮细胞、腺体和杯状细胞明显增生;胞质及细胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达较正常组显著增高(P<0.01).经鼻渊舒治疗后鼻窦黏膜上皮修复较好,炎细胞浸润、腺体和杯状细胞增生不明显;胞浆NF-κB p65蛋白表达虽显著低于模型组(P<0.01),但显著高于正常、假手术及西药组(P<0.01);胞核NF-κB p65蛋白表达显著低于模型组(P<0.01),与正常、假手术及西药组比较无显著性差异.结论:NF-κB参与了CRS的发生,鼻渊舒口服液主要通过抑制NF-κB p65向细胞核易位而起治疗作用.%To investigate the influence of Biyuanshu (BYS) nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB ) p65 expression of nasal sinuses mucosa epithelial in rabbit chronic rhinosinusitis ( CRS) model, and explore its possible molecular mechanism. Method: One hundred New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal group, model group, sham operation group, BYS group, western medicine group, with 20 in each group, and CRS model was established. BYS group was given BYS 4.05 g · kg-1 · d-1, western medicine group given clarithromycin 25 mg·kg-1 · d-1 for 14 days. Nasal sinuses mucosa tissue was collected to observe nasal sinuses mucosa pathological changes with light microscopy after

  3. Bottom-up fabrication of zwitterionic polymer brushes on intraocular lens for improved biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuemei; Xu, Xu; Tang, Junmei; Shen, Chenghui; Lin, Quankui; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) is an efficient implantable device commonly used for treating cataracts. However, bioadhesion of bacteria or residual lens epithelial cells on the IOL surface after surgery causes postoperative complications, such as endophthalmitis or posterior capsular opacification, and leads to loss of sight again. In the present study, zwitterionic polymer brushes were fabricated on the IOL surface via bottom-up grafting procedure. The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared and contact angle measurements indicated successful surface modification, as well as excellent hydrophilicity. The coating of hydrophilic zwitterionic polymer effectively decreased the bioadhesion of lens epithelial cells or bacteria. In vivo intraocular implantation results showed good in vivo biocompatibility of zwitterionic IOL and its effectiveness against postoperative complications. PMID:28053528

  4. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Elkins

    Full Text Available Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS, borate buffered saline (BBS, or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes, either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  5. LASER INDUCED THERMAL LENS EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈俊; 黄孟才; 江景云; 施教芳

    1991-01-01

    The thermal lens effect has emerged in recent years as a novel ,highly sensitive tool for the study of the very weak molecular absorption of light energy,This paper discusses the theory and technique of the thermal lens measurement.Some opplications of the thermal lens measurement are described.A mode-mismatched dual-beam thermal lens experimental arragement with a modulated probe beam ,designed by the authors.for trace analysis is presented,and its detection limit was found to be 4.1×10-7 for Cu(Ⅱ) in ethanol and 80 mW excitation power.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dut

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  10. 层粘连蛋白和纤维连接蛋白对人晶状体上皮细胞传代性质和波状蛋白表达的影响%The effects of laminin and fibronectin on human lens epithelial cells growth characters and vimentin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣玲; 张劲松; 于韬

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the morphologic characters and the expression of vimentin on human lens epithelial cells (hLECs)cultured on laminin and fibronectin.METHODS: The primarily and secondarily hLECs were cultured on plates treated with laminin or fibronectin. The feature of hLECS was observed and recorded using an inverse microscope with digital camera and statistical analysis was applied. MTT assay was used to show the growth curve of subcultured cells (the 3rd passage). Immunofluorescent staining was used to demonstrate the morphologic change in vimentin expression in the 3rd passaged hLECs.RESULTS: The hLECs in laminin or fibronectin group grew out significant earlier than the untreated group. The cells could be subcultured fluendly in those two treated groups,while only a few survival cells were found in the untreated group. But the hLECs could undergo apoptosis in laminin group at the terminal phase of their life cycle, while lentoid bodies emerged in fibronectin treated group. There were more viable cells in the fibronectin group from the 4th to the 7th day by MTT reaction. Immunofluorescent staining showed a clear morphological difference between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Laminin provide a suitable growth microenvironment for the hLECs while fibronectin promotes the cells proliferation and differentiation.%目的:观察层粘连蛋白和纤维连接蛋白对原代和传代培养的人晶状体上皮细胞(hLECs)形态学和波状蛋白表达的影响,探讨更适合的hLECs体外培养条件.方法:以层粘连蛋白(Ln)和纤维连接蛋白(Fn)处理培养皿表面,以倒置显微镜观察原代和传代培养的hLECs生长的时间和形态,MTT法记录传代后第3代细胞的生长曲线,免疫荧光法显示第3代细胞的波形蛋白表达形态的变化.结果:在层粘连蛋白和纤维连接蛋白处理组,原代hLECs长出的时间明显早于对照组;两处理组的原代细胞可以正常传代,对照组细胞传代后不能存活.传代晚期层

  11. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  12. 整合素β1介导的ERK/MAPK通道在人晶状体上皮细胞转分化中的作用%Effect of integrin β1-mediated ERK/MAPK signal pathway in transdifferentiation of human lens epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳; 朱玉广; 张立华; 钟莹莹; 杜孝楠; 张荣; 王杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究转化生长因子-β2(transforming growth factor β2,TGF-β2)对培养的人晶状体上皮细胞(human lens epithelial cells,HLEC)整合素β1、磷酸化ERK(pERK)及F=actin表达的影响,探讨整合素β1介导的ERK/MAPK通路在HLEC转分化中的作用.方法 体外培养的HLEC,加入不同浓度(0 ng· L-1和10 ng·L-1、33 ng·L-1、100 ng·L-1、333 ng· L-、1000 ng· L-1)的TGF-β2处理不同时间(12h、24h、48 h、72h),采用MTT法测定TGF-β2对HLEC增殖的影响,并确定最佳干涉浓度和时间用于后续实验.实验分2组,实验组用含最佳干涉浓度TGF-β2的培养基培养HLEC,对照组使用无血清培养基培养,于最佳干涉时间对2组细胞行免疫细胞化学染色检测HLEC中整合素β1、pERK及F-actin的表达,RT-PCR检测整合素β1、pERK及F-actin mRNA的表达.结果TGF-β2抑制HLEC的增殖,呈浓度和时间依赖性,TGF-β2的最佳干涉终浓度为100 ng·L-1,作用48 h后达到最大抑制效果.TGF-β2增加HLEC整合素β1、pERK及F-actin的表达,相对表达量分别为0.116±0.031、0.123±0.028、0.140±0.033,均较对照组(0.045±0.011、0.025±0.009、0.079±0.024)明显升高(均为P<0.01).RT-PCR结果显示,TGF-β2明显促进整合素β1 mRNA、pERK mRNA及F-actin mRNA的表达,相对表达量分别为0.658±0.146、0.582±0.171、0.760±0.193,较对照组(0.246±0.051、0.338±0.092、0.138±0.027)明显升高(均为P<0.01).结论 TGF-β2抑制了HLEC的增殖,促进整合素β1、pERK及F-actin的表达,整合素β1介导的ERK/MAPK信号通路可能参与了HLEC转分化过程,导致后囊膜混浊.%Objective To study the effect of transforming growth factor-jJ2 (TGF-p2) on expression of integrin pi .phosphorylated ERK( pERK) and F-actin in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) ,and investigate the effect of ERK/MAPK signal pathways mediated by integrin pi in the transdifferentiation of cultured HLEC. Methods HLEC were cultured in vitro and treated with different

  13. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) somatic nucleus can dedifferentiate in rabbit ooplasm and support early development of the reconstructed egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大元; 孙青原; 刘冀珑; 李光鹏; 廉莉; 王敏康; 韩之明; 宋祥芬; 李劲松; 孙强; 陈玉村; 张亚平; 丁波

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda skeletal muscle cells, uterus epithelial cells and mammary gland cells from an adult individual were cultured and used as nucleus donor for the construction of interspecies embryos by transferring them into enucleated rabbit eggs. All the three kinds of somatic cells were able to reprogram in rabbit ooplasm and support early embryo development, of which mammary gland cells were proven to be the best, followed by uterus epithelial cells and skeletal muscle cells. The experiments showed that direct injection of mammary gland cell into enucleated rabbit ooplasm, combined with in vivo development in ligated rabbit oviduct, achieved higher blastoeyst development than in vitro culture after the somatic cell was injected into the perivitelline space and fused with the enucleated egg by electrical stimulation. The chromosome analysis demonstrated that the genetic materials in reconstructed blastocyst cells were the same as that in panda somatic cells. In addition, giant panda mitochondrial DNA (

  14. 衰老标记蛋白30在不同年龄白内障患者晶状体上皮细胞中的表达变化%Comparison of expression levels of senescence marker protein 30 in lens epithelial cells among different ages of cataract patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟霞; 谭少健; 李霞; 邹文进; 蒋林志; 梁皓

    2014-01-01

    Background Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) is a new calcium regulatory protein,which plays anti-oxidation,stable calcium and anti-apoptosis roles in vivo.Researches determined that the expression of SMP30 in human cells gradually decreased as ageing.However,the study on the relationship between SMP30 and age-related cataract is rarely.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SMP30 in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of different ages of cataract patients.Methods This study was approved by Ethic Commission of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.A non-randomized controlled trail was designed.The samples of the anterior capsular membrane of lens were collected during the cataract surgery from the children group (1-18 years),youth group (19-45 years),mid adult group (46-60 years) and elder group (>60 years) and 12 pieces of capsular membrane for each group.In addition,12 pieces of lens capsular membrane from normal donors aged 19-45 years were obtained as normal control group.The expression of SMP30 in the samples was detected by indirect immunofluorescence method.The average fluorescent values were calculated as absorbance (A) / area.Results SMP30 was expressed in LECs of different groups with the green fluorescence primarily in the cytoplasm.The mean fluorescence intensity was 0.185±0.020,0.181±0.034,0.207±0.018 and 0.126±0.027 in the children group,youth group,mid adult group and elder group,respectively,which were significantly enhanced than 0.087±0.007 of the normal control group(q=3.96,3.82,4.01,3.55,all at P<0.01).No significant differences in the expression of SMP30 among the children group,youth group and mid adult group (all at P>0.05).However,the expression of SMP30 in LECs in the elder group was significantly lower than that in the children group,youth group and mid adult group (q =3.42,3.21,3.80,all at P< 0.05).Conclusions Expression of SMP30 in LECs dramatically increases in cataract

  15. Physics of electrostatic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this program was to study the physics of the ion-energy boosting electrostatic lens for collective ion acceleration in the Luce diode. Extensive work was done in preparation for experiments on the PI Pulserad 1150. Analytic work was done on the orbit of protons in a mass spectrometer and a copper stack for nuclear activation analysis of proton energy spectrum has been designed. Unfortunately, a parallel program which would provide the Luce diode for the collective ion acceleration experiment never materialized. As a result no experiments were actually performed on the Pulserad 1150.

  16. WEIGHTS or RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heart and spleen from_male and femalerabbits were made, in rabbits fed graded levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of oil palm indiets. ..... aeetyl CoA derived mainly from carbohydrate wasdepressed ... an integral part in the synthesis and metabolism of.

  17. A Clever Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼振璞; 付晓明

    2002-01-01

    1. Once there lived an elephant and a lion in the mountains, who both wanted to be the king of the beasts. One day the lion caught a rabbit. Before he ate it, he said, “Do you know I am the king here? ”

  18. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  19. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  20. Construction of an in vitro primary lung co-culture platform derived from New Zealand white rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hess, Becky M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Straub, Tim M.

    2015-05-01

    We report the construction of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) co-culture platform consisting of differentiated lung epithelial cells and monocytes from New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit lung epithelial cells were successfully grown at air-liquid interface, produced mucus, and expressed both sialic acid alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6. Blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were deposited above the epithelial layer resulting in the differentiation of a subset of monocytes into CD11c+ cells within the co-culture. These proof-of-concept findings provide a convenient means to comparatively study in vitro versus in vivo rabbit lung responses as they relate to inhalation or lung-challenge studies.

  1. Concentration change of TGF -β 1 in aqueous humor of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Wei; Lu, Xiao-He

    2014-03-01

    To observe the influence of the the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) eye drops on rabbit aqueous humor TGF-β1 concentration, and to analyze the best drug concentration. A total of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 in each. Rabits in control group had PBS eye drops, group A, B, C, D adopted TGF-β1 eye drops at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/L, respectively, 4 times a day. Aqueous humor of right eye was extracted 1 week after administration to detect concentration changes of TGF-β1 by ELISA; rabbits in fpur hroups adopted 2.0 mg/L eye drops to left eyes 4 times a day, 0.2 mL aqueous humor was extracted left eye at the scheduled time point 0, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 24 h for testing, the slit lamp was used to observe the cornea, chamber and lens. No obvious pathological changes in conjunctiva, cornea, rabbit conjunctival, anterior chamber, and the lens was found. Concentration of TGF-β1 in rabbit aqueous humor in C, D group was significantly higher than the control group (Phumor, withe good ocular surfac permeability. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  3. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  4. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  5. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF PARALLAX ISSUES FOR MULTI-LENS MULTISPECTRAL CAMERA BAND CO-REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multi-lens multispectral cameras (MSCs, such as Micasense Rededge and Parrot Sequoia, can record multispectral information by each separated lenses. With their lightweight and small size, which making they are more suitable for mounting on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS to collect high spatial images for vegetation investigation. However, due to the multi-sensor geometry of multi-lens structure induces significant band misregistration effects in original image, performing band co-registration is necessary in order to obtain accurate spectral information. A robust and adaptive band-to-band image transform (RABBIT is proposed to perform band co-registration of multi-lens MSCs. First is to obtain the camera rig information from camera system calibration, and utilizes the calibrated results for performing image transformation and lens distortion correction. Since the calibration uncertainty leads to different amount of systematic errors, the last step is to optimize the results in order to acquire a better co-registration accuracy. Due to the potential issues of parallax that will cause significant band misregistration effects when images are closer to the targets, four datasets thus acquired from Rededge and Sequoia were applied to evaluate the performance of RABBIT, including aerial and close-range imagery. From the results of aerial images, it shows that RABBIT can achieve sub-pixel accuracy level that is suitable for the band co-registration purpose of any multi-lens MSC. In addition, the results of close-range images also has same performance, if we focus on the band co-registration on specific target for 3D modelling, or when the target has equal distance to the camera.

  7. Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, David M; Cavet, Megan E; Richardson, Mary E

    2010-12-01

    Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using two cytotoxicity assays, and also assessed the impact of boric acid on corneal epithelial barrier function by measuring TEER and immunostaining for tight junction protein ZO-1 in human corneal epithelial cells. Boric acid was also assessed in an in vivo ocular model when administered for 28 days. Additionally, we evaluated Biotrue multi-purpose solution, a novel borate-buffered MPS, alone and with contact lenses for ocular compatibility in vitro and in vivo. Boric acid passed both cytotoxicity assays and did not alter ZO-1 distribution or corneal TEER. Furthermore, boric acid was well-tolerated on-eye following repeated administration in a rabbit model. Finally, Biotrue multi-purpose solution demonstrated good ocular biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. This MPS was not cytotoxic and was compatible with the eye when administered alone and when evaluated with contact lenses. We demonstrate that boric acid and a borate-buffered MPS is compatible with the ocular environment. Our findings provide evidence that ocular effects reported for some borate-buffered MPS may be incorrectly attributed to boric acid and are more likely a function of the unique combination of ingredients in the MPS formulation tested. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Piroxicam与NS-398对角膜新生血管抑制作用及对兔角膜上皮毒性作用的比较%NS-398 inhibits corneal neovascularization with lower cytotoxicity on corneal epithelial cell than Piroxicam in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少华; 张黎; 肖青; 胡燕华

    2004-01-01

    目的:比较Piroxicam(环氧化酶-1选择抑制剂)和NS-398(环氧化酶-2选择性抑制剂)对角膜新生血管的抑制作用并比较两者对角膜上皮细胞的毒性作用.方法:将含20u g脂多糖的缓释小丸植入兔角膜基质以诱导角膜新生血管.使用不同浓度的Piroxicam和NS-398滴眼剂滴眼,植入10d后分析角膜新生血管的面积.采用MTT法分析Piroxicam和NS-398对角膜上皮细胞的毒性作用.结果:0.01 u mol/L NS-398和口0.01 u mol/L Piroxicam组兔角膜新生血管生长浓密,其它组因抑制剂的不同及浓度的不同角膜新生血管面积有不同程度的减低.在0.5,5及50μmol/L时,NS-398较Piroxicam对角膜上皮细胞的毒性低.结论:环氧化酶-1特异性抑制剂和环氧化酶-2特异性抑制剂对角膜新生血管形成均有抑制作用.相同浓度时,NS-398的抑制效果强于Piroxicam.在高浓度时NS-398较Piroxicam对角膜上皮细胞的毒性低.%AIM: To compare the inhibitive effect of Piroxicam (cyclooxygenase-1 selective inhibitor, COX-1 inhibitor) and NS-398 (cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, COX-2 inhibitor) on corneal neovascularization and their cytotoxity on corneal epithelial cells in vitro.METHODS: Slow-release pellets containing lipopolysac charide 20 μ g were prepared and implanted into the rabbit' s corneal stroma near the limbus to induce neovascularization. Eye drops containing NS-398 or Piroxicam at various concentrations were applied. Ten days after the implantation of pellet, the neovascularization was examined and cytotoxicity of the two materials on comeal epithelium cells was analyzed by MTT assay.RESULTS: In the 0.01 μ mol/L Piroxicam group, therewas dense neovascularization. In the other groups, neovascularization decreased to different degrees, depending on the drug and concentration applied. The cytotoxicity of NS-398 was lower than that of Piroxicam at 0.5, 5 and 50 μ mol/L and the difference had statistical significance.CONCLUSION: Both

  9. Reconstruction of rabbit urethra using urethral extracellular matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨嗣星; 姚颐; 胡云飞; 宋超; 王玲珑; 金化民

    2004-01-01

    Background Urethral reconstruction for both congenital and acquired etiologies remains a challenge for most urologic surgeons. Tissue engineering has been proposed as a strategy for urethral reconstruction. The purpose of This study was to determine whether a naturally derived extracellular matrix substitute developed for urethral reconstruction would be suitable for urethral repair in an animal model.Methods A urethral segmental defect was created in 20 male rabbits. The urethral extracellular matrix, obtained and processed from rabbit urethral tissue, was trimmed and transplanted to repair the urethral defect. Then, the regenerated segment was studied histologically by haematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson staining at 10 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 24 weeks postoperation. Retrograde urethrography was used to evaluate the function of the regenerated urethras of 4 rabbits 10 and 24 weeks after the operation. The urodynamics of 4 rabbits from the experimental group and control group Ⅰ were assessed and compared. In addition, 4 experimental group rabbits were examined by a urethroscope 24 weeks after the operation.Results At 10 days after operation, epithelial cells had migrated from each side, and small vessels were observed in the extracellular matrix. The matrix and adjacent areas of the host tissue were infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The epithelium covered the extracellular matrix fully at 3 weeks postoperation. Well-formed smooth-muscle cells were first confirmed after 6 weeks, at which point the inflammatory cells had disappeared. At 24 weeks postoperation, the regenerated tissue was equivalent to the normal urethra. Urethrography and urodynamic evaluations showed that there was no difference between normal tissue and regenerated tissue.Conclusions Urethral extracellular matrix appears to be a useful material for urethral repair in rabbits. The matrix can be processed easily and has good characteristics for tissue handling and urethral function.

