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Sample records for rabbit hind leg

  1. NIRS PREDICTION FOR PROTEIN AND INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT OF RABBIT HIND LEG MEAT

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    Gy. Bázár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop calibration equations to predict the chemical composition of raw, homogenized rabbit meat by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. 44 Pannon White rabbits were housed in groups in three different pen types (16 anim./m2, and were fed the same diet. Another 45 animals were housed in cages (12 anim./m2 and fed by different feeding regimes. Rabbits were slaughtered at the bodyweight of 2.4-2.5 kg. Homogenized fresh and freeze-dried left total hind leg muscles were investigated by NIRS using a NIRSystem 6500 equipment with small ring cup sample holder. The ether extract and protein content of all samples were determined chemically. Samples 44 of housing experiment were applied in producing LOCAL calibration equations tested on the 45 samples from the separate feeding experiment. Coefficients of determination (R2 of the predictions were 0.89 and 0.99 for fat, 0.85 and 0.96 for protein in fresh and freeze-dried samples, respectively. Results are reassuring, because the equations were applicable, however the analyzed samples were from independent housing and feeding systems. Therefore the chemical compositions differed in the two datasets, i.e. 9.46%, and 11.79% for fat, 85.75% and 83.44% for protein content in calibration and prediction datasets, respectively. The average of NIRS predicted values for fat and protein was 11.36%, 83.88% or 11.54%, 83.45% when using fresh or freeze-dried samples, respectively.

  2. 2D motion analysis of rabbits after Achilles tendon rupture repair and histological analysis of extracted tendons: can the number of animals be reduced by operating both hind legs simultaneously?

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    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Nicholls, Flora; Achermann, Rita; Bürgisser, Gabriella Meier; Baumgartner, Walter; Calcagni, Maurizio; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Considering the 3Rs principle in animal experiments, there is a demand to perform research experiments with the fewest number of animals possible while warranting the welfare of the animals. Orthopaedic experimental studies involving operations on the hind legs of rabbits are either performed on one hind leg with the second hind leg serving as control or on both hind legs simultaneously (control: rabbits with no operations at all). The Achilles tendon of rabbits was transected and sutured, and the two-dimensional motion pattern of animals having only one leg operated was compared to rabbits having both hind legs operated (control: non-treated animals). Step length, maximum ankle angle, minimum ankle angle and the resulting range of motion of both hind legs were determined weekly over a time span from 3 weeks to 12 weeks post-operation. The results were fitted by a linear mixed effects model including time dependency. Moreover, all tendon specimen were analysed histologically. Tenocyte and tenoblast density, tenocyte and tenoblast nuclei width, inflammation level and collagen fibre alignment were determined. Statistically significant differences in the motion pattern were found when one-leg treated and two-leg treated animals were compared. However, the absolute differences were on average less than 20%. Histologically, 1-leg treated animals had tendon tissue with higher cell density, but lower inflammation and less ondulated collagen fibres compared to 2-leg treated animals; the nuclei width was the same for both groups. With regard to welfare, all animals were fine during the experiments. While comparative studies should be performed with one-leg treated animals due to interaction effects, for proof-of-principle studies, operating two legs per animal may be justified as the welfare of the animals is warranted. This is a great benefit in the sense of the 3Rs because up to 50% of animals can be spared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

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    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  4. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

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    Najmus Mahfooz

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  5. Effects of expression of calpain mRNA in rabbits exposed to vibration by hind legs%后肢接振对家兔脑和骨骼肌组织中calpain mRNA表达的影响

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    张兆强; 张春芝; 聂继池; 林立

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨后肢接触振动(简称接振)对家兔脑和骨骼肌组织中calpain mRNA表达的影响.方法 依据4h等能量频率计权加速度有效值[a()(4)]将32只新西兰大白兔随机分为低强度(4.33 m/s2)、中强度(8.67 m/s2)、高强度(17.34 m/s2)组和对照组;后肢接振45 d后,取家兔脑和骨骼肌组织,实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应(RT-qPCR)检测其calpain-1和calpain-2 mRNA的表达情况.结果 低、中、高强度组家兔脑组织中calpain-1 mRNA的相对含量分别为8.35±3.75、9.64±4.54、15.10±5.26,calpain-2 mRNA的相对含量分别为7.34±4.97、8.50±5.66、8.16±5.59,明显高于对照组(1.10±0.29、0.56±0.43),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);与对照组(0.98±0.59)比较,低、中、高强度组家兔骨骼肌组织中calpain-1 mRNA的相对含量(4.36±2.05、7.37±4.06、12.46±6.21)明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);各强度组与对照组家兔骨骼肌组织中calpain-2 mRNA的表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 后肢接振能够上调家兔脑组织中calpain-1和calpain-2 mRNA以及骨骼肌组织calpain-1 mRNA的表达.%Objective To study the effects of expression of calpain mRNA in rabbits exposed to vibration by hind legs.Methods 32 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into a control group and 3 experimental groups according to 4-hour energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration[a()(4)]:low (4.33 m/s2),moderate (8.67 m/s2) and high (17.34 m/s2) intensity group to accepted the vibration by hind legs.45 ds later,brain and skeletal muscle tissue of rabbits were taken to detect the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 mRNA by RT-qPCR technique.Results The relative content of calpain-1 mRNA in the brain tissues in rabbits of low,medium and high intensity group were 8.35±3.75,9.64±4.54,5.10±5.26.While the relative content of calpain-2 mRNA in the brain tissues in rabbits of low,medium and high intensity group were 7.34 ±4.97,8.50 ±5.66,8.16

  6. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

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    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx, whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  7. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

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    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  8. Anatomy of the hind legs and actions of their muscles during jumping in leafhopper insects.

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    Burrows, Malcolm

    2007-10-01

    The rapid and simultaneous depression of the trochantera about the coxae of both hind legs of leafhoppers are the key joint movements powering a jump. The present study analyses the structure of these joints and the actions of the muscles that move them. The hind coxae are huge and are linked to each other at the midline by a protrusion from one coxa that inserts in a socket of the other and acts like a press-stud (popper) fastener. This asymmetry is not reflected in any left- or right-handed preference either within one species or between species. The movements of the joints in a jump are monitored by a number of possible proprioceptors that should be activated when a hind leg is fully levated in preparation for a jump: a hair row and two hair plates on the coxa, a hair plate on a trochanteral pivot with a coxa, and femoral spines at the femoro-tibial joint. The depressor and levator muscles that move the trochanter are of similar size and together occupy the greater part of the metathorax. Their lever arms are similar when the leg is fully levated, but the lever arm of the depressor increases with initial depression of the coxo-trochanteral joint while that of the levator declines. A jump is preceded by activity in the trochanteral depressor and levator muscles, which results in a forward movement of the coxa and metathorax with the trochanter fully levated. This period of co-contraction could result in storage of energy in skeletal structures in the thorax. Just before the rapid depression of the trochanter in the jump movement the frequency of depressor spikes increases while that in the levator declines, releasing any force stored by the preceding muscle contractions. These bursts of depressor spikes occur at the same time in the left and right muscles but none of the individual motor spikes appeared to be synchronous on the two sides.

  9. Radioprotection by WR-151327 against the late normal tissue damage in mouse hind legs from gamma ray radiation

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    Matsushita, Satoru; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the protective effect of WR-151327 on late radiation-induced damaged to normal tissues in mice, the right hind legs of mice with or without WR-151327 administration (400 mg/kg) were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs gamma rays. Leg contracture and skin shrinkage assays were performed at 380 days after irradiation. The mice were killed on day 400 postirradiation and histological sections of the legs were made. The thickness of the dermis, epidermis, and skin (dermis plus epidermis) was measured. The muscular area of the legs and the posterior knee angle between the femur and tibia were also measured. The left hind legs were similarly assessed as nonirradiated controls. Group means and standard deviations were calculated and dose-response curves were drawn for every endpoint. Then, the dose modifying factor (DMF) for each endpoint and the correlations among endpoints were determined. Latae damage assayed by leg contracture and skin shrinkage progressed with increasing radiation dose. However, it was reduced by drug treatment. The significant effect was indicated for skin shrinkage by a DMF of 1.8 at 35%. The DMF for leg contracture was 1.3 at 6 mm. In the irradiated legs, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis in the skin, muscular atrophy, and extension disturbance of the knee joint were observed. These changes progressed with increasing radiation dose. Skin damage assayed by the present endpoints was also reduced by drug treatment by DMFs of 1.4 to 1.7. However, DMFs for damage to the muscle and knee were not determined because no isoeffect was observed. There were good correlations between leg contracture or skin shrinkage and the other endpoints in both untreated and drug-treated mice. WR-151327 has the potential to protect against radiation-induced late normal tissue damage. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini).

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    Konstantinov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided.

  11. New Australovenator hind limb elements pertaining to the holotype reveal the most complete Neovenatorid leg.

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    White, Matt A; Benson, Roger B J; Tischler, Travis R; Hocknull, Scott A; Cook, Alex G; Barnes, David G; Poropat, Stephen F; Wooldridge, Sarah J; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2013-01-01

    We report new skeletal elements pertaining to the same individual which represents the holotype of Australovenator wintonensis, from the 'Matilda Site' in the Winton Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of western Queensland. The discovery of these new elements means that the hind limb of Australovenator is now the most completely understood hind limb among Neovenatoridae. The new hind limb elements include: the left fibula; left metatarsal IV; left pedal phalanges I-2, II-1, III-4, IV-2, IV-3; and right pedal phalanges, II-2 and III-1. The detailed descriptions are supported with three dimensional figures. These coupled with the completeness of the hind limb will increase the utility of Australovenator in comparisons with less complete neovenatorid genera. These specimens and the previously described hind limb elements of Australovenator are compared with other theropods classified as neovenatorids (including Neovenator, Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor, Orkoraptor and Megaraptor). Hind limb length proportion comparisons indicate that the smaller neovenatorids Australovenator and Fukuiraptor possess more elongate and gracile hind limb elements than the larger Neovenator and Chilantaisaurus. Greater stride lengths to body size exist in both Fukuiraptor and Australovenator with the femur discovered to be proportionally shorter the rest of the hind limb length. Additionally Australovenator is identified as possessing the most elongate metatarsus. The metatarsus morphology varies with body size. The larger neoventorids possess a metatarsus with greater width but shorter length compared to smaller forms.

  12. Validation of a genu valgum model in a rabbit hind limb.

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    Mast, Nicholas; Brown, Nicholas A T; Brown, Cassandra; Stevens, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Numerous techniques exist to correct pediatric angular deformity by asymmetrically inhibiting physeal growth. Despite decades of surgical experience, little is known about the determinants of success or failure of temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. We lack a basic understanding of tolerances and kinematics of the surgically restrained physis. Furthermore, little is known about the influence of implant design and placement on efficacy of deformity correction and rebound growth. We have undertaken a pilot research study with the goal of producing genu valgum in New Zealand white rabbits. This report comprises our initial experience and observations in performing hemiepiphysiodesis with staples and 2-hole plate techniques. The experimental hypotheses proposed by this article are as follows: (1) a staple or plate applied to the proximal lateral tibial physis of a rabbit hind limb will reliably create a valgus deformity of the knee; (2) the plate or staple will create this deformity without permanently damaging the proximal tibial physis; and (3) provided the implant remains in situ, there will be no difference between the plate and staple constructs with respect to the magnitude or rate of deformity produced. Further studies will aim to use this model to investigate technical issues related to physeal instrumentation.

  13. Morphological changes induced by thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera

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    Mai S. EL-Degwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of males' hind legs of Spodoptera littoralis subjected to thermal treatment (33 °C and 37 °C or/and irradiated with substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (75, 100 and 150 Gy were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the parental generation. Five types of sensilla have been distinguished; three types of trichoid sensilla (T1,T2 and T3, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica, which are considered as olfactory chemoreceptors. Moreover, sensilla chaetica are contact chemoreceptors, whereas sensilla styloconica are thermo–hygro/gustatory mechanoreceptors. The impact of thermal treatment or/and gamma irradiation reflect a clear morphological change in S. littoralis legs'sensilla, claws, spurs and scales. Otherwise, the degree of deformity was thermal and dose dependent, as it increased with an increase of the degree of temperature and dose of irradiation applied. Substerilizing doses 75 and 100 Gy, either alone or combined with thermal treatment 33 °C, have low undesirable effects on the hind legs with successful mobility or courtship behavior. Consequently, synergistic effect of gamma radiation and thermal stress induced successful application in the integrated pest management program for controlling S. littoralis.

  14. Fatty acid profile of hind leg muscle in female and male nutria (Myocastor coypus Mol.), fed green forage diet.

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    Głogowski, Robert; Czauderna, Marian; Rozbicka, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Katarzyna A; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-07-01

    The study describes the profile of fatty acids in hind leg muscle of 18 female and 12 male nutria reared on an extensive system farm in eastern Poland with a diet based on fresh forage. When compared to results from nutrias from an intensive production system from the literature, the forage-fed animals had lower proportions of saturated fatty acids, and higher proportions of n3-fatty acids in their muscle tissue; in particular, n6:n3-fatty acid ratios were lower (2.6-3.0) in forage-fed animals compared to intensively reared animals (16.8-28.9). These findings underline that using forage-based diets is feasible in nutrias, and an economic way to improve the fatty acid composition of their meat. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

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    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Arkansas, 201 Donaghey Avenue, Lewis Science Center 171, Conway, AR 72035 (United States); Ali, Nawab [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  16. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV (25Mn Kα x-ray). Kα- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  17. Electro-acupuncture stimulation to a hindpaw and a hind leg produces different reflex responses in sympathoadrenal medullary function in anesthetized rats.

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    Mori, H; Uchida, S; Ohsawa, H; Noguchi, E; Kimura, T; Nishijo, K

    2000-03-15

    The effects of electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) of two different areas of a hindlimb with different stimulus intensities on sympathoadrenal medullary functions were examined in anesthetized artificially ventilated rats. Two needles of 160 microm diameter and about 5 mm apart were inserted about 5 mm deep into a hindpaw (Chungyang, S42) or a hind leg (Tsusanli, S36) and current of various intensities passed to excite various afferent nerve fiber groups at a repetition rate of 20 Hz and pulse duration of 0.5 ms for 30-60 s. Fiber groups of afferent nerves stimulated in a hindlimb were monitored by recording evoked action potentials from the afferents innervating the areas stimulated. The sympathoadrenal medullary functions were monitored by recording adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and secretion rates of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. EAS of a hindpaw at a stimulus strength sufficient to excite the group III and IV somatic afferent fibers produced reflex increases in both adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and the secretion rate of catecholamines. EAS of a hind leg at a stimulus strength sufficient to excite the group III and IV afferent fibers produced reflex responses of either increases or decreases in sympathoadrenal medullary functions. All responses of adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity were lost after cutting the afferent nerves ipsilateral to the stimulated areas, indicating that the responses are the reflexes whose afferents nerve pathway is composed of hindlimb somatic nerves. It is concluded that electro-acupuncture stimulation of a hindpaw causes an excitatory reflex, while that of a hind leg causes either excitatory or inhibitory reflex of sympathoadrenal medullary functions, even if both group III and IV somatic afferent fibers are stimulated.

  18. THE EFFECT OF HOUSING ON THE OCCURANCE OF HIND LEG WEAKNESSES IN MARKET PIGS OF THREE GENOTYPES

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    Blaž Šegula

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative changes of joints due to osteoarthrosis in tarsal joint, peritarsitis, tarsal bursitis and asymmetry of claws was studied on legs of 175 commercial pigs, with prolonged fattening (250 days of age of three genotypes (landrace pigs-11, crosses between landrace females and large white males-12, crosses between female 12 and duroc male- 123 housed either individually on the zincifi ed metal slatted fl oor or in groups of 8-9 pigs on the concrete slatted fl oor. Degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis (OATD in small joints of the hock - os tarsale tertium (T3, os tarsale quartum (T4, os metatarsale tertium (Mt3 and os metatarsale quatrum (Mt4 and due to the peritarsitis were signifi cantly more important in pigs housed individually (P<0.001. Individually housed pigs grew faster and were signifi cantly heavier for the similar slaughter age (P<0.001. The effect of genotype was only minor; the crosses 12 had lesser asymmetry of claws (P<0.001 than pigs 11 or 123, whereas crosses 123 had signifi cantly (P<0.005 less pronounced degenerative changes due to osteoarthrosis on Mt3 and T3.

  19. Resolution of the hind leg dragging problem of a quadrupedal robot in high-speed dynamic walking%四足机器人高速动态行走中后腿拖地问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽; 曾翔宇; 郑浩峻

    2011-01-01

    This study presented two methods, adding a balance weight and performing postural adjustment, to deal with the hind-leg dragging problem of a quadrupedal robot due to the offset of its center of gravity during high-speed dynamic walking. The effectiveness of the two methods was confirmed by the dynamic simulation using a virtual prototype and conducting the experiments using a physical quadmpedal robot, Biosbot. The results of the study show that the method of adding a balance weight will increase extra load to the joints of the robot so as to make them worn down easily, while the method of adjusting the robot's posture has a better effectiveness but retracts the swing legs and the body so as to reduce the velocity and efficiency of walking, and these disadvantages can be reduced by increasing the walking frequency. In conclusion, combining the postural adjustment with the walking frequency increase is a better way to tackle the hind-legs dragging problem.%进行了用配重法和姿态调整法消除四足机器人Biosbot高速动态行走时由于重心偏置产生的后腿拖地现象的研究.进行的虚拟样机仿真及实物机器人实验验证了这两种方法的有效性.研究发现,配重法使机器人腿关节承受额外负载,极易造成轴联接件磨损、变形;姿态调整法效果比较明显,但也存在摆动腿足端回缩、质心回缩振荡等问题,会导致机器人运动速度和行走效率降低,这些问题可以通过提高机器人运动频率得到一定程度的改善.因此,将调整姿态和提高步行频率结合起来,是解决后腿拖地问题的较好方法.

  20. Effect of Straight-leg-raising Movement on Epidural Fibrosis in Early Stage after Laminectomy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of straight-leg-raising (SLR) movement on epidural fibrosis after laminectomy, 40 adult New Zealand rabbits were selected as laminectomy models in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: a SLR group (group S) and a control group (group C) randomly, with each group having 20 animals. All rabbits were subjected to total laminectomy in the site of S1. Every 5 rabbits in each group selected randomly were killed at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th week after the surgery. Segments of spines from L7 to S2 were removed en bloc. After gross evaluation, specimens were sliced up. The slices were stained by HE and Masson's trichrome methods respectively for histological examination. Our results showed that formation process of scar in group S was retarded as compared with that of group C at the time of the 2nd-week, but there was no statistical difference between groups in the adhesion degree (P≥0.05). At the 4th and 8th week, the epidural fibrosis of group S was more serious than that of group C. Since the 2nd-week, the area of scar in group S was larger than that of group C. The number of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in group S were larger than those of group C at early stage. But in later stage, there was no statistical significance between the two groups. It is concluded that SLR movement after laminectomy may promote the formation of epidural fibrosis and retard the maturity of scar. SLR movement can also aggravate scar adhesion.

  1. Functional and pathological changes of lung tissues after bullet wound of dog's hind legs%犬下肢创伤应激后肺脏组织的功能及病理学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建阳; 王发强; 纪小龙; 刘庆安; 王美娥

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowing the pathological changes of the lungs after the wallop from the bullet wound helps to improve the method or mean of dealing with the wound or to reduce the damage to lung functions after the wound.OBJECTIVE: To probe into the functional and pathological changes of the lung tissues after bullet wound.DESIGN: Open experimental study of the animals.SETTING: Department of the Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, General Hospital of the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed from June 2003 to December 2003 at the General Hospital of the Armed Police Forces. Six healthy grown-up cross-bred dogs, half male and half female, weighing ( 16.3 ± 0.58 ) kg, aged (8 - 12) months old, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of the Military Academy of Sciences of Chinese PLA. Animal Center's license No. Was SCXK(army)2002-001. The animals were fed with water and food with no restrictions in an environment in which the temperature was 22 to 23 ℃ and the humidity was 74% - 80%.METHODS: Grown-up healthy domestic dogs were shot at the thick muscular part of their left hind legs with a size 81 automatic rifles, 7.62 mm in caliber and bullet of type-560. Caution was taken to avoid damage to the major vessels and the bone tissues. The shooting distance was 5 meters. Immediate hemostasis and bandaging were performed after shooting. And 6 hours later, pathological examination of the lungs was carTied out.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathological changes of the lungs.RESULTS: After the bullet wound, the main pathological manifestations of the lungs were detelectasis of the pulmonary alveoli and the decrease of air volume complicated with inflammatory alveoli infiltration, lung edema, obscure structure of pulmonary alveoli, passive congestion of the small blood vessels, etc.CONCLUSION: The lung wound was obvious after bullet wound and its mechanism was associated with stress, inflammatory reaction of the adjacent

  2. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  3. Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2005-09-01

    Similar in body size, locomotor behaviour and morphology to the last common ancestor of Primates, living small quadrupedal primates provide a convenient model for investigating the evolution of primate locomotion. In this study, the hind limb kinematics of quadrupedal walking in mouse lemurs, brown lemurs, cotton-top tamarins and squirrel monkeys are analysed using cineradiography. The scaling of hind limb length to body size and the intralimb proportions of the three-segmented hind limb are taken into consideration when kinematic similarities and differences are discussed. Hind limb kinematics of arboreal quadrupedal primates, ranging in size between 100 g and 3000 g, are size independent and resemble the hind limb kinematics of small non-cursorial mammals. A common feature seen in smaller mammals, in general, is the horizontal position of the thigh at touchdown and of the lower leg at lift-off. Thus, the maximum bone length is immediately transferred into the step length. The vertical position of the leg at the beginning of a step cycle and of the thigh at lift-off contributes the same distance to pivot height. Step length and pivot height increase proportionally with hind limb length, because intralimb proportions of the hind limb remain fairly constant. Therefore, the strong positive allometric scaling of the hind limb in arboreal quadrupedal primates affects neither the kinematics of hind limb segments nor the total angular excursion of the limb. The angular excursion of the hind limb in quadrupedal primates is equal to that of other non-cursorial mammals. Hence, hind limb excursion in larger cercopithecine primates differs from that of other large mammals due to the decreasing angular excursion as part of convergent cursorial adaptations in several phylogenetic lineages of mammals. Typical members of those phylogenetic groups are traditionally used in comparison with typical primates, and therefore the ;uniqueness' of primate locomotor characteristics is

  4. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  5. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (pIra rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  6. Liikluskindlustuse hind kerkib sammhaaval / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Kohustusliku liikluskindlustuse hind kasvab iga päevaga, hinnatõus peatub 1. mail. Põhjuseks EL-iga liitumisel kindlustuse sisse arvutatav roheline kaart. Diagrammid: Kindlustuspoliisi hind sõltub kehtima hakkamise ajast

  7. Effects on Endothelin Receptor mRNA Levels in Rabbits with Hind Legs Vibration%后肢接振对家兔脑及肌肉组织内皮素受体mRNA水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林立; 张兆强; 聂继池; 张春芝

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨后肢接振家兔内皮素受体(ETR)mRNA表达的影响. [方法]将32只新西兰大白兔随机分为低、中、高强度接振组(4h等能量频率计权加速度分别为3.03、6.13、12.30 m/s2)和对照组,对各强度组家兔进行接振实验,共45d.接振实验结束后,取各组家兔脑组织及肌肉组织,应用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测各组家兔组织中ETR-A mRNA、ETR-B mRNA的表达量. [结果]接振实验后低、中、高强度组脑组织ETR-A mRNA、ETR-B mRNA的表达量分别为8.31±4.78、40.07±24.84,30.62±16.33、212.58±74.49和54.01±27.64、341.42±203.73,骨骼肌ETR-A mRNA、ETR-B mRNA的表达量分别为1.40±0.56、2.51±1.14,2.06±1.89、0.79±0.87和0.85±0.16、1.44±0.68.各强度组家兔骨骼肌组织、脑组织ETR mRNA表达总体上增高(P<0.05,P<0.01).与对照组比较,3个强度组脑组织ETR-A mRNA、ETR-B mRNA表达均增强(P<0.01);骨骼肌组织中,中强度组的ETR-A mRNA及低强度组ETR-B mRNA的表达增强(P<0.05,P<0.01). [结论]后肢接振可致家兔ETR mRNA表达升高.振动性血管损伤和神经损伤的发生,可能是内皮素等缩血管物质与其受体水平上调共同作用的结果.

  8. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  9. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  10. Efeitos metabólicos da L-alanil-glutamina em ratos submetidos à isquemia da pata traseira esquerda seguida de reperfusão Metabolic effects of L-alanyl-glutamine in rats subjected to left hind leg ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Martins de Souza Torres

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Objetivou-se investigar os efeitos metabólicos da L-alanil glutamina no tecido muscular e sangue arterial de ratos Wistar submetidos à isquemia aguda da pata traseira. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 48 ratos machos distribuídos em 4 grupos (1- controle / 2 - experimento, redistribuídos em 2 subgrupos (n=06. Trinta minutos após a injeção de uma solução a 20% de L-alanil-glutamina (0,75mg/ grupo 2 ou solução salina (grupo 1 na veia jugular direita ocluiu-se a artéria ilíaca comum esquerda por 30 minutos, por pinçamento. Amostras musculares e de sangue arterial foram obtidas logo após a remoção da pinça (tempo 0 e 5, 15 e 30 mais tarde. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução significativa (p PURPOSE: An experimental study has been conducted to investigate acute ischemic changes in concentrations of glucose, piruvate, lactate and ketone bodies in rat hind leg muscle and arterial blood after intravenous injection of l-alanil-glutamine solution. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Group 1 (Control and Group 2 (Experiment. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=6. Thirty minutes after administration of 20% solution of L-alanil-glutamine (0,75g/Kg, group 1 or saline solution (group 2 into right jugular vein, a clamp was placed across left common iliac artery for 30 minutes. Samples from left thigh muscle and arterial blood from abdominal aorta were collected at the end of ischemic period (subgroup 0 and 5, 15 and 30 minutes later. RESULTS: Glucose concentrations were decreased (p<0.05 in experiment group muscles, compared to respective control (subgroup 15 min and significantly increased in subgroups 15 and 30 min as compared to subgroup 0 min. There was no difference in glycemia and pyruvate concentrations when comparing experiment versus control rats. Decreased lactate concentrations might be related to L-alanyl glutamine effects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased availability of L

  11. Hydraulic leg extension is not necessarily the main drive in large spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmann, Tom; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2012-02-15

    Unlike most other arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in major leg joints. Therefore, hydraulic pressure generated in the prosoma provides leg extension. For decades, this mechanism was held responsible for the generation of the majority of the ground reaction forces, particularly in the hind legs. During propulsion, the front leg pairs must shorten whereas the hind legs have to be extended. Assuming that hind legs are essentially driven by hydraulics, their force vectors must pass the leg joints ventrally. However, at least in accelerated escape manoeuvres, we show here for the large cursorial spider species Ancylometes concolor that these force vectors, when projected into the leg plane, pass all leg joints dorsally. This indicates a reduced impact of the hydraulic mechanism on the generation of ground reaction forces. Although hydraulic leg extension still modulates their direction, the observed steep force vectors at the hind legs indicate a strong activity of flexors in the proximal joint complex that push the legs against the substrate. Consequently, the muscular mechanisms are dominant at least in the hind legs of large spiders.

  12. Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Achilles Tendon Healing in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafbeygi, Arash; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Lebaschi, Amir Hussein; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Husseini, Seyed Abouzar; Niazi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and it takes a long time for an injured tendon to heal. Adverse phenomena such as adhesion and rupture are associated with these injuries. Finding a method to reduce the time required for healing which improves the final outcome, will lead to decreased frequency and intensity of adverse consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of the Achilles tendon in rabbits. In 10 New Zealand white rabbits, Achilles tendon was cut at the intersection of the distal and middle thirds on both hind legs. One microgram of recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was injected in the proximal and distal stumps of the cut tendon on the right side (study group). Normal saline of equal volume was injected on the left side in the same way (control group). Then the tendons were repaired with 5/0 nylon using modified Kessler technique. A cast was made to immobilize each leg. On day 42, rabbits were euthanized and both hind legs were amputated. Tensometry and histopathologic examination were done on specimens. In tensometric studies, more force was required to rupture the repair site in study group. In histopathologic examination, collagen fibers had significantly better orientation and organization in the study group. No difference was noted regarding number of fibroblast and fibrocytes, and degree of angiogenesis in the two groups. Application of basic fibroblast growth factor at tendon repair site improves the healing process through improvement of collagen fiber orientation and increase in biomechanical resistance.

