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Sample records for rabbit diets nutritive

  1. Diet & Nutrition

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    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  2. Diet & Nutrition

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    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  3. Nutrition and Diet

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    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  4. Effect of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) diet supplementation in rabbit nutrition on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality.

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    Kovitvadhi, A; Gasco, L; Ferrocino, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou, S; Malfatto, V; Gai, F; Peiretti, P G; Falzone, M; Vignolini, C; Cocolin, L; Zoccarato, I

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 160 Hycole weaned rabbits (35 days old) were randomly divided into four groups of 40. The rabbits were studied throughout a 54-day experimentation period in order to determine the impact of dietary supplementation from herbs composed of 0.2%, 0.4% dry ground Lythrum salicaria leaves (LS) and 0.3% Cunirel(®) (CR; a commercial herb mixture containing LS as the main ingredient) on performance, digestibility, health and meat quality. The basal diet was given to the control group. No significant differences were found in performance, 10 rabbits from each group were selected for evaluation regarding apparent digestibility. The rabbits fed the control diet and the diet with the low level of LS had a higher level of CP digestibility than did the animals that were supplemented with the high LS levels and CR (85.7% and 84.9% v. 84.0% and 84.0%, respectively; Pmicrobiota diversity. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that supplementation of LS in rabbit diets leads to an increase in the total white blood cells, total VFA and acetic acid concentration, and a decrease in the ammonia levels, as well as the digestibility when CR and high level of LS were supplemented, without causing any adverse effects on other parameters.

  5. Diet and Nutrition

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    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... dysarthria; rigid dystonia; pseudobulbar palsy; seizures; migraine headaches; insomnia Psychiatric: Depression; neuroses; personality changes; psychosis Other symptoms: ...

  6. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

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    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  7. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

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    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  8. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

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    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  9. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

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    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America March 16, ... Recipes Get email updates Related Resources ABCs of nutrition U.S. English español Medically reviewed on May 28, ...

  10. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

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    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  11. Apparent digestibility of simplified and semi-simplified diets, with and without addition of enzymes, and nutritional value of fibrous sources for rabbits

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    Luiz Carlos Machado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the digestibility of the nutrients of simplified and semi-simplified diets, with and without inclusion of exogenous enzymes and to determine the nutritional value of the fibrous sources. The tested feedstuffs were: alfalfa hay, hay from the upper third of the cassava foliage and cassava leaf meal, using a completely randomized design with 11 diets and 8 repetitions. The treatments were constituted of 1 reference diet, 2 simplified diets and 8 semi-simplified diets (4 enzymatic inclusion. The enzymes used were carbohydrases (alpha-galactosidase, galactomanose, xylanase and beta glucanase and phytase. It was observed that the digestibility of the nutrients of the diets was influenced by the type of feed studied. Semi-simplified diets presented coefficients inferior to the reference diet and superior to the simplified diets. Exogenous enzymes promoted improvements in the digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy. It was also observed that great part of the crude protein of the cassava leaf meal complexed, which depreciated the digestibility of diets with high inclusion of this ingredient. The nutritional value of fibrous sources was 1822.7 kcal digestible energy - DE/kgDM and 122,6 g digestible protein - DP/kg DM, for the hay from the upper third of the cassava foliage; 2232.5 kcalDE/kgDM and 155.4 gDP/kgDM for alfalfa hay and 1888.9 kcalDE/kgDM and 73.6 gDP/kgDM for the cassava leaf meal. With the exception of diets with elevated inclusion of cassava leaf meal, the semi-simplified diets presented satisfactory coefficients of digestibility improved by the enzymatic inclusion.

  12. Diet, nutrition, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence pertaining to the role of dietary factors in carcinogenesis comes from both epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments. In 1982, the Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer of the National Research Council conducted a comprehensive evaluation of this evidence. That assessment as well as recent epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that a high fat diet is associated with increased susceptibility to cancer of different sites, particularly the breast and colon, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. Current data permit no definitive conclusions about other dietary macroconstituents including cholesterol, total caloric intake, protein, carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. Specific components of fiber, however, may have a protective effect against colon cancer. In epidemiological studies, frequent consumption of certain fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits and carotene-rich and cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of cancers at various sites. The specific components responsible for these effects are not clearly identified, although the epidemiological evidence appears to be most consistent for a protective effect of carotene on lung cancer and less so for vitamins A and C and various cancer sites. The laboratory evidence is most consistent for vitamin A deficiency and enhanced tumorigenesis, and for the ability of various nonnutritive components in cruciferous vegetables to block in-vivo carcinogenesis. The data for minerals and carcinogenesis are extremely limited, although preliminary evidence from both epidemiological and laboratory studies suggests that selenium may protect against overall cancer risk. 402 references.

  13. Diet and Nutrition

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    ... eating broiled or steamed fish (e.g. herring, salmon, halibut, flounder, swordfish or pollack), using canola and olive oils, small & frequent meals, nutritional supplements if there is weight loss and if your doctor approves vitamins and mineral supplements. Avoid: Caffeine in coffee, tea ...

  14. Inequalities in diet and nutrition.

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    Tiffin, Richard; Salois, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    The inequality of nutrition and obesity re-focuses concern on who in society is consuming the worst diet. Identification of individuals with the worst of dietary habits permits for targeting interventions to assuage obesity among the population segment where it is most prevalent. We argue that the use of fiscal interventions does not appropriately take into account the economic, social and health circumstances of the intended beneficiaries of the policy. This paper reviews the influence of socio-demographic factors on nutrition and health status and considers the impacts of nutrition policy across the population drawing on methodologies from both public health and welfare economics. The effects of a fat tax on diet are found to be small and while other studies show that fat taxes saves lives, we show that average levels of disease risk do not change much: those consuming particularly bad diets continue to do so. Our results also suggest that the regressivity of the policy increases as the tax becomes focused on products with high saturated fat contents. A fiscally neutral policy that combines the fat tax with a subsidy on fruit and vegetables is actually more regressive because consumption of these foods tends to be concentrated in socially undeserving households. We argue that when inequality is of concern, population-based measures must reflect this and approaches that target vulnerable populations which have a shared propensity to adopt unhealthy behaviours are appropriate.

  15. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  16. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

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    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  17. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

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    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  18. Increased platelet aggregability following an atherogenic diet in rabbits

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    Velkovski Saško D.; Mazić Sanja; Nešić Dejan M.; Igrački Iva; Milošević Verica L.; Starčević Vesna P.

    2002-01-01

    In atherosclerosis researches different animal models are used but the most common is the rabbit, because of the easy development of atherosclerotic lesions. Atherosclerosis is a multicellular process and platelets play an important role in atherogenesis. Excessive plasma lipids stimulate platelet aggregability and thus atherosclerosis development. The effects of an atherogenic diet on lipid status, abdominal aorta wall structure, and platelet aggregability were studied in rabbits. Adult male...

  19. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

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    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  20. Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education

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    Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

    1974-01-01

    Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

  1. Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

    1974-01-01

    Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

  2. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

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    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  3. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

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    ... as ice cream, pudding, and cheesecake. Top hot chocolate, pudding, and other desserts with whipped cream. Avoid ... energy or trouble gaining weight, even with good nutrition and supplements. For these teens, doctors may recommend ...

  4. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

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    ... Whistleblower Rights & Protections Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications ... that. To add protein to your diet Protein-rich foods include meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and ...

  5. [Nutritional genomics: toward a personalized diet].

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    Miggiano, G A D; De Sanctis, R

    2006-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is the application of high-throughput genomics tools to the study of diet-gene interactions in order to identify dietetic components having beneficial or detrimental health effects. Nutrition becomes indeed one of the environmental factors influencing gene expression. We can consider nutrigenomics as a multidisciplinary science that comes after the human genome characterization and that put the genomic techniques besides the biochemical and epidemiological aspects, with the aim to understand the etiologic aspects of chronic diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome, etc. Nutrigenomics is linked to nutrigenetics, which studies the genetic basis of the different individual response to the same nutritional stimulus. This phenomenon arises from gene polymorphism. As a consequence genes are important in determining a function, but nutrition is able to modify the degree of gene expression. These are however theories only at an early stage, but a perspective in the change of dietetic intervention is emerging. A really personalized diet will be a diet considering the nutritional status, the nutritional needs based on age, body composition, work and physical activities, but also considering the genotype. The integration of all these information and in particular the ones arising from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses will be useful to define the "nutritional phenotype".

  6. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

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    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis.

  7. Atherosclerosis induced by diabetogenic diet in New Zealand white rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effects of diabetogenic (high fat high sucrose, lacking choleserol) diet on atherogenesis in New Zealand white rabbits. Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits received regular rabbit chow (the normal control), or high fat high sucrose diet for 4 months. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were investigated, the areas of fatty streak of the aortae were measured after staining with Sodan IV, and the aortic, coronary specimens were observed with light and electron microscopies. The plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were increased significantly by high fat high sucrose feeding. At the end of 4 months, the early charateristics of atherosclerosis were present in the animals' vascular specimens. Our findings suggest that high fat high sucrose feeding can induce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits, and this could be a potential animal model for studying the mechanisms of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. This study raised a question: What is the mechanism by which high fat high sucrose feeding induces atherosclerosis?. The related hypothesis was given in this article.

  8. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.

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    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-09-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable.

  9. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemia.

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    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2016-08-30

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400. The normal group was fed with standard animalfeeds only; while the HFD groups were fed with standard animal feeds + cholesterol diet (10% Groundnut oil, 20%Groundnut mill and 2% cholesterol). Resveratrol-treated rabbits received resveratrol suspended in 10 g/Lcarboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the control group received the vehicle only, CMC. The preparations were administeredfor 8 weeks of experimental protocol. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed. Blood and plasma sampleswere collected. Serum evaluation of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (Tg), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDP-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were also assessed. The results obtained showsignificant (P < 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDP-c), total triacylglyceroland an increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in resveratrol treated groups compared to HFD group only.In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrationsand might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  10. Avaliação nutricional de dietas contendo farelo de coco fornecido a coelhos destinados ao abate = Nutritional evaluation of diets containing coconut bran supplied to slaughter rabbits

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    Cecília Aurea Vasconcelos de Haponik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a utilização do farelo de coco (FC na alimentação de coelhos destinados ao abate. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se 60 coelhos com 43 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco tratamentos, sendo 12 repetições por tratamento e duração de 42 dias, com inclusão de FC nos níveis de 0; 6,25; 12,5; 18,75 e 25%. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade das dietas usou-se o DIC com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, tendo a duração de cinco dias. Observou-se, entre os tratamentos estudados, excluindo-se o nível zero, que não houve efeito significativo (p > 0,05, sobre as características de ganho de peso e ganho de peso diário. Houve efeito quadrático (p This work evaluated the use of coconut bran (CB in the feeding of slaughter rabbits. For the performance trial, 60 rabbits with 43 days of age were used, distributed in a CRD with 5 treatments, with 12 replications per treatment, lasting 42 days, with the inclusion of CB in the levels of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 and 25%. To test the digestibility of the diets used o CRD with five treatments and three replications during five days. In the performance test, there was no significant effect (p > 0.05 for the characteristics of weight gain, daily weight gain among the treatments, excluding the zero level. There was a quadratic effect (p < 0.05, among the treatments, excluding the zero level, for daily average intake and feed conversion. The average feed intake was different from the control (diets without CB in the levels of 18.75 and 25%. The CB showed high values for digestibility coefficients (DC of gross energy, crude protein and ether extract, an can be indicated in the diet until the 25% level in relation to food conversion and diets with increasing levels of CB. It has the benefit of improved DE; however, it presents reduction in the CDCP.

  11. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

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    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  12. New generation premixes for rabbit nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Beshkenadze

    2016-12-01

    Expenditures per kilogram weight increment according to the groups, correspondingly, in the first experimental group equaled to −5,0; in the second experimental group −5,4 and in the control 6,4 nutrition units.

  13. Inulin as a growth promoter in diets for rabbits

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    Rocío Salas Montiel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty New Zealand rabbits aged 40 days were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals. The control group received a free diet of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP and inulin. The second group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg of inulin. The third was administered AGP with 0.1 g/kg of flavomycin. Finally, the fourth group received a 2.5 and 0.1 g/kg inulin/AGP diet. Body weight gain was higher in the control group. Rabbits supplemented with inulin had lower values ​​of triglycerides compared with the control and AGP groups, and their glucose level was significantly lower than those treated with AGP. Additionally, serum calcium and magnesium concentrations were higher than the other groups, particularly with regard to AGP. The bone content with regard to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the groups treated with inulin was higher compared with the control; moreover, phosphorus and magnesium were higher than in the AGP group. The thickness of the mucosa and crypt depth in the caecum were significantly higher in rabbits treated with inulin than in the other groups, but especially compared with the AGP group. Also, triglyceride values ​​were lower for rabbits treated with inulin/AGP than for those treated with AGP and the bone magnesium concentration was significantly higher compared with the control group. In addition, inulin was shown to have positive effects on the rabbit, promoting increase in bone and serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, decrease in triglyceride levels, and improvement in the caecum (changes in morphology, crypt depth and mucosal thickness.

  14. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja, em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade, foram abatidos para coleta dos conteúdos ileais e cecais. A concentração de ácidos graxos voláteis foi influenciada pela interação entre tratamentos, sendo 93,82 mmol/l para ração de maior nível de amido com casca de soja e 80,03 mmol/l para ração de menor nível de amido com feno de alfafa. No segundo experimento, 40 coelhos aos 65 dias de idade, alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram alimentados à vontade por 10 dias, e receberam colares de madeira para permitir a coleta total de cecotrofos. Houve influência da interação entre tratamentos sobre os teores de proteína e energia dos cecotrofos, sendo de 29,66% e 4204,87 kcal/kg para ração contendo maiores níveis de amido e casca de soja e de 27,98% e 4080,46 kcal/kg para ração contendo menores níveis de amido e feno de alfafa. As rações de alto amido ou com casca de soja propiciaram maior enriquecimento do conteúdo cecal e melhor aporte nutricional para os coelhos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with differents starch levels (22 or 32% on average from a high or low inclusion of corn grain and differents fiber sources (alfalfa hay or soybean hulls, in a 2x2 factorial design. In the first experiment, 40 rabbits were individually housed in fattening cages within entirely randomized design, and fed ad libitum from 45 to 85

  15. Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

  16. Nutritional metabolomics: progress in addressing complexity in diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2012-08-21

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small-molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment, and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health, and complex pathobiology serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and nontargeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping, and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome, and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics, and health phenotyping, to support the integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting.