  10. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  11. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  12. Anti-coccidial effect of Commiphora molmol in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Hanadi B; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora monlmol Engler (Family: Burceraceae) known as Myrrh and the commercial extract known as Mirazid as a treatment against hepatic coccidiosis induced by the parasite Eimeria stiedae in domestic rabbits. Rabbits were infected with 1000 parasite sporulated oocysts and subjected to two treatment regimens, using crude myrrh suspension and the oleo-resin extract, mirazid, each administered at 500 mg/kg rabbit body weight. Treatments of infected rabbits resulted in significant reduction of the mean oocyst numbers in rabbit faeces by 52.38% in the crude-treated rabbits and by 90.90% mirazid-treated rabbits, compared to the untreated infected rabbits at day 21 post-infection (pi). At day 28 pi no oocysts parasite were observed in the faeces of rabbits. Both treatments resulted in significant recovery of infected rabbits from all symptoms of infection compared to the untreated infected group and healthy control groups. Histopathological examination of liver showed remarkable improvement in all histopathological parameters in G5 and G8 compared with the infected untreated G2. These included an almost complete healing of the hemorrhagic tissue and partial healing of the endothelial lining and hepatocytes encircling the central vein, the hepatocytes laminate regained their original radial shape and disappearance of fat vacuoles from the tissue and remarkable reduction in lymphocytes infiltration, decreased hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with significant decreasing of the parasite stage numbers. Results also indicate that mirazid was more effective than crude myrrh, probably due to higher content of purified active ingredients.

  13. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  14. The researchers developed luminous rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy(蓬松的) white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii. The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently,

  15. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  16. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  17. Connexin hemichannels in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The normal function and survival of cells in the avascular lens is facilitated by intercellular communication through an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly by three connexins (Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50. In expression systems, these connexins can all induce hemi-channel currents, but other lens proteins (e.g., pannexin1 can also induce similar currents. Hemichannel currents have been detected in isolated lens fiber cells. These hemichannels may make significant contributions to normal lens physiology and pathophysiology. Studies of some connexin mutants linked to congenital cataracts have implicated hemichannels with aberrant voltage-dependent gating or modulation by divalent cations in disease pathogenesis. Hemichannels may also contribute to age- and disease-related cataracts.

  18. Gravitational lens surveys with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2008-01-01

    Deep surveys planned as a Key Science Project of LOFAR provide completely new opportunities for gravitational lens searches. For the first time do large-scale surveys reach the resolution required for a direct selection of lens candidates using morphological criteria. We briefly describe the strategies that we will use to exploit this potential. The long baselines of an international E-LOFAR are essential for this project.

  19. Ascorbate in the ocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Vino C. Jr

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, we intended to establish a method for sample preparation for measurement of ascorbate in whole rat and guinea pig lenses utilizing ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet radiation detection. Then, we aimed to investigate whether, in the albino rat, lens ascorbate concentration depends on solid dietary intake. Finally, we investigated if, in the pigmented guinea pig, lens ascorbate concentration may be elevated with drinkin...

  20. Phakic Intraocular lens- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Francisco Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraocular refractive procedures with the implantation of a Phakic Intraocular lens have become a safe efficient and predictable alternative for treating high ametropias when the use of corneal photoablative procedures is not possible. The implantation of Phakic intraocular lens preservs the accomodative function,is a reversable refractive procedure, with minimal induction of higher order aberrations compaed with corneal photoablative procedures. Methods: An analytical review o...

  1. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  2. Neuropeptide release from airways of young and fully-grown rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Gary L; Fratelli, Cori; Loader, Joan; Kang, June-Ku Brian; Dakhama, Azzeddine

    2006-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin that regulates neuronal development, enhances production of neuropeptides that control airway caliber including substance P (SP). Little is known about the developmental interplay between neurotrophins and neuropeptides. Our goal was to assess release of NGF, SP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from tracheal segments of young (2-week-old) and fully-grown (13-week-old) rabbits, and ascertain location of neuropeptides in airways with mechanical denudation of epithelium and immunohistochemistry. After electrical field stimulation of nerves, bath solutions were collected and immunoassays performed to quantify NGF, SP, and VIP release. There were significant decreases in NGF, SP, and VIP release from airways in 13- versus 2-week-old rabbits. There were also significant decreases in SP and VIP release from denuded versus normal tissues at 2 weeks of age. A similar pattern for SP was seen in 13-week-old rabbits. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased neuropeptides in airways from younger rabbits. Although SP was seen in the epithelium and submucosal nerves in the younger group, it was localized to the latter location in fully-grown rabbits. VIP was seen in only submucosal nerves at both ages. Thus, release of NGF, SP, and VIP with neural stimulation decreases in rabbit tracheal segments with age. Decreases in SP with maturation and epithelial denudation appear related in part to decreases in epithelial SP with growth. However, decreases in VIP that occur normally and with epithelial denudation are not explained by location of VIP within the epithelium. The epithelium may be a source of factors that inhibit release of neuropeptides.

  3. The Year of the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Every year of the Chinese lunar calendar corresponds with an animal. The rat,ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig make up the Chinese zodiac, which repeats in a12-year cycle. This year’s Chinese NewYear rings in the Year of the Rabbit.

  4. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  5. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  6. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  7. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  8. The 2010 IODC lens design problem: the green lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Richard C.

    2010-08-01

    The lens design problem for the 2010 IODC is to design a 100 mm focal length lens in which every optical surface has the same radius of curvature, positive or negative, or is plano. The lens is used monochromatically at 532 nm and is made of only Schott N-BK7 glass. The goal of the problem is to maximize the product of the semi-field of view and the entrance pupil diameter while holding the distortion to within +/-5% and the RMS wavefront error to <= 0.07 wave within the field of view. There were 37 entries from eight different countries. Four different commercial lens design programs were used, along with two custom, in-house programs. The number of lens elements in the entries ranged from 3 to 64. The overall length of the lenses varied from 105 mm to 3.6 km. The winning entry had an entrance pupil diameter of 81.3 mm and a semi-field of view of 43.5° for a merit function product of 3537.

  9. Plasma polymer-coated contact lenses for the culture and transfer of corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David; Daniell, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD.

  10. Oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate induces a caecum-localized colitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Irina; Nicholls, Flora; Atrott, Kirstin; Cee, Alexandra; Tewes, Bernhard; Greinwald, Roland; Rogler, Gerhard; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have shown promising results in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms which underlies this therapeutic effect cannot be studied in mice and rats as T. suis fails to colonize the rodent intestine, whilst hatching in humans and rabbits. As a suitable rabbit IBD model is currently not available, we developed a rabbit colitis model by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). White Himalayan rabbits (n = 12) received 0.1% DSS in the daily water supply for five days. Clinical symptoms were monitored daily, and rabbits were sacrificed at different time points. A genomewide expression analysis was performed with RNA isolated from caecal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The disease activity index of DSS rabbits increased up to 2.1 ± 0.4 (n = 6) at day 10 (controls colitis. Localization of the inflammation in the caecum and its similarities to IBD make this model particularly suitable to study TSO therapy in vivo.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  12. Ring keratitis due to topical anaesthetic abuse in a contact lens wearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Sengor, Tomris; Aki, Suat; Agirman, Yasemin

    2012-07-01

    A 38-year-old woman wearing hydrogel coloured contact lenses presented to the clinic with a painful red eye and epiphora. On biomicroscopy, a large corneal epithelial defect and ring infiltrate were observed. She had been using topical anaesthetic drops for 10 days. After cessation of the anaesthetic drops, the corneal lesions resolved completely in two weeks. On evaluation of a contact lens user with atypical keratitis, misuse of topical anaesthetics should also be considered.

  13. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-06-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users.

  14. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  15. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  16. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  17. Algebraic Lens Distortion Model Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alvarez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A very important property of the usual pinhole model for camera projection is that 3D lines in the scene are projected to 2D lines. Unfortunately, wide-angle lenses (specially low-cost lenses may introduce a strong barrel distortion, which makes the usual pinhole model fail. Lens distortion models try to correct such distortion. We propose an algebraic approach to the estimation of the lens distortion parameters based on the rectification of lines in the image. Using the proposed method, the lens distortion parameters are obtained by minimizing a 4 total-degree polynomial in several variables. We perform numerical experiments using calibration patterns and real scenes to show the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Surface PEGylation of intraocular lens for PCO prevention: An in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Tang, Jun-Mei; Han, Yue-Mei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Quan-Kui

    2016-07-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common complication in cataract surgery. The development of PCO is attributed to the combination of adhesion, migration, proliferation, and transdifferentiation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LEC) onto the interface of intraocular lens (IOL) material and lens posterior, in which the initial adhesion is the beginning step and plays important roles. In the present study, hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) was immobilized onto IOL surface via plasma-aided chemical grafting procedure. The attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle (CA) - measurements indicate the successful surface PEGylation, as well as the excellent hydrophilicity of the surfaces. Compared with pristine IOL, the PEGylation does not influent its optical property, whereas the initial adhesion of LEC is greatly inhibited. In vivo ocular implantation results show that the PEGylated IOL presents good in vivo biocompatibility, and can effectively prevent the PCO development.

  19. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  20. Simvastatin Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC may contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells (a human AEC cell line resulted in the adoption of mesenchymal responses that were predominantly mediated via the TGF-β1-Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Simvastatin (Sim, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been previously reported to inhibit EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and porcine lens epithelial cells and to suppress Smad2/3 phosphorylation in animal models. However, whether Sim can attenuate TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and its underlying mechanisms remains unknown. Methods: Cells were incubated with TGF-β1 in the presence or absence of Sim. The epithelial marker E-cadherin (E-Cad and the mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, vimentin (Vi and fibronectin (FN, were detected using western blotting analyses and immunofluorescence. Phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 levels and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were analyzed using western blotting. In addition, a cell migration assay was performed. Moreover, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 in the culture medium were examined using ELISA. Results: Sim significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-Cad levels and elevated the levels of α-SMA, Vi and FN via the suppression of Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Sim inhibited the mesenchymal-like responses in A549 cells, including cell migration, CTGF expression and secretion of MMP-2 and -9. However, Sim failed to reverse the cell morphologial changes induced by TGF-β1 in A549 cells. Conclusion: Sim attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating IPF.

  1. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  2. Panoramic lens designed with transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Deng, Yangyang; Zheng, Bin; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The panoramic lens is a special kind of lens, which is applied to observe full view. In this letter, we theoretically present a panoramic lens (PL) using transformation optics method. The lens is designed with inhomogeneous and anisotropic constitutive parameters, which has the ability to gather light from all directions and confine light within the visual angle of observer. Simulation results validate our theoretical design.

  3. SimpLens: Interactive gravitational lensing simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Prasenjit; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2016-06-01

    SimpLens illustrates some of the theoretical ideas important in gravitational lensing in an interactive way. After setting parameters for elliptical mass distribution and external mass, SimpLens displays the mass profile and source position, the lens potential and image locations, and indicate the image magnifications and contours of virtual light-travel time. A lens profile can be made shallower or steeper with little change in the image positions and with only total magnification affected.

  4. Anterior Segment Alterations and Comparative Aqueous Humor Proteomics in the Buphthalmic Rabbit (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Deepak P.; Bouhenni, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. Methods Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. Results The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet’s membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. Conclusions Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals. PMID:22253484

  5. In vivo human crystalline lens topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Gambra, Enrique; de Castro, Alberto; Marcos, Susana

    2012-10-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye with known surfaces geometry and on a human lens in vitro, and demonstrated on three human lenses in vivo. Not correcting for distortion overestimated the anterior lens radius by 25% and the posterior lens radius by more than 65%. In vivo lens surfaces were fitted by biconicoids and Zernike polynomials after distortion correction. The anterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 10.27 to 14.14 mm, and the posterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 6.12 to 7.54 mm. Surface asphericities ranged from -0.04 to -1.96. The lens surfaces were well fitted by quadrics (with variation smaller than 2%, for 5-mm pupils), with low amounts of high order terms. Surface lens astigmatism was significant, with the anterior lens typically showing horizontal astigmatism ([Formula: see text] ranging from -11 to -1 µm) and the posterior lens showing vertical astigmatism ([Formula: see text] ranging from 6 to 10 µm).

  6. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials...

  7. The effect of subconjunctival platelet-rich plasma on corneal epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanidir, Suzan Tayfun; Yuksel, Nursen; Altintas, Ozgul; Yildiz, Demir Kursat; Sener, Ender; Caglar, Yusuf

    2010-06-01

    Single-dose subconjunctival platelet-rich plasma (sPRP) injections with or without antibiotic treatment were investigated for their effect on corneal epithelial wound healing in a rabbit model. A total of 24 rabbits were used in this study. After collecting intracardiac blood samples from 16 rabbits, platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation. Animals were divided into 3 groups. A mechanical corneal epithelial defect of 7-mm diameter was created on the central cornea of the right eye of each animal. Group 1 (n = 8) received only sPRP, whereas group 2 (n = 8) received sPRP with topical antibiotic throughout the study. The third group (n = 8) served as the control group. Each animal was examined daily under biomicroscope for 10 days. Epithelial defect was measured in horizontal and vertical diameter with a 1/100 sensitive micrometer, and area of the defect was calculated. One animal was sacrificed in each group on the third and seventh day, and all remaining animals were sacrificed on the 10th day. Corneal histopathology was investigated for epithelial regeneration, presence of inflammation, and structural integrity of fibroblasts. All data were statistically analyzed for difference between the study groups. Group 1 had a significantly smaller size in horizontal and vertical defect diameters on each day as compared with the control group. Healing of the epithelial defect in group 1 was found to be significantly different than that in the control group (P fibroblast migration, quicker epithelial regeneration, and less inflammation in group 1 as compared with the other 2 groups. sPRP seems to improve corneal epithelial wound healing. However, antibiotic and sPRP combination may have a retarded healing effect as compared with platelet-rich plasma alone.

  8. Dbl oncogene expression in MCF-10 A epithelial cells disrupts mammary acinar architecture, induces EMT and angiogenic factor secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Cristina; Ognibene, Marzia; Finetti, Federica; Mancini, Patrizia; Cabodi, Sara; Segalerba, Daniela; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Donnini, Sandra; Bosco, Maria Carla; Varesio, Luigi; Eva, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The proteins of the Dbl family are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of Rho GTPases and are known to be involved in cell growth regulation. Alterations of the normal function of these proteins lead to pathological processes such as developmental disorders, neoplastic transformation, and tumor metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that expression of Dbl oncogene in lens epithelial cells modulates genes encoding proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and ind...

  9. Professoren og Ålen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Biolog og havforsker Johannes Schmidt regnes for at være Danmarks mest betydningsfulde havforsker gennem tiderne. Hans mange forskningsbaserede jordomsejlinger bragte ham til eksotiske egne og til opdagelsen af adskillige nye dyrearter. Dog blev særligt ålen og dens gydepladser et hovedfokus...

  10. Professoren og Ålen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Biolog og havforsker Johannes Schmidt regnes for at være Danmarks mest betydningsfulde havforsker gennem tiderne. Hans mange forskningsbaserede jordomsejlinger bragte ham til eksotiske egne og til opdagelsen af adskillige nye dyrearter. Dog blev særligt ålen og dens gydepladser et hovedfokus for ...

  11. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  12. Estimation of the hybrid lens parameters through rigid gas permeable lens fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Hasani, Mohammadali; Hashemi, Hassan; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Dadbin, Nooshin; khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the fitting parameters of the hybrid contact lens in patients with corneal ectasia using the rigid gas permeable (RGP) lens. Methods Thirty-four eyes with corneal ectasia were evaluated in this study. The patients were examined once with the RGP lens and once with the hybrid contact lens. The relationship between the base curvature of the RGP and the vault of the hybrid lens and the correlation between their powers were analyzed. Results We found a linear relationship betw...

  13. Multifocal contact lens myopia control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J; Greiner, Katie L; McVey, M Elizabeth; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies on soft multifocal contact lens myopia control published in the peer-reviewed literature reported findings of noncommercial contact lenses worn for 1 year or less. This study sought to determine the progression of myopia and axial elongation of children fitted with commercially available distance center soft multifocal contact lenses for 2 years. Eight- to eleven-year-old children with -1.00 D to -6.00 D spherical component and less than 1.00 D astigmatism were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses with a +2.00 D add (Proclear Multifocal "D"; CooperVision, Fairport, NY). They were age- and gender-matched to participants from a previous study who were fitted with single-vision contact lenses (1 Day Acuvue; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). A-scan ultrasound and cycloplegic autorefraction were performed at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years. Multilevel modeling was used to compare the rate of change of myopia and axial length between single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers. Forty participants were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses, and 13 did not contribute complete data (5 contributed 1 year of data). The adjusted mean ± standard error spherical equivalent progression of myopia at 2 years was -1.03 ± 0.06 D for the single-vision contact lens wearers and -0.51 ± 0.06 for the soft multifocal contact lens wearers (p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean axial elongation was 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.03 for the single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers, respectively (p < 0.0016). Soft multifocal contact lens wear resulted in a 50% reduction in the progression of myopia and a 29% reduction in axial elongation during the 2-year treatment period compared to a historical control group. Results from this and other investigations indicate a need for a long-term randomized clinical trial to investigate the potential for soft multifocal contact lens myopia control.