  13. Sensory signals of unloading in one leg follow stance onset in another leg: transfer of load and emergent coordination in cockroach walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Duke, Elizabeth R

    2009-05-01

    The transfer of load from one leg to another is an essential component in walking, but sense organs that signal this process have rarely been identified. We used high-speed digital imaging and neurophysiological recordings to characterize activities of tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that detect forces via cuticular strains, in the middle legs of cockroaches during walking. Previous studies demonstrated that the distal tibial sensilla discharge when body load is suddenly decreased in freely standing animals. Sensory recordings during walking showed that distal receptors in the middle leg fired an intense burst near the end of the stance phase. We tested the hypothesis that initiation of distal firing resulted from the action of other legs entering stance. Analysis of leg movements in slow walking showed that sensory bursts in the middle leg closely followed stance onset of the ipsilateral hind leg while the ipsilateral front leg entered stance earlier in phase. Similar phases of leg movement were found in slow walking in experiments in which animals had no implanted recording wires. Those studies also demonstrated that the opposite middle leg entered stance earlier in phase. Measurements of leg positions in walking showed that the hind leg tarsus was placed closest to the middle leg, in keeping with a "targeting" strategy. Triggering of distal bursts in the middle leg by mechanical action of the hind leg could facilitate the onset of swing in the middle leg through local reflex effects and contribute to emergent coordination of leg movements in metachronal gaits.

  14. Vee hind kerkib kaks krooni / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus tahab heaks kiita vee hinna kümneprotsendilise hinnatõusu alates 1. jaanuarist 2006. Ühisveevärgist võetud kuupmeeter vett hakkab maksma 12,79 krooni ja reovee ärajuhtimise uus hind on 10,35 krooni. Lisa: Vee hind tõuseb

  15. Miks piima hind vigurit viskab? / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Praeguses piima hinna tõusus on peamine roll ekspordil. Kui piima müük peaks tõusnud hinna tõttu vähenema, jääb piima üle ja hind alaneb. Millest koosneb piima hind. 1-1,5 aasta pikkused piima hinnatõusu perioodid korduvad iga 2-3 aasta tagant

  16. Vee hind kerkib kaks krooni / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus tahab heaks kiita vee hinna kümneprotsendilise hinnatõusu alates 1. jaanuarist 2006. Ühisveevärgist võetud kuupmeeter vett hakkab maksma 12,79 krooni ja reovee ärajuhtimise uus hind on 10,35 krooni. Lisa: Vee hind tõuseb

  17. ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLES IN THE HIND LIMB AND TAIL OF CEBUS ALBIFRONS

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo U., Miriam; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarette Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Torres G., Juan Pablo; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the anatomic description of the muscles located in the hind limb and tail of Cebus albifrons. Four adult monkeys older than 3 years of age and castrated were used. The animals were euthanized and embalmed; then, after six days, the dissection of the hind limb and tail was carried out. Muscles were described in comparison with the Rhesus monkey (Maccaca mullata). The pelvis and thigh, leg and foot region presented 18, 12 and 11 muscles respectively. P...

  18. Effect of genotype, housing system and hay supplementation on carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of Peritendinous Adhesions Using an Electrospun DegraPol Polymer Tube: A Histological, Ultrasonographic, and Biomechanical Study in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Meier Bürgisser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the great challenges in surgical tendon rupture repair is to minimize peritendinous adhesions. In order to reduce adhesion formation, a physical barrier was applied to a sutured rabbit Achilles tendon, with two different immobilization protocols used postoperatively. Methods. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits received a laceration on the Achilles tendon, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture, and half of the rabbits got a DegraPol tube at the repair site. While fifteen rabbits had their treated hind leg in a 180° stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization, the other fifteen rabbits were recasted with a 150° position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization. Adhesion extent was analysed macroscopically, via ultrasound and histology. Inflammation was determined histologically. Biomechanical properties were analysed. Results. Application of a DegraPol tube reduced adhesion formation by approximately 20%—independently of the immobilization protocol. Biomechanical properties of extracted specimen were not affected by the tube application. There was no serious inflammatory reaction towards the implant material. Conclusions. Implantation of a DegraPol tube tightly set around a sutured tendon acts as a beneficial physical barrier and prevents adhesion formation significantly—without affecting the tendon healing process.

  20. Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cornale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed (SHS dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15% of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.

  1. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you walk or exercise and improves with rest. The leg is black and blue. The leg is cold ... chap 81. Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, Amendola A. Leg pain and exertional compartment syndromes. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee & Drez's ...

  2. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass chilling loss ( = 0.0005) and the drip loss during 6 d ( feed seems to be less adversely correlated with carcass traits and meat quality traits but it leads to an increase in the live weight of the rabbits. Adversely, the selection on RFI, without affecting growth rate, would not modify age at slaughter because growth rate is not affected, but it might induce detrimental effects on meat quality.

  3. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  4. Picasso kõrge hind / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Pablo Picassost, tema loomingust, 2003.a Malagas Picasso muuseumi ja kunstniku sünnikodu avamisest, maailma kallemailt müüdud maalide TOP 10-sse kuuluvatest maalidest "Poiss piibuga" (1905) ja "Dora Maar kassiga" (1941), hindadest. Maailma kalleimad oksjonil müüdud maalid: I - Jackson Pollocki "Nr.5, 1948" (hind:140 miljonit dollarit), II - William De Kooningi "Woman III" (1952-53), III - Gustav Klimti "Adele Bloch-Bauer I portree" (1907)

  5. Picasso kõrge hind / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2007-01-01

    Pablo Picassost, tema loomingust, 2003.a Malagas Picasso muuseumi ja kunstniku sünnikodu avamisest, maailma kallemailt müüdud maalide TOP 10-sse kuuluvatest maalidest "Poiss piibuga" (1905) ja "Dora Maar kassiga" (1941), hindadest. Maailma kalleimad oksjonil müüdud maalid: I - Jackson Pollocki "Nr.5, 1948" (hind:140 miljonit dollarit), II - William De Kooningi "Woman III" (1952-53), III - Gustav Klimti "Adele Bloch-Bauer I portree" (1907)

  6. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R

    2013-06-01

    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

  7. Perforated diverticulitis presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition of increasing age. Complications of diverticulitis including stricture, perforation and fistula formation often require surgery. Perforated diverticulitis may rarely present with spreading superficial sepsis. We describe for the first time, to our knowledge, a case of retroperitoneal diverticula perforation presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg necessitating hind-quarter amputation.

  8. Leg contracture in mice: an assay of normal tissue response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, H.B.

    1984-07-01

    Leg contracture, defined as the difference in extensibility of the control and irradiated hind legs of mice, was found to correlate with single doses of radiation from about 20 to 80 Gy. The time of development of the early phase of the response coincided with that reported for the appearance of the acute skin response, and in some cases, partially reversed as this reaction healed. The contracture then progressed again at a moderate rate through 90 days, and then more slowly through one year. Skin contraction, measured by decrease in intertattoo distance, was assayed in the same mice. It followed the same time course as leg contracture, but had a different dose-response relationship. To determine the contribution of skin contraction to the overall leg contracture response, mice were sacrificed and the leg contracture measured before and after the removal of the skin of the leg. After doses of up to 30 Gy, little contracture remained from skinning the leg, indicating that skin contraction was largely responsible for leg contracture in this dose range. After doses of about 45 Gy and above, some contracture remained in the skinned legs, although less than in intact legs. There was little or no enhancement of either skin contraction or leg contracture by the hypoxic cell sensitizers metronidazole or misonidazole.

  9. Encephalitozoonosis in household pet Nederland Dwarf rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencakova, A; Balent, P; Petrovova, E; Novotny, F; Luptakova, L

    2008-05-31

    The paper presents the results of examination of 32 domestically bred rabbits, the breed Nederland Dwarf of Oryctolagus cuniculus, for the presence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidian species. The results of serological tests for E. cuniculi in 32 rabbits are reviewed along with other follow-up studies of clinical cases. Blood samples were taken from 7 asymptomatic rabbits and 25 rabbits showing neurological and ocular signs suggestive of encephalitozoonosis. In the asymptomatic group, 5 out of 7 rabbits were seropositive (71%). 16 rabbits with clinical diseases showed neurological sings, including torticollis, circus-like movements, loss of weight; 6 of them also showed ataxia, anorexia, asthenia of hind-limbs and 3 showed ocular signs. All 25 rabbits were seropositive. The spores of E. cuniculi were isolated from the faecal samples or kidneys and brain of an animal and subsequently were used for DNA isolation and PCR analysis.

  10. Bensiini hind tõuseb rekordtasemele / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2005-01-01

    Toornafta hinnatõus maailmaturul võib lähiajal kaasa tuua bensiinihinna kallinemise. Vt. samas: Läti tanklates kallines kütus. Graafikud: Bensiini hind on tänavu peaaegu kahekordistunud; Hind Eestis järgib maailmaturgu

  11. The effect of housing conditions on Biceps femoris muscle fibre properties, fatty acid composition, performance and carcass traits of slow-growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Volek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of stocking density on the biceps femoris (BF muscle fibre properties, meat quality, the growth performance and carcass traits of Czech White rabbits.  A total of 20 rabbits (40 days old, 10 rabbits per treatment, sex ratio 1/1 were reared in cages at different stocking densities (10 rabbits/m2 or 4 rabbits/m2 for 49 days. Stocking density had no significant effect on the growth performance. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to hot carcass weight (HCW or dressing-out percentage. The proportions of both perirenal (9.5 vs. 15.9 g/kg HCW; P=0.010 and total dissectible fat (14.9 vs. 25.1 g/kg HCW; P=0.001 were lower in rabbits reared at the lower stocking density. No significant differences in ultimate pH values, meat colour or proximate composition were observed. The hind leg meat of rabbits reared at the lower stocking density contained significantly less lauric (4.6 vs. 6.7 mg/100 g of muscle; P=0.008 and myristic acid (52.2 vs. 64.4 mg/100 g of muscle; P=0.033. Significantly higher percentages of βR fibres (16.3 vs. 6.5 %, P=0.001 and αR fibres (24.5 vs. 14.2 %; P=0.001 and a significantly lower percentage of αW fibres (59.2 vs. 79.3 %; P=0.001 were also observed in these rabbits. The mean cross-sectional area (1882 vs. 2744 μm2; P=0.001 and diameter (47.9 vs. 58.5 μm; P=0.001 of βR fibres were smaller in rabbits reared at the lower stocking density. Thus, the lower stocking density favourably affected the medium-chain fatty acid profile of meat and fibre characteristics of the rabbits' biceps femoris muscle.

  12. Surgical Correction of Patellar Luxation in a Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Riggs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-and-a-half-year-old giant lop-eared rabbit, weighing 5.1 kg, presented with a one-month history of intermittent right hind limb lameness. The limb locked in extension during hopping. On examination, a grade-2 medial patellar luxation of the right hind was diagnosed, with associated stifle joint swelling. Radiographic findings of the right stifle comprised periarticular osteophyte formation consistent with mild degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Surgical correction involving right trochlear wedge recession sulcoplasty and lateral imbrication was carried out to stabilise the patella in the trochlear groove. The right hind limb lameness resolved, and the patella was stable at a 6-month postoperative examination. One year postoperatively, the right patella was luxating again concurrent with bilateral stifle effusions. Euthanasia was performed twenty months after surgery due to recurrent lameness in the right hind limb.

  13. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  14. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  15. John Bowlby and ethology: an annotated interview with Robert Hinde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, John

    2007-12-01

    From the 1950s, John Bowlby, one of the founders of attachment theory, was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology (e.g., Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially Robert Hinde). In constructing his new theory on the nature of the bond between children and their caregivers, Bowlby profited highly from their new approach to (animal) behavior. Hinde and Tinbergen in their turn were influenced and inspired by Bowlby's new thinking. On the basis of extensive interviews with bowlby's colleague and lifelong friend Robert Hinde and on the basis of archival materials, both the relationship between John Bowlby and Robert Hinde and the cross-fertilization of ethology and attachment theory are described.

  16. Nerve growth factor induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw is dependent on circulating neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G; al-Rashed, S; Hoult, J R; Brain, S D

    1998-09-01

    The mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) induces thermal hyperalgesia and neutrophil accumulation have been investigated in the rat. Thermal nociceptive thresholds in rat hind paw were measured as the time taken for paw withdrawal from a heat source and neutrophil accumulation was measured in hind paw and dorsal skin samples using a myeloperoxidase assay. NGF (23-80 pmol intraplantar (i.pl.) injection) induced a significant (P NGF (40 pmol). In dorsal skin, where multiple samples can be assessed, intradermal (i.d.) NGF was 10-30 times less potent than interleukin-1beta in inducing neutrophil accumulation. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor ZM230487 (10 nmol co-injected with NGF) significantly attenuated neutrophil accumulation and hyperalgesia induced by NGF; unlike the histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists (mepyramine and methysergide) which were without effect at the times measured. Furthermore, depletion of circulating neutrophils (using a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil antibody) abolished NGF induced hyperalgesia. These results indicate that neutrophils, which accumulate in response to a 5-lipoxygenase product, play a crucial role in NGF-induced hyperalgesia.

  17. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia)

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo,Orlando N.; SERGIO A.K. AZEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral ...

  18. Stepping behavior and muscle activity of dairy cows on uncomfortable standing surfaces presented under 1 or 4 legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, E; Tucker, C B

    2015-01-01

    The comfort of dairy cattle while standing has important implications for housing design. Research has examined how cattle respond to standing surfaces by presenting options under all 4 legs or under a single leg, but no work, to date, has compared presentation methods. This study examined behavior and muscle activity when cows stood on rough floors under all 4 legs or just 1 hind leg. Three treatments were tested: smooth concrete under all 4 legs (0-ROUGH), a rough surface under all 4 legs [2cm × 2cm × 4cm trapezoidal protrusions (4-ROUGH)], and a rough surface only under 1 hind leg, with other legs on smooth concrete (1-ROUGH). Twenty-four healthy Holstein cows stood on each surface for 1h/d in a repeated-measures design. Surface electromyograms (SEMG) were used to evaluate muscle fatigue and total activity. Muscle fatigue was measured using SEMG to evaluate (1) static contractions when cows were continuously weight bearing on each hind leg, before and after 1h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1h of standing. Behavioral measures included steps per minute, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing. The number of legs affected by roughness influenced both behavioral and physiological responses to flooring. Cows on 1-ROUGH stepped twice as often with the rough-treated leg and one-half as much with the hind leg on smooth concrete compared with other surfaces. Similarly, on the 1-ROUGH surface, total muscle activity was reduced in the leg on the rough surface, and muscle activity was more sustained (3× higher) in the other hind leg, suggesting that cows avoid possible discomfort under 1 leg by using muscles in the other. In the 4-ROUGH treatment, time between steps was more variable than on the other 2 treatments (coefficient of variation, 4-ROUGH: 245; 1-ROUGH: 208; 0-ROUGH: 190±5.8%), likely because cows could not move away from this uneven flooring. Thus, the method of presentation of

  19. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  20. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.

  1. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  2. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2017-08-01

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Mis on papa Jannseni hind ? / Sven Sildnik ; interv. Grete Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildnik, Sven, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Sven Kivisildnik kirjutas Pärnu linnavalitsuse tellimusel Jannseni sünniaastapäeva peoks näidendi "Johann Woldemar Jannsen ehk Rahvavaenlase hind", mis kantakse ette Koidula muuseumi klassitoas 16. mail. Intervjuu näidendi autori ja esitajaga

  4. Conditional effect of selenium on the mammalian hind gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) status is linked to cancer risk in humans and other mammals. Because Se is used by certain microbial species which contain selenoproteins, and because hind gut microfloral composition is linked to cancer development, we proposed that supranutritional Se could reduce tumorigenisis by af...

  5. Animal Productivity and Health Responses to Hind-Gut Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fermentation of carbohydrates in the large intestine of dairy cattle is responsible for 5 to 10% of total tract carbohydrate digestion. When dietary, animal, and/or environmental factors contribute to abnormal, excessive flow of fermentable carbohydrates to the large intestine, hind-gut ac...

  6. Vene maagaasi hind kerkis poole võrra / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. juuli lk. 4. Venemaa Euroopasse müüdava maagaasi hind tõuseb sel aastal 2007. aastaga võrreldes ligi poole võrra, 410 dollarini tuhande kuupmeetri eest. Kommenteerib Sirje Riivald

  7. Mis on papa Jannseni hind ? / Sven Sildnik ; interv. Grete Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildnik, Sven, 1964-

    2006-01-01

    Sven Kivisildnik kirjutas Pärnu linnavalitsuse tellimusel Jannseni sünniaastapäeva peoks näidendi "Johann Woldemar Jannsen ehk Rahvavaenlase hind", mis kantakse ette Koidula muuseumi klassitoas 16. mail. Intervjuu näidendi autori ja esitajaga

  8. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  9. Heterogeneous blood flow distribution within single skeletal muscles in the rabbit: role of vasomotion, sympathetic nerve activity and effect of vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, P O; Nicolaysen, G

    1989-09-01

    A major heterogeneous distribution of blood flow has been described on a non-microvascular level within single skeletal muscles at rest and during exercise hyperaemia both in the dog and in the rabbit. The heterogeneity in blood flow distribution could be composed of both a steady-state region-to-region variability (spatial) and a time-dependent variability (temporal) in blood flow to each region. In the present study we estimated their relative contributions to the variations in blood flow within the muscles. Furthermore, we determined whether sympathetic nerve activity contributed to and whether pharmacologically induced vasodilation affected the heterogeneous blood flow pattern. Regional blood flow measurements were based on microsphere infusions into anaesthetized rabbits. Blood flow was determined under both resting conditions and during exercise hyperaemia in regions weighing 0.25 g each within hind leg muscles. The coefficient of variation for the spatial variability was twice that of the temporal one: 0.32 and 0.16 (mean) respectively. Neither stimulation of the sympathetic nerves, sympathectomy nor vasodilation affected the heterogeneity in blood flow. When exercise hyperaemia was induced, blood flow increased in all regions so that a positive (P less than 0.05) correlation was present between resting and exercising blood flow values in the individual regions. Although regional variation in vascularization could explain the observations during exercise hyperaemia, we have at present no fully satisfying explanation for the observed regional heterogeneity in blood flow.

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Into Relieved Are you experiencing symptoms linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS)? Find tools and support to help get ... I couldn’t sleep. Fortunately, I found the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and learned what type of doctor to ...

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Teens, Men, WomenTags: neurological disorders, restless legs syndrome, RLS, sitting, sleep disorders, sleeping, uncomfortable feeling in legs at rest Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women November ...

  12. Experimental study on composite flap for repair of bone defect of rabbit model of leg and foot skin trauma%复合皮瓣修复兔模型腿和足骨缺损皮肤创伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志斌; 王黎敏; 张慧鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨复合皮瓣修复兔模型小腿皮肤创伤缺损的应用效果.方法 选择新西兰大白兔36只,通过装置模拟重物砸伤、挤压伤等,建立大白兔胫骨或跖骨骨折和小腿及足部软组织缺损的动物模型,成功27只,并采用异体骨移植、带胫骨骨膜的复合皮瓣修复胫骨骨折和皮肤缺损,其中串联带隐神经和骨膜的胫后动脉复合组织瓣修复前足2只.结果 27只模型的复合皮瓣全部成活,3例皮瓣远端表层部分坏死,经换药创面愈合.术后X线复查,移植异体骨对位好,恢复了兔的足弓.本组随访3~9个月,平均5个月,植入的异体骨骨性愈合,未见明显吸收、感染和排斥反应等并发症.足外形美观,可正常行走.结论 应用异体骨移植,取材方便,可恢复足弓.采用带骨膜的复合胫前动脉逆行皮瓣,不影响患足的供血,加速骨的愈合.缩短疗程,操作简单,外形好,可恢复大白兔模型足的行走功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of application of composite flap for repairing leg skin defect in rabbit traumatic model.Methods Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits by device simulation,bruise,crush injury,animal model rabbit tibia orfracture of metatarsal bone and soft tissue defects of leg and foot,27 cases were successful,and the use of allogeneic bone transplantation,with tibial periosteumcomposite flap for repair of tibial fracture and skin defect,wherein the series with hidden nerve and periosteum of the posterior tibial artery composite tissue flap to repair forefoot in 2 cases.Results The composite skin flaps in 27 cases survivedand 3 cases of the model,the distal end of the flap surface partial necrosis,healed by dressing.Postoperative X-ray review,allograft bone alignment,restorefoot transverse and longitudinal arch.The patients were followed up for 3 months to 9 months,implant bone allograft bone healing,no obvious absorption,infection and rejection and other complications.The foot of

  13. Mimicking unfolding motion of a beetle hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Azhar; PARK Hoon C; HWANG Do Y; BYUN Doyoung; GOO Nam S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research aiming to realize an artificial hind wing that can mimic the wing unfolding motion of Allomyrina dichotoma, an insect in coleopteran order. Based on the understanding of working principles of beetle wing folding/unfolding mechanisms, the hind wing unfolding motion is mimicked by a combination of creative ideas and state-of-art artificial muscle actuator. In this work, we devise two types of artificial wings and the successfully demonstrate that they can be unfolded by actuation of shape memory alloy wires to provide actuation force at the wing base and along the leading edge vein. The folding/unfolding mechanisms may provide an insight for portable nano/micro air vehicles with morphing wings.

  14. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  15. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  16. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  17. The Splay Leg Syndrome in Piglets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis G. Papatsiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The splay leg syndrome is the major congenital cause of lameness in suckling piglets. It is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth, resulting in an ability to stand and walk. Etiology and pathogenesis is complex and remain still poorly understood. Approach: The aim of the present study is to perform the update information about the etiology, clinical signs and control strategies of the syndrome. Results: A sex-affected inheritance of the splay leg syndrome is assumed since higher frequencies have been observed in male piglets. Several biochemical and histomorphological investigations indicate an immaturity of the skeletal muscle in the affected piglets at birth. Splay leg is caused by a reduction of the axonal diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the fiber that innervate the hindlimb adductors. The existence of one or more major genes for congenital splay leg seems possible. Among the fragments strongly displayed in the splay leg muscle, are identified the porcine CDKN3 gene. Various management and genetic factors have been connected with the etiology, such as the farrowing induction, low birth weight, short gestation lengths, slippery floors and breeds (e.g., Large White and Landrace. Moreover, nutrition can play a role to pathogenesis, as choline or methionine deficiency in sow diets and the fusarium toxicity. Furthermore, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV are also involved in etiological factors. Piglets suffering from splay leg should be kept in a warm place and be helped to take colostrums or artificial milk for 2-3 days. Conclusion: Management practices should be applied in order to be avoided the occurrence of splay leg syndrome, such as non-slip floors, use of anti-mycotoxins products in feed, avoiding the farrowing induction before day 113. Finally, a herd health management programme should be applied in order to prevent and

  18. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  19. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  20. Rabbit hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  1. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity) and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity). Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.

  2. Leg 179 summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pettigrew, T.J.; Casey, J.F.; Miller, D.J.; Araki, E.; Boissonnas, R.; Busby, R.; Einaudi, F.; Gerdom, M.; Guo, Z.P.; Hopkins, H.; Myers, G.; Rao, D.G.; Shibata, T.; Thy, P.

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 179 set out with two primary objectives. These objectives were (1) testing the recently developed hammer drill-in casing system on the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and (2) drilling a cased reentry...

  3. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  4. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species.

  5. Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R. D.; Eberhard, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped. Video analyses of behavior and experimental observations of isolated legs pulling away from contact with sticky lines showed that the spider uses three anti-adhesion traits: dense arrays of branched setae on the legs that reduce the area of contact with adhesive material; careful engagement and withdrawal movements of its legs that minimize contact with the adhesive and that avoid pulling against the line itself; and a chemical coating or surface layer that reduces adhesion.

  6. Ühissõiduki pileti hind tõuseb uuest aastast / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Alates 2006. aasta 1. jaanuarist tõusevad Tallinnas ühistranspordi piletihinnad, muutumatuks jääb ainult kümnekroonise pabertalongi hind. Tallinna linnavalitsus ei nõustu Tarbijakaitseameti seisukohaga, mis peab kioskist või telefoni teel ID-piletite ostmisel võetavat teenustasu ebaseaduslikuks. Vt. samas: Uuest aastast tõuseb Tallinnas vee hind

  7. Tormi langetatud palgi hind ootab sügisest tõusu / Hans Väre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väre, Hans, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Metsa kokkuostuga tegelevate firmajuhtide sõnul ei ole hindu langetatud ainult suure pakkumise tõttu, vaid kulusid sunnib koomale tõmbama ka kütuse hind. Lisa: Kuusepalgi keskmine hind 2004. a. dets., 2005. a. märts, 2005. a. juuli. Vt. samas: Kütte- ja paberipuu samas hinnas

  8. Association of LPL-Hind III polymorphism with coronary artery disease in Macedonian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of high mortality and morbidity in worldwide. The Hind III polymorphism of the LPL gene (LPL-Hind III is a common variant and has been associated with plasma lipid and lipoprotein variability in population studies. Aim: Evaluation of the LPL-Hind III polymorphism as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in Macedonian population. Material and Methods: A polymerase chain reaction amplification and consecutive restriction enzyme digestion was used to reveal lipoprotein lipase, the intron 8 LPL-Hind III polymorphism. Study group included 114 randomized subjects with angiographically documented coronary artery stenosis (CAD group: 87 males, 27 females. Control group consisted of 35 patients (21 males and 14 females without significant stenosis in coronary arteries. Results: Independent multiple regression analysis of LDL plasma level and their correlation with LPL-Hind III polymorphism and analyzed risk factors: hypertension, diabetes, family history of CAD, physical activity, antilipidemic drugs and alcohol consumption, LDL, show statistically significant correlation with BMI, and also between LPL-Hind III and LDL plasma level. In the examined group, only triglycerides reached a statistically significant association with the LPL-Hind III polymorphism. Conclusion: In our study, the LPL-Hind III polymorphism was not identified as independent risk factor for CAD, but showed association with high triglycerides and LDL levels.

  9. Kohvi hind püsib Eestis seni kõrgel / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Kuigi kohvi hind maailmaturul on ülepakkumise tõttu selle aasta jooksul pidevalt langenud, püsib kohvipaki hind tänu dollari kõrgele kursile Eesti jaemüügis peaaegu muutumatuna. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. aug. lk. 6

  10. Tormi langetatud palgi hind ootab sügisest tõusu / Hans Väre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väre, Hans, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Metsa kokkuostuga tegelevate firmajuhtide sõnul ei ole hindu langetatud ainult suure pakkumise tõttu, vaid kulusid sunnib koomale tõmbama ka kütuse hind. Lisa: Kuusepalgi keskmine hind 2004. a. dets., 2005. a. märts, 2005. a. juuli. Vt. samas: Kütte- ja paberipuu samas hinnas

  11. Ühissõiduki pileti hind tõuseb uuest aastast / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Alates 2006. aasta 1. jaanuarist tõusevad Tallinnas ühistranspordi piletihinnad, muutumatuks jääb ainult kümnekroonise pabertalongi hind. Tallinna linnavalitsus ei nõustu Tarbijakaitseameti seisukohaga, mis peab kioskist või telefoni teel ID-piletite ostmisel võetavat teenustasu ebaseaduslikuks. Vt. samas: Uuest aastast tõuseb Tallinnas vee hind

  12. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  13. [Restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Szu-Chia; Chen, Rou-Shayn

    2008-03-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder to take possession of increasing attention. RLS is characterized by an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations, that occurs or worsen at rest and is relieved by activity. The symptoms of RLS have a major impact on nocturnal sleep and daytime functions. The clinical diagnostic criteria were established and published in 2003 by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). All four essential criteria must be met for a positive diagnosis. However, RLS encompassed an idiopathic form of genetic or unknown origin and secondary forms associated with many causes. Special awareness should be kept for differential diagnosis such as uremia, iron deficiency anemia, polyneuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Polysomnography, actinography, L-dopa loading test, and suggested immobilization test (SIT) are helpful tools to reduce the diagnostic puzzle of false positive and false negative. Pathophysiological concepts of RLS are essentially based on the neuroimaging and neurophysiological data to assume a dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, possibly on the All neuron group localized in the hypothalamus. These neurons modulate spinal excitability and alter the sensory processing predominantly of leg afferents. Treatment may be closely linked to the dopaminergic system and iron metabolism. Dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but the long-term adverse effect of augmentation should be carefully monitored.