  17. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of rabbits does fed a half-simplified diet based on cassava byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.

  18. Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderley, Angela M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2006-01-01

    The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes.

  19. Diet inequality prevails among consumers interested and knowledgeable in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Andreas; Andersson, Håkan S; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation. Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition. Full open diet registrations of 330 students taking a basic university-level course in nutrition over a total of 780 days. The consumers with the highest daily average diet cost differ from the lowest cost quartile: The diets had higher micronutrient density, more fruits and vegetables, and lower energy density. The highest cost daily diet quartile had a significantly higher energy adjusted intake of the micronutrients that were on average consumed below the recommendation (vitamin D, folate, and iron for women). On the other hand, alcohol intake was significantly higher among the high diet cost group. The highest diet cost respondents consumed more fish, meat, coffee, and spreads, whereas the lowest diet cost respondents had a higher consumption of cereals, bread, jam, sausage, and milk. Dietary differences prevail even in the above-average interested and knowledgeable group. The respondents did not use their higher level of knowledge to break this commonly observed relationship. This suggests that an increased minimum level of knowledge in nutrition may not by itself eliminate dietary inequality.

  20. Diet inequality prevails among consumers interested and knowledgeable in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Håkansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation. Objective: Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition. Design: Full open diet registrations of 330 students taking a basic university-level course in nutrition over a total of 780 days. Results: The consumers with the highest daily average diet cost differ from the lowest cost quartile: The diets had higher micronutrient density, more fruits and vegetables, and lower energy density. The highest cost daily diet quartile had a significantly higher energy adjusted intake of the micronutrients that were on average consumed below the recommendation (vitamin D, folate, and iron for women. On the other hand, alcohol intake was significantly higher among the high diet cost group. The highest diet cost respondents consumed more fish, meat, coffee, and spreads, whereas the lowest diet cost respondents had a higher consumption of cereals, bread, jam, sausage, and milk. Conclusions: Dietary differences prevail even in the above-average interested and knowledgeable group. The respondents did not use their higher level of knowledge to break this commonly observed relationship. This suggests that an increased minimum level of knowledge in nutrition may not by itself eliminate dietary inequality.

  1. Development of the Nutritional Diet Information System for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiang Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of diet for a sportsman will impact directly on the training effectiveness and playing condition. Based on now information technologies the nutritional diet information system would design the planning of nutritional implementation and diet recipes for the athletes according to the different sporting events. The system will manage, balance and rationalize the diet and nutrition for the athletes so as to improve training effect and reduce the physical injury. It will also helpful to manage sports training and improve the quality of sports training.

  2. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  3. Vegetarian Diet: How to Get the Best Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating A well-planned vegetarian diet is a healthy way to meet your nutritional needs. Find ... marketplace. In: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & ...

  4. Effect of starch to ADF ratio and grinding procedure in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I Queaque

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional role of fibre in rabbit feeding has been widely assessed (Gidenne, 2000 and the spread out of rabbit epizootic enterocolitis (REE has strongly increased the dietary fibre levels and reduced starch, as a method to prevent digestive troubles. In fact, high starch to fibre ratios may favour digestive problems, especially in young rabbits having a low gut amylase activity (Blas et al., 1994; Gidenne et al., 2000...

  5. Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwell, E D; Gorodischer, R

    1982-10-01

    Observations on the deleterious effects of a totally vegetarian diet in infancy are reported and the difficulties encountered in the prevention of nutritional deficiencies in a vegan religious community are discussed. Twenty-five infants of this community who were seen at the hospital showed evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition, iron- and vitamin B12-deficient anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, and multiple recurrent infections. Evidence of growth retardation was also found in 47 infants seen at the local mother-child health (well-baby) clinic. Samples of breast milk showed low levels of carbohydrate (1.6 to 3.5 gm/100 ml), protein (0.8 to 1.4 gm/100 ml), and fat (2.4 to 4.1 gm/100 ml). The main constituent of the infants' diet after the age of 3 months (a "soya milk" prepared at the community's central kitchen) was extremely dilute with a very low calorific value (13.7 kcal/100 ml). Persistent attempts to find dietary modifications that would satisfy both the vegan philosophy and also the recommended dietary allowances failed. This problem represents a scientific and medicosocial challenge to pediatricians and nutritionists.

  6. Modification of diet fatty acid composition change the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat:

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana PIRMAN; Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of linseed oil supplementation on the performance and fatty acid composition of rabbit leg muscle and adipose tissue. Two experiments were done. First experiment: twelvemale SIKA rabbits, divided in two groups, control (n = 4; commercial diet) and the linseed (n = 8; commercial diet with 9% of linseed oil sprayed onto the pellets). Second experiment: twenty-four (12 male and 12 female) SIKArabbits, divided in two groups, palm fat (n = 12;...

  7. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy...

  8. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C P; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    ... or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos...

  9. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    the evidence for an association between nutrition, diet and dental diseases and to present dietary recommendations for their prevention. Nutrition affects the teeth during development and malnutrition may exacerbate periodontal and oral infectious diseases. However, the most significant effect of nutrition......Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review...

  10. Diet quality and obesity in women: the Framingham Nutrition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolongevicz, Dolores M; Zhu, Lei; Pencina, Michael J; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-04-01

    Obesity affects one in three American adult women and is associated with overall mortality and major morbidities. A composite diet index to evaluate total diet quality may better assess the complex relationship between diet and obesity, providing insights for nutrition interventions. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether diet quality, defined according to the previously validated Framingham nutritional risk score (FNRS), was associated with the development of overweight or obesity in women. Over 16 years, we followed 590 normal-weight women (BMI Framingham Offspring and Spouse Study who presented without CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline. The nineteen-nutrient FNRS derived from mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3 d dietary records was used to assess nutritional risk. The outcome was development of overweight or obesity (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) during follow-up. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, physical activity and smoking status, the FNRS was directly related to overweight or obesity (P for trend = 0.009). Women with lower diet quality (i.e. higher nutritional risk scores) were significantly more likely to become overweight or obese (OR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.16, 2.69) compared with those with higher diet quality. Diet quality, assessed using a comprehensive composite nutritional risk score, predicted development of overweight or obesity. This finding suggests that overall diet quality be considered a key component in planning and implementing programmes for obesity risk reduction and treatment recommendations.

  11. Towards a sustainable diet combining economic, environmental and nutritional objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Michele; Menozzi, Davide; Zighetti, Camilla; Rosi, Alice; Zinetti, Anna; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Foods consumed and dietary patterns are strong determinants of health status. Diet and nutrition have a key role in health promotion and maintenance during the entire lifetime, but what we choose to eat and drink greatly affects the environmental impact on ecosystems as well as monetary resources. Some studies suggest that a healthy diet with a low environmental impact is not necessarily more expensive. This paper aims to identify a healthy, greener and cheaper diet based on current consumption patterns. Dietary information was collected from 104 young adults in the last year of high school in Parma (Italy). Diet was monitored with 7-day dietary records. Subsequently, food items were decoded to obtain nutritional, economic and environmental impact data. An optimization tool based on mathematical programming (Multi-Objective Linear Programming) was used to identify sustainable diet. Three different 7-day diets were identified, based on nutrition recommendations for the healthy Italian adult population, characterized by different targets and optimizing different impacts: first the diet at the lowest cost (Minimum Cost Diet - MCD), then the Environmentally Sustainable Diet (ESD) obtained by minimizing the three environmental indicators (CO2e emissions, H2O consumption and amount of land to regenerate the resources - m(2)). Finally, the Sustainable Diet (SD) was identified by integrating environmental and economic sustainability objectives. Lastly, suggestions and recommendations for communication campaigns and other interventions to achieve sustainable diet are suggested.

  12. Nutrition knowledge, diet quality and hypertension in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, F; Fitzgerald, S; Harrington, J M; Kelly, C; Greiner, B A; Perry, I J

    2015-01-01

    To examine if employees with higher nutrition knowledge have better diet quality and lower prevalence of hypertension. Cross-sectional baseline data were obtained from the complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Participants included 828 randomly selected employees (18-64 years) recruited from four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Ireland, 2013. A validated questionnaire assessed nutrition knowledge. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) measured diet quality from which a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score was constructed. Standardised digital blood pressure monitors measured hypertension. Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for age, gender, health status, lifestyle and socio-demographic characteristics. The odds of having a high DASH score (better diet quality) were 6 times higher in the highest nutrition knowledge group compared to the lowest group (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 3.5 to 9.6). Employees in the highest nutrition knowledge group were 60% less likely to be hypertensive compared to the lowest group (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.87). However, multivariate analyses were not consistent with a mediation effect of the DASH score on the association between nutrition knowledge and blood pressure. Higher nutrition knowledge is associated with better diet quality and lower blood pressure but the inter-relationships between these variables are complex.

  13. [Effects of cholesterol rich diet on blood coagulative and fibrinolytic activities in male rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan-jin; Li, Xiao-ying

    2005-05-01

    To explore the effects of cholesterol rich diet on the activities of blood coagulative and fibrinolytic systems in male rabbits. 14 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to cholesterol rich diet(CRD) group and common diet (control) group. Rabbits in CRD group were fed with 1% cholesterol embedded diet and those in the control group were fed with common diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers and FDP, PT and APTT, activity of ADP, AT-III, PLG and alpha2-PI were tested in all rabbits before given cholesterol rich diet and after 12 weeks' feeding with different kinds of diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers in CRD group were all elevated significantly compared with those in the control group and the baseline levels. PT and APTT were shortened, ADP, PLG and alpha2-PI activity were increased in CRD group. Cholesterol rich diet not only is the direct cause of hyperlipidemia but also can increase the coagulative activity and inhibit the fibrinolytic activity and promoting the evolution of arteriosclerosis.

  14. Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Diet, Nutrition, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Frewer, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and food safety related diseases such as foodborne illnesses, some cancers, and obesity belong to the most challenging health concerns of our time. As a consequence, the provision of information about diet, health, and nutrition is increasing, spread rapidly by the (mass) media, including

  15. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely extoll

  16. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  17. Effect of including liquid vinasse in the diet of rabbits on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid vinasse (LV in the diet for growing rabbits on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were assessed. Eighty New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomized block design with five treatments (LV inclusion at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg diet and four replications. There was no effect of the treatment on final weight, daily weight gain, mortality rate and carcass yield characteristics. The daily intakes of feed, dry matter, crude protein and energy and feed conversion decreased linearly with increase in LV in the diet. Including LV affected the duodenum crypt depth and the ilium villus perimeter and height linearly and affected the duodenum villus perimeter, height and the absorption surfaces and ilium crypt depth and absorption surface quadratically. There was no effect of including LV on jejunum morphometry. Vinasse can be used to feed growing rabbits at up to 87.8 g per kilogram of diet.

  18. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (Pjuice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiela M. El Bagir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  20. Rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste-based diets for fryer rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prawirodigdo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW-based diets on the growth performance of fryer rabbits. Thirty-six growing rabbits (New Zealand x Flemish Giant of about 1070.8 g initial body-weight were housed individually in the wire mesh cages and assigned to either one of a FVW-based diet containing 20% rice bran (RB 20%, 10% rice bran (RB 10% or zero rice bran (RB 0%. Thus, each treatment consists of 12 replicates. Data were collected for 28 days. Results showed that inclusion of rice bran in the diet significantly decreased (P<0.05 dry matter intake (2888, 2830 and 3095 g, for Diets RB 20%, RB 10%, and RB 0%, respectively. Average daily weight gain of the rabbits consuming RB 20% (23 g, RB 10% (25 g and RB 0% (33 g was significantly different (P<0.05. Inclusion of rice bran in the FVW-based diet significantly (P<0.05 affected the feed conversion ratio of the diets (3.4 versus 4.4 and 4.1, for RB 0% versus RB 20% and RB 10%, respectively. Consistently, the average carcass weight of rabbits consuming RB 0% (1140g was superior (P<0.05 to the carcass weight of rabbits fed RB 20% (1022 g or RB 10% (1046 g. Overall, inclusion of rice bran in the FVW based diet is not necessary. Simultaneously, use of FVW for rabbit is promising to avoid the accumulated fermenting FVW problem and produce healthy meat instantly for food.

  1. Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate; Zeuschner, Carol; Saunders, Angela; Reid, Michelle

    2009-08-01

    A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.

  2. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18-0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.56). In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance.

  3. Anaerobic facultative bacteria isolated from the gut of rabbits fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, F; Zirletta, G; Gualterio, L; Massa, S; Trovatelli, L D

    1992-11-01

    Anaerobic facultative bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of conventional rabbits fed three different diets (standard pellet, hay and pellet/hay mixture) were enumerated in brain heart infusion agar. Colony counts recovered from homogenized samples of small intestine, caecum and rectum differed with reference to the diet given. Among anaerobic groups, identified from rabbit fed pellet/hay mixture, Enterococci (E. faecalis, E. avium, E. faecium and E. durans) represented the predominant flora. Enterobacters (E. cloacae and E. aerogenes) accounted for about 10 to 25% of the bacteria in the rectum and colon respectively, whereas Staphylococci (S. intermedius, S. epidermidis and S. lentus) represented 11% of the bacteria isolated from colon.

  4. Diet and Nutrition in Cancer Survivorship and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of palliative cancer care is typically to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Most approaches to diet in this setting have focused only on eating as many calories as possible to avoid cachexia. However, as the concept of palliative care has evolved to include all aspects of cancer survivorship and not just end of life care, there is an increasing need to thoughtfully consider diet and nutrition approaches that can impact not only quality of life but overall health outcomes and perhaps even positively affect cancer recurrence and progression. In this regard, there has been a recent emphasis in the literature on nutrition and cancer as an important factor in both quality of life and in the pathophysiology of cancer. Hence, the primary purpose of this paper is to review the current data on diet and nutrition as it pertains to a wide range of cancer patients in the palliative care setting.