  14. Indirect evaluation of corneal apoptosis in contact lens wearers by estimation of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Contact lens induced trauma to the corneal epithelium results in increased release of inflammatory mediators. The keratocyte apoptosis is directly related to epithelial injury and has been correlated with increased production of nitric oxide. Potent antioxidant enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage by inactivating reactive oxygen species and thus inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims at determination of total nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears which will be an indirect criteria for assessing apoptosis. Materials and Methods : Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were estimated in tears of 25 soft contact lens wearers and compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. Results : Statistically significant increase of nitric oxide (P< 0.001, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.001 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.001 levels was seen in tears of contact lens wearers as compared to controls. There was also statistically significant increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (P< 0.05 and glutathione peroxidase (P< 0.01, with increase in the total duration of contact lens wear in years. Conclusions : Increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears of contact lens wearers suggested that contact lens wear suppresses the process of apoptosis. However, it was also postulated that the increased levels of nitric oxide balances the anti-apoptotic activities of increased levels of antioxidant enzymes by its pro-apoptotic activity leading to protective outcomes in contact lens wearers.

  15. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Rita A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors. Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  16. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  17. The effects of oral and topical corticosteroid in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Katsuta, Osamu; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Takashi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-09-05

    To determine the most effective route of administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular surface disease, by characterizing the difference between oral prednisolone and topical dexamethasone administration using an animal model. Pharmacokinetic analyses determined the corticosteroid concentrations in the normal ocular tissues of rabbits after oral or topical administration of corticosteroids using LC-MS/MS. In wound healing analyses, the area of the epithelial defect created by keratectomy using a 6-mm trephine was calculated with an image analyzer using an orally or topically steroid-administrated animal model. The average size of basal epithelial cells, the frequency of mitotic basal epithelial cells, the number of squamous cells, and the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts were determined in the enucleated corneal tissues after wound closure. By slit lamp examination, no remarkable differences were observed between orally and topically administered groups. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the distribution of dexamethasone after topical administration was superior to that after oral administration in the cornea. In contrast, both concentrations of corticosteroid applied topically and orally were similar with regards to AUCs (area under the concentration-time curve) in the conjunctiva. Although the healing rate was slower in the topical group, all corneas were almost healed within 96 h in the wound healing analysis. According to the histological analyses of epithelial cells, the average basal cell size was larger, the frequency of mitotic basal cells was greater, and the number of squamous epithelial cell layers was lower in the topically administered group although all of these differences were with no statistical significance. However, the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts in the topically administered group was significantly lower than that in the orally administered group. There are different distributions and effects between

  18. Assessment of corneal epithelial integrity after acute exposure to ocular hypotensive agents preserved with and without benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Jess T; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Lakshman, Neema; Petroll, W Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The corneal toxicity of 2 intraocular pressure-lowering agents was compared in a rabbit cornea model with New Zealand White rabbits. Corneal epithelial morphology and cell size were assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy. Baseline microscopic examinations were performed on 1 eye of each animal. Two weeks later, the eyes were bathed for 3 min in travoprost 0.004% preserved without benzalkonium chloride (BAK( or latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% BAK; the eyes were then rinsed with balanced salt solution, and the corneas were again examined by confocal microscopy (n=4/group). A second group of animals was exposed to the medications through a dosing regimen of 1 drop/min (lpar3 drops total) (n=4/group). In eyes treated with travoprost without BAK (3-min bath), superficial epithelial cells were similar to baseline, as indicated by their visible cell borders and bright nuclei. In contrast, the surface cells in eyes treated with latanoprost were significantly smaller and brighter and had less distinct borders. Surface cell size was significantly smaller as compared with baseline size and as compared with rabbits treated with travoprost without BAK for 3 min. Similar effects on corneal epithelial cell morphology were observed with the 1-drop/min dosing regimen. In this rabbit model, travoprost 0.004% preserved without BAK did not cause corneal epithelial toxicity; latanoprost 0.005% induced superficial cell loss, most likely caused by the presence of a relatively high concentration of BAK (0.02%).

  19. Pax6- and Six3-mediated induction of lens cell fate in mouse and human ES cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond M Anchan

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells provide a potentially useful in vitro model for the study of in vivo tissue differentiation. We used mouse and human ES cells to investigate whether the lens regulatory genes Pax6 and Six3 could induce lens cell fate in vitro. To help assess the onset of lens differentiation, we derived a new mES cell line (Pax6-GFP mES that expresses a GFP reporter under the control of the Pax6 P0 promoter and lens ectoderm enhancer. Pax6 or Six3 expression vectors were introduced into mES or hES cells by transfection or lentiviral infection and the differentiating ES cells analyzed for lens marker expression. Transfection of mES cells with Pax6 or Six3 but not with other genes induced the expression of lens cell markers and up-regulated GFP reporter expression in Pax6-GFP mES cells by 3 days post-transfection. By 7 days post-transfection, mES cell cultures exhibited a>10-fold increase over controls in the number of colonies expressing γA-crystallin, a lens fiber cell differentiation marker. RT-PCR and immunostaining revealed induction of additional lens epithelial or fiber cell differentiation markers including Foxe3, Prox1, α- and β-crystallins, and Tdrd7. Moreover, γA-crystallin- or Prox1-expressing lentoid bodies formed by 30 days in culture. In hES cells, Pax6 or Six3 lentiviral vectors also induced lens marker expression. mES cells that express lens markers reside close to but are distinct from the Pax6 or Six3 transduced cells, suggesting that the latter induce nearby undifferentiated ES cells to adopt a lens fate by non-cell autonomous mechanisms. In sum, we describe a novel mES cell GFP reporter line that is useful for monitoring induction of lens fate, and demonstrate that Pax6 or Six3 is sufficient to induce ES cells to adopt a lens fate, potentially via non-cell autonomous mechanisms. These findings should facilitate investigations of lens development.

  20. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  1. Induction of mitosis in ocular tissue by chemotoxic agents. [Rabbits, guinea pigs, Degus (Octodon degus), frogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinsieder, A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit); Briggs, R.; Reddan, J.; Rothstein, H.; Wilson, D.; Harding, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    Ocular inflammation has been induced in a number of species by a variety of chemical agents, including methylene blue. Initial cell destruction and subsequent repopulation by mitogenesis in lens epithelium and corneal endothelium were observed using techniques for living and fixed tissue. During the course of the chemical inflammation response, the lens displayed a prominent, anterior pole subcapsular opacity underlying the area of maximal epithelial destruction. Near-normal transparency returned with recovery of the lens tissue cytoarchitecture. Elevated protein concentrations in aqueous humor were found throughout the course of the experiments. Similar alterations in aqueous humor were observed in the course of immunogenic uveitis although lenticular or corneal endothelial destruction and subsequent proliferation were not detected.

  2. Study on Titanium Nitride Film Modified for Intraocular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of the intraocular lens using ion beam sputtering depositing titanium nitride thin film on the intraocular lens(IOLs).Methods:To deposite titanium nitride thin film on the top of intraocular lens by ion beam sputtering depositing.We analyzed the surface morphology of intraocular lens through SEM and AFM.We detected intraocular lens resolution through the measurement of intraocular lens.Biocompatibility of intraocular lens is preliminary evaluated in this test.Results:T...

  3. Contact Lens-Associated Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Maghsood

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba keratitis is a vision-threatening infection caused by pathogenic species of the genus Acanthamoeba. In this study, 13 Acanthamoeba keratitis cases were diagnosed among 52 keratitis patients. To confirm the identity of Acanthamoeba at the genus level, a PCR-based method was used, and their pathogenic potential was determined using in vitro cytotoxicity assays on human corneal epithelial cells. Twelve (92.3% of Acanthamoeba keratitis patients were contact lens wearers; among them eleven (91.7% wore soft contact lenses. 11/13 (84.6% isolates were axenised in liquid culture medium, of which 10 (90.9% isolates disrupted corneal cells. Nine (69.2% isolates showed Acanthamoeba sp. group II, and four (30.8% showed group III morphology. To our knowledge this is the first report of determination of Acanthamoeba pathogenicity in Iran. This study confirms the importance of determination of pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba isolates for clinical purposes.

  4. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  5. Fresnel Lens with Embedded Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortices of different charges are embedded in a wavefront that has quadratic phase variation, and the intensity distribution near the focal plane is studied. This method may be useful in realizing complicated beam profiles. We have experimentally demonstrated the generation of vortex arrays having integer as well as fractional topological charges that produce different intensity profiles at the focal plane. The phase variation realized on a spatial light modulator (SLM acts as a Fresnel lens with embedded vortices.

  6. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  7. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  8. Hyaluronic acid production and hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during lens regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyk, W.M.; Zalik, S.E.; Dimitrov, E.

    1987-09-01

    The process of lens regeneration in newts involves the dedifferentiation of pigmented iris epithelial cells and their subsequent conversion into lens fibers. In vivo this cell-type conversion is restricted to the dorsal region of the iris. We have examined the patterns of hyaluronate accumulation and endogenous hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during the course of lens regeneration in vivo. Accumulation of newly synthesized hyaluronate was estimated from the uptake of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable material that was sensitive to Streptomyces hyaluronidase. Endogenous hyaluronidase activity was determined from the quantity of reducing N-acetylhexosamine released upon incubation of iris tissue extract with exogenous hyaluronate substrate. We found that incorporation of label into hyaluronate was consistently higher in the regeneration-activated irises of lentectomized eyes than in control irises from sham-operated eyes. Hyaluronate labeling was higher in the dorsal (lens-forming) region of the iris than in ventral (non-lens-forming) iris tissue during the regeneration process. Label accumulation into hyaluronate was maximum between 10 and 15 days after lentectomy, the period of most pronounced dedifferentiation in the dorsal iris epithelium. Both normal and regenerating irises demonstrated a high level of endogenous hyaluronidase activity with a pH optimum of 3.5-4.0. Hyaluronidase activity was 1.7 to 2 times higher in dorsal iris tissue than in ventral irises both prior to lentectomy and throughout the regeneration process. We suggest that enhanced hyaluronate accumulation may facilitate the dedifferentiation of iris epithelial cells in the dorsal iris and prevent precocious withdrawal from the cell cycle. The high level of hyaluronidase activity in the dorsal iris may promote the turnover and remodeling of extracellular matrix components required for cell-type conversion.

  9. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emrys

    2013-01-01

    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  10. A comparative evaluation of corneal epithelial cell cultures for assessing ocular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ulrich; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Schneider, Marc; Muys, Leon; Gross, Dorothea; Eschmann, Klaus; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential value of different epithelial cell culture systems as in vitro models for studying corneal permeability. Transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and Statens Serum Institut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cells were cultured on permeable filters. SkinEthic human corneal epithelium (S-HCE) and Clonetics human corneal epithelium (C-HCE) were received as ready-to-use systems. Excised rabbit corneas (ERCs) and human corneas (EHCs) were mounted in Ussing chambers, and used as references. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance, and by determining the apparent permeability of markers with different physico-chemical properties, namely, fluorescein, sodium salt; propranolol hydrochloride; moxaverine hydrochloride; timolol hydrogenmaleate; and rhodamine 123. SIRC cells and the S-HCE failed to develop epithelial barrier properties, and hence were unable to distinguish between the permeation markers. Barrier function and the power to differentiate compound permeabilities were evident with HCE-T cells, and were even more pronounced in the case of C-HCE, corresponding very well with data from ERCs and EHCs. A net secretion of rhodamine 123 was not observed with any of the models, suggesting that P-glycoprotein or similar efflux systems have no significant effects on corneal permeability. Currently available corneal epithelial cell culture systems show differences in epithelial barrier function. Systems lacking functional cell-cell contacts are of limited value for assessing corneal permeability, and should be critically evaluated for other purposes.

  11. Ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Sunlight exposure of the eye leads to pathologies including photokeratitis, cortical cataracts, pterygium, actinic conjunctivitis and age-related macular degeneration. It is well established that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiations leads to DNA damage, mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). CPD formation is the principal factor involved in skin cancer. However, the exact mechanism by which sunlight induces ocular pathologies is not well understood. To shed light on this issue, we quantified the CPD formation onto DNA of rabbit ocular cells following UVB exposure. We found that CPDs were induced only in the structures of the ocular anterior chamber (cornea, iris and lens) and were more concentrated in the corneal epithelium. Residual UVB that pass through the cornea are completely absorbed by the anterior layers of the iris. CPDs were also detected in the central portion of the lens that is not protected by the iris (pupil). By determining the UV-induced DNA damage formation in eyes, we showed that anterior ocular structures are a reliable physical barrier that protects the subjacent structures from the toxic effects of UV. Although the corneal epithelium is the structure where most of the CPDs were detected, no cancer is related to solar exposure.

  12. Evolution of a pre and post lens tear film with a contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Matthew; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The work is the development, implementation, and analysis of a two-dimensional tear film model including a porous contact lens. The geometry of the problem is: a pre-lens layer that is a thin tear film between the outside air and contact lens, a contact lens that is a rigid but movable porous substrate, and a post-lens layer that is a thin film layer between the contact lens and the cornea. We are looking at short and long term behavior of the evolution of the thin film in the pre-lens layer coupled with the porous layer and the thin squeeze film in the post-lens layer. We model the different behaviors that arise as the Darcy number, evaporation effects, and boundary flux conditions change.

  13. Induction of epithelial mesenchimal transition and vasculogenesis in the lenses of Dbl oncogene transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fardin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Dbl family of proteins represents a large group of proto-oncogenes involved in cell growth regulation. The numerous domains that are present in many Dbl family proteins suggest that they act to integrate multiple inputs in complicated signaling networks involving the Rho GTPases. Alterations of the normal function of these proteins lead to pathological processes such as developmental disorders and neoplastic transformation. We generated transgenic mice introducing the cDNA of Dbl oncogene linked to the metallothionein promoter into the germ line of FVB mice and found that onco-Dbl expression in mouse lenses affected proliferation, migration and differentiation of lens epithelial cells. RESULTS: We used high density oligonucleotide microarray to define the transcriptional profile induced by Dbl in the lenses of 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks old transgenic mice. We observed modulation of genes encoding proteins promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, such as down-regulation of epithelial cell markers and up-regulation of fibroblast markers. Genes encoding proteins involved in the positive regulation of apoptosis were markedly down regulated while anti-apoptotic genes were strongly up-regulated. Finally, several genes encoding proteins involved in the process of angiogenesis were up-regulated. These observations were validated by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the transgenic lenses where vascularization can be readily observed. CONCLUSION: Onco-Dbl expression in mouse lens correlated with modulation of genes involved in the regulation of EMT, apoptosis and vasculogenesis leading to disruption of the lens architecture, epithelial cell proliferation, and aberrant angiogenesis. We conclude that onco-Dbl has a potentially important, previously unreported, capacity to dramatically alter epithelial cell migration, replication, polarization and differentiation and to induce vascularization of an epithelial

  14. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable supp

  15. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted.

  16. Lateral shear interferometry with holo shear lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joenathan, C.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sirohi, R. S.

    1984-12-01

    A simple method for obtaining lateral shear using holo shear lenses (HSL) has been discussed. This simple device which produces lateral shears in the orthogonal directions has been used for lens testing. The holo shear lens is placed at or near the focus of the lens to be tested. It has also been shown that HSL can be used in speckle shear interferometry as it performs both the functions of shearing and imaging.

  17. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yang; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input ...

  18. Rabbit neutrophil chemotactic protein (NCP) activates both CXCR1 and CXCR2 and is the functional homologue for human CXCL6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Struyf, Sofie; Wuyts, Anja; Weyler, Myke; Loos, Tamara; Gijsbers, Klara; Gouwy, Mieke; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Jo

    2004-11-15

    Neutrophil chemotactic protein (NCP) is a rabbit CXC chemokine with activating and chemotactic properties on neutrophilic granulocytes. Although its selective activity on neutrophils is demonstrated, its interactions with specific chemokine receptors are not defined. For further functional characterization, NCP was chemically synthesized and was found to be equipotent as natural NCP in neutrophil chemotaxis. To identify its human homologue, we separately expressed two potential rabbit NCP receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) in Jurkat cells. Pure synthetic NCP was equally efficient to promote chemotaxis through either rabbit CXCR1 or CXCR2. Moreover, chemotaxis assays on rabbit CXCR1 and CXCR2 transfectants showed that NCP uses the same receptors as interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major rabbit CXC chemokine, but not rabbit GROalpha, which only recognized CXCR2. In addition, specific inhibitors for CXCR1 or CXCR2 reduced rabbit neutrophil chemotaxis induced by NCP and rabbit IL-8. Furthermore, NCP and the structurally related human CXCR1/CXCR2 agonist CXCL6/GCP-2 (granulocyte chemotactic protein-2) cross-desensitized each other in intracellular calcium release assays on human neutrophils, further indicating that both chemokines share the same receptors. The inflammatory role of NCP was also evidenced by its potent granulocytosis inducing capacity in rabbits upon systemic administration. This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidences that NCP is the functional rabbit homologue for human CXCL6/GCP-2 rather than the most related CXCR2 agonist CXCL5/ENA-78 (epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activating peptide-78). It is concluded that the rabbit is a better model to study human neutrophil activation compared to mice, which lack CXCL8/IL-8.