  14. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity. Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.O estudo da musculatura pelvica e do membro posterior em dinossauros basais e importante para entender a evolução inicial do bipedalismo em dinossauros Saurischia. Empregando uma metodologia que tem como base dados obtidos a partir de taxons viventes e extintos posicionados em um contexto filogenetico, foi possivel fazer inferencias bem suportadas relativas a maior parte dos musculos do membro posterior do dinossauro Saurischia basal Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Formação Santa Maria, Triassico Superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Duas grandes concavidades na superficie lateral do ilio correspondem a origem dos musculos iliotrochantericus caudalis e iliofeoralis externus (compartilhando a concavidade anterior e para o musculo iliofibularis (na concavidade posterior. O musculo ambiens

  15. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.

  16. Effect of hyperthermia given four hours after irradiation on late damage in mouse legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The right hind legs of mice were treated with (1) radiation, (2) heat, or (3) radiation followed four hours later by heat. Leg contracture was measured at three, six and nine months after treatment and skin samples from the treated legs were excised for determination of hydroxyproline (i.e., collagen) and uronic acid content (i.e., ground substance) as a measure of fibrosis. The effect of pre-treatment administration of cobra venom factor (complement depletion) on these parameters was also tested. Following irradiation, considerable leg contracture, an increase in hydroxyproline content and a decrease in uronic acid concentration were observed. Following heat only, leg contracture, hydroxyproline and uronic acid content in skin were unaffected. When irradiation was followed four hours later by heat, leg contracture was delayed, reduced or enhanced compared to radiation only. In addition, collagen accumulation was delayed or unchanged by heat treatment, compared with radiation alone, without affecting the uronic acid content. Pre-irradiation administration of cobra venom factor (CVF) produced effects on leg contracture which were, in some cases, similar to those produced by heat treatment four hours after irradiation.

  17. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-22

    In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during bipedal locomotion. For this, we first inferred the leg function and trunk control strategy applied by a generalized small bird during terrestrial locomotion by analysing synchronously recorded kinematic (three-dimensional X-ray videography) and kinetic (three-dimensional force measurement) quail locomotion data. Then, by simulating quail gaits using a simplistic bioinspired numerical model which made use of parameters obtained in in vivo experiments with real quail, we show that the observed asymmetric leg function (left-skewed ground reaction force and longer leg at touchdown than at lift-off) is necessary for pronograde steady-state locomotion. In addition, steady-state locomotion becomes stable for specific morphological parameters. For quail-like parameters, the most common stable solution is grounded running, a gait preferred by quail and most of the other small birds. We hypothesize that stability of bipedal locomotion is a functional demand that, depending on trunk orientation and centre of mass location, constrains basic hind limb morphology and function, such as leg length, leg stiffness and leg damping.

  18. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaced by EBC DP 2012-006)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Deliberately or not, by providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. In bad times, monetary policy communication inducing an upward revision of the path

  19. Can the Fed talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaces CentER DP 2011-072)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. By providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks affect financial markets' forecasts. In bad times monetary policy communication i

  20. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaced by CentER DP 2012-012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Deliberately or not, by providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. In bad times, monetary policy communication inducing an upward revision of the path

  1. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaces EBC DP 2011-017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Central banks infl uence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. By providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks affect financial markets' forecasts. In bad times monetary policy communication i

  2. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaced by EBC DP 2012-006)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Deliberately or not, by providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. In bad times, monetary policy communication inducing an upward revision of the path

  3. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaced by CentER DP 2012-012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Deliberately or not, by providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. In bad times, monetary policy communication inducing an upward revision of the path

  4. Can the Fed Talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaces EBC DP 2011-017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Central banks infl uence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. By providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks affect financial markets' forecasts. In bad times monetary policy communication

  5. Can the Fed talk the Hind Legs off the Stock Market? (replaces CentER DP 2011-072)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Central banks in fluence financial markets' expectations of its future policy. By providing its stance on the prospects of the economy, rationalizing past decisions or announcing future actions, central banks affect financial markets' forecasts. In bad times monetary policy communication

  6. Treatment of hind limb ischemia using angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Liu, Qi; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C; Shi, Siyu; Cornwright, Toya T; Deng, Yuxiao; Azares, Alon; Moore, Amanda N; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Agudo, Noel R; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G; Vanderslice, Peter; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    For a proangiogenic therapy to be successful, it must promote the development of mature vasculature for rapid reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Whole growth factor, stem cell, and gene therapies have yet to achieve the clinical success needed to become FDA-approved revascularization therapies. Herein, we characterize a biodegradable peptide-based scaffold engineered to mimic VEGF and self-assemble into a nanofibrous, thixotropic hydrogel, SLanc. We found that this injectable hydrogel was rapidly infiltrated by host cells and could be degraded while promoting the generation of neovessels. In mice with induced hind limb ischemia, this synthetic peptide scaffold promoted angiogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery, as shown by Doppler-quantified limb perfusion and a treadmill endurance test. Thirteen-month-old mice showed significant recovery within 7 days of treatment. Biodistribution studies in healthy mice showed that the hydrogel is safe when administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously. These preclinical studies help establish the efficacy of this treatment for peripheral artery disease due to diminished microvascular perfusion, a necessary step before clinical translation. This peptide-based approach eliminates the need for cell transplantation or viral gene transfection (therapies currently being assessed in clinical trials) and could be a more effective regenerative medicine approach to microvascular tissue engineering.

  7. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  8. Leg med vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mette; Bertelsen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    alle med interesse for leg og bevægelse i daginstitutioner. Bogen er skrevet i et samarbejde mellem Ringsted Kommune og det nationale videncenter for sundhed, kost og motion for børn og unge, KOSMOS (www.vicekosmos.dk).Der er i samarbejde med to daginstitutioner indhentet vigtige og kvalificerede...

  9. Leg CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray beam rotates around you. (Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by ...

  10. Leg design in hexapedal runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Full, R J; Blickhan, R; Ting, L H

    1991-01-01

    .... To explain how diverse leg designs can result in common whole-body dynamics, we used a miniature force platform to measure the ground reaction forces produced by individual legs of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis...

  11. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Middelesch, H; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K; Verhoeff, J; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3 (severely deviant). This study assessed the repeatability and the reproducibility of the leg score system, and the consistency of the advice given subsequently about trimming of the hind claws of all cows in the herd. Repeatability was assessed for 52 cows that were scored twice on the same day by 11 observers; the kappa value ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 (mean: 0.36). The probability of the same result for both assessments ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 (mean: 0.61). Claw trimming was advised if at least 20% of the cows had a leg score of 3. On the basis of the scores, 3 observers consistently advised trimming of the hind claws of all the cows in the herd, and 6 observers consistently advised against the need for trimming in the short term; 2 observers had an inconsistent advice. The reproducibility of the scoring system was assessed in two dairy herds (62 and 50 cows). Eight observers evaluated the leg score of the cows of both herds on the same day. The mean kappa value of the leg score for all pairs of different observers (A-B, A-C etcetera) was 0.24 [-0.08-0.49]. In conclusion, the leg score is not a reliable method for determining the optimal moment for claw trimming in dairy cattle. The reasons for the inconsistent observations require further investigation.

  13. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  14. Briti tantsufilm küsib, mis on elu hind / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Tantsufilm "Elu hind" ("The Cost of Living") : lavastaja ja koreograaf Lloyd Newson : peaosades jalutu tantsija David Toole ja Eddie Kay : Suurbritannia 2004. Filmi aluseks on Londoni tantsuteatri DV 8 Physical Theatre' 2000.a. valminud lavastus

  15. Briti tantsufilm küsib, mis on elu hind / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Tantsufilm "Elu hind" ("The Cost of Living") : lavastaja ja koreograaf Lloyd Newson : peaosades jalutu tantsija David Toole ja Eddie Kay : Suurbritannia 2004. Filmi aluseks on Londoni tantsuteatri DV 8 Physical Theatre' 2000.a. valminud lavastus

  16. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  17. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Bhattacharya, Kalyan; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable urge to move because of uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs with a diurnal variation and a release with movement. The pathophysiology is only partially known and a genetic component together with dopaminergic and brain iron dysregulation plays an important role. Secondary causes for RLS need to be excluded. Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of RLS symptoms, comprises non-pharmacological (eg lifestyle changes) and pharmacological interventions (eg dopaminergic medication, alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids) and relieves symptoms only. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. This article will provide a clinically useful overview of RLS with provision of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, possible investigations and different treatment strategies with their associated complications. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  18. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  19. have a hollow leg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话 A:We must prevent our family members from getting involved with drugs, really. B:That’s a sure thing.We must make sure that they never involve them- selves with that. A:By the way,does your husband drink a lot? B:Yeah.That’s the only thing that keeps worrying me.And he often boasts that he has a hollow leg and nobody can drink him under the ta- ble.

  20. Vee hind Haapsalus võib tuleval aastal kallineda kolmandiku / Lehte Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Lehte, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Haapsalu Veevärk valmistab ette taotlust, et alates 1. jaanuarist 2007 tõsta vee ja kanalisatsiooni hinda ligikaudu 20-30%, mille järgi tuleks uus hind kuni 31,8 kr/m3 praeguse 24,45 kr/m3 asemel. Vt. samas: Haapsalu Veevärk aastal 2005; Vee ja kanalisatsiooni hind Haapsalus, Tallinnas, Viljandis, Jõgeval, Rakveres, Võrus, Keilas

  1. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Hind Limb Ischemia/reperfusion Injury CAPT Thomas J...porcine model of hind limb ischemia. Method: Swine (Sus Scrofa ; 76 +/-6kg) were randomly assigned to no fasciotomy or prophylactic fasciotomy after...of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus scrofa ) survival model of extremity vascular injury. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan;53(1):165

  2. Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada)

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Argot, Christine; McDonald, H. Gregory; de Muizon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The anatomy of the skeletal elements of the hind limb of Thalassocnus is described. This genus of “ground sloth” comprises five species represented by Neogene specimens from the coast of Peru and Chile, mostly found in the Pisco Formation. The hind limb of the genus Thalassocnus as a whole is characterized by a small iliac wing, a gracile femur with well-formed femoral neck, teardrop shaped patella, long and slender tibia, triangular tuber calcis, and proximal developm...

  3. Vee hind Haapsalus võib tuleval aastal kallineda kolmandiku / Lehte Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Lehte, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Haapsalu Veevärk valmistab ette taotlust, et alates 1. jaanuarist 2007 tõsta vee ja kanalisatsiooni hinda ligikaudu 20-30%, mille järgi tuleks uus hind kuni 31,8 kr/m3 praeguse 24,45 kr/m3 asemel. Vt. samas: Haapsalu Veevärk aastal 2005; Vee ja kanalisatsiooni hind Haapsalus, Tallinnas, Viljandis, Jõgeval, Rakveres, Võrus, Keilas

  4. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system.

  5. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  6. Differential diagnosis of leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, F; Rabe, E

    2013-03-01

    Leg and foot ulcers are symptoms of very different diseases. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers. The majority of leg ulcers occur in the lower leg or foot. In non-venous ulcers the localization in the foot area is more frequent. The most frequent underlying disease is chronic venous disease. In 354 leg ulcers, Koerber found 75.25% venous leg ulcers, 3.66% arterial leg ulcers, 14.66% ulcers of mixed venous and arterial origin and 13.5% vasculitic ulcers. In the Swedish population of Skaraborg, Nelzen found a venous origin in 54% of the ulcer patients. Each leg ulcer needs a clinical and anamnestic evaluation. Duplex ultrasound is the basic diagnostic tool to exclude vascular anomalies especially chronic venous and arterial occlusive disease. Skin biopsies help to find a correct diagnosis in unclear or non-healing cases. In conclusion, chronic venous disease is the most frequent cause of leg ulcerations. Because 25% of the population have varicose veins or other chronic venous disease the coincidence of pathological venous findings and ulceration is very frequent even in non-venous ulcerations. Leg ulcers without the symptoms of chronic venous disease should be considered as non-venous.

  7. Leg mechanics contribute to establishing swing phase trajectories during memory-guided stepping movements in walking cats: a computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Gordon Pearson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When quadrupeds stop walking after stepping over a barrier with their forelegs, the memory of barrier height and location is retained for many minutes. This memory is subsequently used to guide hind leg movements over the barrier when walking is resumed. The upslope of the initial trajectory of hind leg paw movements is strongly dependent on the initial location of the paw relative to the barrier. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether mechanical factors contribute significantly in establishing the slope of the paw trajectories by creating a 4-link biomechanical model of a cat hind leg and driving this model with a variety of joint-torque profiles, including average torques for a range on initial paw positions relative to the barrier. Torque profiles for individual steps were determined by an inverse dynamic analysis of leg movements in three normal cats. Our study demonstrates that limb mechanics can contribute to establishing the dependency of trajectory slope on the initial position of the paw relative to the barrier. However, an additional contribution of neuronal motor commands was indicated by the fact that the simulated slopes of paw trajectories were significantly less that the observed slopes. A neuronal contribution to the modification of paw trajectories was also revealed by our observations that both the magnitudes of knee flexor muscle EMG bursts and the initial knee flexion torques depended on initial paw position. Previous studies have shown that a shift in paw position prior to stepping over a barrier changes the paw trajectory to be appropriate for the new paw position. Our data indicate that both mechanical and neuronal factors contribute to this updating process, and that any shift in leg position during the delay period modifies the working memory of barrier location.

  8. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  9. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  10. Leporacarus gibbus infestation in client-owned rabbits and their owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-02-01

    Leporacarus gibbus is a fur mite infesting both laboratory and pet rabbits; infestation is usually subclinical, but in some instances it has been associated with a highly pruritic dermatitis. A zoonotic potential has also been suggested. Two pet rabbits, living in the same household, were presented with moderate scaling, erythema, pruritus and alopecia. In both rabbits, the lesions were mainly localized around the neck. A pruritic papular dermatitis was also present on the owner's arms and legs. Parasitological examination of the rabbits' skin and fur revealed many mites of the species L. gibbus. Skin cytology and fungal culture were both negative for bacteria and fungi. Both rabbits were treated with a single application of a spot-on formulation of 1% moxidectin and 10% imidacloprid, as well as environmental disinfection with a miticide. After treatment, the rabbits improved markedly, and the lesions on the owner's arms and legs disappeared within a week. This is the second description of L. gibbus dermatitis in people. In the present case report, the lesions on the rabbits and their owner were very similar, a pruritic dermatitis with small papules, more evident on the owner's extremities. Due to its zoonotic potential, although uncommon, L. gibbus infestation should be considered as a possible differential in pet rabbits, particularly when owners have a papular eruption. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Modification of diet fatty acid composition change the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat:

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana PIRMAN; Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of linseed oil supplementation on the performance and fatty acid composition of rabbit leg muscle and adipose tissue. Two experiments were done. First experiment: twelvemale SIKA rabbits, divided in two groups, control (n = 4; commercial diet) and the linseed (n = 8; commercial diet with 9% of linseed oil sprayed onto the pellets). Second experiment: twenty-four (12 male and 12 female) SIKArabbits, divided in two groups, palm fat (n = 12;...

  12. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  13. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera. The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s, and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.

  14. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  15. Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets by alternative analysis of DNA microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Maak, Diana Boettcher, Jens Tetens, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf, Gerd Nürnberg, Klaus Wimmers, Hermann H. Swalve, Georg Thaller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms for the disease are still not well understood. We compared genome wide gene expression of three hind leg muscles (M. adductores, M. gracilis and M. sartorius between affected piglets and their healthy littermates with the GeneChip® Porcine Genome Array (Affymetrix in order to identify candidate genes for the disease. Data analysis with standard algorithms revealed no significant differences between both groups. By application of an alternative approach, we identified 63 transcripts with differences in two muscles and 5 genes differing between the groups in three muscles. The expression of six selected genes (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, ENAH, MAF, and PDK4 was investigated with SYBRGreen RT - Real time PCR. The differences obtained with the microarray analysis could be confirmed and demonstrate the validity of the alternative approach to microarray data analysis. Four genes with different expression levels in at least two muscles (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, and MAF are assigned to transcriptional cascades related to cell death and may thus indicate pathways for further investigations on congenital splay leg in piglets.

  16. [Restless-legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I

    2008-01-01

    Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain

  17. Meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat as affected by the sire breed, season, parity order and gender in an organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalle Zotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate some meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat when considering 2 sire breeds (SB: Vienna Blue [VB]; Burgundy Fawn [BF]; both coloured and slow-growing breeds, several parity orders (P: 1, 2, ≥3, gender (G, and 2 slaughter seasons (SS: spring, summer in an organic production system. The effect of storage time (ST at frozen state (2 mo at –20°C of Longissimus lumborum (LL meat was also evaluated. Animals were slaughtered when they reached 2.8 kg of live weight. Then, pH and L*a*b* colour values of Biceps femoris (BF and LL muscles, water loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force of LL and hind leg (HL meat, and the fibre typing and enzymatic activity of LL muscle were analysed. LL meat from females showed higher b* values than males (0.04 vs. –1.25; P<0.05. Significant (P<0.05 SB×P, SB×G and P×G interactions were observed for the b* value of LL: VB and BF crossbreds presented a higher b* value when born as P≥3 and P2 respectively, VB females showed higher b* value than VB males, and P2 and P≥3 produced males with a significantly lower b* value. HL thawing losses were significantly (P<0.05 higher in rabbits slaughtered in summer than in those slaughtered in spring, whereas the opposite result was obtained for LL meat (P<0.01. Cooking loss of LL meat was significantly lower in P2 group than P≥3 group (P<0.05. The lactate dehydrogenase activity in LL muscle was higher in VB than in BF crossbreds (930 vs. 830 IU; P<0.05, albeit not supported by differences in fibre type distribution. The ST significantly (P<0.01 reduced pH, a* and b* colour values, and increased lightness of LL meat. It was concluded that the crossbreeds derived from VB and BF genotypes and farmed organically did not show remarkable sexual dimorphism, considering their elder slaughter age than rabbits reared under intensive conditions. Physical quality of meat was mainly affected by slaughter season, indicating

  18. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  19. Central Effect of Exogenous Histamine on Pain Induced by Sub-Plantar Injection of Formalin in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of normal saline (control), histamine, mepyramine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist) were investigated on the formalin-induced pain in rabbits. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of a formalin (100 μl, 5%) solution into the ventral surface of the right hind paw was performed, and the time durations spent licking and biting the injected paw were measured in 10 min bl...

  20. Biomechanics of Counterweighted One-Legged Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C

    2016-02-01

    One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.

  1. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6 J∕cm2 and wavelength of 632.8 nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Johns Hopkins Medicine MalaCards: restless legs syndrome Merck Manual Professional Version Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) European Alliance for Restless Legs Syndrome National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Restless Leg Syndrome Foundation ...

  3. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, G. L.; Rose, M. Elaine

    1963-01-01

    The finding that the serum of apparently healthy rabbits fixed complement with rabbit liver and kidney has been confirmed. Experimental infection of rabbits with Eimeria stiedae, the cause of hepatic coccidiosis, led to a rise in the titre of serum complement-fixing factors. The rise was statistically significant 14, 21 and 28 days after infection. The factors were regarded as antibodies because they behaved as macroglobulins on diethylaminoethyl—cellulose chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as autoantibodies because they fixed complement with the kidney of the rabbits in which they occurred. The antibody reacted with widely distributed antigen(s) with high activity in brain and low activity in skeletal muscle. The possibility that coccidial infection may be responsible for the natural autoantibody of rabbits is discussed. PMID:13965167

  4. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  5. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  6. Man with leg rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Michael Huynh; Khesbak, Ziyad; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2017-10-01

    A 51-year-old male presented to the ED with a rash to his left thigh (figure 1) with erythema, swelling and pain. He endorsed paraesthesias, pruritus, fevers, vomiting and diarrhoea. Initial vitals were unremarkable. He was well appearing with an 8×8 cm violaceous patch on his left medial thigh with vesicles, surrounding erythema and induration with a second, smaller lesion on the right thigh. Both rashes were extremely tender.emermed;34/10/686/F1F1F1Figure 1Erythematosus and vesicular rash in bilateral legs.A bedside ultrasound image of the rash was obtained (figure 2).emermed;34/10/686/F2F2F2Figure 2Bedside ultrasound of rash. What is the most likely cause of the patient's rash?A. Herpes zosterB. CellulitisC. Necrotising fasciitisD. Bullous pemphigoid. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Gazprom : kolme aastaga tõuseb gaasi hind järsult

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Kolme aasta jooksul hakkavad senised enamsoodustushindadega gaasiostjad Eesti, Läti, Leedu ja Moldova Gazpromi gaasi eest maksma EL-i keskmist hinda 150 dollarit 1000 kuupmeetri eest senise alla 100 dollarilise hinna asemel. Eesti Gaasi hind tõuseb järgmisel aastal kodutarbija jaoks ligi 12%

  8. 78 FR 54512 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Hinds County, Miss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... part 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 0.16 miles of rail line between mileposts 0.36 and 0.20, in Jackson, Hinds County, Miss. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the line for at least two years; (2) there is no...

  9. Terase hind kerkis tänavu üle kahe korra / Indrek Kiisler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiisler, Indrek

    2004-01-01

    Spetsialistide arvates põhjustasid terase hinnatõusu Hiina, kuna sealne majandusareng on jõudnud faasi, kus vajatakse palju metalli ning samuti USA kiirenev majanduskasv. Kommenteerivad: Rasmus Pikkani, Vaido Palmik. Lisad: Hiina on terasetarbimise liider; Vanametalli hind tõuseb

  10. Lymphadenectomy prior to rat hind limb allotransplantation prevents graft-versus-host disease in chimeric hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, PCR; Perez-Abadia, G; Francois, CG; Laurentin-Perez, LA; Gorantla, [No Value; Vossen, M; Tai, C; Pidwell, D; Anderson, GL; Stadelmann, WK; Hewitt, CW; Kon, M; Barker, JH; Maldonado, C

    2004-01-01

    In previous rat studies, the use of mixed allogeneic chimerism (MAC) to induce host tolerance to hind limb allografts has resulted in severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The purpose of this study was to determine if immunocompetent cells in bone marrow (BM) and/or lymph nodes (LNs) of transplan

  11. An Interview with Dan Hind: Media Reform is a Precondition of Social Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sašo Slaček Brlek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dan Hind, an advocate for media reform towards the public tender model, talks about his proposals for media democratization, the entanglement of these proposals in a broader vision of progressive social change, and implications of the digital revolution for citizen participation in the media.

  12. Kõrge kütuse hind seab lennufirmad löögi alla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Lennutranspordi Assotsiatsiooni läbiviidud uuringu kohaselt on lennufirmad edukad, kuid kütuse kõrge hind ohustab nende tegevust. Graafik: SARS-i epideemia põhjustatud langusest on üle saadud. Tabelid: IATA rahvusvahelise lennuliikluse statistika

  13. [The HindIII polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, D V; Lazebnaia, I V; Sidorenko, A P

    1997-01-01

    Structural polymorphism of rDNA from Blattella germanica was analyzed in six colonies of Moscow city different regions. Two electrophoretic variants of HindIII fragments of rDNA were detected by using 28S-like rDNA probe.

  14. Field study of hind limb claw lesions and claw measures in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Ushijima, Ruri; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the associations of hind limb claw lesions with claw measures and reproductive performance of sows on a commercial breeding farm. We used a five-point scale (score of 0-4) for each hind limb claw region to generate a claw lesion score (CLS). Of 110 sows, 1.8% had no hind claw lesions, and the remaining 98.2% had at least one. The proportions of sows with a CLS of 2 and 3 were 49.1% and 3.6%, respectively. The junction region had the highest frequency of a CLS of ≥ 2 (P Sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 in the lateral claw had longer sole dimensions than did sows with the highest CLS of ≤ 1 (P sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. There was also no difference in reproductive performance between sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. In conclusion, most sows had hind claw lesions. The association between CLS and claw measures indicates that the sole length can be used as an indicator of claw lesions. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Protection by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice. [Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

    1983-04-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was shown to provide marked protection against development of radiation-induced leg contractures in C3Hf/Kam mice whose legs were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation. The radiation doses ranged from 3300 to 6200 rads delivered to the right hind thighs from two parallelly opposed 137Cs sources. WR-2721 was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The severity of radiation-induced leg contractures in untreated and WR-2721-treated mice was followed for 342 days after irradiation. The degree of leg contractures in both control and WR-2721-treated mice increased up to 100 days after radiation, when the change stabilized, remaining more or less at the same level to the end of the observation period. During this entire period, the severity of contractures was less in WR-2721-treated mice. The dose-modifying factor for the level of 5 mm reduction in leg extension was 1.5 at 182 days after irradiation. Since WR-2721 did not prevent the radiocurability of 8-mm fibrosarcomas growing in the same legs, these data imply that WR-2721 has a high potential for increasing therapeutic gain when combined with irradiation in the treatment of tumors of an appreciable size.

  16. [Restless legs syndrome - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni; Sigurdsson, Albert Pall

    2012-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder with a prevalence between 10-20% in Iceland. There are two forms of RLS, idiopathic and secondary. Symptom onset of RLS before the age of 45 suggests an idiopathic form with no known underlying cause but inheritance. Symptom onset after age of 45 indicates a secondary form with an underlying cause without inheritance. Causes for secondary forms are for example: iron depletion, uraemia and polyneuropathy. Symptoms of RLS are uncomfortable and unpleasant deep sensations in the legs that are felt at rest, accompanied by an urge to move the legs, typically just before sleep. Accompanying RLS is a sleep disturbance that can lead to daytime somnolence, decreased quality of life, poor concentration, memory problems, depression and decreased energy. Dopamine agonists are currently the first line treatment for RLS. restless legs, periodic limb movements, sleep disturbance, dopamine agonists.

  17. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  18. 75 FR 60515 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pygmy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... other rabbits by its small size, gray color, short rounded ears, small hind legs, and the absence of... (Canis latrans), bobcats (Felis rufus), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), long-eared owls (Asio otus...

  19. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs.

  20. Rabbit orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Gregory A

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  1. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  2. Steroid hormones profile during an ovarian synchronization procedure in different age categories of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šperanda Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals, mature (10 animals and old (7 animals hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI. The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland. Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein using a Venoject® vacutainer without an anticoagulant for hormonal tests on the same experimental day (0, 11th and 13th day. A statistically (p<0.01 higher progesterone level was found in young hinds on the 11th day after controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device insertion. A significantly higher (p<0.01 estrogen level was observed in the young in regard to mature and old hinds on the expected day of estrus (13th day. Estradiol/progesterone ratios showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01 on insemination day (13th day between old and young hinds (98.67 : 46.59 and between old and mature hinds (98.67 : 51.79. Out of a total of 38 hinds only 9 had their offspring, 6 of the young and 3 of the mature hinds.

  3. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  4. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  5. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  6. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Stain hybridization method with pRepHind probe for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón Borodowsky, I

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on the parasitemia detection level and the specificity of the pRepHind DNA probe for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum by the stain hybridization method. The parasitemia detection level was studied by using dilutions of a P. falciparum in vitro culture, adjusted by direct microscopic examination to 1; 0.1; 0.01; 0.001; 0.0001 and 0.00001% of parasited red cells. Specificity was increased by using DNA extractions from P. Yoelii, P. berghei and human leucocytes. The results showed that the method was able to detect 0.0001% of parasitemia starting from DNA extractions of 100 L infected red cells. The pRepHind probe only detected specifically DNA from P. falciparum. It is concluded that the method is suitable for being used in the diagnosis of infection due to P. falciparum.