  5. Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  7. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing or Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05 in feed, dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001, meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  9. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether to include oats in your diet. When shopping and eating out, remember to read food labels — ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  10. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  11. Analysis of Sport Nutrition and Diet for Swimming Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun An

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This current study analyzed nutrition and dietary structure of swimming athletes to clarify issues in nutrition and dietary structure of swimming athletes, based on which we designed achievable nutrition and diet strategies to equip the swimming athletes with the tools to achieve an adequate sport nutrition which helps them improve results. Firstly, we collected literatures about nutrition and diet of swimming athletes. Secondly, 40 swimming athletes were assigned to the test group and the control group to receive follow-up for 8 weeks. Twenty were provided with proper diet and calcium and vitamin supplements. Twenty athletes in the control group failed to reach standard expected for a swimming athlete due to inadequate intake of multiple nutrients. Twenty athletes in the test group reached to relevant standards. The athletes in the test group also achieved better performance than those in the control group. Proper nutrition and dietary structure not only substantially improve physical fitness but also improve performance of swimming athletes.

  12. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  13. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Díez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day. On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg. After an oral glucose load (3 g, glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits. In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  15. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  16. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  17. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Vesanto; Craig, Winston; Levin, Susan

    2016-12-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage. Vegetarians and vegans are at reduced risk of certain health conditions, including ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain types of cancer, and obesity. Low intake of saturated fat and high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, soy products, nuts, and seeds (all rich in fiber and phytochemicals) are characteristics of vegetarian and vegan diets that produce lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and better serum glucose control. These factors contribute to reduction of chronic disease. Vegans need reliable sources of vitamin B-12, such as fortified foods or supplements. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  19. Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutritionally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in "home economics", but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises.

  20. Nutritional and cultural aspects of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Majem, Lluis; Bach-Faig, Anna; Raidó-Quintana, Blanca

    2012-06-01

    The recent recognition by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) of the Mediterranean diet as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity reinforces, together with the scientific evidence, the Mediterranean diet as a cultural and health model. The Mediterranean diet has numerous beneficial effects on among others the immune system, against allergies, on the psyche, or even on quality of life, topics that are currently fields of research. The Mediterranean diet has an international projection; it is regarded as the healthiest and the most sustainable eating pattern on the planet and is a key player in the public health nutrition field globally, but especially in the Mediterranean area. Moreover, this ancient cultural heritage should be preserved and promoted from different areas: public health, agriculture, culture, politics, and economic development.

  1. Nutrition and acne: therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Grimaldi, K; Toniolo, L; Canato, M; Bianco, A; Fratter, A

    2012-01-01

    The influence of nutrition on skin health is a growing research area but the findings of various studies on the effect of diet on the development of acne have often been contradictory. The general opinion among researchers has oscillated between two different, opposing positions: that diet either is or is not a key factor for acne development. This review examines the evidence supporting an influence of various dietary components on the development of acne particularly focusing on the role played by carbohydrates. The physiological and biochemical effects of the ketogenic diet are examined from this perspective and mechanisms will be proposed via which this type of diet could have a role in the treatment of acne. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Nutritional differences between a gluten-free diet and a diet containing equivalent products with gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Lasa, A; Bustamante, M A; Churruca, I; Simon, E

    2014-06-01

    The gluten-free (GF) products market represents one of the most prosperous markets in the field of food and beverages in the immediate future. Historically, counselling for celiac disease has focused on the absence of gluten in foods, however the nutritional quality of GF foodstuffs is an important aspect to consider. The aim of the present work was to compare the nutritional composition of the 206 GF rendered products most consumed in Spain, against the composition of 289 equivalent foods with gluten, and to make a comparison between the diet including GF products and the same diet with equivalent products with gluten in a 58 adult celiac population. The results of the present collaborative study pointed out differences in calorie, macronutrient, fiber, sodium, salt and cholesterol content between GF rendered and gluten-containing foodstuffs. Thus, calorie and nutrient intake in a GF diet is different when compared to its equivalent diet with gluten. Following a diet based on GF products could suppose a nutritional imbalance for celiac patients as well as for non-celiacs who follow a diet that includes many GF rendered foodstuffs.

  3. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Pawlak, Roman

    2015-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that vegetarian diets can provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain health conditions, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Well-designed vegetarian diets that may include fortified foods or supplements meet current nutrient recommendations and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarians must use special care to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B-12. Vegetarian diets are primarily plant-based, comprised of grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and fruit; do not include flesh foods (beef, pork, poultry and fowl, wild game, and fish); and may or may not include some animal products, such as dairy (milk and milk products), eggs, and processed foods that contain casein or whey. Although vegetarians may have a higher deficiency risk for some nutrients (eg, vitamin B-12) compared to nonvegetarians, nutritional deficiencies are not the main causes of mortality or morbidity in Western societies. Vegetarian diets are associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer; low-fat vegetarian diets, in combination with other healthy lifestyle factors, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Vegetarians have lower low-density lipoprotein, better serum glucose control, and lower oxidative stress. Low intake of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, and high intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and soy products that are rich in fiber and phytochemicals are components of a vegetarian diet that contribute to reduction of chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  5. [Nutritional assessment of gluten-free diet. Is gluten-free diet deficient in some nutrient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Quero, J C; Espín Jaime, B; Rodríguez Martínez, A; Argüelles Martín, F; García Jiménez, R; Rubio Murillo, M; Pizarro Martín, A

    2015-07-01

    The gluten-free diet has traditionally been accepted as a healthy diet, but there are articles advocating that it may have some nutritional deficiencies. The current study assesses whether there was any change in the contributions of calories, essential elements, proportion of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fiber in children who were diagnosed with celiac diseases, comparing the diet with gluten prior one year after diagnosis with the diet without gluten to the year of diagnosis. The level of clinical or analytical impact that nutritional deficits could have was also assessed. A prospective,descriptive, observational study in which information was collected from a dietary survey, anthropometric and analytical data at pre-diagnosis of celiac disease and following a gluten diet and one year after celiac disease diagnosis, under gluten-free diet. A total of 37 patients meet the study criteria. A decrease in the intake of saturated fatty acids was found, with an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the intake of phosphorus in the diet without gluten. A deficient intake of vitamin D was found in both diets. Clinically, at year of gluten-free diet there was an improvement in weight and size. Analytically, there was an improvement in hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone in plasma. The gluten-free diet has minimal deficiencies, similar to those present in the diet with gluten, with an improvement in the lipid profile by increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids to the detriment of saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene-Diet Interaction and Precision Nutrition in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Qi, Lu

    2017-04-07

    The rapid rise of obesity during the past decades has coincided with a profound shift of our living environment, including unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle, and physical inactivity. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have interacted with such an obesogenic environment in determining the obesity epidemic. Growing studies have found that changes in adiposity and metabolic response to low-calorie weight loss diets might be modified by genetic variants related to obesity, metabolic status and preference to nutrients. This review summarized data from recent studies of gene-diet interactions, and discussed integration of research of metabolomics and gut microbiome, as well as potential application of the findings in precision nutrition.

  7. The Gluten-Free Diet: Safety and Nutritional Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Bacchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD, an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives. Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects.

  8. Computer tailored nutrition education: Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Balzo, V; Vitiello, V; Dernini, S; Zicari, S; Giusti, A M; Donini, L M; Pinto, A; Cannella, C

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this work is to promote via on-line applications the knowledge of the Italian Weekly Pyramid, which is based on the concept of WI (Well Being Index) as a unit for a correct lifestyle. On the website www.piramideitaliana.it the user can verify his/her weekly lifestyle by participating in a "game" based on the introduction, for seven consecutive days, of food and beverages consumption and time assigned to physical activity. At the end of the seven days it is possible to access the page with an evaluation of dietary habits together with the possible suggestions for a correct lifestyle. On the basis of the data collected through this web game, a statistical analysis has been developed to evaluate the food habits and the level of physical activity. In the period between September 2005-January 2010 16,546 participants have completed the game. The data collected compare actual WI consumption for each food group with the one suggested by the Pyramid. The sample eating pattern appears almost varied; all the food groups were consumed daily, albeit in much lower quantities with regard to the suggested portions. It is pointed out that some differences in the nutritional habits are related to differences in age groups and in the school degree of the sample analyzed. This work highlights the importance of web-based tailored interventions on population food habits: many people can be reached to promote the knowledge of the guidelines leading to a healthy lifestyle.

  9. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  10. l-citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A.R.; Matsui-Hirai, Hisako; Miyazaki, Asaka; Fukatsu, Akiko; Funami, Jun; Iguchi, Akihisa; Ignarro, Louis J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and increased superoxide anion production in thoracic aorta, and increased oxidation-sensitiv...

  11. Nutrition myths - the factor influencing the quality of children's diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.

  12. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536

  13. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  14. Diet and nutritional status of children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammarion, Sophie; Santos, Clarisse; Guimber, Dominique; Jouannic, Lyne; Thumerelle, Caroline; Gottrand, Frédéric; Deschildre, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the food intakes and nutritional status of children with food allergies following an elimination diet. We conducted a cross sectional study including 96 children (mean age 4.7 ± 2.5 years) with food allergies and 95 paired controls (mean age 4.7 ± 2.7 years) without food allergies. Nutritional status was assessed using measurements of weight and height and Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Nutrient intakes assessment was based on a 3-day diet record. Children with food allergies had weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores lower than controls (0.1 versus 0.6 and 0.2 versus 0.8 respectively). Children with 3 or more food allergies were smaller than those with 2 or less food allergies (p = 0.04). A total of 62 children with food allergies and 52 controls completed usable diet records. Energy, protein and calcium intakes were similar in the two groups. Children with food allergies were smaller for their age than controls even when they received similar nutrient intakes. Nutritional evaluation is essential for the follow up of children with food allergies.

  15. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups.

  16. Diets, dietary supplements, and nutritional therapies in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C J; Panush, R S

    1999-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and many other systemic rheumatic diseases remain illnesses of unknown cause for which current therapy is often inadequate. This leads patients to seek questionable remedies, prominent among which are dietary manipulations. Is there a role for dietary modifications in the routine therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases? This article discusses the relationships between diets, fasting, elemental nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and foods for rheumatic diseases. Known scientific-based evidence for the use, safety, and efficacy of diets and dietary-related practices subscribed by patients with rheumatic diseases are presented. Studies that link diet with arthritis offer the possibility of identifying new therapeutic approaches for selected patients and of developing new insights to disease pathogenesis. Dietary therapy for arthritis, however, is still being investigated.

  17. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit Parts in Rabbits Fed High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO) fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n = 7), received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) normal diet: NC group and (2) hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin), HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO), HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO), HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO), and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO). Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent. PMID:22811751

  18. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit Parts in Rabbits Fed High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Hanim Shakirin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n=7, received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1 normal diet: NC group and (2 hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin, HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO, HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO, HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO, and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO. Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent.

  19. The effect of nutritional quality on comparing environmental impacts of human diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Gerber, P.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies support the general conclusion that plant-based diets have a lower environmental impact than animal-based diets. These studies, however, do not account for the nutritional quality of diets. The main objective of our study, therefore, was to explore if accounting for nutritional quali

  20. [WinDiet. Support decision system for the assessment of nutritional status and diet prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, E A; Siqueira, A D; Monteiro, J B; Ludwig, A

    1998-09-01

    A "Sistema de Apoio à Decisão para Avaliação do Estado Nutricional e Prescrição de Dietas" called "WinDiet" was developed. The system was developed on a computer compatible to IBM-PC standard. For system processing procedures through the computer, that is, interpretation, compilation, table generation en others, it was selected the Delphi version 1.0 software, from Borland International, for its using facilities, data basis accomplishment, communication environment and mainly an ample availability of mathematic, impression and programming resources besides allowing for all the programming operations to be accomplished on Windows environment. Knowing the procedures for nutritional evaluation and diet prescription was possible by consulting to text books, periodicals and the area experts. This system allows for individual nutritional assessment applying the anthropometric methods such as weight, height, skinfold thickness measurings, the lab methods such as albumin, transferrin, height/creatinin index and others, the dietary methods by food consumption recall, and the clinical methods that give emphasis to pathological antecedents and indicative sings of nutritional status. The software also turns possible to prescribe and calculate diets from recommendation besides having an actual data basis which may be changed or modified. Yet it maintains the individual description from all evaluation and menus, emitting its complete reports. It was verified that it reduce significantly the working time and increase the precision of estimate and nutritional diagnosis. Thus, the WinDiet may be used in nutritionist's offices, ambulatories, hospitals as well as on nutritional researches and education.

  1. Effects of high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet on the antioxidant defence mechanisms in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, D; Del Boccio, G; Porreca, E; Pennelli, A; Mezzetti, A; De Gioia, S; Marzio, L; Di Ilio, C; Cuccurullo, F

    1992-01-01

    In 7 rabbits fed on hyperlipidic diet (0.5% cholesterol, 5% peanut oil and 5% lard) for 4 weeks, the ventricular myocardium was tested for antioxidant defences and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Seven age-matched rabbits served as controls. The hearts were previously subjected to 45 min Langendorff perfusion to study coronary flow, developed tension and resting tension; coronary effluent values of CPK activity, pH and UV absorbance at 250 nm (i.e., low molecular weight ATP catabolites) were also investigated. After 4 weeks of diet, a significant rise of plasma cholesterol (P effluent of hyperlipidemic rabbits. In conclusion, high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet induces an imbalance in the rabbit heart antioxidant defences, some of which are increased, whereas others are depressed, eventually resulting in enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation. These biochemical changes are associated with higher perfusate values of UV absorbance at 250 nm, but not with significant CPK leakage or myocardial hemodynamics derangement.

  2. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston John

    2010-12-01

    Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products. As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians.