  19. Algorithm design of liquid lens inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lu-Lin; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2008-08-01

    In mobile lens domain, the glass lens is often to be applied in high-resolution requirement situation; but the glass zoom lens needs to be collocated with movable machinery and voice-coil motor, which usually arises some space limits in minimum design. In high level molding component technology development, the appearance of liquid lens has become the focus of mobile phone and digital camera companies. The liquid lens sets with solid optical lens and driving circuit has replaced the original components. As a result, the volume requirement is decreased to merely 50% of the original design. Besides, with the high focus adjusting speed, low energy requirement, high durability, and low-cost manufacturing process, the liquid lens shows advantages in the competitive market. In the past, authors only need to inspect the scrape defect made by external force for the glass lens. As to the liquid lens, authors need to inspect the state of four different structural layers due to the different design and structure. In this paper, authors apply machine vision and digital image processing technology to administer inspections in the particular layer according to the needs of users. According to our experiment results, the algorithm proposed can automatically delete non-focus background, extract the region of interest, find out and analyze the defects efficiently in the particular layer. In the future, authors will combine the algorithm of the system with automatic-focus technology to implement the inside inspection based on the product inspective demands.

  20. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  1. Trends of contact lens prescribing in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mera F; Bakkar, May; Gammoh, Yazan; Morgan, Philip

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Optometrists from 173 practices in Jordan were surveyed about prescribing contact lenses in their practice. Practitioners were required to record information for the last 10 patients that visited their practice. Demographic data such as age and gender was obtained for each patient. In addition, data relating to lens type, lens design, replacement methods and the care regime advised to each patient were recorded. Practitioners were required to provide information relating to their education and years of experience. The influence of education and experience with respect to lens prescribing trends was explored using linear regression models for the proportions of lens types fitted for patients. A total of 1730 contact lens fits were analyzed. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 26.6 (±7.9) years, of whom 65% were female. Conventional hydrogel lenses were the most prescribed lenses, accounting for 60.3% of the fits, followed by silicone hydrogel lenses (31.3%), and rigid lenses (8.4%). In terms of lens design, spherical lenses appeared to be most commonly prescribed on monthly basis. Daily disposable lenses were second most prescribed lens modality, accounting for 20.4% of the study sample. Multi-purpose solution (MPS) was the preferred care regimen, with a prevalence of 88.1% reported in the study sample, compared to hydrogen peroxide (1-step and 2-step), which represented only 2.8% of the patients in this study. A relationship was established between the two educational groups for rigid lens prescribing (F=17.4, ptrends among optometrists in Jordan. Contact lens prescribing in terms of lens type, lens design, modality of wear and care regimen agree with global market trends with small variations. This report will help practitioners and the industry to detect any deficiencies in the contact lens market in Jordan, which will ease implementing current and future plans in developing contact

  2. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  3. Paediatric intraocular lens implants: accuracy of lens power calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, M K; Lagan, M A; Mulholland, C P; Parker, M; McGinnity, G; McLoone, E M

    2016-09-01

    PurposeThis study aims to evaluate the accuracy of lens prediction formulae on a paediatric population.MethodsA retrospective case-note review was undertaken of patients under 8 years old who underwent cataract surgery with primary lens implantation in a regional referral centre for paediatric ophthalmology, excluding those whose procedure was secondary to trauma. Biometric and refractive data were analysed for 43 eyes, including prediction errors (PE). Statistical measures used included mean absolute error (MAE), median absolute error (MedAE), Student's t-test and Lin's correlation coefficient.ResultsThe mean PE using the SRK-II formula was +0.96 D (range -2.47D to +2.41 D, SD 1.33 D, MAE 1.38 D, MedAE 1.55, n=15). The mean PE was smaller using SRK/T (-0.18 D, range -3.25 D to +3.95 D, SD 1.70 D, MAE 1.30 D, MedAE 1.24, n=27). We performed an analysis of the biometry data using four different formula (Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, SRK-II and SRK/T). Hoffer Q showed a smaller MedAE than other formulae but also a myopic bias.ConclusionOur clinical data suggest SRK/T was more accurate in predicting post-operative refraction in this cohort of paediatric patients undergoing cataract surgery. Hoffer Q may have improved accuracy further.

  4. Flat lens for seismic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  5. Atom lens without chromatic aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Maxim A; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-01-01

    We propose a lens for atoms with reduced chromatic aberrations and calculate its focal length and spot size. In our scheme a two-level atom interacts with a near-resonant standing light wave formed by two running waves of slightly different wave vectors, and a far-detuned running wave propagating perpendicular to the standing wave. We show that within the Raman-Nath approximation and for an adiabatically slow atom-light interaction, the phase acquired by the atom is independent of the incident atomic velocity.

  6. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  7. RPR test for serological survey of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masayo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-07-01

    Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.

  8. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.O. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects.

  9. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  10. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Contact lens intolerance: refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, María; Pelegrín-Sánchez, José Miguel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Corneal refractive therapy is a non-surgical procedure whose main purpose is to improve uncorrected visual acuity during the day, without spectacles or contact lenses. We report an adult woman who shows contact lens intolerance and does not want to wear eyeglasses. We used dual axis contact lens to improve lens centration. We demonstrate a maintained unaided visual acuity during one year of treatment. In conclusion, we can consider refitting with dual axis lens for corneal refractive therapy as a non-surgical option for patients who show contact lens intolerance.

  12. Efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects.METHODS:In this retrospective case analysis, 28 patients(28 eyeswith persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery from January 2011 to June 2013 in our hospital were reviewed. After regular treatment for at least 2wk, the persistent corneal epithelial defects were treated with highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses, until the corneal epithelial healing. Continued to wear the same lens no more than 3wk, or in need of replacement the new one. All cases were followed up for 6mo. Key indicators of corneal epithelial healling, corneal fluorescein staining and ocular symptoms improvement were observed.RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes were cured(75.00%, markedly effective in 5 eyes(17.86%, effective in 2 eyes(7.14%, no invalid cases, the total efficiency of 100.00%. Ocular symptoms of 25 cases(89.29%relieved within 2d, the rest 3 cases(10.71%relieved within 1wk. The corneal epithelial of 6 cases(21.43%repaired in 3wk, 13 cases(46.43%in 6wk, 7 cases(25.00%in 9wk, 2 cases(7.14%over 12wk. There were no signs of secondary infection. And no evidence of recurrence in 6mo. CONCLUSION: Highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses could repair persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery significantly, while quickly and effectively relieve a variety of ocular irritation.

  13. Quantification of acute vocal fold epithelial surface damage with increasing time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Kojima

    Full Text Available Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure.

  14. 外源性雌二醇对去势雌性Wistar大鼠晶状体上皮细胞雌激素受体表达的影响%Effects of estradiol on the expression of estrogen receptor in lens epithelial cell of castrated female Wistar rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌萌; 宋秀君; 苏琪; 殷英霞

    2012-01-01

    ERβ:25.38±5.59 vs.27.75±7.13);去势组、去势+高剂量雌二醇点眼组、去势+低剂量雌二醇注射组LECs中ERα、ERβ阳性细胞平均吸光度(A)值均明显低于伪手术组,而去势+低剂量雌二醇点眼组则较去势组和去势+低剂量雌二醇注射组明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),但去势+高剂量雌二醇注射组LECs中ERα、ERβ平均A值均接近伪手术组(ERα:0.1859±0.0067 vs.0.1833±0.0087;ERβ:0.1686±0.0095 vs.0.1689±0.0059). 结论 LECs 中ERα和ERβ的表达水平与体内雌激素的水平有关.雌激素的不同给药途径对晶状体ER表达的影响不同;低剂量雌激素点眼可能优于其他高剂量雌激素给药方式.%Background Recently researches indicated that estrogen plays important role in maintaining the normal metabolism of lens. Objective This study was to investigate the changes of estrogen receptor( ER ) α and β expressions in lens upon estrogen level in castrated female rat. Methods Sixty clean adult female Wistar rats were randomized into castrated group,sham operation group,ovariectomy group,ovariectomy with low-dose estradiol eyedropping group,ovariectomy with high-dose estradiol eyedropping group,ovariectomy with low-dose estradiol injecting group and ovariectomy with high-dose estradiol injecting group,and 10 rats for each.The castrated animal models were established by ovariectomy for 5 months.Then 50%,100% oestradiol benzoate eyedrops were used 4 times per day respectively and 0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg oestradiol benzoate were intramuscularly injected at two-day interval for 6 weeks in corresponding experimental group.Serum estradiol concentration was detected in the rats of various groups at 5 months after ovariectomy and 6 weeks after administration of estradiol benzoate.The animals were sacrificed using the excessive anesthesia method and the lenses were obtained for the assay of ERα and ERβ expressions.The use of the animals complied with the Statement of

  15. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  16. Anterior lens epithelium in intumescent white cataracts - scanning and transmission electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelic, Sofija; Drašlar, Kazimir; Hvala, Anastazija; Hawlina, Marko

    2016-02-01

    Our purpose was to study the structure of the lens epithelial cells (LECs) of intumescent white cataracts (IC) in comparison with nuclear cataracts (NC) in order to investigate possible structural reasons for development of IC. The anterior lens capsule (aLC: basement membrane and associated LECs) were obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed by SEM that in IC, LEC swelling was pronounced with the clefts surrounding the groups of LECs. Another structural feature was spherical formations, that were observed on the apical side of LEC's, towards the fibre cell layer, both by SEM and TEM. Development of these structures, bulging out from the apical cell membrane of the LEC's and disrupting it, could be followed in steps towards the sphere formation. The degeneration of the lens epithelium and the structures of the aLC in IC similar to Morgagnian globules were also observed. None of these structural changes were observed in NC. We show by SEM and TEM that, in IC, LECs have pronounced structural features not observed in NC. This supports the hypothesis that the disturbed structure of LECs plays a role in water accumulation in the IC lens. We also suggest that, in IC, LECs produce bulging spheres that represent unique structures of degenerated material, extruded from the LEC.

  17. The Role of Type IV Collagen in Developing Lens in Mouse Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sExtracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM play important roles in many developmental processes during development and after birth. Among the components of the BM, collagen fibers specially type IV are the most important parts. The aim of this study was to determine the time when collagen type IV appears in the BM of lens structure during mouse embryonic development.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, 22 female Balb/C mice were randomly selected and were kept under normal condition, finding vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of pregnancy. From embryonic day 10 to 20, all specimens were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their heads were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemistry study for tracing collagen type IV in lens were carried out.ResultsOur data revealed that collagen type IV appeared at the early stage of gestation day 12 in BM of anterior epithelial lens cells and the amount of this protein gradually increased until days 15-17 in ECM and posterior capsule epithelium. After this period, severe reaction was not observed in any part of the lens.ConclusionThese findings establish the important role of collagen IV in developing optic cup and any changes during critical period of pregnancy may be result in severe visual system defect

  18. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...

  19. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  20. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn,S.A.; Korenev, S.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Gallardo, J.C.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.

    2008-06-23

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-energy lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma for optimum focusing. The plasma lens is immersed in an additional solenoid magnetic field to facilitate the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. Plasma lenses have the additional advantage of negligible pion absorption and scattering by the lens material and reduced neutrino contamination during anti-neutrino running. Results of particle simulations using plasma lens will be presented.

  1. Liquid lens using acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Isago, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2011-03-01

    A liquid lens is proposed that uses acoustic radiation force with no mechanical moving parts. It consists of a cylindrical acrylic cell filled with two immiscible liquids (degassed water and silicone oil) and a concave ultrasound transducer. The focal point of the transducer is located on the oil-water interface, which functions as a lens. The acoustic radiation force is generated when there is a difference in the acoustic energy densities of different media. An acoustic standing wave was generated in the axial direction of the lens and the variation of the shape of the oil-water interface was observed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The lens profile can be rapidly changed by varying the acoustic radiation force from the transducer. The kinematic viscosity of silicone oil was optimized to minimize the response times of the lens. Response times of 40 and 80 ms when switching ultrasonic radiation on and off were obtained with a kinematic viscosity of 200 cSt. The path of a laser beam transmitted through the lens was calculated by ray-tracing simulations based on the experimental results obtained by OCT. The transmitted laser beam could be focused by applying an input voltage. The liquid lens could be operated as a variable-focus lens by varying the input voltage.

  2. Metasurface lens: Shrinking the camera size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    A miniaturized camera has been developed by integrating a planar metasurface lens doublet with a CMOS image sensor. The metasurface lens doublet corrects the monochromatic aberration and thus delivers nearly diffraction-limited image quality over a wide field of view.

  3. Managing as designing with a positive lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avital, M.; Boland, R.J.; Avital, M.; Boland, R.J.; Cooperrider, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The role and potential contribution of a positive lens to the design of systems and organizations is the focus of this essay. The positive lens refers to an emerging perspective in the social sciences that emphasizes a positive stance toward our capacity to construct better organizations and technol

  4. Optimization of Zoom Lens with Discrete State of Liquid Lens Elements by Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to employ liquid lens elements to design a lens with zoom function by using the genetic algorithm (GA optimization. The liquid lens elements used in the proposal can apply voltage adjustment to generate the electrical field that induces the liquid with electric conductivity to vary the surface curvature between two different kinds of liquids. According to the voltage level, the liquid lens element makes the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness realize the zoom function without moving the lens groups so that the overall length can be reduced. However, it is difficult to design the zoom lens under the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness in the liquid lens elements and the mechanical space that is constantly limited. The GA offers a flexible way for lens optimization. We regarded the spot size as the fitness function to look for the optimum curvatures, thickness, and the corresponding statuses of liquid lens elements for the zoom lens. As a result, the zoom lens with constant space can be realized by running the selection, crossover, and mutation operation in the GA optimization.

  5. Reversible fibroadenomatous mammary hyperplasia in male and female New Zealand white rabbits associated with cyclosporine A administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimer, P M; Harvey, S B; Blas-Machado, U; Lauderdale, J D; Moore, P A

    2009-11-01

    All male and female New Zealand white rabbits in a limbal cell graft study developed marked generalized mammary gland hypertrophy. Postprocedural medications included ophthalmic 0.1% dexamethasone, ophthalmic 0.5% cyclosporine, and subcutaneous cyclosporine A. Cytologic examination revealed epithelial clusters with minimal malignant criteria. On histologic evaluation, there was diffuse glandular hyperplasia with mild cellular atypia and ductal ectasia separated by abundant hypercellular fibrous stroma, consistent with fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia. The hyperplasia resolved within 2 weeks of cessation of cyclosporine, and at necropsy identifiable mammary masses were not found. Very little has been reported about the use of cyclosporine in laboratory rabbits and its association with development of mammary gland hyperplasia. This is the first report in which administration of cyclosporine to male and female rabbits at a dose as low as 5 mg/kg/day induced benign fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia. This change regressed after cessation of the drug.

  6. An atypical presentation of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a noncontact lens wearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Christine E; Hofmeister, Elizabeth M; Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 49-year-old man who did not have a history of wearing contact lenses and who developed a rapidly progressive course of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The patient developed stromal keratitis that did not respond to herpes simplex virus therapies. Within 1 week after presentation, the patient progressed from mild anterior stromal haze and edema to a ring infiltrate, epithelial loss, and significant corneal edema. Corneal scrapings demonstrated cysts consistent with Acanthanmoeba keratitis. The patient was admitted to the hospital and placed on intensive medical therapy. He responded to therapy, and at 5 months showed central scarring in a quiet eye. This article presents a case of Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer, who was diagnosed clinically and histopathologically within 1 week of onset of symptoms. His case was atypical given his lack of contact lens wear or antecedent trauma and rapid progression to a ring infiltrate, usually seen as late findings.

  7. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Raquel M; Teixeira, Luzia; Aguas, Artur P; Ribeiro, Joana C; Costa-e-Silva, António; Ferreira, Paula G

    2014-02-04

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection.

  8. Bacterial assay of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D E; Hosmer, M; Georgescu, M; Farris, R L

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the quantity of bacteria on the contact lens and adjacent areas of the eye. This paper is a quantitative study of the contact lens and ocular aerobic microbiota in a mixed group of daily and extended wear disposable contact lens users. The contact lens, the lower fornix, tears collecting at the lower fornix, and edge of the lower lid at the Meibomian gland margin were assayed for the quantity of bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Eighteen patients wearing 49 disposable high water content hydrogel contact lenses were assayed and the mean lens age was 8.8 +/- 4.6 days. Three patients wore their lenses on a daily wear basis and 15 on an extended wear schedule. Tear samples were obtained with sterile microbial loops and the lens was macerated into small particles with a tissue grinder. The samples were poured onto the surface of chocolate agar plates and incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h in 5% Co2. The lid margin revealed the greatest bacterial presence (mean = 9.7 CFU; median = 2 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The lens showed the next greatest presence of CFU (mean = 4.5 CFU; median = 1 CFU; mode = 0). The fornix and tears revealed the least bacterial presence (fornix: mean = 2.6 CFU; median = 0 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The bacterial assay of disposable lens wearing contact lens subjects indicates that the lid margins are the greatest source of bacteria with the tears being the lowest. These studies support the concept that in the eye, the lens typically does not possess a large number of bacteria under normal conditions.

  9. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve:evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jin; Qi Yang; Feng Ji; Ya-jie Zhang; Yan Zhao; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as em-bryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also signiifcantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effec-tively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  10. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  11. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  12. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  13. Iontophoretic Delivery of Riboflavin into the Rabbit Cornea:a Primary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Xiujun Peng; Zhengjun Fan; Yu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To determine the penetrability of riboflavin into the corneal stroma by iontophoresis and to compare the perme-ability effects of different solvents. Methods:.Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups:.a group that received 0.1% riboflavin-balanced salt solution (BSS) by iontophoresis, a group that received 0.1%riboflavin-saline solution by iontophoresis,.a group that re-ceived 0.1% riboflavin-distilled water solution by iontophore-sis, and a control group that received classical riboflavin in-stillation after corneal de-epithelialization..The degree of yel-lowing of the de-epithelialized corneal stromal button from each rabbit was compared. Results:.The yellow color scores for the corneal stromal but-tons in the three iontophoresis groups were compared with those of control group..Iontophoretic delivery of a 0.1% ri-boflavin-distilled water solution yielded similar yellow changes in the corneal stromal button when compared with classical ri-boflavin instillation after de-epithelialization..However,.the other two solvents did not sufficiently enhance the permeabili-ty of riboflavin. Conclusion:.Riboflavin can effectively penetrate into the corneal stroma to saturation levels by iontophoresis..Using distilled water as the solvent can promote penetrability.. (Eye Science 2014; 29:30-35).