  8. Protective effects of prostaglandin E1 perfusion against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xifan Mei; Yansong Wang; Chang Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is known to be protective in ischemia-reperfusion of heart, lung, renal, and liver tissue. It still remains to be determined whether PGE1 exhibits similar protection against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rabbit model. OBJECTIVE: To observe the large, ventral horn, motor neurons of the spinal cord, as well as limb function, and to investigate whether perfusion of PGE1 exhibits protective effects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rabbit model. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Controlled observation. The experiment was performed at the Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University between June and October 2007. MATERIALS: Twenty male, New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 2.0 kg and of mixed gender, were used in the present study. The following chemicals and compounds were used: prostaglandin El injectable powder, as well as malondialdehyde and ATPase kits. Animal intervention was in accordance with animal ethical standards. METHODS: We separated rabbits into control and experimental groups randomly, with 10 rabbits in each group. Rabbits were used as spinal cord ischemia models by segmentally cross-clamping the infrarenal aorta. The control group was subsequently perfused for five minutes with blood and saline solution, and the experimental group was perfused for 5 minutes with blood and saline solution containing PGE1 (100 ng/kg/min). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The neurological function of the hind limbs was assessed 12, 24, and 48 hours after model establishment. All animals were sacrificed and spinal cords were harvested for histological analyses. The large motor neurons in the ventral horn of L1-7 were observed by inverted microscope. RESULTS: All 20 rabbits were included in the final analysis, without any loss. In the ventral horn of the L5-7 segments, there were more large motor neurons that appeared viable in the experimental group than the control group (P<0

  9. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  10. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  11. HindSight: Encouraging Exploration through Direct Encoding of Personal Interaction History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mi; Deng, Cheng; Peck, Evan M; Harrison, Lane

    2017-01-01

    Physical and digital objects often leave markers of our use. Website links turn purple after we visit them, for example, showing us information we have yet to explore. These "footprints" of interaction offer substantial benefits in information saturated environments - they enable us to easily revisit old information, systematically explore new information, and quickly resume tasks after interruption. While applying these design principles have been successful in HCI contexts, direct encodings of personal interaction history have received scarce attention in data visualization. One reason is that there is little guidance for integrating history into visualizations where many visual channels are already occupied by data. More importantly, there is not firm evidence that making users aware of their interaction history results in benefits with regards to exploration or insights. Following these observations, we propose HindSight - an umbrella term for the design space of representing interaction history directly in existing data visualizations. In this paper, we examine the value of HindSight principles by augmenting existing visualizations with visual indicators of user interaction history (e.g. How the Recession Shaped the Economy in 255 Charts, NYTimes). In controlled experiments of over 400 participants, we found that HindSight designs generally encouraged people to visit more data and recall different insights after interaction. The results of our experiments suggest that simple additions to visualizations can make users aware of their interaction history, and that these additions significantly impact users' exploration and insights.

  12. IMPAIRED ANGIOGENESIS FOLLOWING HIND-LIMB ISCHEMIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jun Li; Heng Guan; Surovi Hazarika; Chang-wei Liu; Brain H Annex

    2007-01-01

    To investigate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its signaling pathway spontaneous response in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice to surgery-induced hind-limb ischemia.Methods Sixty mice were randomly divided into two groups, one was fed with normal chow as control, and another was fed with high fat diet to induce T2DM. Fourteen weeks later, mice were surgically induced to hind-limb ischemia. Blood flow restoration was monitored with laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Tibialis anterior muscle was collected after 3 days of hind-limb ischemia. VEGF mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed using real-time PCR and ELISA; expressions of VEGF downstream signal molecules and receptors were analyzed using Western blotting and RTPCR, respectively.Results Perfusion recovery 10, 20, 30 days after ischemia was significantly attenuated in T2DM compared with control group ( P < 0.05 ). T2DM impaired VEGF signaling pathway although VEGF levels increased in T2DM group.After ischemia, T2DM group had a comparable increase in VEGF expression compared with control group, but still had an impaired VEGF signaling pathway.Conclusion VEGF signaling pathway is abnormal in T2DM mice, although VEGF had a response to the ischemic stimulation.

  13. Two-and Three-Dimensional Simulations of Beetle Hind Wing Flapping during Free Forward Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuyen Quang Le; Tien Van Truong; Hieu Trung Tran; Soo Hyung Park; Jin Hwan Ko; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristic of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and hind wings,is numerically investigated.Based on the experimental results of wing kinematics,two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic simulations were carried out to reveal aerodynamic performance of the hind wing.The roles of the spiral Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and the spanwise flow were clarified by comparing 2D and 3D simulations.Mainly due to pitching down of chord line during downstroke in highly inclined stroke plane,relatively high averaged thrust was produced in the free forward flight of the beetle.The effects of the local corrugation and the camber variation were also investigated for the beetle's hind wings.Our results show that the camber variation plays a significant role in improving both lift and thrust in the flapping.On the other hand,the local corrugation pattern has no significant effect on the aerodynamic force due to large angle of attack during flapping.

  14. A new model for the immobilization of the rat hind limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative device for the immobilization of the hind limb of the rat was developed to study the effects of chronic disuse on the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, maintained for 3 weeks in the shortening and the stretching positions, respectively. The proposed device is made of steel mesh and cotton materials, and has some advantages when compared to cast or plaster cast: it is cheaper, lighter (12 g or 4% of the body weight of the rat and the same unit can be easily adjusted and used several times in the same animal or in animals of similar size. Immobilization is also useful to restrain the movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Male rats (291 ± 35 g and aged 14 ± 2 weeks were used to develop and test the model. The soleus muscle of 18 rats was maintained in a shortened position for 21 consecutive days and lost 19 ± 7% of its length (P = 0.008 and 44 ± 6% of its weight (P = 0.002 compared to the contralateral intact muscle. No difference (P = 0.67 was found in the stretched tibialis anterior of the same hind limb when compared to the contralateral muscle. No ulcer, sore or foot swelling was observed in the animals. Immobilization was effective in producing chronic muscle disuse in the hind limbs of rats and is an acceptable alternative to the traditional methods of immobilization such as cast or plaster cast.

  15. DNA sequence analysis of the Hind III M fragment from Chinese vaccine strain of vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, V J; Jin, Q; Jin, D Y; Hou, Y D

    1989-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Hind III M fragment of vaccinia virus (VV) Tian Tan strain genome was determined by the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. Three open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the complementary strand of the sequence, comprised of 2218bp. Among them, ORF K1 initiates its transcription at -45 of the Hind III K fragment. The deduced peptide encoded by K1 contains 284 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32.48 KDa. Its sequence is homologous to the host range protein of VV Copenhagen strain; the variation is only 2.46% at the amino acid level. ORF M2 could encode a peptide of 21.94 KDa with 196 amino acids. This gene was shown to be homologous to that of the 23 KDa peptide of herpes simplex virus type I. A non-coding region of 204bp located between K1 and M2 is rich in palindromic structures. ORF M1 extends its 3' terminus into the Hind III N fragment. Within the M fragment, M1 can only encode 212 amino acids. The major part of ORF M1 is very similar to the M portion of a possible alpha-amanitin resistance gene isolated from VV-WR strain. This work provides a molecular foundation in the construction of a new insertion vector for the preparation of a recombinant vaccinia virus to be used as a polyvalent live vaccine.

  16. Minimizing the cost of locomotion with inclined trunk predicts crouched leg kinematics of small birds at realistic levels of elastic recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    Small birds move with pronograde trunk orientation and crouched legs. Although the pronograde trunk has been suggested to be beneficial for grounded running, the cause(s) of the specific leg kinematics are unknown. Here we show that three charadriiform bird species (northern lapwing, oystercatcher, and avocet; great examples of closely related species that differ remarkably in their hind limb design) move their leg segments during stance in a way that minimizes the cost of locomotion. We imposed measured trunk motions and ground reaction forces on a kinematic model of the birds. The model was used to search for leg configurations that minimize leg work that accounts for two factors: elastic recoil in the intertarsal joint, and cheaper negative muscle work relative to positive muscle work. A physiological level of elasticity (∼ 0.6) yielded segment motions that match the experimental data best, with a root mean square of angular deviations of ∼ 2.1 deg. This finding suggests that the exploitation of elastic recoil shapes the crouched leg kinematics of small birds under the constraint of pronograde trunk motion. Considering that an upright trunk and more extended legs likely decrease the cost of locomotion, our results imply that the cost of locomotion is a secondary movement criterion for small birds. Scaling arguments suggest that our approach may be utilized to provide new insights into the motion of extinct species such as dinosaurs.

  17. Hind meelitab Lääne-Eestisse ostma / Tea Taruste, Enn Tosso ; kommenteerinud Marek Kerna, Aivar Vilbo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taruste, Tea

    2009-01-01

    Hoonestamata maaga ostu-müügitehingute arv on selle aasta kaheksa kuu jooksul kahanenud 2008. aastaga võrreldes pea viiendiku ja hind on langenud keskmiselt 40%. Lääne-Eestis on tehingud maaga kasvanud. Diagramm

  18. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dut

  1. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  2. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  3. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  4. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  5. WEIGHTS or RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heart and spleen from_male and femalerabbits were made, in rabbits fed graded levels (0, 4, 8, 12%) of oil palm indiets. ..... aeetyl CoA derived mainly from carbohydrate wasdepressed ... an integral part in the synthesis and metabolism of.

  6. A Clever Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼振璞; 付晓明

    2002-01-01

    1. Once there lived an elephant and a lion in the mountains, who both wanted to be the king of the beasts. One day the lion caught a rabbit. Before he ate it, he said, “Do you know I am the king here? ”

  7. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  8. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  9. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  10. Anisotropy and non-homogeneity of an Allomyrina Dichotoma beetle hind wing membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, N S; Jin, T L; Goo, N S; Park, H C, E-mail: nsgoo@konkuk.ac.kr [Biomimetics and Intelligent Microsystem Laboratory, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Biomimetics is one of the most important paradigms as researchers seek to invent better engineering designs over human history. However, the observation of insect flight is a relatively recent work. Several researchers have tried to address the aerodynamic performance of flapping creatures and other natural properties of insects, although there are still many unsolved questions. In this study, we try to answer the questions related to the mechanical properties of a beetle's hind wing, which consists of a stiff vein structure and a flexible membrane. The membrane of a beetle's hind wing is small and flexible to the point that conventional methods cannot adequately quantify the material properties. The digital image correlation method, a non-contact displacement measurement method, is used along with a specially designed mini-tensile testing system. To reduce the end effects, we developed an experimental method that can deal with specimens with as high an aspect ratio as possible. Young's modulus varies over the area in the wing and ranges from 2.97 to 4.5 GPa in the chordwise direction and from 1.63 to 2.24 GPa in the spanwise direction. Furthermore, Poisson's ratio in the chordwise direction is 0.63-0.73 and approximately twice as large as that in the spanwise direction (0.33-0.39). From these results, we can conclude that the membrane of a beetle's hind wing is an anisotropic and non-homogeneous material. Our results will provide a better understanding of the flapping mechanism through the formulation of a fluid-structure interaction analysis or aero-elasticity analysis and meritorious data for biomaterial properties database as well as a creative design concept for a micro aerial flapper that mimics an insect.

  11. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  12. Restless legs syndrome in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, Imad; Dupouy, Sandrine; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of restless legs syndrome in 30 patients with multiple system atrophy. Eight patients complained from restless legs syndrome, their severity score was 19.4 ± 4.1. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in patients with restless legs syndrome than those without (9.3 ± 3.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.9, p = 0.00165). Periodic limb movements were found in 75% of patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is more prevalent in multiple system atrophy as compared to the acknowledged prevalence in the general population.

  13. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  14. Impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Wei, Yi-Yong; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the morphological alterations of the deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening have been investigated in cellular and extracellular aspects, the impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia remains largely unknown. This study aimed to address the changes of viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia during leg lengthening using uniaxial tensile test. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day in two steps, and preceded until increases of 10% and 20% in the initial length of tibia had been achieved. The deep fascia specimens of 30 mm × 10 mm were clamped with the Instron 1122 tensile tester at room temperature with a constant tensile rate of 5 mm/min. After 5 load-download tensile tests had been performed, the specimens were elongated until rupture. The load-displacement curves were automatically generated. Results The normal deep fascia showed typical viscoelastic rule of collagenous tissues. Each experimental group of the deep fascia after leg lengthening kept the properties. The curves of the deep fascia at a rate of 1 mm/day with 20% increase in tibia length were the closest to those of normal deep fascia. The ultimate tension strength and the strain at rupture on average of normal deep fascia were 2.69 N (8.97 mN/mm2) and 14.11%, respectively. The increases in ultimate tension strength and strain at rupture of the deep fascia after leg lengthening were statistically significant. Conclusion The deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening exhibits viscoelastic properties as collagenous tissues without lengthening other than increased strain and strength. Notwithstanding different lengthening schemes result in varied viscoelastic properties changes, the most comparable viscoelastic properties to be demonstrated are under the scheme of a distraction rate of 1 mm/day and 20% increase in tibia length. PMID:19698092

  15. Detection of demineralization in rat legs using multiple-angle x-ray bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lawrence M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Sebes, Jeno I.; Thomason, Donald B.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Davis, Peter G.; Kambeyanda, Dona; Li, Gao; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1994-05-01

    A method utilizing digital dual-energy subtraction X-ray radiography for measuring calcium densities localized to the cortical and cancellous regions of bone cross sections is described. The method is being used to study calcium loss in femurs of two differently treated groups of rats. In each experimental cohort, one group of rats is restrained from weightbearing on hind limbs by suspension from a tail harness. The other (control) group is allowed normal weightbearing on all limbs. The densitometry data for each rat leg consists of six X-ray projection images acquired at roughly equal angles about the bone axis by an intensifying screen/CCD camera imaging system. Images of bone cross sections are reconstructed by application of a maximum entropy algorithm constrained by the six projection images. The observed density data are further discriminated into cortical, cancellous and external regions on the basis of reference levels found on image density histograms.

  16. A new rabbit model of implant-related biofilm infection: development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-Bing; Zeng, Hong; Shen, Ding-Xia; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ji-Fang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-03-01

    This study is to establish a rabbit model for human prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation. Thirty-two healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and implanted with stainless steel screws and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) washers in the non-articular surface of the femoral lateral condyle of the right hind knees. The rabbit knee joints were inoculated with 1 mL saline containing 0, 102, 103, 104 CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) isolated from the patient with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection, respectively. On the 14th postoperative day, the UHMWPE washers from the optimal 103 CFU group were further examined. The SEM examination showed a typical biofilm construction that circular S. epidermidis were embedded in a mucous-like matrix. In addition, the LCSM examination showed that the biofilm consisted of the polysaccharide stained bright green fluorescence and S. epidermidis radiating red fluorescence. Thus, we successfully create a rabbit model for prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation, which should be valuable for biofilm studies.

  17. Use of FK506 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for rat hind limb allografts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youxin Song; Zhujun Wang; Zhixue Wang; Hong Zhang; Xiaohui Li; Bin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Dark Agouti rat donor hind limbs were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis rat recipients to verify the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration and functional recovery of allotransplanted limbs in the microenvironment of immunotolerance. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were intramuscularly (gluteus maximus) injected with FK506 (tacrolimus) daily, and were transplanted to the injured nerves. Results indicated that the allograft group not receiving therapy showed severe rejection, with transplanted limbs detaching at 10 days after transplantation with complete necrosis. The number of myelinated axons and Schwann cells in the FK506 and FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells groups were significantly increased. We observed a lesser degree of gastrocnemius muscle degeneration, and increased polymorphic fibers along with other pathological changes in the FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group. The FK506 + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group showed significantly better recovery than the autograft and FK506 groups. The results demonstrated that FK506 improved the immune microenvironment. FK506 combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration, and improved sensory recovery and motor function in hind limb allotransplant.

  18. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  19. The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Gary B

    2007-01-01

    Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming.

  20. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E

    2016-01-13

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm²), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy.

  1. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Matthew Hoffman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2, presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy.

  2. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  3. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  4. 设计师访谈:Three Legged Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOE; RUSS

    2007-01-01

    Greg Gunn、Casey Hunt和Reza Rasoli,又称Three Legged Legs。于2006年获得了全球学生动画奖(Global Student Animation Award)。现在他们又带回了一个精彩的新短片《Samurai》。我们自然也不会放过这次机会,看看能不能了解到更多内幕信息。

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  6. The researchers developed luminous rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy(蓬松的) white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii. The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently,

  7. Possible living flea beetle fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (C. cuevas, C. ellimon, and C. maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne 1958, Psylliodes Berthold 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein 2010. Remarkably, ba...

  8. Effects of ovariectomy on the changes in microarchitecture and material level properties in response to hind leg disuse in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Rizzoli, René; Ammann, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX) and immobilization are known to decrease bone mineral density and alter its microarchitecture. Their effects on the material level properties of bone, a determinant of bone strength, are still largely unknown. We investigated the effect of OVX and/or disuse achieved by sciatic neurectomy (NX) in 6-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats. At baseline, animals underwent OVX or sham operation. At week 16, NX was performed on the left hindlimb while the right hindlimb was sham-operated. All animals were sacrificed at week 40. Proximal tibiae and vertebral bodies (L4) were evaluated by micro-computed tomographic morphometry (μCT). Material level properties (elastic modulus, hardness, and dissipated energy) were evaluated by a nanoindentation test. At the proximal tibia, OVX and NX decreased relative bone volume, the former mainly through a reduction in trabecular number, and the latter through a decrease in trabecular thickness. NX decreased modulus (-10%; pbone, and modulus (-16.8%, p=0.004), hardness (-29.3%, p=0.004), and dissipated energy (-17.7%, p=0.01) in trabecular bone, while OVX decreased cortical bone dissipated energy (-14.6%, pbone hardness (-19.4%, p=0.05). In the vertebral body, OVX altered mainly the trabecular microarchitecture and nanoindentation variables. These results show that NX with and without OVX markedly alter material level properties in addition to an alteration of bone microarchitecture, although not in the same manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the association Hind III Polymorphism of Lipoprotein Lipase gene on the risk of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Imeni

    2013-11-01

    Results: In this survey, a highly significant association between the frequent H+/+ genotype and unfavorable TG levels was observed in our population . For the Hind III genotypes, within the healthy subjects (n=88, the H+/+ genotype was found in 67 individuals (58.8%, H-/+ genotype in 38 individuals (33.3% , and 9 individuals (7.8% carried the H-/- genotype. Within the CAD group (n=114, 47 individuals (53.4% with H+/+ genotype, 36 (41% with H-/+ genotype, and 5 (5.6% carried the H-/- genotype. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the distribution of LPL–Hind III genotypes and the healthy subjects and the patients with CAD (P<0.05, 0. 645. LPL–Hind III polymorphisms were not detected as independent risk factors for CAD in this study group, but had significant associations with TG levels (P<0.05.

  10. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ(2) (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, I; Tison, F

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensorimotor disorder where patients complain of an almost irresistible urge to move their legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest particularly at night, and improves with activity. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group has established four essential criteria for clinical diagnosis of RLS. Affecting an estimated 7.2 to 11.5% of the adult population, the symptoms of RLS may be associated with significant sleep disturbance and may have a negative impact on quality of life. The prevalence of RLS increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, the estimated prevalence is 8.5%. Among sufferers, 4.4% complain of very severe symptoms. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, especially iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and pregnancy. These conditions may share a common pathophysiological mechanism involving a disorder of iron metabolism. By contrast, controversy persists as to whether polyneuropathy, particularly when associated with diabetes, is to be considered as an important cause of secondary RLS. This association is difficult to demonstrate as conventional electromyography is not adequate to detect small fiber neuropathy often associated with diabetes. RLS is often underdiagnosed and few subjects receive recommended RLS drug treatment. There is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management.

  12. Neuroimaging in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, Federica; Chiaro, Giacomo

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies are of crucial relevance in defining the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). MRI studies showed no structural brain lesions and confirmed a central iron deficiency. Structural and functional studies showed an involvement of the thalamus, sensorimotor cortical areas, and cerebellum in RLS and assessed neurotransmission abnormalities in the dopaminergic and opiate systems. Finally, glutamatergic hyperactivity has been proposed as a cause of disrupted and shortened sleep in RLS. Differences among the results of the studies make it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions, thus, suggesting the need for future research.

  13. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  14. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  15. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  16. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Cynthia L

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder diagnosed by the clinical characteristics of restlessness in the legs associated often with abnormal sensations that start at rest and are improved by activity, occurring with a diurnal pattern of worsened symptoms at night and improvement in the morning. RLS is the cause of impaired quality of life in those more severely afflicted. Treatment of RLS has undergone considerable change over the last few years. Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy, including the dopaminergic agents and the alpha-2-delta ligands. Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found to be successful. However, chronic use of levodopa is frequently associated with augmentation that is defined as an earlier occurrence of symptoms frequently associated with worsening severity and sometimes spread to other body areas. The direct dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, pramipexole, and rotigotine patch, are also effective, although side effects, including daytime sleepiness, impulse control disorders, and augmentation, may limit usefulness. The alpha-2-delta ligands, including gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, and pregabalin, are effective for RLS without known occurrence of augmentation or impulse control disorders, although sedation and dizziness can occur. Other agents, including the opioids and clonazepam do not have sufficient evidence to recommend them as treatment for RLS, although in an individual patient, they may provide benefit.

  18. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. HindIII identifies a two allele DNA polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caenazzo, L.; Hoehe, M.R.; Hsieh, W.T.; Berrettini, W.H.; Bonner, T.I.; Gershon, E.S. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-09-11

    HCNR p5, a 0.9 kb BamHI/EcoRI fragment from the human cannabinoid receptor gene inserted into pUC19, was used as probe. The fragment is located in an intron approximately 14 kb 5{prime} of the initiation codon. This fragment is a clean single copy sequence by genomic blotting. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with HindIII identified a two allele RFLP with bands at 5.5 (A1) and 3.3 kb (A2). The human cannabinoid receptor gene has been genetically mapped in CEPH reference pedigrees to the centromeric/q region of chromosome 6. In situ hybridization localizes it to 6q14-q15. Codominant segregation has been observed in 26 informative two- and three-generation CEPH pedigrees and in 14 medium-sized disease families.

  20. The effect on the extracellular matrix of the deep fascia in response to leg lengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Li, Xin-Kui; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Wei, Yi-Yong; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2008-01-01

    Background Whereas the alterations of diverse tissues in cellular and molecular levels have been investigated during leg lengthening via microscopy and biochemical studies, little is known about the response of deep fascia. This study aims to investigate the changes of the extracellular matrix in deep fascia in response to leg lengthening. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day in two steps, and preceded until increases of 10% and 20% in the initial length of tibia had been achieved. Alcian blue stain and picrosirius-polarization method were used for the study of the extracellular matrix of deep fascia samples. Leica DM LA image analysis system was used to investigate the quantitative changes of collagen type I and III. Results Alcian blue stain showed that glycosaminoglycans of fascia of each group were composed of chondroitin sulphate and heparin sulphate, but not of keratan sulphate. Under the polarization microscopy, the fascia consisted mainly of collagen type I. After leg lengthening, the percentage of collagen type III increased. The most similar collagen composition of the fascia to that of the normal fascia was detected at a 20% increase in tibia length achieved via a distraction rate of 1 mm/d. Conclusion The changes in collagen distribution and composition occur in deep fascia during leg lengthening. Although different lengthening schemes resulted in varied matrix changes, the most comparable collagen composition to be demonstrated under the scheme of a distraction rate of 1 mm/day and 20% increase in tibia length. Efficient fascia regeneration is initiated only in certain combinations of the leg load parameters including appropriate intensity and duration time, e.g., either low density distraction that persist a relatively short time or high distraction rates. PMID:18611283

  1. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  2. The Year of the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Every year of the Chinese lunar calendar corresponds with an animal. The rat,ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig make up the Chinese zodiac, which repeats in a12-year cycle. This year’s Chinese NewYear rings in the Year of the Rabbit.

  3. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  4. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  5. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, T. M.

    1930-01-01

    The virus of infectious myxomatosis of rabbits (Sanarelli) induces multiple lesions in the skin, lymph glands, tunica vaginalis,epididymis, testicle, spleen, and lungs. Growth and destruction of cells in the epidermis overlying the myxomatous masses leads to the formation of vesicles. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in affected epidermal cells. Occasionally, similar inclusions are seen in other involved epithelial cells. The nature of the inclusions is an open question. In the myxomatous masses situated in the subcutaneous and other tissues, evidences of alteration and growth of certain cells are observed. PMID:19869741

  6. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  7. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous...

  8. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  10. Ropinirole treatment for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Fornadi, Katalin; Shapiro, Colin M

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we discuss therapy with ropinirole (known as adartrel in the United Kingdom) in patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs, uncomfortable sensations in the legs and worsening of these symptoms during rest with at least temporary relief brought on by activity. Current recommendations suggest dopaminergic therapy (levodopa or dopamine receptor agonists like ropinirole) as the first-line treatment for restless legs syndrome. Based on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, we conclude that ropinirole is effective in reducing symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Ropinirole has no serious or common side effects that would limit its use significantly. Rebound and augmentation problems are relatively rarely seen with ropinirole, although properly designed comparative trials are still needed to address this question. It must be noted, however, that most published studies with ropinirole compare this drug with placebo. Very few studies have compared ropinirole with other drugs (L-dopa, gabapentin, opioids, benzodiazepines, other dopaminergic agents and selegiline hydrochloride). No cost-effectiveness trial has been published yet. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with ropinirole shows it to be effective, well-tolerated and safe and it can be used in restless legs syndrome in general.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Samantha; Sanghera, Manjit K; Klocko, David J; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs during rest, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations in the affected extremity or extremities. RLS can manifest at any age but prevalence increases with advancing age. This article describes the symptoms of RLS, associated comorbidities, and how to diagnose and manage RLS.

  12. Update in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rachel E.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Allen, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder recognized in the medical literature since the 17th century, there have only recently been significant clinical and scientific advances in diagnosis, epidemiology and understanding the disorder, mainly due to the advent of dopaminergic treatment. Recent findings Recent discoveries have uncovered the iron–dopamine connection in RLS and the basic dopaminergic pathology related to the RLS symptoms. These have led to new understanding of the morbidity of RLS and the many conditions associated with RLS, which have also supported new approaches to treatment. These developments are each briefly described here. Summary Although there has been progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating RLS, it remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated condition severely impairing functioning of patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Much work is needed to improve on current, as well as other novel therapies. PMID:20581683

  13. Opioids for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César Osório; Carvalho, Luciane Bc; Carlos, Karla; Conti, Cristiane; de Oliveira, Marcio M; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F

    2016-06-29

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing and common neurological disorder that may have a huge impact in the quality of life of those with frequent and intense symptoms. Patients complain of unpleasant sensations in the legs, at or before bedtime, and feel an urge to move the legs, which improves with movement, such as walking. Symptoms start with the patient at rest (e.g. sitting or lying down), and follow a circadian pattern, increasing during the evening or at night. Many pharmacological intervention are available for RLS, including drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease (L-Dopa and dopaminergic agonists), epilepsy (anticonvulsants), anxiety (benzodiazepines), and pain (opioids). Dopaminergic drugs are those most frequently used for treatment of RLS, but some patients do not respond effectively and require other medication. Opioids, a class of medications used to treat severe pain, seem to be effective in treating RLS symptoms, and are recommended for patients with severe symptoms, because RLS and pain appear to share the same mechanism in the central nervous system. All available drugs are associated to some degree with side effects, which can impede treatment. Opioids are associated with adverse events such as constipation, tolerance, and dependence. This justifies the conduct of a systematic review to ascertain whether opioids are safe and effective for treatment of RLS. To asses the effects of opioids compared to placebo treatment for restless legs syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, CENTRAL 2016, issue 4 and MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS up to April 2016, using a search strategy adapted by Cochraneto identify randomised clinical trials. We checked the references of each study and established personal communication with other authors to identify any additional studies. We considered publications in all languages. Randomised controlled clinical trials of opioid treatment in adults with idiopathic RLS. Two

  14. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  15. Microbiological and Histological Examinations of Endangered Neurergus kaiseri Tissues Displaying Red-leg Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paria PARTO; Zahra MS HAGHIGHI; Somaye VAISSI; Mozafar SHARIFI

    2014-01-01

    Presence of the red leg syndrome (RLS) was documented through bacterial and histological examinations in the endangered Kaiser’s mountain newt Neurergus kaiseri obtained from a pet shop. The individuals which were severely infected showed lethargy, appetite loss, weight loss, abdominal skin redness and skin ulcers on hind legs. This study reveals the presence of two bacteria causing RLS on the skin of captive N. kaiseri including Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus. Sections of skin in affected areas and internal organs were examined through standard histological procedures. Histologically, epidermal necrosis and ulcers, epidermal gland depletion, myositis and subcutaneous edema, gastric submucosal edema and hepatomegaly were seen. There were also correlations between the microbial infection and structural changes in tissues of Kaiser’s mountain newt. The severity of the structural changes are related to the level of microbial infection in the target organs and could be sustained by the isolation of P. vulgaris and other pathogens. The presence of the infective bacterial population and their interaction on the skin of the newt may have changed the normal skin lfora and facilitate the prevalence of other disease.

  16. Neurobiology: reconstructing the neural control of leg coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R

    2009-05-12

    Walking is adaptable because the timing of movements of individual legs can be varied while maintaining leg coordination. Recent work in stick insects shows that leg coordination set by interactions of pattern generating circuits can be overridden by sensory feedback.