  3. Respostas pulmonares à restrição nutricional e à hiperoxia em coelhos prematuros Pulmonary responses to nutritional restriction and hyperoxia in premature rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. G. B. Mataloun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este modelo experimental foi desenvolvido para analisar os efeitos da restrição nutricional e da hiperoxia, durante 11 dias, sobre o peso e a morfometria pulmonares, em coelhos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Após cesárea, coelhos New Zealand White com idade gestacional de 28 dias foram randomizados nos seguintes grupos: dieta controle e ar ambiente, dieta controle e hiperoxia (> 95% O2, restrição nutricional e ar ambiente e restrição nutricional e hiperoxia (>95% O2. A restrição nutricional foi obtida com uma redução em 30% de todos os nutrientes da dieta controle. As lâminas de pulmão foram coradas com hematoxilina-eosina, resorcina-orceína modificada e picrosírius, sendo posteriormente realizada a análise morfométrica RESULTADOS: Observou-se um menor ganho de peso no grupo restrição nutricional e hiperoxia (p OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of nutritional restriction and hyperoxia on lung weight and pulmonary morphometry in premature rabbits during the first 11 days of life METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were delivered by C-section at 28 days' gestational age and randomized into four groups: control diet and room air, control diet and hyperoxia (> 95% O2, nutritional restriction and room air and nutritional restriction and hyperoxia (> 95% O2. Nutritional restriction was achieved by reducing all nutrients by 30% in comparison with the control diet. Lung tissue slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, modified resorcin-orcein and picrosirius, before morphometric analysis was performed. RESULTS: From the fourth day onwards, less weight was gained by the nutritional restriction and hyperoxia group (p < 0.001 and from the sixth day on, by the nutritional restriction and room air group (p < 0.001, in comparison with their respective control groups. Nutritional restriction decreased alveoli number (p < 0.001 and collagen deposition (p < 0.001. Hyperoxia was responsible for reductions in number of alveoli (p < 0

  4. Pharmacology and biochemistry undergraduate students'concern for a healthy diet and nutrition knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes Spexoto, Maria Claudia [UNESP; Ferin, Giovana Garcia [UNESP; Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana Alvares [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the concern for a healthy diet and the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate students of a pharmacology and biochemistry program and their associations with the variables of interest.Methods: This cross-sectional study administered the Nutrition Knowledge Scale and the How is your diet? questionnaire to 381 students. The associations between concern for a healthy diet and nutrition knowledge and between these two factors and the demographic variables were measured by the...

  5. Gene-Diet Interaction and Precision Nutrition in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Heianza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of obesity during the past decades has coincided with a profound shift of our living environment, including unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle, and physical inactivity. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have interacted with such an obesogenic environment in determining the obesity epidemic. Growing studies have found that changes in adiposity and metabolic response to low-calorie weight loss diets might be modified by genetic variants related to obesity, metabolic status and preference to nutrients. This review summarized data from recent studies of gene-diet interactions, and discussed integration of research of metabolomics and gut microbiome, as well as potential application of the findings in precision nutrition.

  6. Should I Be Following a Specific Diet or Nutrition Plan for My Lupus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well with lupus Living well with lupus Should I be following a specific diet or nutrition plan ... a diet that will lower inflammation? What can I do about the weight gain from prednisone? Should ...

  7. Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance of rabbit does and their progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Belhassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of live yeast supplementation in the diet of rabbit does on their mortality and reproductive performance and the performance of their progeny. A total of 52 cross-bred rabbit does (New Zealand×Californian were divided into 2 groups differing in diet offered during 2 reproductive cycles and containing (group S; n=26 or not (group C; n=26 1 g of yeast (Actisaf Sc 47, S.I. LESAFFRE, France/kg of feed. Natural mating was performed 11 d after kindling and kits were weaned at 28 d of age. Body weight of litters was measured at birth, 21 d and at 28 d of age (weaning. Mortality of kits and rabbit does was monitored daily, and fertility of rabbit does and viability rate of kits at birth were also determined. Weight and litter size at birth and at weaning, litter weight gain during lactation and length of gestation were similar between the 2 groups during the 2 cycles. The mortality of does during the experiment was higher in group C than in group S (27 vs. 4%; P<0.05. Fertility rate of rabbits does and viability rate of kits at birth were higher (P<0.05 in rabbits fed with the supplemented diet than those with the control diet during the second lactation. In the first cycle, kit mortality was lower in S group (15.5% than the C group (24.7% during the first 21 d (P<0.05. However, no difference was observed during the second lactation. In conclusion, our results suggest that the inclusion of yeast in the diet of rabbit does could trigger positive effects on the fertility and mortality of rabbit does, as well as on the viability rate of kits at birth.

  8. Increased Hepatic Expression of Endothelial Lipase Inhibits Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Niimi, Manabu; Yan, Haizhao; Chen, Yajie; Ning, Bo; Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates. On a chow diet, hepatic expression of human EL in Tg rabbits led to remarkable reductions in plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with non-Tg controls. On a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks, Tg rabbits exhibited significantly lower hypercholesterolemia and less atherosclerosis than non-Tg littermates. In Tg rabbits, gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis was reduced by 52%, and the lesions were characterized by fewer macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared with non-Tg littermates. Increased hepatic expression of EL attenuates cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protects against atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children.

  10. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Zhao, Shiwen

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. This study used data from 2011-2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all Pobesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4-1.9, Pobesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity.

  11. Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds in rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meineri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to three groups with ten animals each (five male and five female rabbits each, and kept individually in separate cages. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds (SHS (0, 10, and 15%. The digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and gross energy (GE were calculated according to standard procedures following the indirect digestibility method, using acid insoluble ash as an internal marker. The results showed that the DM, OM and GE digestibilities of 10% and 15% SHS diets were higher than those of the control diet, while the ADF digestibility of the 15% SHS diet was lower than that of the 10% SHS diet.

  12. Digestible fibre to starch ratio and protein level in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of digestible fibre (DF to starch ratio (0.8, 1.5, and 2.8 and protein level (15% and 16% on health status, digestive physiology, growth performance, and carcass traits, 246 rabbits weaned at 33 d were fed until slaughter (75 d six diets formulated according to a bi-factorial arrangement (3 DF to starch ratios by 2 protein levels. Growth performance and carcass quality at slaughter were not af- fected by treatments. Increasing DF to starch ratio did not modify dry matter digestibility (62.0% on average, while increased (P<0.001 DF digestibility (52.3 to 68.1%, stimulated caecal fermentation (total VFA: 56.0 vs 67.8 and 67.2 mmol/l; P=0.02 and changed VFA molar proportions. Increasing dietary protein increased digestibility of dry matter (P=0.02, crude protein (P<0.001 and digestible fibre (P<0.001 and increased cae- cal VFA production (P<0.01. The highest mortality (17.1% vs 1.5% average mortality of the other groups, P<0.001 was found in rabbits fed the diet with the lowest DF to starch ratio and the highest protein level.

  13. Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, T M; Zaniboni, L; Maldjian, A; Luzi, F; Maertens, L; Cerolini, S

    2009-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (vE) dietary supplementation on semen quality, sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, tocopherols content and fatty acid profiles were studied in rabbits. Fifty-two rabbit bucks randomly divided in four groups received a control diet and enriched diets containing either FO (1.5%, w/w), vE (200mg/kg) or both. Semen volume, concentration, motility and viability were analysed at various time-points and the lipid composition was assessed on sperm cells. The phospholipid fatty acid profile was determined: n-6 PUFA were the major fatty acids found, with a proportion of 42%, whereas the n-3 PUFA accounted for nearly 1%, mainly represented by C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). FO supplementation produced a seven-fold increase in the content of DHA in sperm phospholipids and a comprehensive rearrangement of the phospholipid fatty acid composition, while an unexpected negative effect of feeding high level of vE on the proportion of total PUFA was found. Despite the remarkable changes observed in sperm lipid composition, semen quality parameters were not affected by the dietary treatments and the interaction between the two dietary supplements had a significant effect only on sperm concentration. An increase in semen production by ageing and a concomitant rise in sperm susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation was found. alpha- and delta-tocopherol, present in rabbit sperm in similar amount, were not affected by dietary treatment. delta-tocopherol content had a significant linear negative regression with age and showed a significant negative correlation with the susceptibility to peroxidation values.

  14. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  15. A Place at the Table: Integrating Diet and Nutrition into Family Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role diet and nutrition play in the stress of individuals and families who seek help from a family therapist. Discusses when to assess a client's diet. Provides methods for diet inquiry using case examples for illustration. Recommendations are provided for marriage and family counselor training. (JDM)

  16. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  17. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. Methods This study used data from 2011–2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all Pconsumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4–1.9, P<0.01). Conclusions Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity. PMID:28231308

  18. Importance of fiber in rabbit nutrition/ Importância da fibra na nutrição de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro das Dores Ferreira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available It was objectified in this revision to gather the larger relevance information in the nutritional field referring to the physical-chemistries characteristics and physiologic effects of the fiber in the rabbits feeding. This area can represent a narrowing point in the cuniculture expansion as a profitable activity in our country, due to the diversity of fibrous ingredients or don’t stipulate passive use in balanced complete diets and its effects on the productive and reproductive yield, mainly due to the privileged characteristics of the meat and of the coat of this species.Objetivou-se nesta revisão reunir as informações de maior relevância no campo nutricional referentes às características físico-químicas e efeitos fisiológicos da fibra na alimentação de coelhos. Esta área pode representar um ponto de estrangulamento na expansão da cunicultura como uma atividade rentável em nosso país, diante da diversidade de ingredientes fibrosos ou não convencionais passíveis de uso em rações completas balanceadas e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento produtivo e reprodutivo, principalmente devido às características privilegiadas da carne e da pelagem desta espécie.

  19. Antioxidant effect of Triticum aestivium (wheat grass) in high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, J; Yadav, M; Dahiya, K; Sood, S; Singh, V; Bhattacharya, S B

    2010-05-01

    Wheat grass is used as a general health tonic and is reported to be effective against several medical disorders, although detailed literature is not available. Besides drug therapy, a number of medicinal plants are effective in treating hyperlipidemia. This study examined the effects of wheat grass on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each, group I receiving a control diet, group II a high-fat diet and group III a high-fat diet together with wheat grass over a period of 10 weeks. Fasting serum samples from the animals were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C, and the results were compared. The high-fat diet resulted in hyperlipidemia and an increase in oxidative stress, indicated by a significant rise in MDA levels, whereas antioxidant levels of GSH and vitamin C were significantly reduced. Wheat grass supplementation with a high-fat diet resulted in improved lipid levels (decreased total cholesterol and increased HDL-C) together with significantly reduced MDA levels and increased GSH and vitamin C levels. These results indicate the beneficial role of wheat grass in ameliorating hyperlipidemia and the associated oxidative stress. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  20. The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; El-Atrsh, Efaf

    2011-03-01

    Because of the increasing cost of animal feed ingredients as well as the high demand, especially for the protein supplements, several efforts were carried out to use untraditional feed protein ingredients to participate in facing feed shortage problem and at the same time to decrease feeding costs. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Thymus vulgaris are the most famous medical plants that have attracted the attention of many investigators for long time. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal in control diet by Nigella sativa and/or Thymus vulgaris on the possible harmful changes in histological structure of some organs and blood parameters in growing New Zealand White rabbits. Blood constituents showed that the percentages of hemoglobin, hematocrate, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and white blood cells (WBCs) count were significantly increased with the presence of black cumin seeds in the diets while WBCs count and the mean corpuscular volume in rabbit blood tends to decrease in Thymus vulgaris diets. Feeding diet supplemented with Nigella sativa increased the plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. The use of Nigella sativa alone or either mixture with Thymus vulgaris are good supplements for growing rabbits without any adverse effect on histological structure of liver, kidney and testis in rabbits.

  1. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  2. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  3. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  4. Effects of Feeding Periods of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on Blood Biochemistry and Hydroxyproline Fractions in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Siddiqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are considered as important risk factors during the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the present investigation was to study the total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG, platelet levels and hydroxyproline fractions during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this purpose, twenty five 12-weeks, New Zealand white male rabbits, were purchased, individually caged, and divided into either control group or cholesterol-fed group. The control group (n = 10 was fed 100 g/day of normal diet, ORC-4 (Oriental Yeast Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan for a period of 15 weeks. The cholesterol-fed group (n = 15 was fed a high cholesterol and saturated fat diet of ORC-4 containing 1% cholesterol plus 1% olive oil (100 g/day for periods of 5 (group 1, 10 (group 2 and 15 (group 3 weeks. Blood sample from each animal was taken at the end of the experimental period for the biochemical analysis. The results of the present study showed that TC, LDLC, TG, HDLC and platelets were significantly (P0.05. There was no significant (P>0.05 decrease of free serum hydroxyproline in group 3 rabbits when compared to control rabbits. On the other hand, group 3 rabbits showed a significant increase in peptide–bound and protein- bound Hyp by 517% (P0.05 change when compared to control rabbits. These results suggest that feeding rabbits high cholesterol and saturated fat diet for feeding periods of 5 , 10 and 15 weeks induced significant change in TC, LDLC, HDL, TG, platelet levels and various Hyp fractions in serum without any significant change in the total Hyp content.

  5. Diets of giants: the nutritional value of herbivorous dinosaur diet during the Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fiona; Hummel, Juergen; Sharifi, Reza; Lee, Alexandra; Lomax, Barry

    2017-04-01

    A major uncertainty in estimating energy budgets and population densities of extinct animals is the carrying capacity of their ecosystems, constrained by net primary productivity (NPP) and digestible energy content of that NPP. The hypothesis that increases in NPP of land plants due to elevated atmospheric CO2 contributed to the unparalleled size of the sauropods, the largest ever land animals, has recently been rejected, based on modern studies on herbivorous insects. However, the nutritional value of plants grown under elevated CO2 levels might be very different for vertebrate megaherbivores with more complex digestive systems and different protein:energy requirements than insects. Here we show that the metabolisable energy (ME) value of five species of potential dinosaur food plants does not decline consistently with increasing CO2 growth concentrations, with maxima observed at 1200 ppm CO2. Our data potentially rebut the hypothesis of constraints on herbivore diet quality in the Mesozoic due to CO2 levels.

  6. Influence of calorie source on the physiological response to parenteral nutrition in malnourished rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Domingo, M; Lladó, L; Guirao, X; Franch, G; Oliva, A; Muñoz, A; Salas, E; Sancho, J J; Sitges-Serra, A

    1994-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether calorie source influences sodium and water metabolism and sympathetic activity during parenteral nutrition (PN). 20 New Zealand rabbits were starved until a mean weight loss of 18% was achieved and then re-fed for 6 days with 2 formulae of PN with different glucose-fat proportions. In the Glucose group (n = 9), 70% of non-protein calories were given as glucose while in the Lipid group (n = 11), 70% of non-protein calories were administered as lipids. Rabbits with a high glucose intake showed significantly higher weight gain (151 +/- 87 vs. 52 +/- 7 g, P = 0.01), water cumulative balance (542 +/- 132 vs. 411 +/- 87 ml; P = 0.02) and urinary metanephrine excretion (0.42 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.1 mumol/d, P = .03). Only in this group, urinary metanephrines correlated positively with water and sodium balances (r2 = 0.6; P = 0.02 and r2 = 0.7; P = 0.009 respectively). The Glucose group showed 2 different responses and in a second experiment 10 additional rabbits were added to this group to allow a statistical analysis of the response pattern: half of the animals increased their extracellular water (ECW) compartment while the remaining animals did not. The former group had higher sodium balance (13.9 +/- 8 vs. 4.3 +/- 5; P = 0.004) and wet lung weight (8.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 7.9 +/- 0.8; P wate and sodium balances. Plasma aldosterone concentration at the end of starvation period influences sodium retention and ECW expansion during high glucose re-feeding.