  14. Significantly different proliferative potential of oral mucosal epithelial cells between six animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Namiki, Hideo; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    There has been an upsurge in regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, because oral mucosal epithelial cells can be obtained noninvasively, cultured epithelial cell sheets have been used in a number of ectopic transplantations. Additionally, the verification of the properties of experimental animals' cultured cells has accelerated the application of regenerative medicine. In the present study, the properties of oral mucosal epithelial cells were compared between six animal species. The human and pig epithelia were relatively thicker than the epithelia of the other species. The colony-forming efficiency of the rat was the highest, followed by those of the dog, human, rabbit, and pig, whereas the colonies of the mouse cells were all paraclone and uncountable in the colony-forming assay. We also found that the rabbit and pig cells proliferated poorly and were unable to form cell sheets without feeder layers. In contrast, even in the absence of feeder layers and cholera toxin, cultured dog and mouse cells formed contiguous sheets, when the cell seeding density was high. These results indicate that interspecies variation is considerable in oral mucosal epithelial cells and that specific experimental animal or human cells must be chosen according to the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  15. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit ... Key words: Heterogeneous rabbit population, Doe productivity, Sire families). ..... Paris, France, 11-14. Cited in:.

  16. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaut, Romain

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is known about the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases in the pet rabbit. Current knowledge is based on anecdotal reports, derived from research data using the rabbit as an animal model of human cardiovascular diseases, but most importantly canine and feline cardiology. It is likely that, as cardiovascular diseases are more often recognized, more specific information will soon become available for the treatment of the pet rabbit with cardiac disease.

  17. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  18. Studying the expression patterns of OCT4 and SOX2 proteins in regenerating rabbit ear tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Javanmard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epimorphic regeneration in New Zealand rabbit ear is an interesting example of mammalian wound healing in which blastema formation is involved in replacement of injured tissues. It has been suggested that isolated cells from regenerating rabbit ear possess stem-like properties. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of stemness markers, OCT4 and SOX2 proteins, in regenerating rabbit tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that both proteins could be detected in epithelial cells, hair follicle cells and perichondrium cells. Expression pattern analysis of OCT4 and SOX2 proteins showed no clear differences between regenerative and non-regenerative control tissues. According to several reports of OCT4 and SOX2 proteins expression in adult stem cells, it could be proposed that OCT4 and SOX2 expressing cells in regenerating rabbit ear tissues are progenitor/adult stem cells which are resident in these tissues, and other markers should be used for detection of blastema cells.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of a contact lens vehicle for puerarin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinku; Li, Xinsong; Sun, Fuqian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a soft contact lens vehicle for puerarin delivery to alleviate glaucoma. Poly(2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-methyl acrylate) (pHEMA-NVP-MA) contact lenses were prepared by UV irradiation of HEMA, NVP and MA, to which the cross-linker, a mixture of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and allyl methacrylate (AMA) (1:1, w/w) was added previously. The contact lenses were characterized by equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) and tensile tester. The results showed that incorporation of poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) component in the hydrogels caused increase of ESR and decrease of tensile strength. Co-polymerization of MA monomer in the hydrogel led to a slight drop of ESR and improved tensile strength of hydrogel. Four kinds of hydrated contact lenses with different PVP content were presoaked in PBS solution of puerarin and the in vitro drug release was measured. The contact lenses matrix incorporated with PVP had a remarkable loading capacity of puerarin. In rabbit eyes, the presoaked contact lenses extended the mean resident time of puerarin to 77.45 min from 12.88 min of 1% puerarin eye drops. Moreover, contact lens presoaked in puerarin solution at the concentration of 0.802 mg/ml showed about the same bioavailability (AUC(0-t)) in tear fluid as that of the puerarin eye drops. This kind of presoaked contact lens has potential application as vehicle of puerarin to alleviate glaucoma.

  20. Safety levels for exposure of cornea and lens to very high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, R H; Lizzi, F L; Ursea, B G; Cozzarelli, L; Ketterling, J A; Deng, C X; Folberg, R; Coleman, D J

    2001-09-01

    Very high-frequency (50-MHz) ultrasound is widely used for imaging the anterior segment of the eye. Our aim was to determine whether exposures to ultrasound at and above those used in diagnostic imaging systems might cause bioeffects in ocular tissues. We characterized the output parameters of a polyvinylidene difluoride transducer using a needle hydrophone. We exposed sites on the cornea or lens of rabbits for up to 30 minutes at a 10-kHz pulse repetition frequency. Tissue obtained immediately or 24 hours after exposure was examined by light microscopy. A numeric model was implemented to calculate expected temperature elevations in the cornea and lens under experimental conditions. No tissue changes were observed directly or by slit lamp. Light microscopy showed no abnormalities attributable to ultrasound exposure. Simulations showed that even long-term exposures should produce temperature elevations of less than 1 degree C in both the cornea and lens. With the use of exposure parameters 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than encountered in a clinical situation, no tissue changes were observed. This is consistent with the small (0.2 degrees C) temperature rises computed in simulations. The lack of biological effects is attributable to the small dimensions of the focal zone, allowing rapid dissipation of heat, and the low total acoustic power produced by the transducer.

  1. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nassar, Somya A; Mohamed, Amira H; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M; Mahran, K. M

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged...

  2. Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Cultured Normal Human Lens Epithelia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄渝侃; 魏厚仁

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate whether cultured normal human lens epithelial cells (LEC) express transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of TGF-β mRNA and protein in cultured normal human LEC. The results showed that a single RT-PCR amplified product about 310bp was obtained, and the sequence was homologous to the known sequence. TGF-β immunostain was positive in the plasma of LEC. It was suggested that normal human LEC could produce TGF-β, and LEC could be affected by TGF-β through autocrine action.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 in a rabbit model of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Mingming; Du, Ergang; Zhang, Zhengwei; Jiang, Kelimu; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) in the promotion of healing, survival and expression of mucin in corneal epithelial cells in a rabbit dry eye model. A total of 12 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups. The lacrimal glands were injected with saline either alone (normal control group) or with concanavalin A (Con A), with either topical phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS; PBS control group) or 25 µg/ml FGF10 (FGF10 treatment group). Lacrimal gland inflammation, tear function, corneal epithelial cell integrity, cell apoptosis and mucin expression were subsequently assessed. Lacrimal gland tissue biopsies were performed in conjunction with histology and electron microscopy observations. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured using Fourier domain‑optical coherence tomography. Tear membrane break‑up time (TBUT) was also assessed and corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The percentages of apoptotic corneal and conjunctival (Cj) epithelial cells (ECs) were counted using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The mRNA expression levels of Muc1 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The TMH and TMA values of the PBS and treatment groups were found to be significantly reduced, compared with those of the normal control group 3 days after Con A injection. However, the TMH and TMA of the FGF10 treatment group were higher, compared with those of the PBS group 3 and 7 days after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the FGF10 treatment group exhibited prolonged TBUT, reduced corneal fluorescein staining and repaired epithelial cell ultrastructure7 days after treatment. The percentages of apoptotic corneal‑ and Cj‑ECs in the FGF10 treatment group were significantly reduced, compared with those in the PBS group. FGF10

  4. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares withou

  5. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    -free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... and cytomorphometry. Limbal epithelial cells expanded in 2% O2 exhibited slow growth, low fraction of cells in S/G2 , high CFE, high expression of stem cell markers ABCG2 and p63α, and low fraction of differentiation marker CK3 resembling a LESC phenotype. The effect of hypoxia to maintain LESCs in culture...

  6. Computation of temperature elevation in rabbit eye irradiated by 2.45-GHz microwaves with different field configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-02-01

    This study calculated the temperature elevation in the rabbit eye caused by 2.45-GHz near-field exposure systems. First, we calculated specific absorption rate distributions in the eye for different antennas and then compared them with those observed in previous studies. Next, we re-examined the temperature elevation in the rabbit eye due to a horizontally-polarized dipole antenna with a C-shaped director, which was used in a previous study. For our computational results, we found that decisive factors of the SAR distribution in the rabbit eye were the polarization of the electromagnetic wave and antenna aperture. Next, we quantified the eye average specific absorption rate as 67 W kg(-1) for the dipole antenna with an input power density at the eye surface of 150 mW cm(-2), which was specified in the previous work as the minimum cataractogenic power density. The effect of administrating anesthesia on the temperature elevation was 30% or so in the above case. Additionally, the position where maximum temperature in the lens appears is discussed due to different 2.45-GHz microwave systems. That position was found to appear around the posterior of the lens regardless of the exposure condition, which indicates that the original temperature distribution in the eye was the dominant factor.

  7. Conjugate metamaterials and the perfect lens

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show how transformation optics makes it possible to design what we call conjugate metamaterials. We show that these materials can also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens. The so-called "perfect lens", which is a lens that could focus all components of light (including propagating and evanescent waves), can be regarded as a limiting case, in which the respective conjugate metamaterials approach the characteristics of left-handed metamaterials, which have a negative refractive index.

  8. PMMA lens with high efficiency and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ichiro; Abe, Koji; Fujita, Katsuhiro

    2013-09-01

    Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Fresnel lenses are increasingly being used in concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems installed outdoors and, accordingly, emphasis is being placed on the durability of such lenses with regard to light transmittance when subject to ultraviolet (UV) light and dust exposure. Accelerated testing methods for evaluating durability under UV exposure were established, allowing development of a lens material with improved UV resistance. Simultaneously, through a proprietary molding method, a Fresnel lens that boasts favorable light concentration efficiency with little deformation even after prolonged outdoor use was developed. Moreover, the lens incorporates a new hard-coat finish that possesses sand durability and UV resistance comparable to that of tempered glass.

  9. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial monolayer culture system for real-time single-cell analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk-Su

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single-cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications.

  12. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  13. Conjunctival Microbiome Changes Associated With Soft Contact Lens and Orthokeratology Lens Wearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haikun; Zhao, Fuxin; Hutchinson, Diane S; Sun, Wenfeng; Ajami, Nadim J; Lai, Shujuan; Wong, Matthew C; Petrosino, Joseph F; Fang, Jianhuo; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wei; Reinach, Peter S; Qu, Jia; Zeng, Changqing; Zhang, Dake; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2017-01-01

    Usage of different types of contact lenses is associated with increased risk of sight-threatening complications. Changes in the ocular microbiome caused by contact lens wear are suggested to affect infection development in those individuals. To address this question, this study compares conjunctival microbial communities in contact lens wearers with those in noncontact lens wearers. Paired-end sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities on the conjunctival surfaces of contact lens wearers and nonwearers. No differences in microbial diversity were detected between contact lens wearers and nonwearers. Nevertheless, some slight microbe variability was evident between these two different groups. Bacillus, Tatumella and Lactobacillus abundance was less in orthokeratology lens (OKL) wearers than in nonwearers. In soft contact lenses (SCL) wearers, Delftia abundance decreased whereas Elizabethkingia levels increased. The difference in the SCL and nonwearer group was smaller than that in the OKL group. Variations in the conjunctival taxonomic composition between SCL wearers were larger than those in other groups. Sex differences in the conjunctival microbiota makeup were only evident among nonwearers. Even though there were slight percentage changes between contact lens wearers and nonwearers in some microbes, there were no differences in their diversity. On the other hand, contact lens usage might cause relative abundance of some taxa to change. Our results will help assess whether or not conjunctival microbiome changes caused by contact lens wear affect infection risk.

  14. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  15. Congenital Transmission of Schistosoma japonicumin the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QianBao-zhen; H.O.Bogh; M.V.Johansen; WangPeng-peng

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups.Group M (n =8)was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage)and group L (n=6)was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage).Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45-60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts.Furthermore,faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens.All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6+20.2 and 220.0+27.5 adult worms in group M and L,respectively.In groups M and L, 13.5%and 46.7% of the kittens were infected,respectively,In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected.Tne infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S.japonicum.The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions,as a result of egg deposition.The results, therefore,show that congenital transmission of S.japonicum can occur in rabbits.The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmssion of S.japomcum infection in humans.

  16. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wu-xiang; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zang, Shang-fei; Wang, Qiong-hua

    2013-06-01

    A variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array based on two transparent liquids of different refractive index is demonstrated. An elastic membrane divides a transparent reservoir into two chambers. The two chambers are filled with liquid 1 and liquid 2, respectively, which are of different refractive index. The micro-clapboards help liquid 1, liquid 2 and the elastic membrane form a cylindrical lens array. Driving these two liquids to flow can change the shape of the elastic membrane as well as the focal length. In this design, the gravity effect of liquid can be overcome. A demo lens array of positive optical power is developed and tested. Moreover, a potential application of the proposed lens array for autostereoscopic 3D displays is emphasized.

  18. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  19. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... evaluating contact lens solutions and the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious eye infection that's ... contact lenses to water has been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ...

  20. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  1. Veselago lens by photonic hyper-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zun

    2014-01-01

    An imaging system functioning as a Veselago lens has been proposed based on the novel concept of photonic "hyper-crystal" -- an artificial optical medium synthesizing the properties of hyperbolic materials and photonic crystals. This Veselago lens shows a nearly constant negative refractive index and substantially reduced image aberrations. It can find potential applications in photolithography and hot-spots detection of silicon-based integrated circuits.

  2. Lens Design Using Group Indices of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to lens design is described in which the ratio of the group velocity to the speed of light (the group index) in glass is used, in conjunction with the more familiar phase index of refraction, to control certain chromatic properties of a system of thin lenses in contact. The first-order design of thin-lens systems is illustrated by examples incorporating the methods described.

  3. In vivo human crystalline lens topography

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez Merino, Pablo; Gambra, Enrique; Castro, Alberto; Marcos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye ...

  4. Environmental standards for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B A; Kaufman, D V

    1984-02-01

    Successful implantation of prosthetic devices depends upon their freedom from postoperative inflammation and infection. Techniques and lessons learned in orthopaedic and other implant surgery should be applied to intraocular lens implantation. The avoidance of contamination by particles and micro-organisms is one essential principle of the surgical procedure. Practical steps are described to reduce both types of contamination. These measures taken together are recommended for adoption as a standard of environmental safety for lens implantation.

  5. A Spectrometer Based on Diffractive Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Daoyi; YAN Yingbai; JIN Guofan; WU Minxian

    2001-01-01

    A novel spectrometer is designed based on diffractive lens. It is essentially a flat field spectrometer. All the focal points are along the optical axis. Besides, all the asymmetrical aberrations vanish in our mounting. Thus low aberration can be obtained. In this article a diffractive lens is modeled as a special grating and analyzed by using a grating-based method. And a stigmatic point is introduced to reduce the aberrations.

  6. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  7. Introduction to the development of intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Peng, Runling; Hu, Shuilan; Wei, Maowei; Chen, Jiabi

    2013-08-01

    In order to cure the cataract disease or injuries in eyes, intraocular lens(IOL) has been studied all the time to replace the crystalline lens in human eyes. Researches on IOL are started early from 19th century, and it develops greatly in the hundreds years after. This article introduces several main kinds of IOLs that appear in the development history of IOL, and raises the double-liquid zoom IOL based on electrowetting, which will be the trend of IOL study.

  8. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vernon L

    2013-01-01

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  9. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  10. Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Annabel G.; Bolin, Steven R.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/200). Clinical signs included hemorrhage and sudden death, with hepatic necrosis. Analysis of viral RNA sequence from >95% of the viral genome showed an average similarity of 79% with RHDV. Similarity of the predicted MRCV capsid amino acid sequence ranged from 89.8% to 91.3%, much lower than the 98% amino acid similarity between RHDV strains. Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions. PMID:19961675

  11. Ingress of bacterial inoculum into the anterior chamber after bimanual and microcoaxial phacoemulsification in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Devarshi; Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pandita, Deepak; Vasavada, Vaishali A; Patel, Dhara B; Johar, Kaid; Raj, Shetal

    2007-12-01

    To compare the amount of bacterial ingress from the ocular surface into the anterior chamber at the end of bimanual and microcoaxial phacoemulsification in rabbits. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Raghudeep Eye Clinic, Memnagar, Ahmedabad, India. This randomized study comprised 40 eyes of 20 rabbits. Rabbits had microcoaxial phacoemulsification through a 2.2 mm single-plane clear corneal incision or bimanual phacoemulsification through a clear corneal 1.2 mm incision for phaco tip access accompanied by an additional 1.4 mm incision for irrigating chopper access. At the end of lens removal, 0.5 mL of culture suspension of Staphylococcus epidermidis (105 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) was instilled on the ocular surface and kept for 2 minutes. Next, 0.1 mL of aqueous fluid was collected from the anterior chamber and subjected to a microbial viable count. The microcoaxial group had statistically significantly lower ingress of bacteria than the bimanual group (250.0 CFU/mL and 1538.1 CFU/mL, respectively) (P<.002) irrespective of the presence or absence of wound distortion. Bacterial ingress occurred in both groups, although it was statistically significantly higher in the bimanual group.

  12. A correlation of thin lens approximation to thick lens design by using context based method in optics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsakoglu, O. F.; Inal Atik, Ipek; Kocabas, Hikmet

    2014-07-01

    The effect of Coddington factors on aberration functions has been analysed using thin lens approximation with optical glass parameters. The dependence of spherical aberration on Coddington shape factor for the various optical glasses in real lens design was discussed using exact ray tracing for the optics education and training purposes. Thin lens approximation and thick lens design are generally taught with only lecturing method. But, thick lens design is closely related to the real life. Hence, it is more appropriate to teach thin lens approximation and thick lens design with real-life context based approach. Context based teaching can be effective in solving problems in which the subject is very difficult and irrelevant. It also provides extensive evidence for optics education that students are generally unable to correctly apply the concepts of lens design to optical instruments currently used. Therefore, the outline of real-life context based thick lens design lessons were proposed and explained in detail considering thin lens approximation.