  17. Increasing thickness and fibrosis of the cartilage in acetabular dysplasia: a rabbit model research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-you; MA Rui-xue

    2010-01-01

    Background The order and mechanism of pathological changes in acetabular dysplasia are still unclear. This study investigated cartilage changes in rabbit acetabular dysplasia models at different ages.Methods Twenty-seven 1-month-old New Zealand rabbits underwent cast immobilization of the left hind limb in knee extension. Serial acetabular dysplasia models were established by assessment of the acetabular index and Sharp's angle on radiographs. The thickness of the acetabular cartilage was measured under a microscope, and fibrosis was observed. Ultrastructural changes were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The messenger RNA expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅱ, β1 integrin, and caspase-9 were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Results In an immature group of rabbits, the acetabular index of the treated hip increased with animal growth. The cartilage on the brim of the left acetabulum was significantly thicker than that on the right side. The collagen fibrils on the surface of the cartilage became gross, and the chondrocytes in the enlargement layer underwent necrosis. In a mature group of rabbits, the left Sharp's angle increased in the rabbits with 6-week casting. The cartilage on the brim of the left acetabulum underwent fibrosis. The chondrocytes were weakly stained, and the number of lysosomes was much larger than normal. The messenger RNA expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅱ, β1 integrin, and caspase-9 in the cartilage differed significantly at different ages.Conclusions Increasing thickness followed by fibrosis may be the order of pathological cartilage changes in acetabular dysplasia, with changes in ultrastructure and collagen expression contributing to the process.

  18. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  19. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  20. Revising Australian Pristomerus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae): species with a tooth on the hind femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-09-15

    The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol. Five species have been reported from Australia, all of them endemic, but many more undescribed species are present in various collections.        I here revise Australian Pristomerus, focussing on the species that bear a tooth on the ventral side of the hind femur. Twenty-two species are recorded, 19 of which are described as new: Pristomerus australiensis n. sp., P. bertschmanni n. sp., P. callitrinus n. sp., P. dundeei n. sp., P. flavicephalus n. sp., P. fourecksensis n. sp., P. gracilis n. sp., P. kakaduensis n. sp., P. laetus n. sp., P. luculentus n. sp., P. lunatus n. sp., P. mangiferus n. sp., P. merus n. sp., P. nedkellyi n. sp., P. pellicius n. sp., P. periculosus n. sp., P. stellatus n. sp., P. tenebrosus n. sp., and P. venustus n. sp. A dichotomous key and an online interactive key to the known Australian species with a tooth on the hind femur are provided, including photographs of all the species.        The origin of the considerable number of Australian Pristomerus species remains unclear. They might represent Southern relict elements with affinities to South American taxa, or their ancestors might have immigrated from the Paleotropics in more recent times; this question can only be solved with a dated phylogeny of the genus. However, support for a Palaeotropic origin of at least a good portion of the taxa comes from their current distribution, as the Australian Pristomerus are found to be most

  1. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  2. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ZORBA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; p<0.01, peak power (r=.523; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.585; p<0.01. Similarly leg mass was significantly correlated with peak power (r=.654; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.704; p<0.01. In addition, peak power was found to be significantly correlated with leg strength (r=.430; p<0.05 and mean power (r=.613; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that leg volume and leg mass plays important role in anaerobic performance in wrestlers and isometric knee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  3. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  4. Segmentation of digitized histological sections for quantification of the muscularized vasculature in the mouse hind limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemical tissue staining enhances microvasculature characteristics, including the smooth muscle in the medial layer of the vessel walls that is responsible for regulation of blood flow. The vasculature can be imaged in a comprehensive fashion using whole-slide scanning. However, since each such image potentially contains hundreds of small vessels, manual vessel delineation and quantification is not practically feasible. In this work, we present a fully automatic segmentation and vasculature quantification algorithm for whole-slide images. We evaluated its performance on tissue samples drawn from the hind limbs of wild-type mice, stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain. The algorithm was designed to be robust to vessel fragmentation due to staining irregularity, and artefactual staining of nonvessel objects. Colour deconvolution was used to isolate the DAB stain for detection of vessel wall fragments. Complete vessels were reconstructed from the fragments by joining endpoints of topological skeletons. Automatic measures of vessel density, perimeter, wall area and local wall thickness were taken. The segmentation algorithm was validated against manual measures, resulting in a Dice similarity coefficient of 89%. The relationships observed between these measures were as expected from a biological standpoint, providing further reinforcement of the accuracy of this system. This system provides a fully automated and accurate means of measuring the arteriolar and venular morphology of vascular smooth muscle.

  5. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  6. La ayurveda o arte médico hindú Ayurveda or indian medical art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Restrepo Baena

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace una breve revisión acerca de la Ayurveda o arte curativo hindú, con el fin de dar información general sobre su filosofía, su estructura y sus elementos analíticos y terapéuticos, ya que en la actualidad están tomando un auge apreciable las medicinas clásicas, como alternativas Interesantes y útiles a nuestro enfoque occidental del proceso salud-enfermedad.

    This is a brief review on Ayurveda, or Hindu medical art. It intends to provide general information about Its philosophic, structural, analytic and therapeutic aspects. This article is motivated by the increasing interest in classic medicine as a useful alternative to the western approach towards the health–disease process.

  7. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

  8. On the vein-stiffening membrane structure of a dragonfly hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-xue LI; Wei SHEN; Gen-shu TONG; Jia-meng TIAN; Loc VU-QUOC

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at exploring the excellent structural performance of the vein-stiffening membrane structure of dragonfly hind wings, we analyzed two planar computational models and three 3D computational models with cambered corrugation based on the finite element method. It is shown that the vein size in different zones is proportional to the magnitude of the vein internal force when the wing structure is subjected to uniform out-of-plane transverse loading. The membrane contributes little to the flexural stiffness of the planar wing models, while exerting an immense impact upon the stiffness of the 3D wing models with cambered corrugation. If a lumped mass of 10% of the wing is fixed on the leading edge close to the wing tip, the wing fundamental fre-quency decreases by 10.7%~13.2%; ifa lumped mass is connected to the wing via multiple springs, the wing fundamental fre-quency decreases by 16.0%~18.0%. Such decrease in fundamental frequency explains the special function of the wing pterostigma in alleviating the wing quivering effect. These particular features of dragonfly wings can be mimicked in the design of new-style reticulately stiffening thin-walled roof systems and flapping wings in novel intelligent aerial vehicles.

  9. Transiliac Leg Lengthening in Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi Taghi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and widespread use of a prophylactic vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis. At present we more commonly encounter with poliomyelitis sequelae especially in developing countries. We evaluate the results of a modified innominate osteotomy for leg length discrepancy in poliomyelitis. Instead of triangular bone graft as in Salter’s innominate osteotomy , a trapezoidal bone graft from the ilium is inserted in the site of osteotomy after gradual distraction of the limb. 25 patients (9 males and 16 females with mean age of 25 years (17-37 years were treated by this method. All of them had poliomyelitis with limb shortening. At a mean follow-up of 7 years (3 months to 17 years an average of 3 cm (2.5-3.5 was achieved. Complication was seen in three patients including injury to the lateral cutaneouns nerve of thigh and displacement of osteotomy in two patients .except in one all of the patients satisfied with the operation. We believe this method is safe, effective and cost-benefit for treating of moderate shortening of the lower limb in poliomyelitis.

  10. Pharmacotherapy for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by paresthesia and an urge to move. Predominantly, symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity. RLS prevalence in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 5%. This review presents all options for the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS, that is, when symptoms impair the patient's quality of life, daytime functioning, social functioning or sleep. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in some RLS patients, and medications include carbidopa/levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, oxycodone, methadone, codeine and tramadol. Chronic RLS should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or an α-2-δ calcium channel ligand. A dopamine agonist is a more appropriate choice in the presence of depression and overweight. As α-2-δ ligands can alleviate chronic pain and may be helpful in treating anxiety and insomnia, the presence of any of these comorbidities may favor their use. For RLS present through much of the day and night, the use of long-acting agents, such as the rotigotine patch or gabapentin enacarbil should be considered. In refractory RLS, oral prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone should be considered.

  11. Influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit%高压电烧伤对兔心脏微循环的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆富; 周慧敏; 王车江; 邵洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit. Methods One-hundred and twenty New Zealand rabbits of clean grade were divided into control group (C) and electric burn group (EB) according to the random number table,with 60 rabbits in each group.Rabbits in EB group were subjected to high-vohage electric burn ( the electrical current flow into the left foreleg at the lateral side of proximal end and out from the corresponding site of the right hind leg) with voltage regulator and experimental transformer.Rabbits in C group were sham injured with the same devices without electrification.At 15 minutes before injury,and 5 minutes,1,2,4,8 hour (s) post injury ( PIM or PIH ),ten rabbits in each group were chosen to examine the cardiac apex microcirculation hemoperfusion (CAMH) with laser Doppler hemoperfusion image instrument.The morphologic changes of microvessels of left ventricular wall tissues of 2 rabbits from each of the 10 rabbits collected at above-mentioned time points were observed with light microscope and transmission electron microscope.Auricular vein blood of rabbit was harvested at above-mentioned time points for the determination of aspartate amino transferase ( AST),lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ),hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase ( HBDH ),creatine kinase ( CK),and creatine kinase isozyme MB (CK-MB) by full-automatic biochemical analyzer.Data were processed with two-factor analysis of variance and LSD test. Results ( 1 ) The differences between C group and EB group in detection results were statistically significant,with F values from 425.991 to 3046.834,P values all below 0.01.Only the data within EB group were comparable.(2) At PIM 5,the CAMH value of rabbits in EB group was (1.96 ±0.09) V,which was lower than that at 15 minutes before injury [(4.34±0.35) V,P < 0.01 ].The CAMH value of rabbits in EB group was increased at PIH 1 [ (3.43 ± 0.30) V ],and then it showed a tendency of decrease.(3

  12. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  13. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  14. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  15. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  16. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  17. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on ... guideline for management for rehabilitation of lower limb amputation. January 2008. www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/Rehab/ ...

  18. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  19. Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Yuval; Montoro, Daniel T; Muhonen, Ethan; Walmsley, Graham G; Lo, David; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Januszyk, Michael; Connolly, Andrew J; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

    2014-07-08

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.

  20. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  1. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  2. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  3. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceacero

    Full Text Available Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st h (P = 0.048. Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st h and P = 0.047 from 1(st to 5(th and fat (only during the 1(st h; P = 0.036, but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st hour respect to 1(st to 5(th. Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011, suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  4. Immune therapy with cultured microglia grafting into the injured spinal cord promoting the recovery of rat's hind limb motor function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Teng-bo; CHENG Yong-shuai; ZHAO Peng; KOU De-wei; SUN Kang; CHEN Bo-hua; WANG Ai-min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of activated microglia grafting on rats' hind limb motor function recovery after spinal cord injury.Methods: Microglia were separated from primary culture and subcultured for 3 generations. Lipopolysaccharide was added to the culture medium with the terminal concentrition of 10 μl/L for microglia activation 3 days before transplantation. Totally 80 adult Wistar rats were divided into transplantation group and control group, with 40 rats in each group. Spinal cord injury model of rats was set by hitting onto the spinal cord using a modified Allen impactor. With a 5 μl micro-syringe, the activated microglia suspension was injected into the injured area 7 days after the first operation. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring for hind limb motor function was taken on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after microglia transplantation, and 8 rats were sacrificed at each time point mentioned above, respectively. Frozen sections of the spinal cord were made for haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Naoumenko-Feigin stainings. SPSS 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Results: BBB scores for hind limb motor function on the 14th, 21 st, and 28th day were significantly higher compared with the control group. Most liquefaction necrosis areas disappeared and only a few multicystic cavities surrounded by aggregated microglia remained in the transplantation group. Naoumenko-Feigin staining for microglia showed that the transplantation group had significantly more positive cells (P<0.05).Conclusions: Grafting of activated microglia into the injured spinal cord can significantly promote the hind limb motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury and reduce the size of liquefaction necrosis area. The extent of lower limb motor function improvement has a positive correlation with the number of aggregated microglia.

  5. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  6. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size...

  7. Influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer (2) Adult hinds gestating wapitixred deer crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Littlejohn, R P

    2005-04-01

    The present study aimed to relate feed intake of red deer hinds in the later stages of gestating wapitixred deer crossbred foetuses on dam body condition, gestation length, birth weight and calf growth. Multiparous hinds (N=18) conceiving at known dates to either wapiti (n=12) or red deer (n=6) sires were housed in individual pens from days 150-220 of pregnancy, during which time they were offered either ad libitum access to pelletised rations (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HH] and n=6 red deer-bearing hinds [RH]) or a restricted offer (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HL]) set at 70% of the average ad libitum intake of HH hind in the previous week. Hinds were returned to pasture at day 220 and calving was closely monitored. Liveweights, body condition score (BCS), and lactation score (LS) of hinds were recorded weekly from day 130 of pregnancy until calves were weaned at 12 weeks of age. Calves were tagged and weighed at birth, and subsequently weighed at 7 and 12 weeks of age. HH and RH hinds exhibited similar patterns and levels of MEI/kg0.75, which peaked at 7.8 MJME/kg0.75 at day 220. HL hinds peaked at approximately 5 MJME/kg0.75 and showed significantly lower rates of liveweight gain during pregnancy. Interestingly, both crossbred-bearing groups initiated mammary development in advance of the RH hinds. While there were significant effects of foetal genotype on mean gestation length (239 days versus 234 days for crossbred versus red deer) and mean birth weight (14.5 kg versus 10 kg), the nutritional contrast for gestation length of crossbred-bearing hinds (i.e. HH versus HL) was not significant but approached significance for birth weight (14.5 kg versus 11.9 kg; P=0.06). Regression analysis revealed weak relationships between changes in hind liveweight and gestation length (P>0.05) but a significant relationship with birth weight (Pgestation length and birth weight. Crossbred calves reared by HH hinds were 30% heavier at 7 and 12 weeks of age than the red deer

  8. Recovery of sympathetic nerve function after lumbar sympathectomy is slower in the hind limbs than in the torso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Yi-Shu; Min, Xuan; Tang, Jian-Bing; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Biao

    2017-07-01

    Local sympathetic denervation by surgical sympathectomy is used in the treatment of lower limb ulcers and ischemia, but the restoration of cutaneous sympathetic nerve functions is less clear. This study aims to explore the recovery of cutaneous sympathetic functions after bilateral L2-4 sympathectomy. The skin temperature of the left feet, using a point monitoring thermometer, increased intraoperatively after sympathectomy. The cytoplasm of sympathetic neurons contained tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, visualized by immunofluorescence, indicated the accuracy of sympathectomy. Iodine starch test results suggested that the sweating function of the hind feet plantar skin decreased 2 and 7 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy but had recovered by 3 months. Immunofluorescence and western blot assay results revealed that norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase expression in the skin from the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet decreased in the sympathectomized group at 2 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that perinuclear space and axon demyelination in sympathetic cells in the L5 sympathetic trunks were found in the sympathectomized group 3 months after sympathectomy. Although sympathetic denervation occurred in the sacrococcygeal region and hind feet skin 2 weeks after lumbar sympathectomy, the skin functions recovered gradually over 7 weeks to 3 months. In conclusion, sympathetic functional recovery may account for the recurrence of hyperhidrosis after sympathectomy and the normalization of sympathetic nerve trunks after incomplete injury. The recovery of sympathetic nerve function was slower in the limbs than in the torso after bilateral L2-4 sympathectomy.

  9. Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Matthew C; Lee, Leng-Feng; Demes, Brigitte; Thompson, Nathan E; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T; Umberger, Brian R

    2015-09-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a facultative biped and our closest living relative. As such, the musculoskeletal anatomies of their pelvis and hind limbs have long provided a comparative context for studies of human and fossil hominin locomotion. Yet, how the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb actually move during bipedal walking is still not well defined. Here, we describe the three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle during bipedal walking and compare those values to humans walking at the same dimensionless and dimensional velocities. The stride-to-stride and intraspecific variations in 3-D kinematics were calculated using the adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation. Our results indicate that humans walk with a more stable pelvis than chimpanzees, especially in tilt and rotation. Both species exhibit similar magnitudes of pelvis list, but with segment motion that is opposite in phasing. In the hind limb, chimpanzees walk with a more flexed and abducted limb posture, and substantially exceed humans in the magnitude of hip rotation during a stride. The average stride-to-stride variation in joint and segment motion was greater in chimpanzees than humans, while the intraspecific variation was similar on average. These results demonstrate substantial differences between human and chimpanzee bipedal walking, in both the sagittal and non-sagittal planes. These new 3-D kinematic data are fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanics, energetics and control of chimpanzee bipedalism.

  10. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. MRI in long-term evaluation of reconstructed hind-feet of land-mine trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: tubasanal@yahoo.com; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the flap reconstructed hind feet of patients with MRI who were traumatized by land-mine. Materials and methods: T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in 7 patients, 12 months later the reconstruction of their hind feet by myocutaneous flaps after land-mine trauma. Results: In all patients T2 signal intensities of the myocutaneous flaps were slightly high compared to normal undisturbed muscle. Slight vascular engorgement was noted in the vicinity of the flaps in all cases. There were ankle joint ankylose (n = 1), tarsal coalition (n = 3), sklerosis within the calcaneus (n = 1), bone cortex irregularities (n = 3), absence of calcaneus (n = 4), deformity in talus and bone marrow edema (n = 1), navicular edema (n = 2), remodeling in the superior aspect of talus neck (n = 2), absence of talus (n = 2), talocalcaneal ankylose (n = 1), small collection in the superior aspect of flap (n = 1), drenage canules (n = 1). Conclusion: In reconstructed hind feet by myocutaneus flaps done for land-mine traumas, MRI presents useful information by displaying detailed anatomy of the flaps, bones, joints, soft tissues and associated complications.

  12. Modulating tibiofemoral contact force in the sheep hind limb via treadmill walking: Predictions from an opensim musculoskeletal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Zachary F; Gadomski, Benjamin C; Ipson, Allison K; Haussler, Kevin K; Puttlitz, Christian M; Browning, Raymond C

    2015-08-01

    Sheep are a predominant animal model used to study a variety of orthopedic conditions. Understanding and controlling the in-vivo loading environment in the sheep hind limb is often necessary for investigations relating to bone and joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal model of an adult sheep hind limb and investigate the effects of treadmill walking speed on muscle and joint contact forces. We constructed the skeletal geometry of the model from computed topography images. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was utilized to establish the inertial properties of each model segment. Detailed dissection and tendon excursion experiments established the requisite muscle lines of actions. We used OpenSim and experimentally-collected marker trajectories and ground reaction forces to quantify muscle and joint contact forces during treadmill walking at 0.25 m• s(-1) and 0.75 m• s(-1) . Peak compressive and anterior-posterior tibiofemoral contact forces were 20% (0.38 BW, p = 0.008) and 37% (0.17 BW, p = 0.040) larger, respectively, at the moderate gait speed relative to the slower speed. Medial-lateral tibiofemoral contact forces were not significantly different. Adjusting treadmill speed appears to be a viable method to modulate compressive and anterior-posterior tibiofemoral contact forces in the sheep hind limb. The musculoskeletal model is freely-available at www.SimTK.org.

  13. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  14. Evolutionary constraints in hind wing shape in Chinese dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bai

    approaches, this paper sheds new light on the evolution of dung beetle hind wings.

  15. The effects of allogenic stem cells in a murine model of hind limb diabetic ischemic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Álvarez García

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease. In patients in whom surgery cannot be performed, cell therapy may be an alternative treatment. Since time is crucial for these patients, we propose the use of allogenic mesenchymal cells. Methods We obtained mesenchymal cells derived from the fat tissue of a healthy Sprague-Dawley rat. Previous diabetic induction with streptozotocin in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats, ligation plus left iliac and femoral artery sections were performed as a previously described model of ischemia. After 10 days of follow-up, macroscopic and histo-pathological analysis was performed to evaluate angiogenic and inflammatory parameters in the repair of the injured limb. All samples were evaluated by the same blind researcher. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS v.11.5 program (P < 0.05. Results Seventy percent of the rats treated with streptozotocin met the criteria for diabetes. Macroscopically, cell-treated rats presented better general and lower ischemic clinical status, and histologically, a better trend towards angiogenesis, greater infiltration of type 2 macrophages and a shortening of the inflammatory process. However, only the inflammatory variables were statistically significant. No immunological reaction was observed with the use of allogeneic cells. Discussion The application of allogeneic ASCs in a hind limb ischemic model in diabetic animals shows no rejection reactions and a reduction in inflammatory parameters in favor of better repair of damaged tissue. These results are consistent with other lines of research in allogeneic cell therapy. This approach might be a safe, effective treatment option that makes it feasible to avoid the time involved in the process of isolation, expansion and production of the use of autologous cells.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA pattern of the fine shrimp Metapenaeus elegans (De Man, 1907) in the lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, using Hind III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Fitra Arya Dwi; Holil, Kholifah; Kurniawan, Nia

    2017-05-01

    Ecological damages to the Lagoon of Segara Anakan, Central Java, as well as large-scale and continuous exploitation are threatening the sustainability of fine shrimp, Metapenaeus elegans, and resources. Information in regards to genetic resources is crucial to establish long-term conservation programs and to preserve germplasm quality. This study aims to evaluate the number and size of the fragment which is digested with restriction enzyme Hind III. Seven individuals of Metapenaeus elegans from the Lagoon of Segara Anakan were examined using Hind III. Amplification of mitochondrial DNA resulted in 950 bp, and the digestion using Hind III generated four fragments consisting of 114 bp, 200 bp, 250 bp, and 386 bp, which formed a monomorphic pattern. The restriction pattern showed the probability of homozygosity of alleles that restricted using Hind III. Homozygosity indicates no variation of DNA sequence.

  17. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  18. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  19. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  1. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emrys

    2013-01-01

    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  2. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  3. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  4. AN EFFECTIVE HUMAN LEG MODELING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital medicine is a new concept in medical field, and the need for digital human body is increasing these years. This paper used Free Form Deformation (FFD) to model the motion of human leg. It presented the motion equations of knee joint on the basis of anatomic structure and motion characters, then transmitted the deformation to the mesh of leg through a simplified FFD that only used two-order B-spline basis function. The experiments prove that this method can simulate the bend of leg and the deformation of muscles fairly well. Compared with the method of curved patches, this method is more convenient and effective. Further more, those equations can be easily applied to other joint models of human body.

  5. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Balantrapu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS, but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal and 4 (contracted. Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW, timed 25 foot walk (T25FW, and timed up-and-go (TUG, and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc. for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12 and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n=44 of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P=0.0001, d=-0.86, T25FW (P=0.003,d=0.72, TUG (P=0.001, d=0.84, MSWS-12 (P=0.0001,d=1.09, O2 cost of walking (P=0.001, d=0.75, average steps/day (P<0.05, d=-0.45, and walking velocity (P<0.05, d=-0.53 and cadence (P<0.05, d=-0.46. Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  6. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years)...

  7. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity.

  8. The mysteries of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2007-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by the uncontrollable urge to move the legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, and it either occurs or worsens with rest. Affecting an estimated 6% to 15% of the adult population, RLS compromises the patient's ability to sleep and can significantly decrease quality of life. Because diagnosis currently relies solely on patient (or caregiver) interview, recognizing the symptoms of RLS and knowing what medications treat this condition--as well as the many that exacerbate it--is important for all health care practitioners.

  9. Technical note: Effects of attachment of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats on milking characteristics in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, J; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2017-04-01

    Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats. The hypothesis was based on the fact that hind quarters have usually a longer milking time than front quarters. Starting the milking of hind quarters while the front teats are being cleaned may reduce the difference in the end of milking between front and hind quarters and thus reduce total milking time. Both routines were tested on 5 Swedish dairy farms equipped with AMS in a 4-wk experiment in which treatments were alternated weekly. Total milk yield did not differ between treatments. Machine-on time (MOT) was longer in ALTMR than in STDMR because the difference in milking time between hind and front quarters was less than the time needed to prepare the front teats. However, the longer MOT in ALTMR was compensated by a shorter total preparation time, including the attachment of the first teat cup, as only the hind teats (instead of all 4 teats) were cleaned before milking was started. This resulted in a similar total milking time from start of cleaning of the first quarter until the end of milking of the last quarter in both treatments. Because of the prolonged MOT, average milk flow rate was lower in ALTMR than STDMR. Peak flow rate was higher in ALTMR than STDMR, but only in teat cups 1 (first attached, hind quarter) and 3 (third attached, front quarter), whereas main milk flow was higher in

  10. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  11. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  12. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  13. Restless legs symptoms in a patient with above knee amputations: a case of phantom restless legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Philip A; Kumar, Sanjeev; Walters, Arthur S

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 78-year-old gentleman who, following bilateral above-knee amputations, developed symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the absent portions of his lower extremities. These symptoms improved with dopamine agonist therapy. In addition, he later developed parkinsonism with prominent rest tremor on metoclopramide. This suggests that this individual had a dopamine-deficient state which predisposed him to both restless legs syndrome and drug-induced or drug-exacerbated parkinsonism. We propose expanding the spectrum of phantom limb phenomena to include phantom restless legs.

  14. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  15. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  16. 液压驱动仿生多足机器人单腿设计与试验%Design and experiment of single leg of hydraulically actuated bionic multi-legged robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志伟; 金波; 朱世强; 黄翰林; 陈刚

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the influence of the end-effector’s high speed contact with ground on the robot system when the hydraulically actuated multi-legged robot walks in a dynamic gait and realize its control as well, a single leg prototype of the bio-inspired hydraulically actuated multi-legged robot is developed. The robotic leg's structure is designed on the basis of research and analysis of the skeletons of the large dogs' hind limbs. The hip and knee cylinder layout are designed from the principle of rotating guide bar mechanism and swing guide bar mechanism, respectively. The torque of robotic leg's joint on stance phase is calculated on the basis of former biologists’ research results and the planned joint trajectory of dynamic trotting gait on stance phase. The former biologists have already researched the dynamic gait of large dogs and separately measured the ground reaction forces on individual limb of trotting dogs using a series of four force platforms; the dynamic trotting gait trajectory with a speed of 2.5 m/s is planned as composite cycloid foot trajectory on flight phase with the same body height on stance. And the composite cycloid’s foot trajectory is planned with the specifications: the stride length is 1 m, the stride height is 0.05 m, the period is 4 s, and the duty cycle is 50%. Based on the above bionic design, the mechanical parameters of the robotic single leg are determined: the length of thigh and shank is 0.35 m, the hip joint angle range is [-50°, 70°], the knee joint angle range is [-140°, -20°], the diameter of the cylinder piston is 0.02 m, the diameter of piston rod is 0.01 m, and the stroke length of the piston rod is 0.1 m. The virtual prototype of robotic single leg is designed via the three-dimensional modeling software Solidworks according to the design parameters. Furthermore, the feasibility of the parameters of the designed mechanical structure and hydraulic actuator is verified based on the dynamic vertical hopping

  17. Early skin shrinkage, late skin contraction and leg contracture of mice exposed to two equal fractions of neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Satoru; Masuda, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Miyoshi, Makoto; Andou, Kouichi; Koike, Sachiko

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of fractioned intervals on normal tissue recovery from radiation injury after neutron exposure. Doses ranging from 9 to 25 Gy of 30 MeV deuteron-beryllium neutrons (0.7 Gy/min.) were imposed on the hind legs of C3H/He female mice in single or in two equally divided doses at various intervals ranging from 6 hours to 14 days. The effective doses 50% for early skin shrinkage measured at around 40 to 50 days, late skin contraction and leg contracture at 250 days after irradiation were evaluated. With recovery ratios, (D2-D1)/D1, the patterns obtained were similar to those observed in the isoeffect curves. However, with one or two day intervals, they remarkably decreased to less than 10% irrespective of the response evaluated especially in late skin contraction. This might indicate the induction of hypersensitivity and/or very little recovery at these intervals. Therefore, fractioned intervals of more than five days and around one and/or two days seem less beneficial from the view point of normal tissue recovery. (author).