  7. Symbiotic bacteria enable insect to use a nutritionally inadequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Gündüz, E; Douglas, A E

    2009-03-07

    Animals generally require a dietary supply of various nutrients (vitamins, essential amino acids, etc.) because their biosynthetic capabilities are limited. The capacity of aphids to use plant phloem sap, with low essential amino acid content, has been attributed to their symbiotic bacteria, Buchnera aphidicola, which can synthesize these nutrients; but this has not been demonstrated empirically. We demonstrate here that phloem sap obtained from the severed stylets of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on Vicia faba plants generally provided inadequate amounts of at least one essential amino acid to support aphid growth. Complementary analyses using aphids reared on chemically defined diets with each amino acid individually omitted revealed that the capacity of the symbiotic bacterium B. aphidicola to synthesize essential amino acids exceeded the dietary deficit of all phloem amino acids except methionine. It is proposed that this shortfall of methionine was met by aphid usage of the non-protein amino acid 5-methylmethionine in the phloem sap. This study provides the first quantitative demonstration that bacterial symbiosis can meet the nutritional demand of plant-reared aphids. It shows how symbiosis with micro-organisms has enabled this group of animals to escape from the constraint of requiring a balanced dietary supply of amino acids.

  8. An educational model for improving diet counselling in primary care. A case study of the creative use of doctors' own diet, their attitudes to it and to nutritional counselling of their patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Palmvig, Birthe; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire......Nutritional counseling; Nutritional education; Nutritional assessment; Primary care; Continuing medical education; Doctors' diet; Doctors attitudes; Doctors' knowledge; Body mass index; Educational model; Food frequency questionaire...

  9. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  10. Hazelnut Oil Administration Reduces Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation and Lipid Peroxides in the Plasma, Liver, and Aorta of Rabbits Fed a High-cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HATIPOGLU, Aydan; KANBAGLI, Öznur; BALKAN, Jale; KÜÇÜK, Mutlu; ÇEVIKBAS, Ugur; AYKAÇ-TOKER, Gülçin; BERKKAN, Hakan; UYSAL, Müjdat

    2004-01-01

    Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. We wanted to investigate the effect of HO on lipid levels and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet...

  11. Impact of probiotic-supplemented diet on the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase in the leukocytes of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Magdy A E; Moselhy, Said S

    2014-04-01

    Probiotics are known as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms that colonize the intestine and provide benefit to the host. The present study aims to measure one important energy metabolism-related enzyme activity in blood of rabbits fed on probiotics of recommended concentration. In addition, it also aims for the evaluation of the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Two groups of rabbits are used: control group receiving normal standardized diet and the other probiotic-supplemented group receiving the same diet containing probiotic, namely, Mega acidophilus (200 million cfu/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that the rabbits supplemented with probiotics showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) when compared with control group. Risk factors detected by measuring TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios showed statistically significant decrease in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. In addition, blood glucose and total LDH activity were elevated in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. RT-PCR products of LDH-M gene produced two specific amplicons. One amplicon has the expected size of 243 bp from all samples of rabbits as revealed by GelPro software. The level of LDH-M expression was found to be increased in the probiotic-supplemented group. However, unexpected amplicons are produced at 586 bp in all the samples, which may be a dimeric form of the amplified region. It was concluded that this probiotic blend is beneficiary for the metabolic reactions of lipids in the body. Moreover, LDH expression level can be considered as a biomarker for the effect of probiotic and hence monitoring the metabolic changes as reflected from its administration.

  12. A Diet High in Saturated Fat and Sucrose Alters Glucoregulation and Induces Aortic Fatty Streaks in New Zealand White Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Weidong; Yuan, Zhonghua; Wang, Zongbao; Yang, Baotang; Yang, Yongzong

    2002-01-01

    A new and convenient animal model for studying peripheral vascular and coronary artery disease in diabetes was established in this study. Male New Zealand White rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg were divided into 2 groups: a normal control group fed standard laboratory chow and a diabetogenic diet–fed group received a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. The high-fat/high-sucrose diet (contained 10% lard and 37% sucrose) feeding was maintained for 6 months. Plasma total cholesterol, high-density lip...

  13. The gluten-free diet: a nutritional risk factor for adolescents with celiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, P; Viti, M G; Montuori, M; La Vecchia, A; Cipolletta, E; Calvani, L; Bonamico, M

    1998-11-01

    The gluten-free diet is the standard therapy for patients affected by celiac disease, although compliance with the diet is not optimal in adolescents or adults. Moreover, the gluten-free diet may induce nutritional imbalances. Alimentary habits and diet composition were examined in 47 adolescents with celiac disease and 47 healthy aged-matched control subjects. All subjects compiled a 3-day alimentary record that allowed determination of their energy intakes: the macronutrient composition of their diets; and their iron, calcium, and fiber intakes. To evaluate compliance with the gluten-free diet, immunoglobulin A antigliadin and antiendomysium antibodies were assessed in all with celiac disease. The analysis of the records and the results of antibody levels showed that 25 subjects strictly followed dietetic prescriptions (group 1A), whereas 22 patients consumed gluten-containing food (group 1B). Those with celiac disease and control subjects (group 2) consumed a normocaloric diet. Lipid and protein consumption was high, however, and the consumption of carbohydrates low. Moreover, dietary levels of calcium, fiber, and especially in girls, iron, were low. These nutritional imbalances were significantly more evident in group 1A than in group 1B, as a consequence of poor alimentary choices. Moreover, in group 1A overweight and obesity were more frequent (72%) than in group 1B (51%) and in the control subjects (47%). In people with celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet worsens the already nutritionally unbalanced diet of adolescents, increasing elevated protein and lipid consumption. In the follow-up of patients with celiac disease, considerable effort has yet to be made to improve compliance with a gluten-free diet, and especially to control the nutritional balance of the diet in compliant patients.

  14. Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, caecal ecosystem and health of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Belhassen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6% and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards, CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet. Body weight (BW and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk, weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av. were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012. This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072 in the TT group (96.4 g/d compared to the others. Mortality (5/90 was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d. Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW was higher (P=0.02 in CC (2.2% and CT (2.3% than in TT group (1.8% at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta

  15. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia López-Alfaro

    Full Text Available Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki, whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis, and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus, in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  16. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C P; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos) diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet) content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR) drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis), and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus), in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  17. 母兔妊娠期饲粮蛋氨酸水平对仔兔毛囊发育的影响%Methionine Level in the Diet for Pregnant Female Rabbits Affects Hair Follicle Development of Baby Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤飞; 陶可; 王永才; 肖文川; 王维林

    2012-01-01

    -old showed a tendency of increasing with dietary methionine level (P >0. 05) , fine hair diameter in 0. 91% group was significantly larger than that in 0. 51% group at 2-month-old (P < 0. 05). 2) With the development of baby rabbit, the ratio of secondary follicle and primary follicle increased gradually, at newborn of rabbits in group 0.51% , 0.71% and 0. 91% were 5. 84, 5. 56 and 5. 81, respectively, and at 2-month-old were 8. 47, 7. 97 and 8. 03, respectively. 3) Baby rabbits in group 0. 51% , 0. 71% and 0. 91% gained increases of primary follicle diameter by 0. 58, 0. 57 and 0. 61 |xm/d from 26-day fetus to birth, and 0.11, 0.11 and 0.12 (xm/d from birth to 2-month-old, respectively; they also gained increases on secondary follicle diameter by 0. 00, 0. 01 and 0. 01 (jim/d from birth to 2-months-old, respectively. These results indicate that increase of methionine level in diet for female rabbits during pregnancy is a stimulation factor for the development of hair follicle of baby rabbits, and can improve their hair fiber diameter. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24 (2) : 358-363

  18. Decoding Fad Diets. Nutrition in Health Promotion Series, Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Gail Hoddlebrink

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  19. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  20. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P. Haley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world’s human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

  1. Nutritional and health benefits of semi-elemental diets: A comprehensive summary of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominik D Alexander; Lauren C Bylsma; Laura Elkayam; Douglas L Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To critically review and summarize the literature on nutritional and health outcomes of semi-elemental formulations on various nutritionally vulnerable patient populations who are unable to achieve adequate nutrition from standard oral diets.METHODS:We conducted a comprehensive literature search of Pubmed and Embase databases.We manually screened articles that examined nutritional and health outcomes(e.g.,growth,disease activity,gastrointestinal impairment,mortality,and economic impact)among various patient groups receiving semi-elemental diets.This review focused on full-text articles of randomized controlled clinical trials and other intervention studies,but pertinent abstracts and case studies were also included.Results pertaining primarily to tolerance,digestion,and absorption were summarized for each patient population in this systematic review.RESULTS:Results pertaining primarily to tolerance,digestion,and absorption were summarized for each patient population.The efficacy of semi-elemental whey hydrolyzed protein(WHP)diet have been reported in various nutritionally high risk patient populations including-Crohn’s disease,short bowel syndrome,acute and chronic pancreatitis,cerebral palsy,cystic fibrosis,cerebrovascular accidents,human immunodeficiency virus,critically ill,and geriatrics.Collectively,the evidence from the medical literature indicates that feeding with a semi-elemental diet performs as well or better than parenteral or amino acid based diets in terms of toler-ance,digestion,and nutrient assimilation measures across various disease conditions.CONCLUSION:Based on this comprehensive review of the literature,patient populations who have difficulty digesting or absorbing standard diets may be able to achieve improved health and nutritional outcomes through the use of semi-elemental WHP diets.

  2. Is brood parasitism related to host nestling diet and nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary S. Ladin; Vincent D' Amico; Deb P. Jaisi; W. Gregory Shriver

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutrient limitation can have negative effects on survival, fecundity, and lifetime fitness of individuals, which can ultimately limit populations. Changes in trophic dynamics and diet patterns, affected by anthropogenic environmental and landscape change, are poorly understood yet may play an important role in population regulation. We determined diets of Wood...

  3. Influence of human diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, and soy protein concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans, rabbits and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that feeding animals such as rabbits with semipurified diets containing animal proteins, as for example casein, results in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean protein maintain low levels of serum cholestero

  4. l-Citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshio; Juliet, Packiasamy A R; Matsui-Hirai, Hisako; Miyazaki, Asaka; Fukatsu, Akiko; Funami, Jun; Iguchi, Akihisa; Ignarro, Louis J

    2005-09-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ingested l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants (vitamins C and E) on the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. The fatty diet caused a marked impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated thoracic aorta and blood flow in rabbit ear artery in vivo, the development of atheromatous lesions and increased superoxide anion production in thoracic aorta, and increased oxidation-sensitive gene expression [Elk-1 and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein]. Rabbits were treated orally for 12 weeks with l-arginine, l-citrulline, and/or antioxidants. l-arginine plus l-citrulline, either alone or in combination with antioxidants, caused a marked improvement in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and blood flow, dramatic regression in atheromatous lesions, and decrease in superoxide production and oxidation-sensitive gene expression. These therapeutic effects were associated with concomitant increases in aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and plasma NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels. These observations indicate that ingestion of certain NO-boosting substances, including l-arginine, l-citrulline, and antioxidants, can abrogate the state of oxidative stress and reverse the progression of atherosclerosis. This approach may have clinical utility in the treatment of atherosclerosis in humans.

  5. [Diet supplements in nutrition of sport mastery school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Teresa; Sobczak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In Polish society, for some time now, a growing interest in supplementation of the diet has been observed. This problem addresses particularly to sportsmen and physically active persons. It is often due to belief that customary diet does not supply organism with necessary food ingredients. There are also some threats connected with supplementation of the diet. Problems addressed to supplementation of the diet are particularly important for young sportsmen, including students of sport mastery schools. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the diet supplementation used by the students of sport mastery school in Western Pomeranian district. The study was carried out in the group of 76 students, aged 15 to 19, practicing walleyball (girls n = 39) and football (boys n = 37) at the sport mastery school in Police (western Pomeranian district). The interview method has been applied. A significance of differences, for the analysed factor, due to a sport discipline practiced was calculated based on Chi2 (Statistica 9). The results of the study confirmed the students of sport mastery school to supplement their diets. The diet supplementation being more frequent for boys (67.6%) with magnesium (57-64%) noted as the most frequently used supplement, followed with vitamin-mineral agents and L-carnitine. Essential differences were noted for reasons of diet supplementation and sources of information used on supplements between the sport disciplines practiced. It can be stated, based on the obtained results, that for supplementation of the diet among students of sport mastery school in Police is popular, even though there was no previous recognition of its necessity. The most frequent supplements users were football players with magnesium being the most frequently chosen supplement. Based on the above a regular training of sportsmen, including also coaches training young people, on the rational feeding habits would be advisable.

  6. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with

  7. Wholesome Nutrition: an example for a sustainable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koerber, Karl; Bader, Nadine; Leitzmann, Claus

    2017-02-01

    'Wholesome Nutrition' is a concept of sustainable nutrition that was developed at the University of Giessen in the 1980s. In this concept, health and the ecologic, economic, social and cultural dimensions of nutrition are equally important. In 1992 at the UN-Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the definition of 'Sustainable Development' comprised the dimensions environment, economy and society. Additionally to these three 'classical' dimensions of sustainability, we included 'health' as the fourth dimension because nutrition has far reaching effects on human health. The fifth dimension, 'culture', became part of the sustainability dialogue since many years; the respective cultural background influences food habits. Presently, mankind has to cope with huge global challenges such as poverty and food insecurity in low-income countries as well as climate change. Therefore the objective is to identify prospects for actions to respond to these global challenges. The concept of 'Sustainable Nutrition' analyses the food supply chain at all stages from input-production and primary production to processing, distribution, preparation, consumption and waste disposal. The present analysis leads to the following seven principles: preference of plant-based foods, organic foods, regional and seasonal products, preference of minimally processed foods, Fair Trade products, resource-saving housekeeping and enjoyable eating culture. This concept is based on holistic thinking and has the potential to reduce the global challenges in the field of nutrition. Scientists, stakeholders, multipliers and consumers are asked to consider environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects in addition to the biological (health) aspects.