  13. Photon nanojet lens: design, fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Sichao; Shao, Jinhai; Lu, Bing-Rui; Mehfuz, Reyad; Drakeley, Stacey; Huang, Fumin; Chen, Yifang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel nanolens with super resolution, based on the photon nanojet effect through dielectric nanostructures in visible wavelengths, is proposed. The nanolens is made from plastic SU-8, consisting of parallel semi-cylinders in an array. This paper focuses on the lens designed by numerical simulation with the finite-difference time domain method and nanofabrication of the lens by grayscale electron beam lithography combined with a casting/bonding/lift-off transfer process. Monte Carlo simulation for injected charge distribution and development modeling was applied to define the resultant 3D profile in PMMA as the template for the lens shape. After the casting/bonding/lift-off process, the fabricated nanolens in SU-8 has the desired lens shape, very close to that of PMMA, indicating that the pattern transfer process developed in this work can be reliably applied not only for the fabrication of the lens but also for other 3D nanopatterns in general. The light distribution through the lens near its surface was initially characterized by a scanning near-field optical microscope, showing a well defined focusing image of designed grating lines. Such focusing function supports the great prospects of developing a novel nanolithography based on the photon nanojet effect.

  14. Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Peter; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2017-02-04

    There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of internally consistent parallels with neuron biology now catalogued in their second native cell type in the lens provide a detailed model of interdependent neuron gene expression in lens development and non-neuronal role in vision. These comprehensive parallels identify the lens as a dimension of neurobiology and a fundamental new perspective on neurodevelopment and its disorders. Finally, this understanding identifies that hallmark neuronal gene expression and key modes of associated molecular regulation evolved in tandem in the lens.

  15. L-type calcium channels play a critical role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating phosphorylation of aquaporin-0 and myosin light chain and expression of connexins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupalatha Maddala

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations

  16. Effects of acetylcysteine on rabbit conjunctival and corneal surfaces. A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermes, F; Molon-Noblot, S; Grove, J

    1991-10-01

    Conjunctival and corneal epithelial surfaces of normal rabbit eyes with their associated mucus were studied by scanning electron microscopy before and after treatment with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine (AC). Four groups received topically one 50-microliters drop of either (Group A) 0.1 MAC, (Group B) 0.1 M AC every 5 min for 1 hr, (Group C) 0.1 M AC every 5 min for 2 hr, or (Group D) three drops of 20% AC over 15 min. The effects of the instillation of AC on mucus removal and cellular lesions increased in the order (A) less than (B) less than (C) less than (D). Treatment A had no effect on cornea and conjunctiva. Treatment B cleaned away mucosal debris without alteration of either conjunctival or corneal epithelium. Treatment C had a similar effect on the mucus but was associated with focal necrosis, and treatment D produced widespread necrosis, desquamation of epithelial cells, and inflammation.

  17. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery on posterior capsule opacification in the human capsular bag in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Christian; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Dirisamer, Martin; Eibl-Lindner, Kirsten; Kook, Daniel; Priglinger, Siegfried; Mayer, Wolfgang J

    2017-03-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by observing lens epithelial cell growth in the human capsular bag in vitro between conventional lens surgery using phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique and femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery (FLACS). For the in vitro human capsular bag model, 18 cadaver eyes from nine human donors underwent three types of lens surgery. Three groups consisting of six capsular bags were established, that is FLACS, Phaco and extracapsular lens extraction (ECCE). The capsular bag was transferred into equal cell culture conditions after using one of the defined surgical approaches. Cellular growth of lens epithelial cells was observed and photo-documented. The time until full cell-coverage of the capsular bag was measured. The human capsular bag model can be successfully prepared using FLACS. There was no statistically significant difference in time until cell-coverage of the human donor capsular bag in vitro in all three surgical settings (ECCE versus Phaco p = 0.6; ECCE versus FLACS p = 1.0; Phaco versus FLACS p = 1.0). In our in vitro human capsular bag model, we could not observe a statistically significant difference in PCO formation using different surgical approaches of lens extraction. Therefore, PCO formation might not be attributed to the type of surgery. Furthermore, this study shows that FLACS can be used for the human capsular bag model preparation and validates the human capsular bag model for future research. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  19. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  20. A novel closed cell culture device for fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Moriya, Noboru; Mizutani, Manabu; Kan, Kazutoshi; Nozaki, Takayuki; Saitoh, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-11-01

    Automation technology for cell sheet-based tissue engineering would need to optimize the cell sheet fabrication process, stabilize cell sheet quality and reduce biological contamination risks. Biological contamination must be avoided in clinical settings. A closed culture system provides a solution for this. In the present study, we developed a closed culture device called a cell cartridge, to be used in a closed cell culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured on the surface of a porous membrane with 3T3 feeder cells, which are separate from the epithelial cells in the cell cartridges and in the cell-culture inserts as a control. To fabricate the stratified cell sheets, five different thicknesses of the membranes which were welded to the cell cartridge, were examined. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated in cell cartridges that were welded to a 25 µm-thick gas-permeable membrane, which was similar to the results with the cell-culture inserts. However, stratification of corneal epithelial cell sheets did not occur with cell cartridges that were welded to 100-300 µm-thick gas-permeable membranes. The fabricated cell sheets were evaluated by histological analyses to examine the expression of corneal epithelial-specific markers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that a putative stem cell marker, p63, a corneal epithelial differentiation maker, CK3, and a barrier function marker, Claudin-1, were expressed in the appropriate position in the cell sheets. These results suggest that the cell cartridge is effective for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets.

  1. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  2. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  3. Efficacy of Korean Multipurpose Contact Lens Disinfecting Solutions against Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Park, Hye-Ryun; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis has been increasing in recent years. Main risk factors are contact lens wear and their cleaning solutions. Most contact lens wearers use multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) for cleansing and disinfecting microorganisms because of its convenience. We determined amoebicidal effects of MPDS made in Korea and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelium cells. Fifteen commercial MPDS (A to O) were tested for their amoebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique. Among them, 7 kinds of MPDS showed little or no amoebicidal effects for 24 hr exposure. Solutions A, B, G, H, L, and O showed positive amoebicidal effects, and solutions M and N killed almost all trophozoites and cysts after 24 hr exposure. However, 50%-N solution showed 56% cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells within 4 hr exposure, and 50%-O solution also showed 62% cytotoxicity on human cells within 4 hr exposure. Solution A did not show any cytotoxicity on human cells. These results revealed that most MPDS made in Korea were ineffective to kill Acanthamoeba. The solutions having amoebicidal activity also showed high levels of cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells. New formulations for improved MPDS that are amoebicidal but safe for host cells are needed to prevent Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:28095653

  4. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift

  5. Effect of infusion bottle height on lens power after lens refilling with and without a plug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of intraoperative infusion bottle height on the power of refilled pig lenses. Setting: Research Laboratory, Pharmacia Intraocular Lens Manufacturing Plant, Groningen, The Netherlands. Methods: This study comprised 2 groups of pig eyes. In 1 group, the lens was refi

  6. Gravitational binary-lens events with prominent effects of lens orbital motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, J.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS-Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Depoy, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Dong, Subo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational microlensing events produced by lenses composed of binary masses are important because they provide a major channel for determining physical parameters of lenses. In this work, we analyze the light curves of two binary-lens events, OGLE-2006-BLG-277 and OGLE-2012-BLG-0031, for which the light curves exhibit strong deviations from standard models. From modeling considering various second-order effects, we find that the deviations are mostly explained by the effect of the lens orbital motion. We also find that lens parallax effects can mimic orbital effects to some extent. This implies that modeling light curves of binary-lens events not considering orbital effects can result in lens parallaxes that are substantially different from actual values and thus wrong determinations of physical lens parameters. This demonstrates the importance of routine consideration of orbital effects in interpreting light curves of binary-lens events. It is found that the lens of OGLE-2006-BLG-277 is a binary composed of a low-mass star and a brown dwarf companion.

  7. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  8. DISSECTING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS B1608+656. I. LENS POTENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyu, S. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; McKean, J. P.; Treu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful technique for probing galaxy mass distributions and for measuring cosmological parameters. Lens systems with extended source-intensity distributions are particularly useful for this purpose since they provide additional constraints on the lens potential ( m

  9. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  10. An improved spinning lens test to determine the stiffness of the human lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, H.J.; Wilde, G.S.; Judge, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that age-related changes in lens stiffness are significant for the development of presbyopia. However, precise details on the relative importance of age-related changes in the stiffness of the lens, in comparison with other potential mechanisms for the development of presbyopia, have not yet been established. One contributing factor to this uncertainty is the paucity and variability of experimental data on lens stiffness. The available published data generally indicate that stiffness varies spatially within the lens and that stiffness parameters tend to increase with age. However, considerable differences exist between these published data sets, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The current paper describes new and improved methods, based on the spinning lens approach pioneered by Fisher, R.F. (1971) ‘The elastic constants of the human lens’, Journal of Physiology, 212, 147–180, to make measurements on the stiffness of the human lens. These new procedures have been developed in an attempt to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, various systematic errors in Fisher’s original experiment. An improved test rig has been constructed and a new modelling procedure for determining lens stiffness parameters from observations made during the test has been devised. The experiment involves mounting a human lens on a vertical rotor so that the lens spins on its optical axis (typically at 1000 rpm). An automatic imaging system is used to capture the outline of the lens, while it is rotating, at pre-determined angular orientations. These images are used to quantify the deformations developed in the lens as a consequence of the centripetal forces induced by the rotation. Lens stiffness is inferred using axisymmetric finite element inverse analysis in which a nearly-incompressible neo-Hookean constitutive model is used to represent the mechanics of the lens. A numerical optimisation procedure is used to determine the stiffness parameters

  11. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  12. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  14. A Case of Atypical Mucin Balls Wearing Extended Wear of Silicone Hydrogel Lens for Therapeutic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Matsuzaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man visited our hospital showing atopic conjunctivitis and corneal shield ulcer on his left eye. Although eye drops of 0.1% of betamethasone sodium phosphate and 0.1% of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution were prescribed, calcific corneal opacities developed. The corrected visual acuity decreased to 6/20 in Snellen chart. After corneal epithelial exfoliation, removal of calcific corneal opacity was scrubbed with MQA soaked in 0.05 M of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. After washing the eye with 200 mL of physiological saline, a silicon hydrogel lens, PureVision (balafilcon A, was inserted to obtain pain relief for the therapeutic use. At postoperative day 11, mucin balls were found between cornea and contact lens and stained by rose bengal dye. One of them was atypically larger than usual, and the major axis was approximately 1.5 mm. Wearing lens was stopped, and all of mucin balls and corneal staining were disappeared at postoperative day. Little corneal opacity remained, and visual acuity after surgery recovered to 14/20 at five months.

  15. Increased aquaporin 1 and 5 membrane expression in the lens epithelium of cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandika, Olatz; Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Anasagasti, Ander; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Llarena, Irantzu; Bascaran, Lucia; Alberdi, Txomin; De Benedetti, Giacomo; Mendicute, Javier; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In this work we have analyzed the expression levels of the main aquaporins (AQPs) expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) using 112 samples from patients treated with cataract surgery and 36 samples from individuals treated with refractive surgery, with transparent lenses as controls. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the main AQP, representing 64.1% of total AQPs in HLECs, with aquaporin-5 (AQP5) representing 35.9% in controls. A similar proportion of each AQP in cataract was found. Although no differences were found at the mRNA level compared to controls, a significant 1.65-fold increase (p=0.001) in AQP1protein expression was observed in HLECs from cataract patients, with the highest differences being found for nuclear cataracts (2.1-fold increase; p<0.001). A similar trend was found for AQP5 (1.47-fold increase), although the difference was not significant (p=0.161). Moreover we have shown increased membrane AQP5 protein expression in HLECs of patients with cataracts. No association of AQP1 or AQP5 expression levels with age or sex was observed in either group. Our results suggest regulation of AQP1 and AQP5 at the post-translational level and support previous observations on the implication of AQP1 and 5 in maintenance of lens transparency in animal models. Our results likely reflect a compensatory response of the crystalline lens to delay cataract formation by increasing the water removal rate.

  16. Newer antipsychotics and the rabbit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalehdan Azadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit syndrome is a movement disorder that is associated with long-term exposure to neuroleptic medications. Of particular interest and importance is the risk of rabbit syndrome with exposure to the newer atypical antipsychotics. Our recent experience with such a case brought to light the importance of exploring this risk. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed (1972–2006 databases were searched for English language articles using the keywords rabbit syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic, extrapyramidal symptoms and side effects. A recent case study is used to expand upon the literature available on newer antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome. Results We reviewed papers that addressed the following aspects of rabbit syndrome 1 the clinical manifestations 2 prevalence and risk factors, 3 etiopathogenesis 4 older antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome 5 newer antipsychotics, 6 treatment options. Moreover, we report a case of RS in a 50 year old white female, diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, that, after the discontinuation of risperidone, developed involuntary movements of the mouth that were fine, rhythmic and rapid, along the vertical axis, and without involvement of the tongue. After the re-introduction of risperidone, the symptoms decreased in a few hours and disappeared after 3 days. Conclusion Eleven cases of rabbit syndrome have been documented since the implementation of newer antipsychotics. Future research is needed to better understand the etiopathogenesis of rabbit syndrome in psychiatric populations treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Understanding the differences and similarities of rabbit syndrome and tardive dyskinesia is crucial to the creation of a successful treatment paradigm.

  17. Application of rabbits in biomedical research: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosze, Zs.; Houdebine, L M

    2006-01-01

    The first transgenic rabbits were obtained two decades ago by pronuclear microinjection. Several characteristics of rabbit made it the first and classical model for the study of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Rabbit models include normal cholesterol-fed rabbits, spontaneous mutants for lipid metabolism and transgenic rabbits. Though most molecular investigations of the cardiovascular system have used transgenic mice, the small rodents do not accurately reflect crucial facets of human cardi...

  18. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  19. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  20. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human crystalline lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Giovanzana, Stefano; Tălu, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    The surface of human crystalline lens can be described and analyzed using mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the lens. The mathematical models used in lens biomechanics allow the study and the behavior of crystalline lens on variables and complex dynamic loads. Also, the lens biomechanics has the potential to improve the results in the development of intraocular lenses and cataract surgery. The paper presents the most representative mathematical models currently used for the modeling of human crystalline lens, both optically and biomechanically.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is required for corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglin; Upadhya, Dinesh; Lu, Lin; Reneker, Lixing W

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in many aspects of embryonic development. During eye development, the lens and corneal epithelium are derived from the same surface ectodermal tissue. FGF receptor (FGFR)-signaling is essential for lens cell differentiation and survival, but its role in corneal development has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the corneal defects in Fgfr2 conditional knockout mice in which Cre expression is activated at lens induction stage by Pax6 P0 promoter. The cornea in LeCre, Fgfr2(loxP/loxP) mice (referred as Fgfr2(CKO)) was analyzed to assess changes in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We found that Fgfr2(CKO) cornea was much thinner in epithelial and stromal layer when compared to WT cornea. At embryonic day 12.5-13.5 (E12.5-13.5) shortly after the lens vesicle detaches from the overlying surface ectoderm, cell proliferation (judged by labeling indices of Ki-67, BrdU and phospho-histone H3) was significantly reduced in corneal epithelium in Fgfr2(CKO) mice. At later stage, cell differentiation markers for corneal epithelium and underlying stromal mesenchyme, keratin-12 and keratocan respectively, were not expressed in Fgfr2(CKO) cornea. Furthermore, Pax6, a transcription factor essential for eye development, was not present in the Fgfr2(CKO) mutant corneal epithelial at E16.5 but was expressed normally at E12.5, suggesting that FGFR2-signaling is required for maintaining Pax6 expression in this tissue. Interestingly, the role of FGFR2 in corneal epithelial development is independent of ERK1/2-signaling. In contrast to the lens, FGFR2 is not required for cell survival in cornea. This study demonstrates for the first time that FGFR2 plays an essential role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, and maintaining Pax6 levels in corneal epithelium via ERK-independent pathways during embryonic development.

  2. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  3. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  4. Apoptosis in the lens anlage of the heritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, S; Tashiro, M; Baba, R; Sawaki, M; Noda, S; Fujita, M

    1998-08-01

    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities, such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode seems to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle progresses abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. We examined cell death in the lens anlage of this mutant. The lens anlagen of homozygous lap and normal mice from days 10 to 12 of gestation were observed by light microscopy after DNA end-labeling by immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. By light microscopy, a slight frequency of cell death was detected in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and in the anlage or in the anlage of both homozygous lap mice and normal mice at day 10 of gestation. Cell death was seen in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm in the normal mouse and sporadically in the anlage of the homozygous lap mouse at day 10.5 of gestation. Cell death was visible at the area of the lens vesicle attached to the surface ectoderm and encircling the surrounding surface ectoderm in the normal mouse, and in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and the apex areas of the lens anlage in the homozygous lap mouse at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of gestation, almost no cell death was observed in the lens anlage of the normal mouse. However, extensive areas of cell death were still seen in the lens anlage at its apex, at the inner region, and encircling the surface ectoderm in the homozygous lap mouse. Electron microscopic observation showed that the dead cells observed in the lens anlagen by light microscopy in normal and lap mice are the result of apoptosis. In lap mice, cells with cytoplasmic condensation were observed mainly at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. Many apoptotic bodies which had been phagocytosed by adjacent cells were seen predominantly at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of

  5. Tear production, intraocular pressure and conjunctival microbiota, cytology and histology of New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne P. Oriá

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. A total of 22 adult male rabbits were used. The ophthalmic tests included evaluation of tear production with Schirmer tear test 1(STT1 and Endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT using two different commercial brand materials. Applanation tonometry, Culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, , conjunctival cytology and conjunctival histology were also performed. Mean (±SD for STT1, EAPPTTa, EAPPTTb and IOP was 7.27±2.51mm/min, 12.43±1.69mm/min, 15.24±2.07mm/min, 12.89±2.80mm Hg, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were predominant. The cytological evaluation revealed the presence columnar epithelial cells, superficial squamous keratinized cells, lymphocytes, heterophils, red blood cells, mucus and bacteria. The histological analysis revealed a stratified epithelium, characterized by the presence of columnar epithelial cells with a large number of goblet cells. The reported data can be used for therapeutic or experimental purposes.