  18. Computer-assisted detection of nocturnal leg motor activity in patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Bruni, Oliviero; Miano, Silvia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2005-08-01

    To assess the performance of a new method for automatic detection of periodic leg movements during sleep. Leg movements during sleep were visually detected in the tibialis anterior muscles recordings of 15 patients with restless legs syndrome and 15 normal controls. Leg movements were detected automatically by means of a new computer method with which electromyogram signals are first digitally band-pass filtered and then rectified; subsequently, the detection of leg movements is performed by using 2 thresholds: one for the starting point and another to detect the end point of each leg movement. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were obtained; the American Sleep Disorders Association parameters were also computed, and the results analyzed by means of the Kendall W coefficient, the linear correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plots. N/A. Fifteen patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements and 15 controls. High values of the Kendall W coefficient of concordance between automatic and visual analysis were found with values close to 1 and the linear correlation coefficient for leg movements index and total leg movements index was > 0.950 (p visual and computer detection, which were -9.01 and +9.89 for the periodic leg movement index. None of the normal controls was found to have periodic leg movement indexes >5 after automatic analysis. Our method can be applied to the clinical evaluation of periodic leg movements during sleep, with some caution in patients with a low periodic leg movement indexes. Large-scale research application is possible and can be considered as reliable.

  19. Top Ten Tiks Far Beautiful Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    HERE experts provide women witha guide In better stocking buys. 1. Brightly-colored stockings suchas flaming red or pure blue suit only tall,slim ladies with elegant legs. 2. Opaque stockings, suit only slimlegs. 3. Dark or thinly striped stockings

  20. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical presentation

  1. Hereditary spherocytosis presenting as indolent leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolent leg ulcertation, which is the rarest manifestation of hereditary spherocytosis, started at the age of 5 years affecting a 15-year-old boy and his mother is reported. Review of literature showed very few reports from India and abroad. The response to oral folic acid was excellent

  2. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitte

  3. Mechanics of six-legged runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, R J; Tu, M S

    1990-01-01

    Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.

  4. Well Leg Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens Krogh; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a complication to abdominal surgery. We aimed to identify risk factors for and outcome of WLCS in Denmark and literature. METHODS: Prospectively collected claims to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA) concerning WLCS after abdominal...

  5. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men alli...

  6. A completely intramedullary leg lengthening device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalsma, A.M.M.; Hekman, E.E.G.; Stapert, J.W.J.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The procedure and the external fixator for lengthening long bones was developed by G.A. Ilizarov in the late 1960's. This technique has, despite its proven abilities for leg lengthening and correction of angular deformities, some considerable disadvantages for patients. Discomfort, infections and re

  7. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  8. RPR test for serological survey of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masayo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-07-01

    Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.

  9. Effect of picroside II on hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıç Y

    2017-06-01

    . Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL experiment.Results: TOS levels were significantly higher in I/R group than that of control and I/R + picroside II groups (P=0.014, P=0.005, respectively. TAS levels were significantly higher in I/R group than that of control and I/R + picroside II groups (P=0.007 P=0.005, respectively. TUNEL assay revealed that picroside II reduced cell necrosis.Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that picroside II plays a critical role to prevent I/R injury. Even though our results were found to be satisfactory, it should be encouraging to those who want to conduct future research on this topic. Keywords: ischemia reperfusion, picroside II, hind limb skeletal muscle, TOS, TAS

  10. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  11. Fucoidan improves bioactivity and vasculogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in murine hind limb ischemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Yong-Seok; Zia, Mohammad Farid; Kwon, Hyog Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of ischemic diseases associated with CKD, the associated pathophysiological conditions lead to low survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs. To address these limitations, we investigated the effects of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, on the bioactivity of adipose tissue-derived MSCs and the potential of fucoidan-treated MSCs to improve neovascularization in ischemic tissues of CKD mice. Treatment of MSCs with fucoidan increased their proliferative potential and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, such as cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2, cyclin D1, and CDK4, via focal adhesion kinase and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase-Akt axis. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs through the ERK-IDO-1 signal cascade. Fucoidan was found to augment the proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of transplanted MSCs at ischemic sites in CKD mice hind limbs. In addition, transplantation of fucoidan-treated MSCs enhanced the ratio of blood flow and limb salvage in CKD mice with hind limb ischemia. To our knowledge, our findings are the first to reveal that fucoidan enhances the bioactivity of MSCs and improves their neovascularization in ischemic injured tissues of CKD. In conclusion, fucoidan-treated MSCs may provide an important pathway toward therapeutic neovascularization in patients with CKD.

  12. Transcription and translation mapping of the 13 genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Chen, G J; Niles, E G

    1988-03-01

    The vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment is 160,060 bp in length and encodes 13 complete open reading frames [Niles et al. (1986) Virology 153, 96-112; S. L. Weinrich and D. E. Hruby (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3003-3016]. We have employed a two-step Northern hybridization protocol using single-stranded DNA probes from M13 recombinants in order to identify the mRNA products from the 13 genes. Six of these genes are expressed only at early times after infection; six are transcribed only at late times; one gene is expressed at both early and late times after virus infection. The D11 gene is transcribed into two late mRNA species, one full-length and the other derived from the 3' one-third of the coding sequence. Translation of hybrid-selected mRNA was carried out in an attempt to identify the protein products encoded by each mRNA. Protein products were found for each early gene but translation was successful for only two of the eight late mRNAs. With the completion of the physical map it is apparent that the early and late genes in the HindIII D fragment are arranged in order to minimize potential interference caused by the expression of closely packed viral genes.

  13. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  14. BODY AND REPRODUCTIVE CONDITIONS OF RED DEER YOUNG HINDS (CERVUS ELAPHUS L. IN THE HUNTING GROUND PODUNAVLJE-PODRAVLJE (BARANJA REGION, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Degmečić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine inter-relation between body and reproductive conditions of young hinds of red deer living in the environmental conditions of wetland habitats. The research was carried out during the five hunting years: 2004/05 – 2008/09, on 62 young hinds in the hunting ground XIV/9 Podunavlje - Podravlje, situated in Baranja region of the eastern Croatia. Net body weight and presence of foetus in the womb were determined after the game culling. The highest net body weight was achieved during 2007/08 and 2008/09. Statistical significance (P<0.05 was confirmed in relation between years 2007/08 and 2005/06 and 2006/07. Mean net body weight of the pregnant young hinds is indicatively higher than of the non-pregnant hinds. Correlation between net body weight and fertilization is statistically significant (pregnant 66.13 kg; non-pregnant 50.71 kg. Favourable climatic and hydrological conditions during the hunting years 2007/08 and 2008/09 resulted in the above average body development of calves and young hinds, which is the requisite for reproductive conditions improvement in females and trophy potential in males.

  15. How to Treat Restless Leg Syndrome with Traditional Chinese Medicine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2003-01-01

    @@ In clinic, restless leg syndrome manifests to have thesymptoms of unbearable soreness, numbness,insect-crawling like itching and electric-shock likeburning sensation in the deep muscles of both legs,which generally appear symmetrically, or severer inone leg, and attack mostly in the night before sleep,but rarely in the day time.

  16. Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,

  17. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H;

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... to be a useful method for the evaluation of lower leg oedema after distal bypass surgery....

  18. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination...

  19. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  20. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Raquel M; Teixeira, Luzia; Aguas, Artur P; Ribeiro, Joana C; Costa-e-Silva, António; Ferreira, Paula G

    2014-02-04

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection.

  1. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  2. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  3. Doe productivity indices and sire effects of a heterogeneous rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    Doe productivity indices are important in evaluating rabbit population since it influences the efficiency and profitability of rabbit ... Key words: Heterogeneous rabbit population, Doe productivity, Sire families). ..... Paris, France, 11-14. Cited in:.

  4. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaut, Romain

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is known about the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases in the pet rabbit. Current knowledge is based on anecdotal reports, derived from research data using the rabbit as an animal model of human cardiovascular diseases, but most importantly canine and feline cardiology. It is likely that, as cardiovascular diseases are more often recognized, more specific information will soon become available for the treatment of the pet rabbit with cardiac disease.

  5. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  6. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Single Phase Online UPS Design Using Three Leg Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The single phase online UPS integrate with the three leg type converter which operate with battery charger and the inverter. The first leg controls the ability of charging battery. The third leg controls the output voltage. The common leg is used to control the line frequency. The battery charger has the ability of making the correction of power factor during the battery charging. The inverter is used to maintain the output voltage and to limit the output current. The main feature of the three leg converter is used to reduce the number of switching devices. So that the system has the low value of power loss and low cost.

  8. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  9. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......%) were assessed for venous surgery. Distal arterial pressure was measured following initial examination in 33 of the patients (34%). All patients (100%) were prescribed compression therapy. Of the 98 patients, 11 (11%) had ulcers recur in 3 months and 72 (73%) healed in 12 months, which is in line......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  10. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  11. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nassar, Somya A; Mohamed, Amira H; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M; Mahran, K. M

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged...

  12. Pharmacologic treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormandy, J A

    1995-01-01

    In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Susan; Winkelman, John W

    2015-09-01

    There are strong epidemiologic ties between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and a wide array of psychiatric conditions. Although the mechanism of this association is not fully understood, there are likely bidirectional cause-and-effect relationships. Appreciation of psychiatric comorbidity is an essential component of the treatment of RLS. Clinicians should be prepared to facilitate appropriate psychiatric treatment and consider the complex interactions between psychiatric medications, RLS medications, and the clinical course of both illnesses.

  14. Visual based localization for a Legged Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rico, Francisco; Matellán Olivera, Vicente; González-Careaga, Rafaela; Barrera González, Pablo; Cañas, José María

    2006-01-01

    P. 708-715 This paper presents a visual based localization mechanism for a legged robot. Our proposal, fundamented on a probabilistic approach, uses a precompiled topological map where natural landmarks like doors or ceiling lights are recognized by the robot using its on-board camera. Experiments have been conducted using the AIBO Sony robotic dog showing that it is able to deal with noisy sensors like vision and to approximate world models representing indoor of c...

  15. Vision based behaviors for a legged robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Juan V.; Montero, Pablo; Martín Rico, Francisco; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    This article describes two vision-based behaviors designed for an autonomous legged robot. These behaviors have been designed in a modular way in order to be able to integrate them in an architecture named DSH (Dynamic Schema Hierarchies), which is also briefly described. These behaviors have been tested in office indoor environments and experiments carried out are also described in this paper. The platform used in these experiments carried out are also described in theis paper. The platform ...

  16. AB296. SPR-23 Aberrant bladder reflexes can drive hind limb locomotor activity following complete suprasacral spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Brian M.; Brooks, Jillene M.; Degoski, Danielle J.; Hughes, Francis M.; Purves, J. Todd; Fraser, Matthew O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many rats with chronic suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate hind limb locomotor activity (HLLA) in response to external crede or high pressure contractions during cystometry. We propose that this aberrant, pressure-driven bladder reflex pathway may be harnessed to facilitate walking in SCI patients. As a first step in exploring this possibility, we examined the relationship between intravesical pressure (IVP) and HLLA in chronic suprasacral SCI rats. Methods Female rats (4 weeks post-SCI at T9-10, n=16) were anesthetized with isoflurane and fitted with transvesical catheters and right quadriceps EMG electrodes to monitor bladder and hind limb locomotor activities, respectively. The animals were mounted in Ballman restraint cages to which they had been previously acclimated. The catheter was connected to a pressure transducer, an infusion pump, and a saline-filled reservoir mounted on a metered vertical pole (pressure clamp). After 30 min of recovery from anesthesia, the bladder was filled at 0.1 mL/min with saline to verify bladder-to-bladder reflex activity for 30 min. IVP was then increased in an interrupted stepwise fashion from 0–120 cmH2O at 10 cmH2O increments. Each step consisted of five minutes: 3 minutes at the new pressure followed by 2 minutes at 0 cmH2O. IVP and the number of HLLA events (as defined by rhythmic EMG discharges of 3–10 cycles/event) were recorded for each pressure step. This process was repeated for two more trials for each rat to assess the durability of the reflex. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures both within and across pressure escalation trials. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results ANOVA revealed that locomotor events increased with increasing IVP and decreased with the number of escalation trials (P<0.0001 for both effects). The increase in the number of locomotor events with increasing IVP appeared to plateau at ~50–60 cmH2O (P<0.05 for all). The average of the maximal number of

  17. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  18. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  19. Aloe Vera and Infected Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Banu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment. Aims The present study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant organisms and promotes wound healing. Method A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and 30 age and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. Results Cultures of the study group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3% cases, seventh day in another 16 (53.3% and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7% while in two (6.7% cases there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group is decreased from 100% (30 cases to 6.7% (2 cases by day 11 with P

  20. Leg edema from intrathecal opiate infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A; Couto da Silva JM

    2000-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of intrathecal infusions to treat patients with long-term non-cancer-related pain, this therapy is not without serious side-effects. Five out of 23 patients who had intrathecal infusions of opiates for longer than 24 months developed leg and feet edema. As predisposing factors, cardiovascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, and venous stasis of the lower extremities were considered. Every patient who developed pedal and leg edema after the implantation of an infusion pump was also found to have leg edema and venous stasis prior to the time when the pump was inserted. This complication was severe enough to limit their physical activity, and to produce lymphedema, ulcerations and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Reduction of the edema occurred when the dose of the opiate was decreased, and in two cases in which the infusion was discontinued, there was almost complete resolution of the syndrome. It appears that the pre-existence of pedal edema and of venous stasis is a relative contraindication to the long-term intrathecal infusion of opiates in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  1. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares withou

  2. Las reformas del derecho de familia en India: el matrimonio de niños entre derecho hindú tradicional e intervención estatal

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Francavilla

    2012-01-01

    El artículo analiza la evolución del derecho de India en relación con el matrimonio de niños, considerando algunos aspectos del derecho tradicional hindú, los caracteres de la intervención colonial y las reformas jurídicas posteriores a la independencia. El trabajo resalta la interacción entre las diferentes fuentes de las que emerge el derecho hindú y los conflictos que se presentan entre derecho oficial y no oficial, para, con base en ello, explicar la manera como la modernización del derec...

  3. Effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone defects in rabbit tibias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelini, Roberto; Scarano, Antonio; Piattelli, Maurizio; Andreana, Sebastiano; Covani, Ugo; Quaranta, Alessandro; Piattelli, Adriano

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain, Biora, AB, Malmö, Sweden) on bone healing. Ten New Zealand rabbits, weighing about 2.5 kg, were used. One 8-mm bone defect was created in each tibia. The defect on the right leg was filled with Emdogain, whereas the defect on the opposite leg was left unfilled as control. A total of 20 defects were created. Five rabbits each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks with an overdose of Tanax. Block sections containing the defects were retrieved and the specimens processed for light microscopy examination. The slides were stained with acid and basic fuchsin and toluidine blue. Histologically, no differences were noted in both groups at each observation period; in the test group, remnants of the implanted Emdogain were not present at 4 weeks. Newly formed bone was detectable in both groups at all observation times. At 8 weeks, both groups showed mature bone, and in the test group the material implanted was not visible. No inflammatory cells were visible in both groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that Emdogain implanted in bone defects is fully resorbed after 4 to 8 weeks and does not adversely affect bone formation.

  4. Do anti-embolism stockings fit our legs? Leg survey and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lisa; Kent, Kimberly; McPhee, Donna

    2013-07-01

    Anti-embolism stockings are commonly used worldwide to prevent the development of thrombosis in hospitalised patients. Patients are typically measured for, and fitted with, anti-embolism stockings during extended periods of non-ambulation. Anti-embolism stockings must critically fit the leg to achieve optimum blood flow and thus success of prophylaxis. Therefore, hospitals endeavour to maintain stock of anti-embolism stockings that fit the majority of their patients. The objective of this study was to establish whether popular styles/brands of anti-embolism stockings "fitted" the legs of convenience sampled volunteers. Volunteer's legs were measured at ankle, calf and thigh following guidance from British nurses and in accordance with brand instructions. Leg measurements were subsequently compared to the size charts of 10 anti-embolism stocking styles made by 4 different manufacturers. "Fit" is defined as a volunteer's leg measurements matching any stocking size in a range at all measurement points. Volunteers were measured in different settings around Scotland, including private homes, work places and shopping centres. A convenience sample of 471 volunteers (283 female, 188 male) were recruited on the basis of willingness to participate and being over 16 years old. Volunteers ranged from 17 years to 82 years old with an average age of 35. The 10 different styles of anti-embolism stockings, made by 4 different brands, examined for this paper had a size match coefficient ranging from 0% to 100% for our volunteer's legs. The size match coefficient is strongly influenced by the Brand's sizing policy. The proportion of legs that "fit" a particular brand of anti-embolism stockings can be increased through: (1) the reduction of the number of leg measurement points that need to be matched to the size chart of the stockings; (2) the use of open-ended size ranges; (3) the use of increased size range width and (4) the use of increased overlap between sizes. However, all but

  5. Effect of Renal Transplantation in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Yildiz, Demet; Buyukkoyuncu, Nilufer; Celik, Huseyin; Tufan, Fatih; Kılıç, Ahmet Kasım; Gul, Bulent; Yildiz, Abdulmecid

    2016-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder in which patients have irresistible urge to move legs during rest. Restless legs syndrome seems to be common in end-stage renal disease. After a successful renal transplant, symptoms ameliorate with renal function improvement and restless legs syndrome is seen less in this population. Here, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome frequency and associated factors in renal transplant patients. In a cross-sectional study with 193 patients (116 hemodialysis patients, 45 transplant patients, and 32 controls), the presence of restless legs syndrome was assessed using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Medical history, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patients were questioned about the presence of restless legs syndrome using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Patients were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for depression and Pittsburgh tests for sleep disturbances. While the rate of restless legs syndrome was similar between transplants and controls, it was significantly greater in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients and controls had similar depression scores that were higher compared with transplant patients. Pittsburgh score was similar in transplant patients and controls and significantly increased in the hemodialysis patients. The rate of insomnia was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients compared with the other 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent correlates of restless legs syndrome as insomnia, Beck depression score, and being on hemodialysis. Linear regression analysis showed that independent correlates of higher Pittsburgh score were higher depression score, higher age, and presence of restless legs syndrome. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is significantly lower in transplant patients than it is in patients on maintenance dialysis. In renal transplant patients, restless legs syndrome frequency was

  6. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  7. LEG CONQUASATION CAUSED BY PETROL TILLER WITH OPEN LOWER LEG FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Golubović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 71-year old patient admitted to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš for the right leg conquasation. The patient was injured accidentally by a petrol tiller. On admission, both thigh and lower leg conquasation was observed with large wound on anteromedial thigh and one on medial side of the lower leg. Soft tissue and bones were covered with dirt and pieces of clothing. The wounds were thoroughly rinsed and dirt was removed followed by detailed debridement. After primary surgical treatment of the wound, open proximal lower leg fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation using two nails in the proximal and two nails in the distal fragment. Soft tissue defect was treated by plastic surgeon. The patient was administered anti-tetanus protection, antibiotic treatment and anticoagulant prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Physical therapy was initiated subsequent to successful healing of the soft tissue wounds. External skeletal fixation was removed after three months for infection around the proximal nails and the treatment was contuinued using functional Sarmiento’s plaster imobilization leading to full recovery of open lower leg fracture.

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  9. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be recognized in the yolk sac wall, from 3-4 weeks post conception (wpc), in the hind gut epithelium from week 4 and in the gonadal area from early week 5. The objective of this study was to map the migration route of PGCs and elucidate the role of the nervous...... system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by ß-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC...... migration, but after establishment of connections between the enteric and sympathetic nervous systems. PGCs follow sympathetic nerve fibers towards the gonads. PGCs failing to exit the nerve branches at the gonadal site, may continue along the sympathetic trunk ending up in other organs where they may form...

  10. Novel Dynamics Observed in a Spiking Neural Network Model of the NTS in the Rat Hind-brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingyi; Schaffer, J. David; Dilorenzo, Patricia; Laramee, Craig

    2012-02-01

    The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS) is a hind-brain structure in the rat that is the first way-station in taste processing. Its structure and function are poorly understood. Recently our group produced a model, implemented as a spiking neural network (SNN), that successfully replicated experimental data. The model's topology was manually devised and the parameters were set by a genetic algorithm. In order to better understand its information processing capabilities, we probed the model with a variety of input spike patterns and observed a striking winner-take-all decision-making dynamic. We show how the topology and tuned parameters enable this decision to depend on precise spike timing events. It is curious that the experimental data upon which the model was originally evolved did not include winner-take-all examples; this was an emergent capability. It remains for additional experiments on rats to confirm or reject this model prediction.

  11. Leg movements during wakefulness in restless legs syndrome: time structure and relationships with periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

    2012-05-01

    Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M.; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood–brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia

  13. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra

  14. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome.

  15. The natural shock absorption of the leg spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio

    2013-01-04

    When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.

  16. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting. PMID:22337629

  17. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  18. Congenital Transmission of Schistosoma japonicumin the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QianBao-zhen; H.O.Bogh; M.V.Johansen; WangPeng-peng

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups.Group M (n =8)was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage)and group L (n=6)was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage).Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45-60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts.Furthermore,faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens.All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6+20.2 and 220.0+27.5 adult worms in group M and L,respectively.In groups M and L, 13.5%and 46.7% of the kittens were infected,respectively,In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected.Tne infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S.japonicum.The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions,as a result of egg deposition.The results, therefore,show that congenital transmission of S.japonicum can occur in rabbits.The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmssion of S.japomcum infection in humans.

  19. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  1. Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Annabel G.; Bolin, Steven R.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/200). Clinical signs included hemorrhage and sudden death, with hepatic necrosis. Analysis of viral RNA sequence from >95% of the viral genome showed an average similarity of 79% with RHDV. Similarity of the predicted MRCV capsid amino acid sequence ranged from 89.8% to 91.3%, much lower than the 98% amino acid similarity between RHDV strains. Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions. PMID:19961675

  2. Predator-prey relationships in a Mediterranean vertebrate system: Bonelli's eagles, rabbits and partridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Barea-Azcón, José M; Virgós, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    How predators impact on prey population dynamics is still an unsolved issue for most wild predator-prey communities. When considering vertebrates, important concerns constrain a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of predator-prey relationships worldwide; e.g. studies simultaneously quantifying 'functional' and 'numerical responses' (i.e., the 'total response') are rare. The functional, the numerical, and the resulting total response (i.e., how the predator per capita intake, the population of predators and the total of prey eaten by the total predators vary with prey densities) are fundamental as they reveal the predator's ability to regulate prey population dynamics. Here, we used a multi-spatio-temporal scale approach to simultaneously explore the functional and numerical responses of a territorial predator (Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus) to its two main prey species (the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa) during the breeding period in a Mediterranean system of south Spain. Bonelli's eagle responded functionally, but not numerically, to rabbit/partridge density changes. Type II, non-regulatory, functional responses (typical of specialist predators) offered the best fitting models for both prey. In the absence of a numerical response, Bonelli's eagle role as a regulating factor of rabbit and partridge populations seems to be weak in our study area. Simple (prey density-dependent) functional response models may well describe the short-term variation in a territorial predator's consumption rate in complex ecosystems.

  3. Helium-neon laser improves bone repair in rabbits: comparison at two anatomic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccin, Maria Stella; de Oliveira, Flavia; Muniz Renno, Ana Claudia; Pacheco de Jesus, Gustavo Protasio; Pozzi, Renan; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on bone repair of femur and tibia in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral bone damage (tibia and femur) using a spherical bur. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluency of 6 J∕cm(2) and wavelength of 632.8 nm was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right tibia or femur lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections and the morphometric data from bone tissue and hyaline cartilage were achieved. Histopathological analysis showed regular bone trabeculae covered by osteoblastic cells after 1 week in the group exposed to laser therapy from femur and tibia indistinctly. After 3 weeks, the laser group showed new bone formation coming from the bony walls in the femur and tibia as well. On the 5th week, well-defined trabecula undergoing remodeling process was detected for the most intense pattern in tibia only. Morphometric analysis revealed significant statistical differences (p helium-neon laser is able to improve bone repair in rabbits being the most pronounced effect in tibia.

  4. Fatty liver accompanies an increase of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the hind gut of C57/BL mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which also induces changes in the gut microbiome. This study tested the hypothesis that high-fat feeding increases certain predominate hind gut bacteria in a C57BL/6 mouse model o...

  5. Kallinev nafta võib hakata majanduskasvu pidurdama. 145dollariline nafta hind on majandusele ohtlik / Katri Soe-Surén

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Surén, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Ekspertide hinnangul on nafta hinna tõusu taga paranenud majandusnäitajad. Suurema osa majandusuuringu instituutide, pankade ja ekspertide hinnangul on alanud aastal nafta hind 70 ja 90 dollari vahel barrelist, IEA ekspert Fatih Birol ennustab suuremat hinnatõusu ja hoiatab, et tõusvad hinnad võivad muutuda tõsiseks probleemiks maailma majandusele

  6. Kallinev nafta võib hakata majanduskasvu pidurdama. 145dollariline nafta hind on majandusele ohtlik / Katri Soe-Surén

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Surén, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Ekspertide hinnangul on nafta hinna tõusu taga paranenud majandusnäitajad. Suurema osa majandusuuringu instituutide, pankade ja ekspertide hinnangul on alanud aastal nafta hind 70 ja 90 dollari vahel barrelist, IEA ekspert Fatih Birol ennustab suuremat hinnatõusu ja hoiatab, et tõusvad hinnad võivad muutuda tõsiseks probleemiks maailma majandusele

  7. D-ribose benefits restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shecterle, Linda; Kasubick, Robert; St Cyr, John

    2008-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations and pain, predominantly in the lower extremities while at rest, accompanied by an uncontrollable urge for movement for relief. We report on two affected male individuals, a father and son, ages 71 and 47, from a family in which three generations carry the diagnosis. To evaluate any potential benefit of D-ribose in this condition, each individual orally consumed 5-g doses of D-ribose daily at different trial stages. Each stage lasted 3 weeks with a 2-week washout period between stages. The initial stage involved a single 5 gm dose of D-ribose consumed at breakfast. Throughout the second stage, D-ribose was taken at breakfast and lunch. In the third stage, D-ribose was taken at all meals, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Diaries by the subjects pertaining to their documentation and severity of restless legs syndrome symptoms was compiled. During the initial stage both men reported a general feeling of more energy and less fatigue, most notably after exercise, without any significant changes in their symptoms. With the increase in the daily dose of D-ribose, in the second stage, their leg twitching and the feeling to move during the day was reduced for 1 subject, and rarely present in the other. Both still experienced the unpleasant sensations during the night. However, during the final stage, a further increase in the daily dose of D-ribose eliminated their daily symptoms and the symptoms at night were of a lesser degree and had a later occurrence. Both men reported that D-ribose did not totally eliminate their discomfort, but the severity and onset of symptoms affecting their quality of life was substantially improved with D-ribose without any adverse reactions.

  8. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  9. Refractory leg ulcers associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities.

  10. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650

  11. Coordinated intelligent adaptive control of legged robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Lifford; Mehrübeoğlu, Mehrübe

    2006-05-01

    In planetary or hazardous environment exploration, there will be unforseen environmental circumstances which can not be planned. To overcome telerobotic control issues due to communication delays, autonomous robot control becomes necessary. Autonomously controlled landers and instrumentation can be used in exploration, such as lunar and martian missions. However, wheeled robots have difficulty in exploring uneven terrain; thus, legged robots can be used in such situations. This research develops intelligent and adaptive control of mobile robots to perform functions such as environmental exploration in coordination and obstacle avoidance. The coordinated control is demonstrated in simulations.

  12. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome After Single Low Dose Quetiapine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration.

  14. Mechanical Engineering of Leg Joints of Anthropomorphic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavluk Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of design engineering of anthropomorphic robot legs is considered. An overview of the existing anthropomorphic robots and an analysis of servomechanisms and bearing parts involved in the assembly of robot legs are presented. We propose an option for constructing the legs of the robot Antares under development. A two-motor layout, used in the knee, ensures higher joint power along with independent interaction with the neighboring upper and lower leg joints when bending. To reduce the electrical load on the main battery of the robot, the upper legs are provided with a mounting pad for additional batteries powering servos. Direct control of the servos is also carried out through the sub-controllers, responsible for all 6 engines installed in the articular joints of the robot legs.

  15. Symmetry Analysis of Thermoelectric Energy Converters with Inhomogeneous Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    Symmetry analysis has been applied to thermoelectric energy converters [thermoelectric generators (TEG), coolers (TEC), and heaters (TEH)] with inhomogeneous legs. The features of the crystallographic symmetry of thermoelectric materials and the symmetry of legs, thermocouples, and modules are studied. The effect of symmetry on the figure of merit Z of thermoelectric energy converters is considered. A general rule for proper placement of legs in thermoelectric converters is developed. A modified tetratomic classification for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs (TEGa, TEGb, TEC, and TEH) is proposed. An increase in Z for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs is due to the bulk thermoelectric effect. An increase in Z gives the reduction of irreversible processes in the modules (Joule heating and thermal conductivity), accompanying breaking of the symmetry of the legs. It is found that violations of the symmetry requirements can lead to significant energy losses in converters.