  8. Nutritional Genomics, Polyphenols, Diets, and Their Impact on Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional genomics offers a way to optimize human health and the quality of life. It is an attractive endeavor, but one with substantial challenges. It encompasses almost all known aspects of science, ranging from the genomes of humans, plants and microorganisms, to the highest levels of food science, analytical science, computing and statistics of large systems, as well as human behavior. The underlying biochemistry that is targeted by the principal issues in nutritional genomics is described and entails genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. A major feature relevant to nutritional genomics is the single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that interact with nutrients and other bioactive food components. These genetic changes may lead to alterations in absorption, metabolism and functional responses to bioactive nutritional factors. Bioactive food components may also regulate gene expression at the transcriptome, protein abundance and/or protein turnover levels. Even if all of these variables are known, additional variables to be taken into account include the nutritional variability of the food (unprocessed and processed), the amount that is actually eaten, and the eating-related behaviors of those consuming the food. These challenges are explored within the context of soy intake. Finally, the importance of international co-operation in nutritional genomics research is presented. PMID:18954579

  9. Effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rogil José de Almeida; Luchini, Andrea; Both, Alessandro Soares; Precoma, Leonardo Brandao; Champoski, Ana Flavia; Schuh, Maynara Leonardi; Torres, Renan Pedro de Almeida; Noronha, Lucia; Pessoa, Bernardo Molinari; Torres, Lucas Antonio de Almeida; Serci, Nicole Francesca de França; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim

    2014-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. New Zealand male albino rabbits (n 21) were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1; n 11), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet, and group 2 (G2; n 10), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet enriched with flaxseed flour. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and fasting blood glucose were determined at the start of the experiment and on the day of killing (8th week). Choroid and sclera samples were subjected to haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses with the anti-oxidised LDL antibody. Sensory retina samples were subjected to an immunohistochemical analysis with the primary monoclonal nitrotyrosine antibody. At the end of the experiment, a significant increase was observed in TC and LDL-C concentrations in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·008 and P= 0·02, respectively). HE staining revealed a significant increase in choroid-sclera complex thickness in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (Pchoroid and sclera samples with the anti-oxidised LDL marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (Pchoroid-sclera complex thickness of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits and the expression of oxidised LDL in the choroid-sclera complex as well as the expression of nitrotyrosine in the sensory retina.

  10. Gluten-Free Diet: Nutrition and Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graham flour Kamut Semolina Spelt Avoid unless labeled 'gluten-free' In general, avoid the following foods unless ... Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Folate Not sticking to the gluten-free diet If you accidentally eat a product ...

  11. Crude protein level of pre-starter diets and nutritive solution for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP levels and the use of a nutritive solution via drinking water on the performance of pre-starter broilers. A total of 1,224 male Avian Farm chicks, from one to 40 days of age were used. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of three initial body weights (low: 41 g, standard: 45 g and high: 49 g; two crude protein levels at the pre-starter phase (22 and 25% CP,with or without the addition of a nutritive solution, whose nutritional level was similar to the 25% CP pre-starter diet, at a concentration of 5% of the drinking water. Each treatment included six replicates and 17 chicks per experimental unit. At the end of the pre-starter phase, all hens received a diet with 22% CP until day 21 and a diet with 20% CP from the 21st to the 40th day. The use of the pre-starter diet with higher nutritional levels and the nutritive solution enhanced broiler performance. The early nutrient supply via drinking water resulted in better broiler performance and uniformity. However, birds with low initial body weight continued to present lower body weight at market age.

  12. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (Pdiets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, Pdiets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection.

  13. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  14. Nutritional intake and overall diet quality of female soccer players before the competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the dietary intake and overall diet quality of female soccer players before the competitive games. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 21 women aged 20.8±4.5 years from a professional soccer team. Their nutritional status and dietary adequacy during the training period, before competition season, were assessed. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-hour recalls, one food frequency questionnaire, and the Healthy Eating Index, an overall diet quality index based on food group intake. Results: The athletes have shown proper nutritional status, but a diet deficient in energy due largely to low carbohydrate intake. On the other hand, the intakes of protein, fatty acids, and sodium were above the recommended intakes, even for athletes. Diet quality assessment by the Healthy Eating Index - 2010 resulted in a mean score of 54.6 points of a maximum of 100, indicating a need of improving the overall diet quality. Conclusion: The study found that the dietary patterns of female football players were both quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate. A nutritional intervention is indicated to improve diet quality, with the inclusion of various foods, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and better protein quality, along with a reduction in saturated fats, sodium, and added sugar.

  15. Diet and nutrition therapy in pre-liver transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neha Bakshi; Kalyani Singh

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is universaly prevalent among pre-liver transplantation patients. Malnutrition among cirrhotic patients had been associated to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Also, severely malnourished patients before the transplant surgery have a higher rate of complications and a decreased overal survival rate after liver transplantation. In light of the high incidence of malnutrition and associated complications, it is essential to initiate treatment as early as it is assessed. This review addresses the aetiologies of malnutrition and appropriate treatment strategies to correct it in pre-liver transplant phase. Treatment should focus on maintaining nutrient intake and correcting various nutritional deifciencies. The dietician plays an integral role as part of the transplant team by providing appropriate nutrition therapy for solving various nutrition problems.

  16. Nutritional update for physicians: plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity.

  17. Comparing nutritional requirements, provision and intakes among patients prescribed therapeutic diets in hospital: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Megan; Desbrow, Ben; Roberts, Shelley

    Nutrition is an important part of recovery for hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to and consumed by patients prescribed a therapeutic diet. Patients (N = 110) prescribed a therapeutic diet (texture-modified, low-fiber, oral fluid, or food allergy or intolerance diets) for medical or nutritional reasons were recruited from six wards of a tertiary hospital. Complete (24-h) dietary provisions and intakes were directly observed and analyzed for energy (kJ) and protein (g) content. A chart audit gathered demographic, clinical, and nutrition-related information to calculate each patient's disease-specific estimated energy and protein requirements. Provisions and intake were considered adequate if they met ≥75% of the patient's estimated requirements. Mean energy and protein provided to patients (5844 ± 2319 kJ, 53 ± 30 g) were significantly lower than their mean estimated requirements (8786 ± 1641 kJ, 86 ± 18 g). Consequently, mean nutrition intake (4088 ± 2423 kJ, 37 ± 28 g) were significantly lower than estimated requirements. Only 37% (41) of patients were provided with and 18% (20) consumed adequate nutrition to meet their estimated requirements. No therapeutic diet provided adequate food to meet the energy and protein requirements of all recipients. Patients on oral fluid diets had the highest estimated requirements (9497 ± 1455 kJ, 93 ± 16 g) and the lowest nutrient provision (3497 ± 1388 kJ, 25 ± 19 g) and intake (2156 ± 1394 kJ, 14 ± 14 g). Hospitalized patients prescribed therapeutic diets (particularly fluid-only diets) are at risk for malnutrition. Further research is required to determine the most effective strategies to improve nutritional provision and intake among patients prescribed therapeutic diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritive utilization of protein and digestive utilization of fat in two commercial diets designed for clinical enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I

    1990-01-01

    The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.

  20. NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN WESTERN HOOLOCK GIBBON DUE TO ADVERSE CHANGES IN DIET PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrajit Deb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Habitat destruction and hunting are one of the major threats to endangered western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock in India. Due to large scale deforestation, important feeding and roosting tress are destroyed thereby creating shortage of food all-round the year. In non-availability of preferred food, these gibbons are bound to switch their diet and eat a diet of less nutritive value. This unwanted diet-switch may lead to severe nutritional stress leading to low population densities, reduced litter and a breach in their nutritional threshold may also cause sudden die-off. Acute food supply may cause deficiency of total energy and protein supply in primates which may ultimately lead to a variety of severe immune dysfunctions and an impaired resilience. It is being well known that degraded habitat leads to increase of parasite among primates, which leads to the decimation of the weak and the vulnerable. Weak immune system due to improper diet and nutrition may lead to parasite colonization, growth and fecundity.

  1. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet help prevent or relieve constipation? If a child is constipated, try not to give him or her too many foods with little or no fiber, such as ​cheese chips fast food ice cream meat prepared foods, such as ...

  2. Nutrition issues in developing countries: part I, diarrheal diseases, part II, diet and activity during pregnancy and lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Nutrition and Diarrheal Control

    1992-01-01

    ... and Lactation Subcommittee on Nutrition and Diarrheal Diseases Control Subcommittee on Diet, Physical Activity, and Pregnancy Outcome Committee on International Nutrition Programs Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original h...

  3. Is maternal nutrition knowledge more strongly associated with the diets of mothers or their school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-08-01

    Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  5. [Texture modified diet; digestibility, nutritional value, and contributions to menu of hospitals and nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irles Rocamora, Jose Antonio; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-21

    Texture modified diet is a significant loss of the organoleptic qualities of the feed, so often associated with suboptimal intake and can increase the risk of malnutrition in people with chewing or swallowing difficulties. It is known that these diets based on traditional ground, have varying nutritional adequacy. The emergence of numerous commercial products lyophilized or ready to eat, with a wide variety of nutritional value, according to the range and recipe is concerned, represent an important step in the normalization of nutritional value and food security in people with dysphagia. This review discussed the possible advantages or disadvantages compared to traditional ground, and the possibilities of inclusion in the menu of hospitals and nursing homes.

  6. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  7. Nutritional Programming of Lifespan by FOXO Inhibition on Sugar-Rich Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Dobson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of unhealthy diets is exacerbating the burden of age-related ill health in aging populations. Such diets can program mammalian physiology to cause long-term, detrimental effects. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, an unhealthy, high-sugar diet in early adulthood programs lifespan to curtail later-life survival despite subsequent dietary improvement. Excess dietary sugar promotes insulin-like signaling, inhibits dFOXO—the Drosophila homolog of forkhead box O (FOXO transcription factors—and represses expression of dFOXO target genes encoding epigenetic regulators. Crucially, dfoxo is required both for transcriptional changes that mark the fly’s dietary history and for nutritional programming of lifespan by excess dietary sugar, and this mechanism is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our study implicates FOXO factors, the evolutionarily conserved determinants of animal longevity, in the mechanisms of nutritional programming of animal lifespan.

  8. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-02-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96).

  9. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  10. Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and diet quality in Australian military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullen, Charina J; Farrugia, Jamie-Lee; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T

    2016-04-01

    A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. This study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. A convenience sample of male military personnel (n 211) including Army soldiers and officers completed a validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) and FFQ. The GNKQ assessed knowledge of dietary guidelines (Section A), sources of nutrients (Section B), choosing everyday foods (Section C) and diet-disease relationships (Section D). The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was used to assess diet quality from FFQ data. Statistical analyses included the χ 2 test, Spearman's correlation test, t test, median test, ANCOVA and ordinal logistic regression. The mean total GNKQ score was 52·7 %. Participants performed best on Section A (58·5 %) followed by Sections B (57·3 %) and C (57·0 %) and worst on Section D (31·0 %). Overall, officers scored significantly higher than soldiers (58·7 v. 51·9 %, P=0·001). Age was weakly but positively correlated with GNKQ total scores (r 0·307; P<0·0005), with no significant effects seen for level of education (P=0·463) or living arrangement (P=0·167). Overall ARFS was 37·6 (sd 7·7) (50·8 %) with officers scoring significantly higher than soldiers (54·7 v. 50·3 %, P=0·040). No demographic variables influenced total ARFS. The total GNKQ score had a significant, positive but weak relationship with total ARFS (r 0·179; P=0·009). Given the importance of nutrition to personnel health and operational readiness, initiatives to improve nutrition knowledge and diet quality are recommended in this population, especially in soldiers.

  11. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to make a concise review of the published dietary requirements of fishes for amino acids, (2) to describe recent findings at the Tunison Laboratory concerning amino acid nutrition of trout, (3) to review specific signs of deficiency of amino acids, and (4) to discuss use of the fish egg amino acid pattern as a guideline to formulating new feeds or studying amino acid requirements of fishes for which there is limited information on their quantitative requirements.

  13. Effect of cholesterol lowering on stiffness of aortic and femoral arterial walls in rabbits on a high fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li; XU Wan-hai; XU Jin-zhi; ZHANG Tong; BI Hong-yuan; SHEN Bao-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Background Researches in arterial elasticity have increased over the past few years. We investigated the effects of simvastatin on vascular stiffness in fat fed rabbits by ultrasonography.Methods Thirty rabbits were assigned randomly to 3 groups: normal control group (A), the cholesterol group (B), simvastatin group (C: high fat diet for 4 weeks and high fat diet + simvastatin for further 4 weeks). Stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and velocity of pulse waves in abdominal aorta and femoral artery were measured by ultrasonographic echo tracking at the end of the 4th and the 8th weeks.Results At the end of the 4th week, stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity of femoral artery were significantly increased in group B compared with those in group A. Similarly, at the end of the 8th week, the same parameters of abdominal aorta were significantly increased in group B compared with those in group A. In contrast, stiffness coefficient, pressure strain elastic modulus and pulse wave velocity of femoral artery were significantly decreased in group C compared with those in group B, however, there was no significant difference in parameters of abdominal aorta between groups B and C.Conclusion Short term administration of simvastatin can improve the elasticity of femoral artery but not abdominal aorta.

  14. Plasma and Aorta Biochemistry and MMPs Activities in Female Rabbit Fed Methionine Enriched Diet and Their Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouichat Bouguerra, Souhila; Benazzoug, Yasmina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each n = 8), nonpregnant control (NPC), pregnant control (PC) that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet), and pregnant Met (PMet) that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w) for 3 months (500 mg/d). All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies. Plasma results showed that Met excess increased Hcy, raised CRP in NPMet and decreased it in PMet, enhanced significantly proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities in NPMet, and reduced them in PMet. Aorta showed a rise in collagen level, essentially in PMet, a reduction of elastin content in both PMet and NPMet, and a significant decrease in lipid content in PMet, with histological changes that are more pronounced in NPMet than PMet. Met excess enhanced proMMP-9 activities in NPMet while it decreased them in PMet. PMet newborn presented increase in uremia and CRP and significant rise of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 forms. In aorta, media and adventitia thickness increased, total lipids content decreased, proMMP-9 activity decreased, and proMMP-2 activity increased. PMID:28133545

  15. Plasma and Aorta Biochemistry and MMPs Activities in Female Rabbit Fed Methionine Enriched Diet and Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khira Othmani Mecif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each n=8, nonpregnant control (NPC, pregnant control (PC that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet, and pregnant Met (PMet that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w for 3 months (500 mg/d. All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies. Plasma results showed that Met excess increased Hcy, raised CRP in NPMet and decreased it in PMet, enhanced significantly proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities in NPMet, and reduced them in PMet. Aorta showed a rise in collagen level, essentially in PMet, a reduction of elastin content in both PMet and NPMet, and a significant decrease in lipid content in PMet, with histological changes that are more pronounced in NPMet than PMet. Met excess enhanced proMMP-9 activities in NPMet while it decreased them in PMet. PMet newborn presented increase in uremia and CRP and significant rise of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 forms. In aorta, media and adventitia thickness increased, total lipids content decreased, proMMP-9 activity decreased, and proMMP-2 activity increased.