  6. The effect of subconjunctival bevacizumab on corneal neovascularization, inflammation and re-epithelization in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Reggiani Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab on corneal neovascularization in an experimental rabbit model for its effect on vessel extension, inflammation, and corneal epithelialization. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, blinded, experimental study, 20 rabbits were submitted to a chemical trauma with sodium hydroxide and subsequently divided into two groups. The experimental group received a subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab (0.15 m; 3.75 mg, and the control group received an injection of 0.15 ml saline solution. After 14 days, two blinded digital photograph analyses were conducted to evaluate the inflammation/diameter of the vessels according to pre-established criteria. A histopathological analysis of the cornea evaluated the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. RESULTS: A concordance analysis using Kappa's statistic showed a satisfactory level of agreement between the two blinded digital photography analyses. The neovascular vessel length was greater in the control group (p<0.01 than in the study group. However, the histopathological examination revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Subconjunctival bevacizumab inhibited neovascularization in the rabbit cornea. However, this drug was not effective at reducing inflammation. The drug did not induce persistent corneal epithelial defects.

  7. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input and output (object and image). The generalized Snell's law in three dimensional space and the normal of a surface in fundamental differential geometry are applied. Based on the Lagrange method equations for a single surface system are derived which can perfectly image a point object.

  8. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-12-19

    The gain of an antenna can be enhanced through the integration of a lens, however this technique has traditionally been restricted to planar antennas due to fabrication limitations of standard manufacturing processes. Here, with a unique combination of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a Fresnel lens enhances the gain of a 2-turn helix by around 4.6 dB giving a peak gain of about 12.9 dBi at 8.8 GHz.

  9. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  10. Louvre-Lens : le Louvre autrement

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey Bodéré

    2010-01-01

    ∙ Quels sont les enjeux du projet Louvre-Lens pour le Musée du Louvre ? Par ce projet, le Louvre participe tant à la politique de décentralisation qu’à une volonté de démocratisation culturelle, en allant à la rencontre de nouveaux publics. Mais le projet scientifique et culturel du Louvre-Lens (PSC) précise aussi que l'un des principaux défis est d'oser le « Louvre autrement ». La présentation des collections est donc repensée pour traduire le monde Louvre à Lens. Le lien entre le Louvre Par...

  11. Louvre-Lens : le Louvre autrement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bodéré

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ∙ Quels sont les enjeux du projet Louvre-Lens pour le Musée du Louvre ? Par ce projet, le Louvre participe tant à la politique de décentralisation qu’à une volonté de démocratisation culturelle, en allant à la rencontre de nouveaux publics. Mais le projet scientifique et culturel du Louvre-Lens (PSC précise aussi que l'un des principaux défis est d'oser le « Louvre autrement ». La présentation des collections est donc repensée pour traduire le monde Louvre à Lens. Le lien entre le Louvre Par...

  12. Image watermarking against lens flare effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotikawanid, Piyanart; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat

    2017-02-01

    Lens flare effects in various photo and camera software nowadays can partially or fully damage the watermark information within the watermarked image. We propose in this paper a spatial domain based image watermarking against lens flare effects. The watermark embedding is based on the modification of the saturation color component in HSV color space of a host image. For watermark extraction, a homomorphic filter is used to predict the original embedding component from the watermarked component, and the watermark is blindly recovered by differentiating both components. The watermarked image's quality is evaluated by wPSNR, while the extracted watermark's accuracy is evaluated by NC. The experimental results against various types of lens flare effects from both computer software and mobile application showed that our proposed method outperformed the previous methods.

  13. The Frontier Fields Lens Modeling Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Coe, D; Contini, E; De Lucia, G; Giocoli, C; Acebron, A; Borgani, S; Bradac, M; Diego, J M; Hoag, A; Ishigaki, M; Johnson, T L; Jullo, E; Kawamata, R; Lam, D; Limousin, M; Liesenborgs, J; Oguri, M; Sebesta, K; Sharon, K; Williams, L L R; Zitrin, A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies offers a powerful probe of their structure and mass distribution. Deriving a lens magnification map for a galaxy cluster is a classic inversion problem and many methods have been developed over the past two decades to solve it. Several research groups have developed techniques independently to map the predominantly dark matter distribution in cluster lenses. While these methods have all provided remarkably high precision mass maps, particularly with exquisite imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the reconstructions themselves have never been directly compared. In this paper, we report the results of comparing various independent lens modeling techniques employed by individual research groups in the community. Here we present for the first time a detailed and robust comparison of methodologies for fidelity, accuracy and precision. For this collaborative exercise, the lens modeling community was provided simulated cluster images -- of two clusters Are...

  14. Human amniotic membrane as an intestinal patch for neomucosal growth in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, M; Gökçora, H; Erekul, S; Dindar, H; Yücesan, S

    1992-05-01

    This experiment was carried out as a preliminary study, an attempt to grow new intestinal mucosa on human amniotic membrane in the terminal ileum in 37 rabbits. After ketamin sulfate anesthesia at laparatomy, 5-cm ileal defects were patched with human amniotic membrane (5 x 2 cm). These patched intestines were investigated on the first postoperative day and the 2nd, 5th, 10th, and 20th weeks corresponding to 4, 5, 5, 10, and 10 rabbits, respectively. Only three rabbits died in the early postoperative period. There was no evidence of intestinal obstruction or dilatation with barium meal. Microscopically, the neomucosa consisted of a thin layer of columnar epithelial cells at 2 weeks with more maturity of the villi and less irregularity and branching by 20 weeks. All patches were covered with neomucosa commencing at 2 weeks and covering the whole patch area by 20 weeks. This technique's advantages are the large size and the ease of the availability of the human amniotic membrane for neonates at risk without jeopardizing the neonates tissues. It is hoped that this method might be considered when neonatal material is scarce.

  15. Expression of SV40 T antigen under control of rabbit uteroglobin promoter in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMayo, F J; Finegold, M J; Hansen, T N; Stanley, L A; Smith, B; Bullock, D W

    1991-08-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in the lungs and reproductive tracts of male and female rabbits. To examine whether the promoter region of the uteroglobin gene could be used to target a heterologous gene to the lungs of transgenic mice, a fusion gene consisting of 3.3 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the rabbit uteroglobin gene and the large T antigen gene of the SV40 virus was constructed and microinjected into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. Eleven founder transgenic mice (5 female and 6 male) were generated. Seven of these mice developed bronchioalveolar neoplasms. Four of the founder males also developed primitive undifferentiated urogenital tract tumors. One founder female and one female offspring of a founder male developed glandular paraovarian tumors. Northern analysis revealed that the predominant site of expression of the transgene was the lung. Immunohistochemical staining showed T antigen predominantly in epithelial cells lining the bronchioles, the submucosal glands of the trachea, and the neoplasms. There appeared to be a high level of mosaicism for the transgene in the founder mice, with poor transmission of the transgene to subsequent generations. This suggests that, under the control of the uteroglobin promoter, the T antigen gene may be lethal to the fetus.

  16. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  18. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  19. Intraocular Lens Calcification; a Clinicopathologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei-Kanavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of a case of hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL calcification. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man underwent explantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in his left eye because of decreased visual acuity and milky white opalescence of the IOL. The opacified lens was exchanged uneventfully with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Gross examination of the explanted IOL disclosed opacification of the optic and haptics. Full-thickness sections of the lens optic were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, von Kossa and Gram Tworts'. Microscopic examination of the sections revealed fine and diffuse basophilic granular deposits of variable size within the lens optic parallel to the lens curvature but separated from the surface by a moderately clear zone. The deposits were of high calcium content as evident by dark brown staining with von Kossa. Gram Tworts' staining disclosed no microorganisms. CONCLUSION: This report further contributes to the existing literature on hydrogel IOL calcification.

  20. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  1. Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M

    1984-01-01

    A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.

  2. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  3. Pulse transformer for the AA lithium lens

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The antiprotons emanating from the target were initially focused by a magnetic horn. Later on, a Li-lens was used during operation for the SPS collider, until 1992. A Li-rod (130 mm long, 34 mm in diameter) constituted the secondary of a 1:23 pulse-transformer. The half-sine pulse rose to 1000 kA in 900 microsec. The angular acceptance was 95 mrad. In operation after 1992, for LEAR only, a more modest Li-lens was used (155 mm long, diameter 20 mm, 480 kA, risetime 240 microsec, angular acceptance 75 mrad).

  4. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  5. Fundamentals of concentric lens systems synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhova, Kseniia; Zverev, Victor; Tochilina, Tatiana; Tymoshchuk, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Introduction of coefficients defining the relationship of the radii of curvature of the surfaces of concentric optical systems, allowed the transformation of the obtained analytical relations in a system of two equations with two unknowns. It is shown that the existence of the solution of the system of equations determined by the optical constants of the selected lens material. The results of the analysis of the conditions of the chromatic aberration correction position and the sequence of obtaining of the system equations define the theoretical basis of the engineering method of parametric synthesis of concentric lens systems. Application of the developed method is illustrated by examples of calculation particular systems design build.

  6. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  7. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hydrina D'Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant.

  8. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  9. Immunochemical analyses of soluble lens proteins in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens proteins of 10 fishes, belonging to the families Clupeidae, Hemirhamphidae, Lactaridae, Scombridae, Stromatidae, Psettodidae, Bothidae and Soleidae were studied by immunoelectrophoresis using the lens antiserum of Sardinella...

  10. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An experimental contact lens design releases a glaucoma medicine at a steady rate for up to ...

  11. Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wensheng; Dong, Nuo; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Zhenhao; Hu, Jiaoyue; Xie, Hui; Pan, Juxin; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin) and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, β-catenin) proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier integrity of corneal

  12. Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Chen

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT, rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, β-catenin proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier

  13. Phakic Pattern Pseudoexfoliation Material Accumulation on Intraocular Lens Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Güler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation is the accumulation of pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens. Most of the cases have showed scattered flecks of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of the intraocular lens. However, the phakic pattern consisting of classic three-zone on the intraocular lens is rarely observed. In this case report, we describe a phakic pattern pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens surface 8 years after cataract extraction. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 156-7

  14. Phakic Pattern Pseudoexfoliation Material Accumulation on Intraocular Lens Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Güler; Aylin Tenlik; Tuba Kara Akyüz

    2014-01-01

    Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation is the accumulation of pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens. Most of the cases have showed scattered flecks of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of the intraocular lens. However, the phakic pattern consisting of classic three-zone on the intraocular lens is rarely observed. In this case report, we describe a phakic pattern pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens surface 8 years after cataract extraction. (Turk J Ophthalm...

  15. Lens autofluorescence is not increased at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relation between ambient environmental ultraviolet radiation exposure and lens fluorescence. METHODS: Non-invasive lens fluorometry measurements were compared in healthy Bolivian and Danish subjects. Background ultraviolet radiation was 4.5 times higher in Bolivia than...... in Denmark. RESULTS: No significant differences in lens fluorescence or transmittance were found between Bolivian and Danish volunteers. CONCLUSION: Age-corrected lens fluorescence and transmittance were comparable for healthy participants living at high altitude near the equator and healthy volunteers...

  16. An Ultrasonic Lens Design Based on Prefractal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Castiñeira-Ibáñez; Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano; Constanza Rubio; Pilar Candelas; Antonio Uris

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in focusing capabilities of a set of annular scatterers arranged in a fractal geometry is theoretically quantified in this work by means of the finite element method (FEM). Two different arrangements of rigid rings in water are used in the analysis. Thus, both a Fresnel ultrasonic lens and an arrangement of rigid rings based on Cantor prefractals are analyzed. Results show that the focusing capacity of the modified fractal lens is better than the Fresnel lens. This new lens is...

  17. Protective effect of the anterior lens capsule during extracapsular cataract extraction. Part I. Experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K D; Gwin, T D; O'Morchoe, D J; Tetz, M R; Hansen, S O; Sugita, A; Imkamp, E M; Apple, D J

    1989-05-01

    In an experimental study using albino Rex rabbits, the intercapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) technique was performed in 20 eyes with a small anterior capsulotomy. A large, can opener capsulotomy was performed in another 20 eyes, and 10 unoperated eyes served as controls. Endothelial cell loss was determined by vital staining with Trypan blue and Alizarin red S stains. Average endothelial cell loss with the ICCE technique was 1.2%; with the can opener technique, the average cell loss was 6.6%. This difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.01). The percentage of endothelial cell loss in the control eyes was 0.5. A positive correlation between endothelial cell loss related to phacoemulsification time and/or the amount of irrigating fluid used existed for the can opener group only (P less than 0.01). These results demonstrate that the presence of an almost intact anterior lens capsule during removal of lens substance is protective to the corneal endothelium.

  18. Bilateral Epithelial Defects after Laser in situ Keratomileusis. Clinical Features, Management and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Srinivas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, management, and postoperative in patients with bilateral epithelial defects after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. METHODS: Retrospective non-comparative case series. RESULTS: Six patients with bilateral epithelial defects after LAISK were part of a cohort of 605 patients undergoing bilateral LASIK at our center from December 2001 to April 2003. The mean age of the patients (5M:1F was 28.5 7.9 years, and the average pretreatment myopic spherical equivalent (SE refraction was 7.3 0.7 D (-4, -12.25D. An epithelial flap was present in 6 eyes and an epithelial defect with a mean diameter of 3 mm (2mm, 6mm was seen in 6 eyes. In four patients the epithelial disturbance was bilaterally similar. All defects occurred in the inferior cornea and the epithelial flaps had the hinge positioned superiorly. None of the patients had ocular or systemic risk factors that could have resulted in this complication. A bandage contact lens was used in 6 eyes. At last follow-up of 5.5 9.5 months (0.25, 21 months, unaided visual acuity was 6/9 or better in 10 eyes. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA was maintained in 8 eyes, while 4 eyes lost one line of BSCVA. Recurrent corneal erosions were not reported in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: These patients represent a hitherto unrecognised group of individuals who appear to have a subclinical weakness of adhesion of the corneal epithelium to the underlying structures, which is not evident on clinical examination. This results in bilateral epithelial disturbances after LASIK. Appropriate management results in satisfactory clinical outcomes. Other options for treatment of the fellow eye of such patients include the use of a different microkeratome, release of suction during the reverse pass of the Hansatome microkeratome, and photorefractive keratectomy if the refractive error is low.

  19. Adult rabbits acquire resistance to lethal calicivirus infection by adoptive transfer of sera from infected young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P G; Dinís, M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Aguas, A P

    2008-02-15

    Calicivirus infection of adult rabbits induces the so-called rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) that kills 90% or more of the infected animals; in contrast, young rabbits (up to 8-week-old animals) are resistant to the same infectious agent. We report that calicivirus inoculation of young rabbits induced moderate titres of antiviral antibodies. When these rabbits reached adulthood, a second calicivirus inoculation resulted in resistance to RHD and boosting of antibody titres in half of the rabbits. Adoptive transfer of sera from calicivirus-infected young rabbits to naïve adult rabbits conferred resistance to RHD. We conclude that calicivirus infection of young rabbits induces specific anti-calicivirus antibodies that will protect them from RHD when they reach adulthood.

  20. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  1. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5916 Rigid gas permeable contact lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn...

  3. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  4. DMBT1 encodes a protein involved in the immune defense and in epithelial differentiation and is highly unstable in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Herbertz, S; Holmskov, U

    2000-01-01

    in the respiratory immune defense. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that DMBT1 is produced by both tumor-associated macrophages and tumor cells and that it is deregulated in glioblastoma multiforme in comparison to normal brain tissue. Our data further suggest that the proteins CRP-ductin and hensin, both...... of which have been implicated in epithelial differentiation, are the DMBT1 orthologs in mice and rabbits, respectively. These findings and the spatial and temporal distribution of DMBT1 in fetal and adult epithelia suggest that DMBT1 further plays a role in epithelial development. Rearrangements of DMBT1......, DMBT1 is a gene that is highly unstable in cancer and encodes for a protein with at least two different functions, one in the immune defense and a second one in epithelial differentiation....

  5. Analysis on shift and rotation of intraocular lens after phakic collamer lens implantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan-Yuan Lu; Na Yang; Xue-Dong Li; Jun Kong

    2016-01-01

    .... In 1993, Staar Surgical(A.G. Nidau)introduced a modified intraocular collamer lens(ICL)for the correction of high myopia, which emerged as a safe and effective operation for moderate or high myopia gradually...

  6. Contact lens wear and microbial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Markanday

    2002-11-01

    Common types of contact lens are hard, rigid gas-permeable or soft lenses. Most lenses are worn on a daily basis. Cosmetic lenses are worn for non-medical indications. Microbial keratitis, a rare but most significant complication is discussed in this article. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci are the most common organisms cause infective keratitis. Fungi and acanthamoeba are also responsible. The causes of increased susceptibility to infection are poor lens hygiene, adhesion of bacteria to lens surface and hypoxia. Preventing measures to be taken while wearing contact lens are discussed in a nutshell. Ocular pain, conjunctival infection, photophobia, epiphora and reduced vision are some of the symptoms of corneal infection. Diagnostic laboratory investigations are to be carried out immediately when a microbial corneal ulcer is suspected. Acanthamoeba can be cultured from corneal scrapes. Immunologically based fluorescein labelling techniques appear to be more sensitive than simple staining. The treatment consists of medical and surgical intervention. Corneal thinning, descemetocele formation and perforation are possible complications.

  7. Application of optical polymers in lens design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, Nina; Kasarova, Stefka; Nikolov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Optical, some thermal and elastic properties of optical polymers which are of importance in lens design are considered. Results are based on precise measurement of refraction of materials. Ultrasonic investigation of elastic moduli is carried out. Comparison to properties of Schott glasses is accomplished. Examples on the design of all-plastic and hybrid glass-plastic systems are presented.

  8. Testing and inspecting lens by holographic means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-01-01

    Processes for the accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of oncave and convex lens surfaces through holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and said convex surfaces to be so tested.

  9. Lens testing using total internal reflection holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-12-14

    Accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of lens surfaces tugh holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and convex surfaces to be so tested.

  10. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60% required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25% eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5% eyes with the use of contact lens (p Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries.

  11. Magnifying perfect lens with positive refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    We propose a device with a positive isotropic refractive index that creates a magnified perfect real image of an optically homogeneous three-dimensional region of space within geometrical optics. Its key ingredient is a new refractive index profile that can work as a perfect lens on its own, having a very moderate index range.

  12. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  13. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.