  16. Stable bipedal walking with a swing-leg protraction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhounsule, Pranav A; Zamani, Ali

    2017-01-25

    In bipedal locomotion, swing-leg protraction and retraction refer to the forward and backward motion, respectively, of the swing-leg before touchdown. Past studies have shown that swing-leg retraction strategy can lead to stable walking. We show that swing-leg protraction can also lead to stable walking. We use a simple 2D model of passive dynamic walking but with the addition of an actuator between the legs. We use the actuator to do full correction of the disturbance in a single step (a one-step dead-beat control). Specifically, for a given limit cycle we perturb the velocity at mid-stance. Then, we determine the foot placement strategy that allows the walker to return to the limit cycle in a single step. For a given limit cycle, we find that there is swing-leg protraction at shallow slopes and swing-leg retraction at steep slopes. As the limit cycle speed increases, the swing-leg protraction region increases. On close examination, we observe that the choice of swing-leg strategy is based on two opposing effects that determine the time from mid-stance to touchdown: the walker speed at mid-stance and the adjustment in the step length for one-step dead-beat control. When the walker speed dominates, the swing-leg retracts but when the step length dominates, the swing-leg protracts. This result suggests that swing-leg strategy for stable walking depends on the model parameters, the terrain, and the stability measure used for control. This novel finding has a clear implication in the development of controllers for robots, exoskeletons, and prosthetics and to understand stability in human gaits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of uni...

  18. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  19. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  20. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... of troponin I (n = 8). In conclusion, tissue injury was reflected by increases in muscle enzymes in plasma. We found an inverse correlation between lower leg electrical impedance and volume, but the deviation in electrical impedance was approximately twice that of the leg volume. Electrical impedance appears...

  1. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  2. Passive mechanical properties of legs from running insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Daniel M; Full, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    While the dynamics of running arthropods have been modeled as a spring-mass system, no such structures have been discovered that store and return energy during bouncing. The hindleg of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis is a good candidate for a passive, vertical leg spring because its vertically oriented joint axes of rotation limit the possibility of active movements and contributions of muscle properties. We oscillated passive legs while measuring force to determine the leg's dynamic, mechanical properties. The relative dimensionless stiffness of an individual cockroach leg was equal to that estimated for a single leg of a biped or quadruped. Leg resilience ranged from 60 to 75%, affording the possibility that the leg could function as a spring to store and return the mechanical energy required to lift and accelerate the center of mass. Because hysteresis was independent of oscillation frequency, we rejected the use of a Voigt model - a simple spring in parallel with a viscous damper. A hysteretic damping model fit the cockroach leg force-displacement data over a wide range of frequencies and displacement using just two parameters. Rather than simply acting as a spring to minimize energy, we hypothesize that legs must manage both energy storage and absorption for rapid running to be most effective.

  3. Tennis leg: mechanism of injury and radiographic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Rafael A; Stock, Harlan

    2013-08-01

    As summer is upon us, we thought a discussion of tennis leg would be beneficial to our fellow clinicians. Tennis leg is a relatively common clinical condition, classically manifesting as acute, sports-related pain in the mid-calf. First described in 1883, the pathogenesis has been debated--tennis leg was first attributed to rupture of the plantaris tendon, though more recent investigations have implicated rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius at its myotendinous junction. For simplicity, many authors use the term tennis leg to describe all such acute muscle injuries in the superficial calf.

  4. Compression Stockings for Treating Venous Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Benigni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.

  5. Lower leg musculoskeletal geometry and sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Albracht, Kirsten; Braunstein, Bjoern; Moreno Catala, Maria; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sprint performance is related to lower leg musculoskeletal geometry within a homogeneous group of highly trained 100-m sprinters. Using a cluster analysis, eighteen male sprinters were divided into two groups based on their personal best (fast: N=11, 10.30±0.07s; slow: N=7, 10.70±0.08s). Calf muscular fascicle arrangement and Achilles tendon moment arms (calculated by the gradient of tendon excursion versus ankle joint angle) were analyzed for each athlete using ultrasonography. Achilles tendon moment arm, foot and ankle skeletal geometry, fascicle arrangement as well as the ratio of fascicle length to Achilles tendon moment arm showed no significant (p>0.05) correlation with sprint performance, nor were there any differences in the analyzed musculoskeletal parameters between the fast and slow sprinter group. Our findings provide evidence that differences in sprint ability in world-class athletes are not a result of differences in the geometrical design of the lower leg even when considering both skeletal and muscular components.

  6. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  7. Migraine and restless legs syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira KS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen dos Santos Ferreira, Fabíola Dach, Alan L Eckeli, José Geraldo SpecialiDepartment of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Neurology, University Hospital, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The relationship between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS has been described in the literature for some years, based on clinical findings and pathophysiological considerations. There are some possible factors relating migraine and RLS. Both are diseases involving the central nervous system, the two diseases seem to share a dopaminergic mechanism, and it is also believed that they may share a genetic origin. At present, doctors who work with these two diseases should be encouraged not to simply investigate the simultaneous presence of both, but should also apply a treatment better adapted to this possibility. Research should be directed at some still unanswered questions for a better understanding of the association between migraine and RLS.Keywords: migraine, restless legs syndrome, physiopathology, comorbidities

  8. [RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME--WILLIS-EKBOM DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Élisabeth; Bataillard, Marc; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with a high prevalence (10% in Caucasian populations). It is a purely clinical diagnosis characterized by an urge to move the lower limbs usually accompanied or caused by unpleasant sensations in the legs with an improvement in symptoms with movement. These sensations occur during inactivity or at rest and worsen in the evening or at night. RLS may not only impact the quality of life for an individual, but may also increase mortality. Disease markers such as genetic predispositions have been identified, as well as reduced iron stores with altered intracerebral iron homeostasis and dopaminergic dysfunction. Medication is often necessary in severe forms, with low doses of dopaminergic agonists being the first-line of treatment. The use of α2δ ligands is an alternative. Finally benzodiazepines and opioid medications can be effective in refractory cases. In less severe forms of RLS, a non-pharmacological approach is usually sufficient with avoidance of stimulants and correction of contributing factors.

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  10. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Shahram; Jafari, Majid; Azizi, Mostafa; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Jafari, Shima

    2016-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  11. Effect of systemic administration of nicotine on healing in osseous defects. An experimental study in rabbits. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Sørensen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    placed mini-osmotic pumps for 8 weeks. The animals underwent three surgical operations during the experimental period, and body weight was registered weekly. Blood samples were collected to determine cotinine and prostaglandin E(2) levels. Bone preparations were made in the right leg of all rabbits after...... 4 weeks and in the left leg after 6 weeks of nicotine/placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created for the bone defects. After 8 weeks, the animals were killed. Tissue blocks including the bone defects were prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The animals in the test...... group lost weight, while the control group gained weight during the experiment. The prostaglandin E(2) levels in plasma increased significantly following nicotine exposure in the test group. No significant differences in the percentage of vessels and bone density in the osseous defects were found...

  12. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  14. Newer antipsychotics and the rabbit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalehdan Azadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit syndrome is a movement disorder that is associated with long-term exposure to neuroleptic medications. Of particular interest and importance is the risk of rabbit syndrome with exposure to the newer atypical antipsychotics. Our recent experience with such a case brought to light the importance of exploring this risk. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed (1972–2006 databases were searched for English language articles using the keywords rabbit syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic, extrapyramidal symptoms and side effects. A recent case study is used to expand upon the literature available on newer antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome. Results We reviewed papers that addressed the following aspects of rabbit syndrome 1 the clinical manifestations 2 prevalence and risk factors, 3 etiopathogenesis 4 older antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome 5 newer antipsychotics, 6 treatment options. Moreover, we report a case of RS in a 50 year old white female, diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, that, after the discontinuation of risperidone, developed involuntary movements of the mouth that were fine, rhythmic and rapid, along the vertical axis, and without involvement of the tongue. After the re-introduction of risperidone, the symptoms decreased in a few hours and disappeared after 3 days. Conclusion Eleven cases of rabbit syndrome have been documented since the implementation of newer antipsychotics. Future research is needed to better understand the etiopathogenesis of rabbit syndrome in psychiatric populations treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Understanding the differences and similarities of rabbit syndrome and tardive dyskinesia is crucial to the creation of a successful treatment paradigm.

  15. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  16. Actions on gamma-motoneurones elicited by electrical stimulation of cutaneous afferent fibres in the hind limb of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Sojka, P

    1985-09-01

    The reflex actions elicited by graded electrical stimulation of hind-limb cutaneous (sural, superficial peroneal and tibial) nerves were investigated with intra- and extracellular micro-electrode recordings in gamma-motoneurones projecting to hind-limb muscles in twenty-four cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. In total, reflex responses of 100 gamma-motoneurones were analysed. 82 of the gamma-cells were classified as dynamic (43) or static (39) using the method of mesencephalic stimulation (Appelberg, Hulliger, Johansson & Sojka, 1982). The general responsiveness (i.e. number of input nerves with effect/number of input nerves tested) of the whole sample of gamma-cells to stimulation of skin nerves was extremely high (94.8%). All negative observations were encountered among static and non-classified gamma-cells. Generally, the stimulation strengths needed for evoking effects in the gamma-cells were very low. A majority of the excitatory effects in the dynamic cells appeared with stimulation intensities below 1.5 threshold (T), while most static cells were excited with stimulation strengths between 1.5 and 2 T. Also a statistical comparison of the populations of stimulation strength thresholds for the excitatory effects revealed a significant difference (P less than 0.0009) between dynamic and static gamma-cells. By contrast, the thresholds for inhibitory effects in dynamic cells were slightly higher than for excitatory effects (P less than 0.0009). As regards excitation of static cells, inhibition of dynamic cells and inhibition of static cells, no statistically significant threshold differences were found. A strong dominance of excitation over inhibition was found in both dynamic and static flexor (posterior biceps and semitendinosus) gamma-motoneurones from all input nerves. In comparison to flexor gamma-motoneurones, there was a much higher incidence of inhibitory and mixed (excitatory and inhibitory) responses in extensor (triceps) gamma-motoneurones, from

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of mouse hind limb bone loss after spinal cord injury using novel, in vivo, methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Madonna M; Grill, Raymond J

    2011-12-07

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by osteoporosis in the sublesional regions of the pelvis and lower extremities, leading to a higher frequency of fractures. As these fractures often occur in regions that have lost normal sensory function, the patient is at a greater risk of fracture-dependent pathologies, including death. SCI-dependent loss in both bone mineral density (BMD, grams/cm2) and bone mineral content (BMC, grams) has been attributed to mechanical disuse, aberrant neuronal signaling and hormonal changes. The use of rodent models of SCI-induced osteoporosis can provide invaluable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis following SCI as well as a test environment for the generation of new therapies. Mouse models of SCI are of great interest as they permit a reductionist approach to mechanism-based assessment through the use of null and transgenic mice. While such models have provided important data, there is still a need for minimally-invasive, reliable, reproducible, and quantifiable methods in determining the extent of bone loss following SCI, particularly over time and within the same cohort of experimental animals, to improve diagnosis, treatment methods, and/or prevention of SCI-induced osteoporosis. An ideal method for measuring bone density in rodents would allow multiple, sequential (over time) exposures to low-levels of X-ray radiation. This study describes the use of a new whole-animal scanner, the IVIS Lumina XR (Caliper Instruments) that can be used to provide low-energy (1-3 milligray (mGy)) high-resolution, high-magnification X-ray images of mouse hind limb bones over time following SCI. Significant bone density loss was seen in the tibiae of mice by 10 days post-spinal transection when compared to uninjured, age-matched control (naïve) mice (13% decrease, p analysis on mouse femurs post-mortem 30 days post-SCI (9). Our results suggest that the IVIS Lumina XR provides a novel, high

  18. Application of rabbits in biomedical research: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosze, Zs.; Houdebine, L M

    2006-01-01

    The first transgenic rabbits were obtained two decades ago by pronuclear microinjection. Several characteristics of rabbit made it the first and classical model for the study of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Rabbit models include normal cholesterol-fed rabbits, spontaneous mutants for lipid metabolism and transgenic rabbits. Though most molecular investigations of the cardiovascular system have used transgenic mice, the small rodents do not accurately reflect crucial facets of human cardi...

  19. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  20. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  1. Central Effect of Exogenous Histamine on Pain Induced by Sub-Plantar Injection of Formalin in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of normal saline (control, histamine, mepyramine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and ranitidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist were investigated on the formalin-induced pain in rabbits. Subcutaneous (SC injection of a formalin (100 μl, 5% solution into the ventral surface of the right hind paw was performed, and the time durations spent licking and biting the injected paw were measured in 10 min blocks for 1 h. The SC injection of formalin produced a short-lasting (10 min pain response. The ICV injection of histamine at doses of 25, 50 and 100 μg significantly (P < 0.05 decreased the time duration spent licking and biting the injected paw. Mepyramine and ranitidine, used alone produced no effects. The ICV pretreatments with mepyramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 200 μg significantly (P < 0.05 prevented histamine (100 μg, ICV-induced antinociception. These results indicate that activation of brain histamine with ICV injection of exogenous histamine produces antinociception. Central histamine H1 and H2 receptors may be involved in the centrally administered histamine-induced antinociception in the formalin-induced pain in rabbits.

  2. Klinefelter's syndrome presenting with leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morentin, Helena Martinez; Dodiuk-Gad, Roni P; Brenner, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    A 54-year-old man of Persian origin presented to our department with a 1-year history of ulcers on the right leg that had been unresponsive to numerous topical treatments, accompanied by lymphedema of the right leg. Medical history included hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which had not been further investigated. He was treated for 20 years with testosterone IM once monthly, which he stopped a year before the current hospitalization for unclear reasons. The patient reported no congenital lymphedema. Physical examination revealed two deep skin ulcers (Figure 1) on the right leg measuring 10 cm in diameter with raised irregular inflammatory borders and a boggy, necrotic base discharging a purulent hemorrhagic exudate. Bilateral leg pitting edema and right lymphangitis with lymphadenitis were noted. He had low head hair implantment, sparse hair on the body and head, hyperpigmentation on both legs, onychodystrophia of the toenails (mainly the large toe and less prominent on the other toes), which was atrophic lichen-planus-like in appearance and needed no trimming (Figure 2), normal hand nails, oral thrush, and angular cheilitis. Other physical findings were gynecomastia, pectus excavatum, small and firm testicles, long extremities, asymmetrical goiter, systolic murmur 2/6 in left sternal border, and slow and inappropriate behavior. The patient's temperature on admission was 39 degrees C. Blood cultures were negative for bacterial growth. Results of laboratory investigations included hemoglobin (11.2 g/dL), hematocrit (26.8%), normal mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume, and red blood cell distribution width (16%). Blood smear showed spherocytes, slight hypochromia, anisocytosis, macrocytosis, and microcytosis. Blood chemistry values were taken for iron (4 micro g/dL [normal range 40-150 micro g/dL]), transferrin (193 mg/dL [normal range 220-400 mg/dL]), ferritin (1128 ng/mL [normal range 14-160 ng/mL]), transferrin saturation (1.5% [normal

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: xinchunli@163.com; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B. [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The SIR of the distal portion of crushed nerves was higher than that of the proximal nerve portion; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Whereas, the SIR at proximal nerve portions of crushed nerve was similar to control nerves (P > 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B

  4. Solar and planetary oscillation control on climate change: hind-cast, forecast and a comparison with the CMIP5 GCMs

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Global surface temperature records (e.g. HadCRUT4) since 1850 are characterized by climatic oscillations synchronous with specific solar, planetary and lunar harmonics superimposed on a background warming modulation. The latter is related to a long millennial solar oscillation and to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere (e.g. aerosol and greenhouse gases). However, current general circulation climate models, e.g. the CMIP5 GCMs, to be used in the AR5 IPCC Report in 2013, fail to reconstruct the observed climatic oscillations. As an alternate, an empirical model is proposed that uses: (1) a specific set of decadal, multidecadal, secular and millennial astronomic harmonics to simulate the observed climatic oscillations; (2) a 0.45 attenuation of the GCM ensemble mean simulations to model the anthropogenic and volcano forcing effects. The proposed empirical model outperforms the GCMs by better hind-casting the observed 1850-2012 climatic patterns. It is found that: (1) about 50-60% of the warmin...

  5. A system identification analysis of neural adaptation dynamics and nonlinear responses in the local reflex control of locust hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Angarita-Jaimes, Natalia; Simpson, David M; Allen, Robert; Newland, Philip L

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear type system identification models coupled with white noise stimulation provide an experimentally convenient and quick way to investigate the often complex and nonlinear interactions between the mechanical and neural elements of reflex limb control systems. Previous steady state analysis has allowed the neurons in such systems to be categorised by their sensitivity to position, velocity or acceleration (dynamics) and has improved our understanding of network function. These neurons, however, are known to adapt their output amplitude or spike firing rate during repetitive stimulation and this transient response may be more important than the steady state response for reflex control. In the current study previously used system identification methods are developed and applied to investigate both steady state and transient dynamic and nonlinear changes in the neural circuit responsible for controlling reflex movements of the locust hind limbs. Through the use of a parsimonious model structure and Monte Carlo simulations we conclude that key system dynamics remain relatively unchanged during repetitive stimulation while output amplitude adaptation is occurring. Whilst some evidence of a significant change was found in parts of the systems nonlinear response, the effect was small and probably of little physiological relevance. Analysis using biologically more realistic stimulation reinforces this conclusion.

  6. Treatment of sickle cell leg ulcers with pentoxifylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, M L; Treadwell, P

    1990-06-01

    A 58-year-old black man with leg ulcers of 43 years duration responded to pentoxifylline 400 mg tid in 8 months. The ability of pentoxifylline to increase erythrocyte flexibility and decrease blood viscosity was the basis for our use of this agent. Oral pentoxifylline may be a useful adjunct in healing sickle cell leg ulcers and preventing their recurrence.

  7. A Brief Survey Paper on Multi-Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Behmanesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief survey on multi-legged robots and their applications in agriculture such as for harvesting. Multi-legged robots have the benefit of more flexibility and adapt to different rough terrain in a better way. They also have very important applications in fulfilling the dangerous tasks such as mine detecting.

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Self-Tests & Diagnosis Self-Tests Do you have ... to any of these questions you may have restless legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine ...

  9. Criteria in diagnosing nocturnal leg cramps : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Background: Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between

  10. Leg strength is associated with ventilatory efficiency in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J U; Tucker, S H; Kalasky, M J; Proctor, D N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if leg function is associated with ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy older adults. 24 women and 18 men aged 60-80 years performed treadmill exercise to fatigue for calculation of ventilatory efficiency using the ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO₂@AT). On a separate day, participants performed leg strength testing and graded single-leg knee extension exercise. The VE/VCO₂@AT was higher in women than men (33±3 vs. 30±3; p=0.03). After adjustment for age and VO(₂max), leg strength (knee extensor isometric force) was inversely associated with VE/VCO₂@AT in women (r= - 0.44, p=0.03) while no relationships were found for men. Strength-matched women and men had similar VE/VCO₂@AT indicating that the correlation between leg strength and VE/VCO₂@AT was strength- but not sex-specific. During knee extensor exercise, women with lower leg strength had increased VE/VCO₂ slope across 0-15 W as compared to higher strength women (38±8 vs. 31±3; p<0.05), while no differences were found for men. These results find leg strength to be associated with ventilatory responses to exercise in healthy older women, a finding that might be related to lower leg strength in women than men.

  11. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) A A A What's in this ... Child If You Have Questions en español Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray ...

  12. Beengebrekenonderzoek bij varkens = Research on leg weakness / osteochondrosis in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Uit onderzoek bleek dat leg weakness, de uiterlijke verschijnselen van beengebreken, niet het resultaat is van osteochondrosis, een verstoring van het verbeningsproces van kraakbeen. De ontwikkeling van de symptomen van leg weakness kunnen onderdrukt worden door natriumbicarbonaat aan het voer toe

  13. Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K

    2012-01-01

    Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....

  14. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P leg vascular resistance (P legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. The recalcitrant venous leg ulcer - A never ending story?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan); M.B. Maessen-Visch (Birgitte); S.I. Langendoen; K.P. de Roos; H.A.M. Neumann (Martino)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In general, four particular causes of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers may be distinguished. These are foot pump insufficiency, chronic venous compartment syndrome and non-re-canalized popliteal vein thrombosis. The fourth cause of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers is lipodermat

  16. Restless legs syndrome in opioid dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although frequently underdiagnosed, several epidemiological studies have estimated the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS in western countries at 5-15% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually made on a clinical basis, according to the criteria established by the international RLS study group. There are case reports of transient RLS in opiate withdrawal. We describe three opiate (dextropropoxyphene (DPP dependent young male patients; two of them had DPP intoxication/withdrawal seizure developing RLS during opiate withdrawal. However, their RLS persisted even after the remission of other withdrawal symptoms. Thyroid function test, hemogram, serum ferritin were normal in all of them. The cases responded well to a treatment with ropinirole. Hence, there might be a causal association, which required further well-designed studies to substantiate. The sleep disturbances and use of benzodiazepines can be minimized by increasing clinician′s sensitivity to diagnose RLS.

  17. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.

    2004-09-01

    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  18. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Kester, Benjamin S; Fisher, Nina; Behery, Omar A; Crespo, Alexander M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is well known among orthopaedic surgeons. The timely diagnosis and management of ACS is crucial to avoiding its sequelae, including renal failure, ischemic contractures, and limb loss. Despite its relative importance, ACS poses a challenge to many residents and clinicians as diagnosis relies largely on clinical judgment. Timely diagnosis and thorough compartment release are essential to optimizing outcomes in ACS. This video highlights a clinical case in which compartment syndrome of the leg was considered, diagnosed, and surgically managed. This video will present the indications for compartment release and a video-guided demonstration of compartment checks using an arterial line transducer, a 4-compartment fasciotomy with 2 incisions, and temporizing vessel loop closure. Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication of common fractures. It is essential that orthopaedic practitioners understand the immediacy of intervention. We have a responsibility to provide timely, accurate diagnosis along with expedient surgical management.

  19. Integrated design of legged mechatronic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChinYin CHEN; IMing CHEN; ChiCheng CHENG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a system based on the integrated design and experiment for a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) legged mechatronic system (LMTS). A six-bar linkage mechanism, which is derived from a four-bar linkage with a symmetrical coupler point and pantograph into one, is designed, and common controllers are used to control the velocity and position loops.For system-based dynamic optimization, the design for control (DFC) approach is used to integrate the structure and control for improving dynamic performance with reduced control torque.Finally, for a rapid 3D graphical based implementation of the system, high-level computer-aided rapid system integration (CARSI) technology is used to integrate the structure design, controller design, and system implemen-tation into the design and analytical software environment based on Pro/engineer, XML syntax, Simmechanics, and Simulink. Thus, the development time for the LMTS is reduced.

  20. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  1. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  2. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Saleh Mohammad Yaser

    2011-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  3. Short-interval leg movements during sleep entail greater cardiac activation than periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI leg movements. We found that the duration of the R-R interval decrease with SILMS doublets was significantly longer than that with PLMS, whereas the maximal decrease in R-R interval was similar. Scoring SILMS in RLS patients may therefore be relevant from a cardiac autonomic perspective. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1126/science.1229163

    2013-01-01

    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in granular media, and used this "terradynamics" to predict a small legged robot's locomotion on granular media using various leg shapes and stride frequencies. Our study reveals a complex but generic dependence of stresses in granular media on intruder depth, orientation, and movement direction and gives insight into the effects of leg morphology and kinematics on movement.

  5. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  6. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76......% maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) and at V(O2)max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise), and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). The percentage of O2 extraction was always higher for the legs than for the arms. At maximal...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P

  7. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  8. Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M

    1984-01-01

    A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.

  9. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  10. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Umut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG by analysing polysomnography (PSG data with digital signal processing (DSP and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87% and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850, multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29% and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705. Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87% without leg EMG record being present.

  11. Effects of gabapentin enacarbil on restless legs syndrome and leg pain in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Both RLS and DLB can be effectively treated by dopaminergic medications, suggesting the role of dopamine dysfunction in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, I report on a Japanese woman with probable DLB and RLS who was treated with gabapentin enacarbil, a non-dopaminergic agent. Because a dopamine agonist, a first-line therapy for moderate to severe RLS, caused the occurrence of metamorphopsia, an alternative treatment of gabapentin enacarbil was used; this treatment improved the patient's RLS without worsening her psychiatric symptoms. An alternative treatment is desirable for DLB patients with RLS because they often experience intolerable side-effects with a dopamine agonist, especially visual hallucinations. Administering gabapentin enacarbil also improved the continuous leg pain that occurred in conjunction with the development of RLS. Although the neurobiological mechanism in the development of pain remains unclear, a range of non-dopaminergic structures likely mediated pain processing in DLB in the present case based on neuropharmacological results. This is the first report reporting the effects of gabapentin enacarbil for RLS and leg pain in a DLB patient with psychiatric symptoms.

  12. Validation of a leg movements count and periodic leg movements analysis in a custom polysomnography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Hackner, Heinz; Högl, Birgit

    2017-02-23

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are considered strongly related to restless legs syndrome (RLS), and are associated with polymorphisms in RLS risk genes. Various software for automatic analysis of PLMS are available, but only few of them have been validated. Aim of this study was to validate a leg movements count and analysis integrated in a commercially available polysomnography (PSG) system against manual scoring. Twenty RLS patients with a PLMS index > 20/h and 20 controls with a PLMS index PLM was performed according to the standard American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. LM and PLM indices during sleep and wakefulness, the rate of PLMS associated with respiratory events, intermovement interval and periodicity indices were manually and automatically scored. The correlation between manual and computerized scoring was high for all investigated parameters (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.751-0.996, p PLM analysis against the gold standard manual scoring according to AASM criteria. The data demonstrate that the software used in this study has an outstanding performance for computerized LM and PLM scoring, and LM and PLM indices generated with this software can be reliably integrated in the routine PSG report. This automatic analysis is also an excellent tool for research purposes.

  13. Investigation into the correlation between sensation and leg movement in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinyi, Paul V; Allen, Richard P; Lesage, Susan; Dean, Terry; Earley, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated rest effects on restless legs syndrome (RLS) sensory and motor symptoms. During two 60-minute Suggested Immobilization Tests (SIT) subject's signals of RLS leg sensations and periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW) were recorded. Sensations, PLMW, sensations preceding or after PLMW, sensations occurring without following PLMW, and PLMW occurring without preceding sensation were determined. The RLS patients were divided into equal-sized high and low PLMW groups for further analysis. Data from 46 subjects (28 RLS and 18 controls) revealed sensations increased linearly with rest in RLS patients and controls. Movement rate increased linearly with rest for controls but increased rapidly for the first 45 minutes for all RLS patients. PLMW/hour increased with further rest for low but not high PLMW patients. Sensations followed by PLMW and PLMW without preceding sensations followed similar patterns. Sensations without subsequent PLMW increased dramatically in the last 15 minutes of the SITs. Whereas both sensory and motor signs of RLS increase with rest, there is minimal increase for controls. Patients with higher but not lower PLMW rates reached a ceiling for PLMW after 35 to 40 minutes. The temporal dissociation between sensory and motor events supports viewing these motor and sensory events as separate but loosely linked manifestations of RLS. (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

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    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  15. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  16. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''....