  16. The nutritional adequacy of a limited vegan diet for a controlled ecological life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.

    Purdue University, as well as the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers and NASA Ames Research Center, are investigating approximately 5-10 plants that will be grown hydroponically to provide not only the energy and nutrients, but also the oxygen for humans habitating in Mars and lunar bases. The growth and nutritional status of rats fed either a control diet (adequate in all macro- and micronutrients) or a strict vegetarian diet consisting of 5 (vegan-5) or 10 (vegan-10) candidate crop species were investigated. In addition, vegan-10 diets were supplemented with mineral and/or vitamin mix at a level similar to the control diets to assess the effect of supplementation on nutrient status. The assessment of inedible plant material as an alternative food source was also investigated. Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of the vegan-10 diet significantly improved weight gain of rats compared to that for rats fed the vegan-5 diet. Mineral supplementation, at a level present in the control diet, to the vegan-10 diet improved growth and nutrient status, but growth was significantly lower compared to the control-fed rats. Inclusion of inedible plant material, high in ash content, improved some indices of nutrient status, without improving growth.

  17. Nutritional epidemiology: New perspectives for understanding the diet-disease relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, H

    2013-05-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is a subdiscipline of epidemiology and provides specific knowledge to nutritional science. It provides data about the diet-disease relationships that is transformed by Public Health Nutrition into the practise of prevention. The specific contributions of nutritional epidemiology include dietary assessment, description of nutritional exposure and statistical modelling of the diet-disease relationship. In all these areas, substantial progress has been made over the last years and is described in this article. Dietary assessment is moving away from the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as main dietary assessment instrument in large-scale epidemiological studies towards the use of short-term quantitative instruments due to the potential of gross measurement errors. Web-based instruments for self-administration are therefore evaluated of being able to replace the costly interviewer conducted 24-h-recalls. Much interest is also directed towards the technique of taking and analysing photographs of all meals ingested, which might improve the dietary assessment in terms of precision. The description of nutritional exposure could greatly benefit from standardisation of the coding of foods across studies in order to improve comparability. For the investigations of bioactive substances as reflecting nutritional intake and status, the investigation of concentration measurements in body fluids as potential biomarkers will benefit from the new high-throughput technologies of mass spectrometry. Statistical modelling of the dietary data and the diet-disease relationships can refer to complex programmes that convert quantitative short-term measurements into habitual intakes of individuals and correct for the errors in the estimates of the diet-disease relationships by taking data from validation studies with biomarkers into account. For dietary data, substitution modelling should be preferred over simple adding modelling. More attention should also be put

  18. Reaching Nutritional Adequacy Does Not Necessarily Increase Exposure to Food Contaminants: Evidence from a Whole-Diet Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Tangui; Vieux, Florent; Perignon, Marlène; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Micard, Valérie; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Dietary guidelines are designed to help meet nutritional requirements, but they do not explicitly or quantitatively account for food contaminant exposures. In this study, we aimed to test whether dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy were compatible with acceptable exposure to food contaminants. Data from the French national dietary survey were linked with food contaminant data from the French Total Diet Study to estimate the mean intake of 204 representative food items and mean exposure to 27 contaminants, including pesticides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds. For each sex, 2 modeled diets that departed the least from the observed diet were designed: 1) a diet respecting only nutritional recommendations (NUT model), and 2) a diet that met nutritional recommendations without exceeding Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs) and observed contaminant exposures (NUTOX model). Food, nutrient, and contaminant contents in observed diets and NUT and NUTOX diets were compared with the use of paired t tests. Mean observed diets did not meet all nutritional recommendations, but no contaminant was over 48% of its TRV. Achieving all the nutrient recommendations through the NUT model mainly required increases in fruit, vegetable, and fish intake and decreases in meat, cheese, and animal fat intake. These changes were associated with significantly increased dietary exposure to some contaminants, but without exceeding 57% of TRVs. The highest increases were found for NDL-PCBs (from 26% to 57% of TRV for women). Reaching nutritional adequacy without exceeding observed contaminant exposure (NUTOX model) was possible but required further departure from observed food quantities. Based on a broad range of nutrients and contaminants, this first assessment of compatibility between nutritional adequacy and toxicological exposure showed that reaching nutritional adequacy might increase exposure to food

  19. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  20. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  1. Evaluation of flaxseed effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rabbits submitted to a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tatim Saad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of flaxseed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as on the lipid profile in rabbits submitted to hypercholesterolemic diet. Subject and Methods: 32 male rabbits, weighing approximately 1.5kg and averaging four months of age, were distributed into three groups. Group 1 received standard food plus 0.5% of cholesterol from dried egg, during 8 weeks. Group 2 obtained the same diet in the first 4 weeks, and 8mg/kg of ground flaxseed was added in the remaining weeks. Lastly, group 3 was fed with the previous group’s increased diet throughout the entire period. In the follow-up, the animals were euthanized, and liver blades were prepared to evaluate the histopathologic study. The evaluation score of NAFLD (ESN, as well as plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight, were all determined. Results: Increased levels of total cholesterol were obtained in both groups, with the smallest variation found in G3 (p=0.002. This variation was also found when the levels of LDLcholesterol were assessed (p=0.001. There was a reduction of triglyceride levels at the end of the study in G3 (p=0.008. A variation was noticed between the ESN groups, but the induced reduction was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary, in order to elucidate the effects of flaxseed in NAFLD as well as in diseases that have risk factors for the development of the disease

  2. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  3. Diet density in rearing and reproductive phases influences carcass composition, pregnancy rate and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phase×diet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2×2×2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter. The reference diet (RD contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP, 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE. The low-density diet (LD had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574±47 vs. 3866±43 g, P=0.0001 and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8±10.0 vs. 102.1±9.6 g, P=0.048 and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045. The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055±40 g vs. 3887±41 g, P=0.0044. The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16±0.47 vs. 3.93±0.71, P=0.0361. Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582±201 vs. 4733±187, P<0.0001. Feeding a low-density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the

  4. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  5. Nutritive value of linseed oil in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roveda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy content of the diets is the major factor that affect feed intake in poultry. Fats and oils are the most concentrated sources of energy, but also those from which the availability and, therefore, the metabolizable energy content show the greatest variation (Blanch et al., 1996. This variation is influenced by several factors as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (Vilà et al., 1996a, Castrovilli et al., 1994 and percentage of free fatty acids (Vilà et al., 1996b. Another source of variation is the animal’s age:Wiseman and Salvador (1989 reported an improvement in the utilisation of dietary fats by broilers to adult birds...

  6. A longitudinal cross-over study of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in rabbits fed on semipurified diets containing either casein or soybean protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.; Woodward, C.J.H.; West, C.E.; Boven, van H.G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Two groups, each of six rabbits, were fed on semi-purified diets containing either 400 g casein or 400 g soya-bean protein/kg for 20 d and then the diets of the two groups were crossed-over. 2. Just before the cross-over, the serum cholesterol concentration (mean ± SE) was 3068 ± 592 and 800 ± 14

  7. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Beilharz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of vital importance to understand how the foods which are making us fat also act to impair cognition. In this review, we compare the effects of acute and chronic exposure to high-energy diets on cognition and examine the relative contributions of fat (saturated and polyunsaturated and sugar to these deficits. Hippocampal-dependent memory appears to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of high-energy diets and these deficits can occur rapidly and prior to weight gain. More chronic diet exposure seems necessary however to impair other sorts of memory. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed to underlie diet-induced cognitive decline and we will focus on inflammation and the neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Finally, given supplementation of diets with omega-3 and curcumin has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function in healthy ageing humans and in disease states, we will discuss how these nutritional interventions may attenuate diet-induced cognitive decline. We hope this approach will provide important insights into the causes of diet-induced cognitive deficits, and inform the development of novel therapeutics to prevent or ameliorate such memory impairments.

  8. Let Food Be Thy Medicine: Diet, Nutrition, and Biomarkers' Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Lisa; McHugh, Pauline F

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence linking diet-one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors-and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most common cause of dementia-is rapidly increasing. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dietary nutrients, brain aging, and risk of AD are largely unexplored. Recent studies using brain imaging and biological markers of AD have begun to clarify how diet and nutrition modulate risk of AD in cognitively normal individuals, especially those at increased genetic risk. Such knowledge is critical prior to implementing dietary recommendations for prevention and treatment of disease.

  9. Odd-numbered medium-chain triglycerides (trinonanoin) in total parenteral nutrition: effects on parameters of fat metabolism in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linseisen, J; Wolfram, G

    1993-01-01

    Odd-numbered medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) might combine the advantages of "usual" MCTs applied in clinical nutrition with lower ketogenic action and the release of three carbon units. To test subacute toxicity, trinonanoin/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) (7/3 wt/wt) fat emulsions were given to rabbits (n = 8) for 11 days (7 h/d) within a total parenteral nutrition regimen at a dose of 46.5% of total daily energy. Comparisons were made with rabbits receiving equicaloric amounts of MCT/LCT (7/3, wt/wt) or pure LCT fat emulsions, as well as with orally fed controls. The trinonanoin/LCT emulsion was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight changes showed no statistically significant differences between groups. The enzymatic determination of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and free glycerol concentrations in plasma samples revealed similar results for both MCT groups. However, ketone body concentrations (3-hydroxybutyrate) were significantly lower after trinonanoin/LCT emulsion administration. In the trinonanoin/LCT group, the plasma concentrations of propionic acid as well as of other short-chain fatty acids continuously increased; on days 10 and 11, elevated amounts of propionic acid were also detected in the urine. The histologic examination of the gut mucosa revealed no distinct differences between groups. On the basis of the presented data, the trinonanoin/LCT emulsion showed no inferiority to "usual" MCT/LCT emulsions. The lower ketogenic effect as well as the marked increase in plasma short-chain fatty acid concentrations may encourage further testing of this substrate for total parenteral nutrition.

  10. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

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    Isis Danyelle Dias Custódio

    Full Text Available Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC. In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R, and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32 and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30. However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27 were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31 of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status

  11. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with an

  12. Nutritional value of feed used in diets for Saanen goats

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    Bruna Hygino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to characterize feed used in diets for Saanen goats. The feedstuffs were: Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp., soybean meal, ground corn, soybean hulls, ground ear corn and dried cassava residue. Contents were determined for dry matter, ash, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, physically effective fiber and lignin, and organic matter, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were estimated. Carbohydrates were divided into fractions A + B1 (rapidly degradable, B2 (potentially degradable and C (non-degradable; and the protein in fractions A (soluble, B1 (rapid ruminal degradation, B2 (intermediate degradation, B3 (slow degradation and C (indigestible. To determine the gas production an automatic technique in vitro was used, modified by Ankom®. Significant differences were observed among feed for the parameters A, B, C, E and A + D of ruminal degradation kinetics, and feed with high non-fibrous carbohydrates content presented higher fraction A (rapid degradation, and the hay showed longer lag time (fraction C. The total gas production was higher for ground corn, ground ear corn and dried cassava residue.

  13. Let Food Be Thy Medicine: Diet, Nutrition, and Biomarkers’ Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Mosconi, Lisa; McHugh, Pauline F.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence linking diet—one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors—and risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—the most common cause of dementia—is rapidly increasing. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dietary nutrients, brain aging, and risk of AD are largely unexplored. Recent studies using brain imaging and biological markers of AD have begun to clarify how diet and nutrition modulate risk of AD in cognitively normal individuals, espe...

  14. Diet-Induced Nutritional Stress and Pathogen Interference in Wolbachia-Infected Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragata, Eric Pearce; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Simões, Taynãna César; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype’s causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti, and on physiological processes linked to the phenotype. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were fed one of four different concentrations of sucrose, and then challenged with either P. gallinaceum or DENV. Interference against P. gallinaceum was significantly weakened by the change in diet however there was no effect on DENV interference. Immune gene expression and H2O2 levels have previously been linked to pathogen interference. These traits were assayed for mosquitoes on each diet using RT-qPCR and the Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit, and it was observed that the change in diet did not significantly affect immune expression, but low carbohydrate levels led to a loss of ROS induction in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Our data suggest that host nutrition may not influence DENV interference for Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, but Plasmodium interference may be linked to both nutrition and oxidative stress. This pathogen-specific response to nutritional change highlights the complex nature of interactions between Wolbachia and pathogens in mosquitoes. PMID:27893736

  15. THE USE OF SELECTED TRITICALE AND RYE VARIETIES IN RABBIT DIETS: EFFECT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, DIGESTIBILITY AND BALANCE OF NUTRIENTS

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    Renáta Szabóová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work was to compare the quality of two types of cereals. Grains of rye (Secale cereale L. variety Fernando, and triticale (Tritico secale variety Kendo were tested for their suitability for nutrition of monogastric animals. The subjects of biological testing were complete feed mixtures with 22.5% portion of those cereals. The tests were performed with broiler rabbits. Others components in the feed mixture had the same quality. Both complete feed mixtures were different in average content of individual nutrients. Higher content of crude protein, crude fibre and lower content of fat and nitrogen free extract in triticale variety Kendo increased the value of digestible and metabolizable energy in the mixture. Significant differences were in digestibility of dry matter, fat, organic matter (P<0.05 and neutral detergent fibre (P<0.01 in mixture with rye. Results of balance experiment for nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were similar for both tested cereals (% of retention for rye N 68.12 %; Ca 81.6%; P 60.1%, and for triticale N 68.12%; Ca 81.9%; P 69.7%, resp.. With regard to average content of nutrients. There is recommend for practical utilization of mixture containing triticale and rye for the finishing phase of fattening in broiler rabbits. The nutrients composition of mixture with rye or triticale (crude protein 170 - 175 g, fat 18 - 26 g, fibre 154 - 158 g, starch 161 g and metabolizable energy 9.4 – 9.7 MJ. kg -1 are also preferable from a physiological point of view of rabbits.