    OpenAIRE

    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  14. High Accuracy Dual Lens Transmittance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    measurement of lens transmission,” Metrologia 37, 603–605 (2000). 3. B. Munro, “Quantum information processing with light and its requirement for detectors...5. N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991). 5402 APPLIED OPTICS Vol. 46, No. 22 1 August 2007 6. S. L

  15. Studies on the crystalline lens. XXI. Bidirectional carrier-mediated transport of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI); McLean, I.W.

    1974-10-01

    Movement of lithium both into and out of cultured rabbit lenses occurs by processes that obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics as well as by a nonsaturable process. The parameters describing the kinetics of transport are evaluated on the basis of a modified version of a pump-leak hypothesis that was shown previously to account for the fluxes of other alkali metal cations. Potassium is a potent competitive inhibitor of the carrier-mediated transport of lithium into the lens. Lithium weakly inhibits the influx of potassium by a noncompetitive process. The observation that lithium is a weak inhibitor of potassium transport (Ki = 70 mM) while having a moderate affinity for its carrier (Km = 4.0 mM) suggests that more than one site may be responsible for the transport of potassium and lithium into the lens. Active transport of lithium out of the lens does not appear to involve the sodium pump, since the rate of sodium efflux is unaffected by lithium. Both influx and efflux of lithium are inhibited by ouabain (10/sup -5/ M) but not by amiloride (10/sup -4/ M) or oxytocin (20 milliunits per milliliter). Lithium displaces proportionate amounts of sodium and potassium from intracellular fluid when lenses are cultured in the presence of this cation. The nonsaturable exchange of lithium is independent of observed differences in electric potential, indicating that lithium does not permeate the lenticular membranes by simple diffusion of lithium ions, but rather as a complex with either a free anion or a carrier within the membrane. The affinity of lithium for the carrier is essentially equal to that of cesium and much lower than that for rubidium, whereas the kd of both lithium and rubidium is much higher than that for cesium. These differences indicate that a common pathway cannot be responsible for the discrimination between cations by both the pump and the leak.

  16. High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tomris Sengor; Sevda Aydin Kurna; Suat Aki; et al

    2011-01-01

    Tomris Sengor, Sevda Aydin Kurna, Suat Aki, Yelda ÖzkurtFatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients.Methods: Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen tran...

  17. Minus Piggyback Lens Overlaying ReSTOR® Multifocal Lens in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient treated with implantation of the Acrysof® IQ ReSTOR® lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA with overlaying Acrysof EXpand® minus piggyback lens (Alcon. Methods: The patient had high myopia and was diagnosed with presbyopia and bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. She desired to be spectacle-free and opted to undergo bilateral placement of the ReSTOR multifocal lens. The necessary intraocular lens (IOL power was +3.5 in the right eye and +4.0 in the left eye, though the range of commercially available ReSTOR lenses is +6.0 to +34.0 D. In order to achieve emmetropia in this case of high myopia, it was determined that an EXpand minus piggyback lens would be necessary. Results: Implantation of the ReSTOR lens with overlaying EXpand minus piggyback lens was performed successfully and without complication. At 5 months postoperatively, the patient had 20/20 uncorrected visual acuity in both eyes. She reported a high level of satisfaction and was able to return to her daily activities including reading and driving without spectacles. Conclusion: We report successful primary implantation of AcrySof EXpand minus piggyback lenses overlying the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR lens in a patient with high myopia. Long-term follow-up and further evaluation is necessary to establish piggyback IOL implantation with multifocal IOL as an accepted treatment for high myopia with presbyopia.

  18. Dbl oncogene expression in MCF-10 A epithelial cells disrupts mammary acinar architecture, induces EMT and angiogenic factor secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Cristina; Ognibene, Marzia; Finetti, Federica; Mancini, Patrizia; Cabodi, Sara; Segalerba, Daniela; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Donnini, Sandra; Bosco, Maria Carla; Varesio, Luigi; Eva, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The proteins of the Dbl family are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of Rho GTPases and are known to be involved in cell growth regulation. Alterations of the normal function of these proteins lead to pathological processes such as developmental disorders, neoplastic transformation, and tumor metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that expression of Dbl oncogene in lens epithelial cells modulates genes encoding proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and induces angiogenesis in the lens. Our present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Dbl oncogene in epithelial cells transformation, providing new insights into carcinoma progression.To assess how Dbl oncogene can modulate EMT, cell migration, morphogenesis, and expression of pro-apoptotic and angiogenic factors we utilized bi- and 3-dimensional cultures of MCF-10 A cells. We show that upon Dbl expression MCF-10 A cells undergo EMT. In addition, we found that Dbl overexpression sustains Cdc42 and Rac activation inducing morphological alterations, characterized by the presence of lamellipodia and conferring a high migratory capacity to the cells. Moreover, Dbl expressing MCF-10 A cells form altered 3D structures and can induce angiogenesis by producing proangiogenic factors such as CCL2. These results support a role for Dbl oncogene in epithelial cell differentiation and transformation and suggest the relevance of GEF deregulation in tumor onset and progression.

  19. Eimeria stiedae: experimental infection in rabbits and the effect of treatment with toltrazuril and ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Yücel; Atasever, Ayhan; Eraslan, Gökhan; Kibar, Murat; Atalay, Oznur; Beyaz, Latife; Inci, Abdullah; Liman, Bilal Cem

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, haematological, biochemical, lipid peroxidation, ultrasonographic and pathologic findings in hepatic coccidiosis induced by Eimeria stiedae in rabbits, and also to compare the treatment effects of both toltrazuril and ivermectin separately and in combination. In this study, 56 rabbits were divided into eight groups. The first group was designated as healthy control group. Rabbits were infected with 40.000 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were allocated as the infected control group, infected+toltrazuril-treated group, infected+ivermectin-treated group, infected+toltrazuril+ivermectin-treated group, non-infected+toltrazuril-treated group, non-infected+ivermectin-treated group, non-infected+toltrazuril+ivermectin-treated group, respectively. Haematocrit, Haemoglobin and MCV values as well as percentage of lymphocyte decreased in Groups 2 and 4 whereas leucocyte counts and percentage of granulocyte leucocyte increased. Serum GGT, ALT and AST activities increased but albumin value decreased. Plasma MDA concentrations increased whereas erythrocyte CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD activities decreased. Mean oocyst numbers in per gram faeces (epg values) increased in both groups during the study. Ultrasonographic examination revealed that the liver was enlarged and had hyperechogenic parenchyma. Bile ducts were dilated and hyperechogenic and the gall bladder was dilated. The livers of these animals were enlarged and typical macroscopic and microscopic findings of coccidiosis were present. Treatment with toltrazuril and toltrazuril+ivermectin combination were highly effective in reducing faecal oocyst output in infected rabbits. Haematological, biochemical and lipid peroxidation parameters and, ultrasonographic findings of the liver were close to control values for Groups 3 and 5. Necropsy of these animals showed no visible lesions related to hepatic coccidiosis although a few oocysts were detected

  20. Preventive role of lens antioxidant defense mechanism against riboflavin-mediated sunlight damaging of lens crystallins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbaraki, Afrooz; Khoshaman, Kazem; Ghasemi, Younes; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The main components of sunlight reaching the eye lens are UVA and visible light exerting their photo-damaging effects indirectly by the aid of endogenous photosensitizer molecules such as riboflavin (RF). In this study, lens proteins solutions were incubated with RF and exposed to the sunlight. Then, gel mobility shift analysis and different spectroscopic assessments were applied to examine the structural damaging effects of solar radiation on these proteins. Exposure of lens proteins to direct sunlight, in the presence of RF, leads to marked structural crosslinking, oligomerization and proteolytic instability. These structural damages were also accompanied with reduction in the emission fluorescence of Trp and Tyr and appearance of a new absorption peak between 300 and 400nm which can be related to formation of new chromophores. Also, photo-oxidation of lens crystallins increases their oligomeric size distribution as examined by dynamic light scattering analysis. The above mentioned structural insults, as potential sources of sunlight-induced senile cataract and blindness, were significantly attenuated in the presence of ascorbic acid and glutathione which are two important components of lens antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the powerful antioxidant defense mechanism of eye lens is an important barrier against molecular photo-damaging effects of solar radiations during the life span. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of fiber lens with gradient index based on thin lens equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-feng; GE Chun-feng; LI Shi-chen

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the fiber-lens TEC (Thermally Expended Core) /Coreless/GRIN (Graded-Index) based on thin lens equivalence is presented in this paper.On condition that the TEC part adjusts the waist radius of an incident Gaussian beam,that the coreless part controlls the space between the beam waist and the thin lens,and that the GRIN part acts as the thin lens with its focal length determined by fiber index distribution parameter g,the analytic expressions of the waist spot size and the working distance of the output Gaussian beam are derived,and the influence of the coreless fiber and the length of the GRIN fiber upon the fiber-lens parameter is discussed based on the numerical simulation results.It is concluded that,if a GRIN style fiber-lens is used as a collimator,the maximum of the spot waist can be up to 80 μm and the divergence angle of single-mode optical fiber can be reduced by 8 times.If it is applied to a MEMS device, the maximum working distance can be up to 3 mm.

  2. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  3. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  4. The relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: All New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE), (3) extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE+IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes, including cornea edema and anterior chamber exudation were observed via zoom-photo slitlamp microscope 1,3,7,14,30 d postoperation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) counting and classifying, and for NO-2/NO-3 and cytokine assay, including interleukin-2(IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Statistics were taken by SPSS softwear. RESULTS: (1) Total WBC in aqueous humor were higher and anterior chamber exudation were more severe in ECCE+IOL group than that in ECCE group and control group. (2) The level of IL-2 and TNF-α and the content of NO-2/NO-3 in aqueous humor of ECCE+IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group 1-14 d postoperation respectively, and it increased to peak value at 3-7 d postoperation and decreased gradually after two weeks postoperation. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-α and NO-2/NO-3 in each group were basically similar, i.e. when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) was normal, the content of NO-2/NO-3 was normal too, when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) increased, the content of NO-2/NO-3 increased too. CONCLUSION: The intraocular inflammation after ECCE+IOL was more severe than that after simple ECCE. NO, IL-2 and TNF-α play an important role in intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation. The changes of IL-2 and TNF-α level was closely related with NO content in aqueous humor.

  5. Liquid bridge as a tunable-focus cylindrical liquid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Tabatabaei, N.; Amirfazli, A.

    2017-01-01

    We proposed a method to create a tunable-focus cylindrical liquid lens using a liquid bridge between two narrow surfaces. Due to the surface edge effect, the interface of the liquid bridge (on the long side) was shown to be able to serve as a tunable-focus cylindrical liquid lens. The working distance of the lens can be adjusted by changing either or both of the height of the bridge (H) and the volume of the liquid (V). By varying H and V, the lens can serve as either diverging or converging lens, with a minimum working distance of 2.11 mm.

  6. Gram negative bacteria and contact lens induced acute red eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaridurg Padmaja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients using hydrogel contact lenses on a daily wear schedule slept overnight with the lenses and woke up with a Contact Lens Induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE. The contact lenses recovered aseptically at the time of the event grew significant colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila in patient A and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia liquefaciens from patient B. Similar organisams from the contact lenses were recovered from the lens case and lens care solutions of patient B. In both the patients the condition resolved on discontinuation of lens wear. Patient compliance as a requirement for successful contact lens wear is highlighted with the illustration of these cases.

  7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  8. Effects of antiallergic herbal agents on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in nasal mucosal epithelia of allergic rhinitis rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; LI Xiao-li; YANG Xue; BAO Jian-min; SHEN Xiao-hong

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been found that the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is closely related to allergic rhinitis (AR). In the previous study, we have demonstrated that antiallergic herbal agents (AHA) can obviously inhibit the allergic reaction of AR. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of CFTR and the effects of AHA on CFTR to improve the allergic reaction of AR.Methods An animal model of an AR rabbit was established using ovalbumin (OVA). The rhinitis rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: AHA treating group (AHATG), modeling group (MG) and healthy controlling group (HCG). The expressions of CFTR protein were examined by immunohistochemical method. The mucosal epithelial cells of all the rabbits were primarily cultured with tissue culture method in vitro and treated with or without glibenclamide for 24 hours. The levels of monocyte chemotactic factor-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES protein in supernatants of culture were measured by ELISA, and the expressions of CFTR mRNA were detected by real-time PCR.Results The expressions of CFTR mRNA and protein greatly increased in mucosal epithelial cells of MG. The protein concentrations of MCP-1, RANTES in culture supernatants of MG were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P0.05).Conclusions AHA can inhibit the secretions of CFTR, RANTES and MCP-1 in mucosal epithelia and improve inflammatory reaction of AR. CFTR may play an important role in the secretion of RANTES and mucosal inflammatory response in AR. Glibenclamide can inhibit the CFTR secretion in mucosal epithelial cells, in particular during AR process. These effects of glibenclamide on secretion of RANTES can be effectively strengthened by AHA.

  9. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local Government Area Of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It involved the collection of primary data from a sample of SO rabbit farmers spread over 10 ...

  10. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  11. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  12. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Coura Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  13. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR. Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a "folded head"-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.

  15. Hypoplastic basement membrane of the lens anlage in the inheritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, S; Baba, R; Noda, S; Ikuno, S; Fujita, M

    2000-04-01

    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode appears to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle develops abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. Apoptotic cell death is associated with the disappearance of the lens anlage. We examined the basement membranes of the lens anlage of this mutant by immunohistochemical methods under light microscopy using antibodies against basement membrane components of the lens anlage, type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and entactin and by transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution and intensity of antibody binding to the lens anlage to be almost the same for each these antibodies regardless of the stage of gestation or whether the anlagen were from normal BALB/c or lap mice. Thus, positive continuous reactions were observed around the exterior region of the lens anlage from day 10 of gestation for type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan antibodies, and at least from day 11of gestation for entactin antibody. The basement membrane lamina densa of both normal and lap mice was shown by electron microscopy to be discontinuous at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. However, by day 11 the lamina densa was continuous in the lens anlagen of normal mice but still discontinuous in the lap mice. By day 12 of gestation, the lamina densa had thickened markedly in normal mice, whereas in lap mice it remained discontinuous and its thinness indicated hypoplasia. These results indicate that, while all basement components examined are produced and deposited in the normal region of the lens anlage in the lap mouse, the basement membrane is, for some reason, imperfectly formed. The time at which hypoplasia of the basement membrane was observed

  16. Lightweight autoclavable wide-angle contact lens for vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Gupta, Shailesh K; Agarwal, Swati

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens for vitrectomy. The lens has two optical pieces with perforated plastic casing to sustain a high temperature (150 degrees C) for autoclaving. The lens has a 106 degrees static and 127 degrees dynamic field of view. The footplates and reduced weight (2.4 grams) due to the plastic casing allow self-stabilization of the lens. The open lens design.with high temperature resistant plastic prevents fogging during autoclaving and surgery. The autoclavable, self-stabilizing, lightweight wide-angle contact lens allows visualization of the peripheral retina during surgery and faster sterilization by autoclaving between surgeries without the disadvantage of lens fogging.

  17. Method and apparatus for sputtering with a plasma lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2016-09-27

    A plasma lens for enhancing the quality and rate of sputter deposition onto a substrate is described herein. The plasma lens serves to focus positively charged ions onto the substrate while deflecting negatively charged ions, while at the same time due to the line of sight positioning of the lens, allowing for free passage of neutrals from the target to the substrate. The lens itself is formed of a wound coil of multiple turns, inside of which are deposed spaced lens electrodes which are electrically paired to impress an E field overtop the B field generated by the coil, the potential applied to the electrodes increasing from end to end towards the center of the lens, where the applied voltage is set to a high potential at the center electrodes as to produce a potential minimum on the axis of the lens.

  18. Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Treatment of Lens Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Avcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lens injury due to traumas may present as loss of capsule integrity, cataract, lens subluxation, or lens luxation. In addition, lens subluxation and lens luxation may occur in pseudophakic patients due to trauma. Clear corneal, scleral or sclero-corneal phacoemulsification surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, pars plana vitrectomy with phaco-fragmentation, or pars plana vitrectomy with removal through corneal incision techniques are used in the treatment of lens injury due to traumas. Intraocular lens can be implanted in the bag, sulcus, or anterior chamber during the surgery. Depending on the circumstances, scleral fixated intraocular lenses or iris-claw lenses may also be preferred. Rehabilitation of such patients is not of a great concern today, with the advanced level of vitreoretinal surgery and cataract surgery techniques and with the current state of technology. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 51-4

  19. System and Method for Null-Lens Wavefront Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C. (Inventor); Thompson, Patrick L. (Inventor); Aronstein, David L. (Inventor); Bolcar, Matthew R. (Inventor); Smith, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of measuring aberrations in a null-lens including assembly and alignment aberrations. The null-lens may be used for measuring aberrations in an aspheric optic with the null-lens. Light propagates from the aspheric optic location through the null-lens, while sweeping a detector through the null-lens focal plane. Image data being is collected at locations about said focal plane. Light is simulated propagating to the collection locations for each collected image. Null-lens aberrations may extracted, e.g., applying image-based wavefront-sensing to collected images and simulation results. The null-lens aberrations improve accuracy in measuring aspheric optic aberrations.

  20. Transmigration route of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized intestinal epithelial cells: paracellular, transcellular or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Intact intercellular junctions and cellular matrix contacts are crucial structural components for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions in humans to control the commensal flora and protect against intruding microbes. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens causing food-borne gastroenteritis and potentially more severe diseases such as reactive arthritis or Guillain–Barré syndrome. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell invasion by C. jejuni are considered to represent the primary reasons of gut tissue damage in humans and various animal model systems including monkeys, piglets, rabbits, hamsters and ferrets. C. jejuni is also able to invade underlying tissues such as the lamina propria, can enter the bloodstream, and possibly reach distinct organs such as spleen, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in these activities are poorly understood. Various models exist by which the pathogen can trigger its own transmigration across polarized intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, the paracellular and/or transcellular mechanism. Recent studies suggest that bacterial factors such as flagellum, serine protease HtrA and lipooligosaccharide LOS may play an active role in bacterial transmigration. Here we review our knowledge on transmigration of C. jejuni as well as some other Campylobacter species, and discuss the pros and cons for the route(s) taken to travel across polarized epithelial cell monolayers. These studies provide fresh insights into the infection strategies employed by this important pathogen. PMID:24079544