  17. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  18. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  19. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  20. Association of Restless Legs Syndrome Variants in Korean Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Yong Won; Shin, Won Chul; Cho, Jae Wook; Shon, Young Min; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Caucasians identified several allelic variants associated with increased risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of RLS are not entirely understood, it is becoming increasingly evident that many diseases such as RLS can be attributed to an epistasis. The study objectives were to evaluate whether the associations of RLS with all loci determined in previous GWAS for Caucasians can be replicated significantly for the Korean population and to elucidate whether an epistasis plays a role in the pathogenesis of RLS. Design, Setting, and Participants: DNA from 320 patients with RLS and 320 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for variants in the RLS loci. Measurements and Results: A significant association was found for rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively); the odds ratio (OR) for rs3923809 was 1.61 (P < 0.0001) to 1.88 (P < 0.0001) and the OR for rs9296249 was 1.44 (P = 0.001) to 1.73 (P = 0.002), according to the model of inheritance. The OR for the interaction between rs3923809 in BTBD9 and rs4626664 in PTPRD was 2.05 (P < 0.0001) in the additive model, 1.80 (P = 0.002) in the dominant model and 2.47 (P = 0.004) in the recessive model. There was no significant association between genotypes of all tested single nucleotide polymorphisms and the mean value of serum iron parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the role of BTBD9 in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome is more universal across populations than previously reported and more efforts should be focused on the role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of restless legs syndrome. Citation: Kim MK; Cho YW; Shin WC; Cho JW; Shon YM; Kim JH; Yang KI; Earley CJ; Allen RP. Association of restless legs syndrome variants in Korean patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1787-1791. PMID:24293752

  1. Adult rabbits acquire resistance to lethal calicivirus infection by adoptive transfer of sera from infected young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P G; Dinís, M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Aguas, A P

    2008-02-15

    Calicivirus infection of adult rabbits induces the so-called rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) that kills 90% or more of the infected animals; in contrast, young rabbits (up to 8-week-old animals) are resistant to the same infectious agent. We report that calicivirus inoculation of young rabbits induced moderate titres of antiviral antibodies. When these rabbits reached adulthood, a second calicivirus inoculation resulted in resistance to RHD and boosting of antibody titres in half of the rabbits. Adoptive transfer of sera from calicivirus-infected young rabbits to naïve adult rabbits conferred resistance to RHD. We conclude that calicivirus infection of young rabbits induces specific anti-calicivirus antibodies that will protect them from RHD when they reach adulthood.

  2. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  3. Detection of hemophilia a carriers in Azeri Turkish population of Iran: usefulness of HindIII and BclI markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharrami, Tamouchin; Derakhshan, Sima Mansoori; Pourfeizi, Abbas Ali H; Khaniani, Mahmoud Shekari

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked coagulation disorder caused by the deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII). Linkage analysis is a common indirect method for the detection of female carriers in families with HA. In the current study, 173 patients from 30 unrelated families with HA were recruited from the Azeri Turkish population of northwest Iran and analyzed for BclI and HindIII markers by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We investigated the potential of using these markers for the detection of mutation in carriers through linkage analysis, which would be of tremendous use in prenatal diagnosis. Among the tested women, 47% and 35% were found to be heterozygous for BclI and HindIII polymorphic markers, respectively. The BclI and HindIII markers were informative for the detection of 63% and 17% potential carriers, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of the BclI marker for the detection of HA carriers among the Azeri Turkish population.

  4. Las reformas del derecho de familia en India: el matrimonio de niños entre derecho hindú tradicional e intervención estatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Francavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución del derecho de India en relación con el matrimonio de niños, considerando algunos aspectos del derecho tradicional hindú, los caracteres de la intervención colonial y las reformas jurídicas posteriores a la independencia. El trabajo resalta la interacción entre las diferentes fuentes de las que emerge el derecho hindú y los conflictos que se presentan entre derecho oficial y no oficial, para, con base en ello, explicar la manera como la modernización del derecho hindú ha encontrado diferentes resistencias que se han traducido en una peculiar separación entre disciplina privatista y penalista del matrimonio de niños, siendo este sancionado penalmente pero considerado válido hasta el Child Marriage Prohibition Act de 2006, cuya eficacia en el contexto indio aún sigue siendo problemática.

  5. Fasting increases palmitic acid incorporation into rat hind-limb intramuscular acylglycerols while short-term cold exposure has no effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synak, M; Zarzeczny, R; Górecka, M; Langfort, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Zernicka, Ewa

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols in perfused hind-limb skeletal muscles of different fibre types in rats either fasted for 48 h or exposed to cold (6 °C) for 12 h. Hind-limb preparations of fasted and cold exposed rats were perfused with buffers containing tritium labelled and cold palmitic acid. Palmitic acid incorporation into intracellular lipid pools in the soleus, plantaris, red and white gastrocnemius and red and white quadriceps was measured. It was found that fasting increased approximately 2-fold palmitic acid incorporation in all muscles examined regardless of the fibre type composition of the muscle. On the other hand, exposure to cold had no effect on the palmitic acid incorporation into intramuscular acylglycerols regardless the muscle fibre type. The increased incorporation of palmitic acid into acylglycerols in fasted animals is in line with data showing that 48 h fasting stimulates the expression of plasma membrane proteins putatively facilitating fatty acid uptake. It appears that although 12 h cold exposure increases the use of fatty acids as energy substrates it does not alter the incorporation of palmitic acid into intramuscular acylglycerols in the perfused rat hind-limb.

  6. Functional protection of pentoxifylline against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits: necrosis and apoptosis effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Dan-jie; XIA Bing; BI Qing; ZHANG Shui-jun; QIU Bin-song; ZHAO Chen

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about neuronal death mechanisms following spinal cord ischemia.The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PIX) against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.Methods Rabbits sustained spinal cord ischemia following 45 minutes cress-clamping of the infrarenal aorta.Experimental groups were as follows: the first group of animals (sham,n=8) underwent laparotomy alone and served as the sham group; the second group (I/R,n=20) received carrier (3 ml saline solution) and served as the control group; the third group (PTX-A,n=20) received PTX intravenously 10 minutes prior to ischemia; and the fourth group (PTX-B,n=20)received PTX intravenously at the onset of reperfusion.Rabbits were evaluated for hind-limb motor function with the Tarlov scoring system at 48 hours.Serum was assayed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and spinal cords were harvested for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity,histopathological analysis,terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining,platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry,and the number of necrotic and apoptotic neuron were counted and data analyzed at 12,24,48 and 72 hours of reperfusion.Spinal cords were studied by electron microscopy.Results Improved Tarlov scores were seen in PTX-treated rabbits as compared with ischemic control rabbits at 48 hours.A significant reduction was found in TNF-α in serum,activity of MPO and immunoreactivity of the PECAM-1 and caspase-3 in PTX-treated rabbits.There were fewer apoptotic neurons than necrotic neurons (P<0.05).A significant decrease in both necrotic and apoptotic neurons was observed in the PTX-treated groups (PTX-A and PTX-B) compared with the I/R group (P<0.05).Both necrotic and apoptotic neurons were found with the electron microscope.Conclusions PTX may induce protection against ischemia injury in the

  7. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yan

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose. High fat diets (HFD resulted in a higher (P<0.05 total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05 the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05 expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO, a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  8. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (Pfeed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (Pfeeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (Pfeeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  9. Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Morgenroth, D C

    1999-03-01

    When humans hop in place or run forward, they adjust leg stiffness to accommodate changes in stride frequency or surface stiffness. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which humans adjust leg stiffness during hopping in place. Five subjects hopped in place at 2.2 Hz while we collected force platform and kinematic data. Each subject completed trials in which they hopped to whatever height they chose ("preferred height hopping") and trials in which they hopped as high as possible ("maximum height hopping"). Leg stiffness was approximately twice as great for maximum height hopping as for preferred height hopping. Ankle torsional stiffness was 1.9-times greater while knee torsional stiffness was 1.7-times greater in maximum height hopping than in preferred height hopping. We used a computer simulation to examine the sensitivity of leg stiffness to the observed changes in ankle and knee stiffness. Our model consisted of four segments (foot, shank, thigh, head-arms-trunk) interconnected by three torsional springs (ankle, knee, hip). In the model, increasing ankle stiffness by 1.9-fold, as observed in the subjects, caused leg stiffness to increase by 2.0-fold. Increasing knee stiffness by 1.7-fold had virtually no effect on leg stiffness. Thus, we conclude that the primary mechanism for leg stiffness adjustment is the adjustment of ankle stiffness.

  10. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  11. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  12. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  13. [Pain in venous thrombosis of the leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J P

    1992-01-01

    According to D. Reinharez, pain and edema are the commonest presenting symptoms in phlebology. Pain is one of the most classical symptoms of an ordinary deep venous thrombosis, a valuable feature when present, in the form of deep tension, heaviness, swelling and a feeling of dead weight. It is often absent or slight. It may consist merely of a dull cramp, or of an "undefinable" (C. Bourde) odd, heavy leg. It generally affects the calf but may involve the sole of the foot, the heel, the thigh, the groin or even the true pelvis. This feeling, although "imprecise and variable" (P. Wallois, P. Griton) is highly suggestive. It increases on standing and walking in the form of unilateral uncomfortable tension, heaviness or painful swelling, which maybe a source of worry or even anxiety to the patient. Tenderness on palpation of venous tracts and their stretching is more suggestive. In the opinion of M. Duruble, Neuhof's sign (feeling of tender fullness of the calf) is more reliable than Homans' sign (pain in the calf caused by passive dorsiflexion of the foot, with the lower limb in extension) which essentially stretches only the posterior tibial venous system. The value of Sigg's sign (pain in the popliteal fossa on passive extension of the knee) is controversial. Far more rare is phlegmasia coerulea dolens or Grégoire's blue leg, complicating phlegmasia alba dolens or of sudden onset, with initial very severe or even "intolerable" pain (J.J. Pinot) in Scarpa's triangle, rapidly spreading to the limb. In varicose phlebitis (M. Perrin) or superficial thrombophlebitis or varico-phlebitis (A.A. Ramelet) or superficial venitis (J.P. Henriet), pain most often consists of moderate burning tension overlying the thrombosed vein(s), increased by palpation and mobilisation. Sometimes severe initially, it is exacerbated by the slightest touch. In total, pain, regardless of its characteristics, its site and/or its severity, is one of the most constant clinical features of venous

  14. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  15. Dynamics of the distribution of cadmium in the skeleton of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    To study the dynamics of cadmium distribution in the skeleton of 30 male rabbits 66.7 kBq of {sup 115}CdCl{sub 2} (1 ml) was given intragastrically and the radioactivities of skull, vertebrae, ribs, and leg bones, and the kidneys, liver and skeletal muscles were determined. The results indicate that Cd-115 concentrations in the liver, muscles, kidneys and bones were increasing up to 6, 12 and 18 d, respectively. The percentage of Cd-115 dose in 1-g ash samples of the kidneys, liver, muscles and bones were 2.5, 0.3, 0.1 and 0.001-0.002, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd-115 in the bones were found in the ribs followed by thoracic vertebrae, scapular, lumbar, cervical and sacral vertebrae, and scull, humeral, thigh, skin, antebrachial and digital bones. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab.

  16. Physical traits of male Japanese bush warblers (Cettia diphone) in summer and winter: hyperactive aspects of the vocal system and leg muscles in summer males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Akira; Uchida, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Sadao

    2014-11-01

    The Japanese bush warbler has a very distinctive song, shows marked sexual size dimorphism, and has a polygynous mating system. However, the physical traits of males and seasonal variation in such traits have remained unknown. Twenty-five anatomical measurements representing physical traits of males in the breeding (summer, n = 5) and non-breeding (winter, n = 5) seasons were examined morphologically and compared statistically. Differences were evident between summer and winter (P < 0.05, t test) in the following seven items: body mass (19.8 ± 0.7 g vs. 15.6 ± 1.2 g [mean ± SD]), mass of male reproductive organs (184.0 ± 25.7 mg vs. 6.0 ± 1.4 mg), hind limb (3789.2 ± 346.2 mg vs. 3003.4 ± 226.8 mg), leg muscles (883.0 ± 63.5 mg vs. 581.4 ± 33.2 mg in either side), skin around the neck/throat (1280 ± 34.9 mg vs. 287.2 ± 84.7 mg), and syrinx (35.8 ± 2.39 mg vs. 25.0 ± 3.24 mg), and circumference of the neck/throat (52.1 ± 2.3 mm vs. 38.3 ± 2.6 mm). In contrast to winter males, summer males had thickened flabby skin prominently in the neck/throat area and an inflatable esophagus, perhaps a morphological basis for the throat sac as a vocal resonator. Also, the remarkable development of the flexor muscles of the legs of summer males suggests that perching and movement using the legs increases during the breeding season. These distinct characteristics of summer males may be related to the polygynous mating system of this species.

  17. 四足机器人新型节能腿的设计与分析%Design and Analysis of New Energy-Efficient Legs for Quadruped Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宗利; 朱彦防; 刘永超; 王建明

    2016-01-01

    分析了生物狗后腿的结构特点,提出了一种大腿和小腿呈一体化的柔性节能腿结构,只需在髋关节处施加驱动即可实现四足机器人小跑(trot)步态。对提出的模型进行了动力学分析并通过ADAMS 仿真平台进行了仿真。仿真结果表明,此种结构的四足机器人可以实现稳定快速的trot步态,相对于普通髋关节和膝关节同时驱动的四足机器人,该模型的髋关节驱动力矩和驱动功率明显减小,足端接触力明显降低,能耗降低明显,缓冲性能好,证明了四足机器人新型腿结构设计的合理性。%The physiological characteristics of dog hind leg were analyzed, a flexible leg structure made of thigh and shank for integrative structure was presented.Only exerting drive in hip joint, the quadruped robot can realize trot gait.The model was analyzed dynamically and simulated by the ADAMS .The results showed that the quadruped robot with this structure can move stably and rapidly in trot gait.Compared with other quadruped robots which need drive in hip and knee joint simultaneously, we can reduce the drive torque and drive power of hip joint, foot contact force, and energy consumption.The cushioning property of this model is excellent.This leg structure of the quadruped robot is shown to be reasonable.

  18. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  19. Evaluation of leg varicose veins by MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Taira, Mitsuru [Kansai Medical Univ., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kohri Hospital; Imamura, Atsushi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Okuno, Masafumi; Kamiyama, Yasuo

    1998-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation was conducted on 30 patients with leg varicose veins by MR venography (MRV), and compared with conventional venography, MR images were performed by the 3D-SMASH Method. Compared with venography, MRV could more clearly demonstrate leg varicose veins with perforating veins than venography. It could detected fine varicose veins more than 2 mm in diameter, and deep veins. Furthermore, 3D observation enables accurate detection of the location of perforating vein. In conclusion, MRV is useful for the diagnosis of leg varicose vein. (author)

  20. Restless Leg Syndrome in Neurologic and Medical Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir; Askenasy, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Adopting prior models of sleep-wake transitions, a flip-flop switch in synchronized neurotransmitter activity is proposed to underlie restless leg syndrome onset. In this model, leg quiescence homeostasis sustained through concerted activities of several neurotransmitters in basal ganglia is perturbed and produces striatal motor activity along sensory activity associated with thalamocortical circuits (conscious urge and discomfort). This model explains the association of restless leg syndrome with a wide variety of associated pathologies emphasizing that perturbed function and imbalance may occur under different steady states of neurotransmitter levels. Likewise, this concept links various central and peripheral etiologies and integrates the augmenting and transient effects of therapeutic neuromodulators.

  1. Loobumise hind / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võrumaa Teataja, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Vooremaa, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Põhjarannik, 6. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Nädaline, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Harjumaa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 7; Sakala, 13. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 17. aug. 2004, lk. 2. Poliitikute eetilise käitumise olulisusest, võimest otsuseid põhjendada

  2. Loobumise hind / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Võrumaa Teataja, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Vooremaa, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 1; Põhjarannik, 6. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 7. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Nädaline, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 4; Harjumaa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 10. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 12. aug. 2004, lk. 7; Sakala, 13. aug. 2004, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 17. aug. 2004, lk. 2. Poliitikute eetilise käitumise olulisusest, võimest otsuseid põhjendada

  3. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  4. Clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome (RLS in a Brazilian sleep disorders center. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with RLS from January, 2004, to December, 2010. The analyzed variables were: age at disease onset, gender, race, years of school instruction, primary and secondary RLS, and treatment options. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 83.9% were women with a female/male sex ratio of 5:1. Mean age of the patients at symptom onset ± standard deviation was 41.7±17.9 years-old. The primary RLS was found in 85% of patients. The other 15% remainders consisted of secondary forms, and they were associated with neuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, end-stage renal disease, or Parkinson's disease. Drug therapy for RLS was introduced in 67% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presented primary RLS with an early disease onset. Further epidemiological studies are welcomed to provide better information on secondary RLS in Brazil.

  5. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery. PMID:24768121

  6. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  7. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes.

  8. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  9. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery.

  10. Pramipexole alters thermoregulation in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aaro V; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies have associated restless legs syndrome (RLS) with peripheral hypoxia and impaired thermoregulation in the lower extremities. We performed long-term monitoring of skin temperatures in order to investigate whether these findings could be explained by reduced blood flow to the peripheral tissues. 96-hour continuous measurements of skin temperature were performed both in the distal and proximal parts of the body of 15 patients with RLS and 14 healthy controls. During the recording, the patients participated in suggested immobilization tests both with and without pramipexole medication. We found no baseline differences in distal or proximal skin temperature between patients and controls in daytime or during immobilization. However, pramipexole significantly increased distal skin temperature in the patient group during immobilization (31.1°C vs. 32.9°C, p thermoregulation and the previous studies might have been biased by medication. Dopaminergic medication is a major confounding factor when assessing peripheral phenomena in RLS and should be controlled for in the future studies. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen and hyperoxia induces tolerance against spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize; Zhu, Zhenghua; Chen, Shaoyang; Hou, Lichao; Sakabe, Takefumi

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the ischemic tolerance could be induced in the spinal cord by pretreatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and what components of HBO (hyperoxia, hyperbaricity, and combination of these two) were critical in the induction of tolerance against ischemic injury. In experiment 1, 21 rabbits were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 7 each): animals in the control group received no HBO before spinal cord ischemia; animals in the HBO-1 and HBO-2 groups received HBO (2.5 atmosphere absolute [ATA], 100% O2) pretreatment 1 h/day for 3 and 5 days before ischemia, respectively. In experiment 2, 48 rabbits were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 12 each): the control group received no HBO (21% O2, 1 ATA, 1 h/day, 5 days) before spinal cord ischemia; the HB group received 1-h treatment in 21% O2 at 2.5 ATA each day for 5 days; the HO group received 1-h treatment in 100% oxygen at 1 ATA each day for 5 days; and the HBO group received HBO (2.5 ATA, 100% O2) treatment 1 h/day for 5 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, spinal cord ischemia was induced by an infrarenal aorta clamping for 20 min. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, hind-limb motor function and histopathology of the spinal cord were examined in a blinded fashion. In experiment 1, the neurologic outcome in the HBO-2 group was better than that of the control group (P = 0.004). The number of normal neurons in the anterior spinal cord in the HBO-2 group was more than that of the control group (P = 0.021). In experiment 2, the neurologic and histopathologic outcomes in the HBO group were better than that of the control group (P Serial exposure to high oxygen tension induced ischemic tolerance in spinal cord of rabbits. Simple hyperbaricity (2.5 ATA, 21% O2) did not induce ischemic tolerance.

  12. Dissociation of periodic leg movements from arousals in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Bassetti, Claudio L; Fulda, Stephany; Aricò, Debora; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of the relation between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and cortical arousals to contribute to the debate on the clinical significance and treatment of PLMS. A prospective, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was carried out including 46 drug-naive patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). Each patient underwent 2 consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. The first night was the baseline night. Prior to the second night, 1 group received a single oral dose of 0.25mg pramipexole, whereas a second group received a single oral dose of 0.5mg clonazepam, and the remaining patients received placebo. Sleep stages, cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), and leg movement activity were scored following standard criteria; symptoms of RLS were also assessed. Pramipexole suppressed PLMS without affecting electroencephalographic (EEG) instability (CAP) and arousals (corresponding to CAP A3 and, partially, A2 subtypes), whereas clonazepam did the opposite, reducing non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG instability without effects on PLMS. Both drugs were effective on sensory RLS symptoms. This study demonstrates that a selective pharmacological approach can disconnect PLMS from arousal events, suggesting an indirect relation between each other. These results might weaken the hypothesis of a direct pathological role of PLMS in sleep disruption and can be important for the discussion on the existence of a distinct entity called periodic limb movements disorder. Moreover, the study opens the doors to the possibility of a joint treatment for RLS targeting sensory and motor symptoms, as well as sleep instability. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  13. Distraction osteogenesis after irradiation in a rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Kenji [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Science

    2002-06-01

    Little is known about how preoperative irradiation delays distraction osteogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of preoperative irradiation on distraction osteogenesis. A single dose of 15 Gy irradiation was applied in a medial-to-lateral direction to the right rear legs of Japanese white rabbits. This was followed immediately by application of a unilateral external fixator and diaphyseal osteotomy of the tibia. Seven days later, lengthening of the tibia was initiated at a rate of 0.5 mm/day and continued for 4 weeks, with a total elongation of 14 mm. Radiographic and histological findings and microangiography were examined. Radiographs of the legs were obtained once a week. The animals were sacrificed at 0 and 4 weeks after completion of lengthening, and the tibia were subjected to histological examination and microangiography. Routine staining was performed with hematoxyline and eosin, and immunostaining with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody. The radiographs showed little regeneration during the elongation phase. Although the callus appeared very slowly during the maturation phase, it did not show the usual three distinct zones, but only spotty callus formation. Furthermore, regeneration was not completed until the 4th week of the maturation period. The histological examination at the end of distraction showed a gap in the distraction, consisting of loose connective tissue with part of the fibrous tissue oriented longitudinally. There was no evidence of new mineralization. Four weeks after completion of distraction, the major part of the radiolucent region consisted of cartilage. There was no evidence of the normal regeneration pattern described in many previous reports. The spotty osteogenesis was identified as endochondral ossification. Immunochemical examination of the regeneration area revealed that the blood vessels were extremely localized, and that expression of VEGF in the osteoblasts was very high

  14. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local Government Area Of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It involved the collection of primary data from a sample of SO rabbit farmers spread over 10 ...

  15. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  16. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  17. Review of experimental models: sinusitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Coura Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis, several attempts have been made to create the disease in an animal model. Among the studied rodents each has its advantages and disadvantages. Rabbits are considered more appropriate for studies that require surgical manipulation or invasive procedures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most viable experimental model of rhinosinusitis in rabbits to be adopted in future studies. METHODS: An electronic search for studies with experimental models of rhinosinusitis in rabbits published in English and Portuguese between July of 1967 and January of 2013 was conducted in Medline, Pub Med, Cochrane, and CAPES databases, using the keywords "sinusitis", "rabbits", and "polyps". RESULTS: A total of 256 studies were retrieved, but in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were selected. Many different methods of response assessment were used in these studies. CONCLUSION: To date, there is no ideal experimental model for induction of acute or chronic rhinosinusitis in rabbits, but the rhinogenic model appears to be the most viable option for the continuity of studies of the disease.

  18. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  19. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR. Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a "folded head"-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.

  20. Fluid flow along venous adventitia in rabbits: is it a potential drainage system complementary to vascular circulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yi Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research and other studies with radiotracers showed evidence of a centripetal drainage pathway, separate from blood or lymphatic vessels, that can be visualized when a small amount of low molecular weight tracer is injected subcutaneously into a given region on skin of humans. In order to further characterize this interesting biological phenomenon, animal experiments are designed to elucidate histological and physiologic characteristics of these visualized pathways. METHODS: Multiple tracers are injected subcutaneously into an acupuncture point of KI3 to visualize centripetal pathways by magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescein photography in 85 healthy rabbits. The pathways are compared with venography and indirect lymphangiography. Fluid flow through the pathways is observed by methods of altering their hydrated state, hydrolyzing by different collagenases, and histology is elucidated by optical, fluorescein and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Histological and magnetic imaging examinations of these visualized pathways show they consist of perivenous loose connective tissues. As evidenced by examinations of tracers' uptake, they appear to function as a draining pathway for free interstitial fluid. Fluorescein sodium from KI3 is found in the pathways of hind limbs and segments of the small intestines, partial pulmonary veins and results in pericardial effusion, suggesting systematical involvement of this perivenous pathway. The hydraulic conductivity of these pathways can be compromised by the collapse of their fiber-rich beds hydrolyzed by either of collagenase type I, III, IV or V. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of pathways comprising perivenous loose connective tissues with a high hydraulic conductivity draining interstitial fluid in hind limbs of a mammal suggests a potential drainage system complementary to vascular circulations. These findings may provide new insights into a systematically distributed collagenous

  1. Restless Leg Syndrome Across the Globe: Epidemiology of the Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Brian B

    2015-09-01

    There are more than 50 epidemiologic studies measuring the prevalence of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) across 5 of the 6 inhabited continents (not Australia), most conducted in North America and Europe. Sufficient studies have been conducted in Asia, North America, and Europe to make inferences on RLS/WED prevalence by region. RLS/WED prevalence is thought to be highest in North America and Europe and lower in Asia. These differences across regions may be explained by cultural, environmental, and genetic factors. Future investigation is needed to determine to what extent these factors affect expression of RLS/WED according to world region.

  2. Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and periodic limb movement disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmer, Jeffrey S; Quraishi, Ghazala H

    2011-06-01

    The characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been known for hundreds of years and were first reported in medicine in the 1600s. Clinicians must consider potential mimics, comorbid, and associated conditions when evaluating children with RLS symptoms. The traditional differentiation of RLS from periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is noted in children as well as adults. Because current pediatric RLS research is sparse, this article provides the most up-to-date evidence-based as well as consensus opinion-based information on the subject of childhood RLS and PLMD. Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical associations are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  4. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2013-01-01

    In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.). For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed prod...

  5. SPF rabbits infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus isolate experimentally showing the chronicity of hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

  6. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiong Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  7. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  8. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  9. Living with clipped wings - patients’ experience of losing a leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente; Kjaer-Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of losing a leg as described by the patients themselves post-discharge. Studies have documented that regardless of aetiology patients are faced with severe physical as well as psychosocial challenges post-amputation. However, only few studies explore in....... The essential meaning of losing a leg is a radical and existential upheaval, which restricts patients' lifestyle and irretrievably alters their lifeworld. Life after the operation is associated with despair, and a painful sense of loss, but also with the hope of regaining personal independence. The consequences...... of losing a leg gradually materialize as the patients realize how the loss of mobility limits their freedom. Patients experience the professional help as primarily directed towards physical care and rehabilitation. The findings show that the loss of a leg and, subsequently, the restricted mobility carry...

  10. Drug No Better Than Placebo for Lower Back, Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164223.html Drug No Better Than Placebo for Lower Back, Leg Pain Pregabalin, commonly known ... name: Lyrica) may be no better than a placebo when it comes to treating the back and ...

  11. California Red-Legged Frogs in coastal dune drainages (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) are typically regarded as inhabitants of permanent ponds, marshes, and slow-moving streams, but their ecology in other...

  12. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps is Risky Printer-friendly ... approved only to treat a certain type of malaria (uncomplicated malaria) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  13. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003775.htm Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  14. Leg ulcers in sickle cell patients: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khatib AM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arij M El Khatib,1 Shady N Hayek2 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, 2Private Practice, Cosmetic Surgery Center, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy caused by an amino acid substitution from glutamic acid to valine in the beta hemoglobin chain. One of the common symptoms occurring in sickle cell patients are leg ulcers, which are notoriously painful, difficult to treat, and frequently recurrent. These ulcers pose a therapeutic challenge with multiple modalities proposed for treatment, but with scarce evidence of efficacy of any single modality. Ulcer prevention, rigorous wound care, pain control, and surgery are the current mainstays of sickle cell leg ulcer treatment. Keywords: sickle cell leg ulcer, leg wound, sickle cell disease 

  15. Quality of Life in People with Leg Ulcer, Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main changes in the daily life of people with leg ulcer and how that affects the person’s quality of life. Methodology: We used the methodology PI [C] OD and selected four research articles, taken from EBSCO, PubMed, and EWMA. Results: The main changes identified in the people’s daily live with leg ulcers are physical (pain, decreased mobility, presence of exudate, bad smell from the wound and change in the style of clothing, psychological (sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, feelings of rejection and low self-steem, social (isolation, restriction in leisure activities, inability to perform household chores. Conclusions: The literature about the person’s quality of life with leg ulcer reported a significant impact in the daily life. The care provided by nurses should be centered on the person, integrating all the kind of needs and the leg ulcer must not be the sole focus of care

  16. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...... as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  17. Restless legs syndrome: demographics, presentation, and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hening, Wayne; Allen, Richard P; Tenzer, Penny; Winkelman, John W

    2007-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs and sometimes other parts of the body. Diagnosis is based on clinical features that may be easily remembered with the mnemonic URGE: Urge to move, Rest induced, Gets better with activity, and Evening and night accentuation. RLS is common, its prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected. The course is chronic with often severe sleep disruption, including periodic leg movements. Differential diagnosis includes disorders of restlessness and leg discomfort. Primary RLS is familial and likely to be genetic. Important causes of secondary RLS are end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, and iron deficiency. Every patient should be checked for iron status with a serum ferritin measurement.

  18. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  19. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  20. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.