  16. Nutritional analysis of blenderized enteral diets in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary M; Sorreda-Esguerra, Pearl; Platon, Maria Bernadette; Castro, Cynthia G; Chou, Nancy R; Shott, Susan; Comer, Gail M; Alarcon, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the nutritional quality and viscosity of blenderized enteral tube feedings (BTFs) from four hospitals in the Philippines. Samples of two different BTFs (one standard and one modified) were collected from each hospital on three separate occasions and analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and viscosity. There was considerable variation among the BTFs for the concentrations of most nutrients measured. For standard BTF samples, the caloric density ranged from 66-123 kcal/100g and the percentages of total weight for protein, carbohydrate, and fat ranged from 1.5-4.0%, 8.6-21.4%, and 0.27-3.40%, respectively. Levels of specific vitamins were undetectable in 10 standard and 15 modified BTF samples. In samples where vitamin levels were detectable, results were: vitamin A, 625-8850 IU/kg; riboflavin, 0.40-5.00 mg/kg; and pyridoxine, 0.14-3.00 mg/kg. Mineral concentrations also varied greatly (eg calcium, 64-524 mg/kg; sodium, 148-886 mg/kg; iron, 3.0-13.7 mg/kg; and zinc, 1.8- 11.5 mg/kg). Correlation coefficients were statistically significant only for carbohydrate (r = 0.48, P = 0.017). Measured values tended to be lower than expected values for all nutrients, although the difference was statistically significant only for calories (P = 0.023). The viscosity of BTF samples ranged from 2.3-45,060 centipoise, excluding three samples that were too viscous for analysis. This study demonstrates that hospital prepared blenderized enteral tube feedings render unpredictable levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and appear likely to deliver less than the desired amounts of nutrients. Additionally, the viscosity of these feedings may be unsuitable for infusion through feeding tubes.

  17. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets

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    Roseli Borghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blenderized tube diets (BTD are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions.

  18. Research on Athletic Training and Nutritional Supplement of Sugar and Protein in Diet

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    Zhan Mi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has the significance of revealing that the human being originates from the sports and develops with the sports, the human being is closely related with the sports. Through exercise, the energy is consumed, but at same time, the health is enhanced. For professional athletic training, the energy replacement shall be made in a scientific, careful and comprehensive way. Through supplement of nutritional ingredients such as sugar and protein etc., in diet, the human metabolism will be enhanced and the cardio-pulmonary function can be improved. Therefore, how to realize the most effective athletic training and energy supplement is an important subject for long term study. By means of the methods such as documentary analysis, data comparison and case analysis etc., the issues existing in athletic training and supplement of sugar and protein in diet are studied, so as to realize the best athletic training and nutritional supplement. The research conclusion lies in that the athletic training and nutritional supplement of sugar and protein in diet not only make the athletes recover and improve their energy, but also play an active guaranteeing role for athletic training.

  19. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Roseli; Dutra Araujo, Thalita; Airoldi Vieira, Roberta Ianni; Theodoro de Souza, Telma; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2013-11-01

    Blenderized tube diets (BTD) are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge amongst adolescent girls about nutritive value of foods and diet during diseases, pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, U; Bhasin, S; Manocha, S

    1991-10-01

    Knowledge about nutritive value of food, diet during diseases and antenatal and postnatal period was assessed amongst 152 adolescent school girls. A total of 23.69 and 55.93% students had incorrect knowledge that pulses and non-vegetarian foods should be avoided during later half of the pregnancy. A total of 63.82, 66.45 and 71.72% of subjects had incorrect knowledge that almonds have more nutritive value than groundnuts, fruits are rich sources of calories and desi ghee has more nutritive value than vanaspathi, respectively. Majority (90.78%) had correct knowledge that obesity is caused due to excess intake of calories than required by an individual and low iron content and poor availability of iron from food is a major cause of anemia in mothers and children.

  1. All-trans-Retinoic Acid Ameliorated High Fat Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits by Inhibiting Platelet Activation and Inflammation

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    Birong Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA is effective for many proliferative diseases. We investigated the protective effects of atRA against atherosclerosis. Methods. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive basal diet or an HFD for 4 weeks. HFD group then received rosuvastatin (3 mg/day, atRA (5 mg/kg/day, or the same volume of vehicle, respectively, for next 8 weeks. Results. HFD group showed increases in plasma lipids and aortic plaque formation. P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding on platelets or deposition on the intima of the aorta also increased significantly as did the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and fibrinogen in plasma. After 8 weeks of treatment with atRA, there was a significant decrease in plasma lipids and improvement in aortic lesions. AtRA also inhibited the expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen binding on platelets and deposition on the intima of the aorta. Conclusion. AtRA can ameliorate HFD-induced AS in rabbits by inhibiting platelet activation and inflammation.

  2. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this.

  3. Nutritional counselling and its effects on diet, nutritional knowledge and status, physical activity and quality of life in a Southern Europe population: evaluation of a health promotion programme.

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    Cecilia Quercioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Health promotion and primary prevention are key points for fighting the increase in non- communicable diseases. Aim: To test the effectiveness of a nutritional counselling programme in improving nutritional behaviours, knowledge and status, physical activity and health-related quality of life in a general population. Methods: In the period between January–December 2007, we studied the application of the nutritional counselling programme (NCP developed by Local Health Agency 10 (Florence-Italy. We compared , diet, nutritional knowledge, physical activity, health related quality of life (measured by SF36 questionnaire, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference before and after a two months intensive nutritional counselling programme using the paired t test and McNemar test. Diet, nutritional knowledge, physical activity, socio-demographic and morbidity information were collected through questionnaires. BMI and waist circumference were assessed by a medical doctor. Results: We enrolled 74 persons, 59 of whom completed the educational programme. Of these, 34 had a nutritional status assessment after the programme. Mean age was 49 years, 80% were females. BMI, waist circumference and diet, except for water intake, did not change. The percentage of people who had “never exercised in a week" decreased from 46% to 17% (p<0.001. Mean percentage of right answers to nutritional knowledge indicators increased from 64% to 78% (p<0.001. Health related quality of life (HRQL improved especially with regard to “Physical" and “Emotional Role". Conclusions: The NCP showed important results in promoting physical activity and improving HRQL and nutritional knowledge, moderate/none results in improving diet and nutritional status.

  4. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  5. Evaluation of milled pearl millet in the feeding of growing rabbits

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    Fernanda Catelan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to estimate the nutritional value and the performance of growing rabbits fed different levels of pearl millet (ADR 7010. In the digestibility trial, nutritional values of pearl millet were determined in 22 45-day-old New Zealand White rabbits, allotted in a completely randomized design, subjected to two treatments - a reference diet and a test diet with 70% of its volume composed of reference diet and 30% of pearl millet - and 11 replications. The apparent digestibility values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and gross energy of the pearl millet were 88.7, 85.4, 24.4 and 75.0%, respectively. In the performance trial, 120 32-day-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Rabbits were allotted in a completely randomized design and subjected to six treatments, with 10 replications and two animals for each experimental unit. The diets were formulated with increasing levels of pearl millet (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, substituting the corn in the reference diet, according to the digestible energy. No differences were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass traits and feed cost per kilogram of rabbit. Regardless of the amount of corn substituted, pearl can replace corn in diets for growing rabbits.

  6. Food Price Policies May Improve Diet but Increase Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system. Low-income (n = 95) and medium-income (n = 33) women selected a daily food basket first at current prices and then at policy prices. Energy density (ED) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline, low-income women selected less healthy baskets than medium-income women (less fruit and vegetables, more unhealthy products, higher ED, lower MAR). Both policies improved nutritional quality (fruit and vegetable quantities increased, ED decreased, the MAR increased), but the magnitude of the improvement was often lower among low-income women. For instance, ED decreased by 5.3% with the fruit and vegetable subsidy and by 7.3% with the mixed subsidy, whereas decreases of 13.2 and 12.6%, respectively, were recorded for the medium-income group. Finally, both policies improved dietary quality, but they increased socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

  7. [Improving diet quality in children through a new nutritional education programme: INFADIMED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Fernández-Blanco, Jordi; Pujol-Plana, Noemí; Martín-Galindo, Núria; Fernández-Vallejo, Maria Mercè; Roca-Domingo, Mariona; Chamorro-Medina, Juan; Tur, Josep A

    2017-04-11

    To assess the results of a nutritional education programme developed by using available local resources to improve diet quality and decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children. A longitudinal intervention study by means of nutritional education (INFADIMED) in children (aged 3-7 years) from Vilafranca del Penedès (Barcelona, Spain), recruited from preschool centres and primary schools, with an intervention or INFADIMED group (n=319; 50.2% female) and a control group (n=880; 49.8% female). Weight, height and body mass index were measured in both groups at the beginning and at the end of the programme. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was also assessed using the KIDMED test. Consumption of fruit or juices, vegetables, yogurt and/or cheese, pasta or rice, and nuts increased, while skipping breakfast, consumption of bakery products for breakfast, and/or consumption of sweets several times per day decreased in the INFADIMED group. INFADIMED also changed, from the beginning to the end of the study, the adherence to a Mediterranean diet: high (39.2% to 70.5%), acceptable (49.2% to 28.2%), and low (11.6% to 1.3%). Approximately 2.6% of the participants in the control group and 11.3% of the participants in the INFADIMED group who were overweight and obese changed to normal weight (odds ratio: 4.08; 95% confidence interval: 2.37-7.04). INFADIMED is a nutritional education programme with benefits on both diet quality and overweight and obesity prevalence among children. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of amino acid v peptide based enteral diets in active Crohn's disease: clinical and nutritional outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Royall, D; Jeejeebhoy, K. N.; Baker, J. P.; Allard, J P; Habal, F. M.; Cunnane, S. C.; Greenberg, G R

    1994-01-01

    Elemental diets are considered an effective primary treatment for active Crohn's disease. This study examined the hypothesis that improvement occurs because of the presence of amino acids or the low fat content, or both. A randomised, controlled trial was undertaken in 40 patients with active Crohn's disease to evaluate clinical and nutritional outcomes after an amino acid based diet containing 3% fat was given by a feeding tube compared with a peptide based diet containing 33% fat. After thr...

  9. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

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    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  10. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

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    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  11. Considerations in selection of diet assessment methods for examining the effect of nutrition on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, K; McAuley, E

    2015-03-01

    Older adults are the most rapidly growing age group in the United States, and it is estimated that 22.2 % of U.S. adults over 71 years of age have cognitive impairments without dementia and 13.9% have dementia. Cognitive impairment is associated with reduced quality of life, increased risk of hospitalization, inability to live independently, and increased health care costs; therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors for prevention and delay of cognitive decline is of increasing importance. There is a growing body of research and interest in the relationship between diet and cognitive function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that cognitive function may be improved and cognitive decline prevented as a function of a particular nutrient, food group or dietary pattern; however, results from these trials have failed to be replicated in randomized controlled trials. One possible reason for the equivocality of findings in the diet and cognitive function literature may be the methodological issues and limitations in the assessment of dietary patterns and nutritional intake. Self-reported dietary data can be biased by many factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education; yet, there is limited research on the impact of cognitive function on the integrity of self-reported dietary data. Cognitive function itself may bias diet assessment methods, subsequently obscuring the evaluation of the nutrition-cognition relationship. The present review summarizes methodological validation studies that provide insight into potential errors of diet assessment methods due to cognitive function, identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for improving diet assessment accuracy in studies of individuals with cognitive impairments.

  12. Nutritional Balance of broilers fed diets containing two calcium levels and supplemented with different phytase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCZ Donato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different calcium and phytase levels on the nutritional balance of broilers.A total of 108 male AG Ross 308 broilers were used in each of the replicates phases used in the study: starter (1-21 days, grower (29-35 days and finisher (36-42 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three phytase levels (0, 600 or 1200 FTU/kg and two calcium levels (0.94 and 0.66%; 0.84 and 0.59%; e 0.78 and 0.54% in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, totaling six treatments with six replicates each.The experimental feeds also contained reduced available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein level.The method of total excreta collection was applied to determine dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus nutritional balance.Reducing dietary calcium levels to 0.66, 0.59, and 0.54%, and using 0.27, 0.22, and 0.20% available phosphorus, 18.50, 17.50, and 16.00% crude protein, and 600 FTU phytase/kg in the diets of the starter, grower, and finisher phases, respectively, allow higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium retention in broilers.During the grower phase, there was positive linear effect of increasing phytase levels in high-calcium diets on AMEn utilization, and the optimal phytase levels for low-calcium diets was 598.71 FTU/kg.In the finisher phase, the best AMEn utilization was obtained with the high-calcium diets.

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

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    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-11

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those

  14. Between prevention and therapy: Gio Batta Gori and the National Cancer Institute's Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme, 1974-1978.

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    Cantor, David

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores the origins of the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme (DNCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its fate under its first director, Gio Batta Gori. The DNCP is used to explore the emergence of federal support for research on diet, nutrition and cancer following the 1971 Cancer Act, the complex relations between cancer prevention and therapeutics in the NCI during the 1970s, the broader politics around diet, nutrition and cancer during that decade, and their relations to Senator George McGovern's select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. It also provides a window onto the debates and struggles over whether NCI research should be funded by contracts or grants, the nature of the patronage system within the federal cancer research agency, how a director, Gio Gori, lost patronage within that system and how a tightening of the budget for cancer research in the mid-to-late 1970s affected the DNCP.

  15. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.

  16. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations.

  17. The protein participation in daily diet and nutritional status of medical students in Kraków.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarzyk, E; Ostachowska-Gasior, A; Skop, A

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of protein participation in daily diet together with anthropometric estimation of nutritional status. There were examined 150 students of Medical Faculty of Jagiellonian University. BMI and MAMC (Mid Arm Muscle Circumference) were examined in order to estimate the nutritional status. Quality of daily diet was estimated by the analysis of daily nutritional ratio (DNR). Underweight was more often observed among women (14.3% vs 5.8%), and overweight and obesity among men (13.4% vs 5.1%). Too low MAMC value was more often observed in the group of men (25% vs 2.4%). Correct MAMC value was represented by most women (86%) and with one exception they were also correct among female with underweight. Not acceptable diet showed 62.5% of male students and 46.8% of female students representing all BMI ranges. The low protein consumption frequency in every day diet showed 25% students with MAMC nutrition among examined students did not find statistically important reflection in protein nutritional status represented by MAMC value. It may confirm short time of duration of nutritional disturbances (potential shortages--no physical symptoms) and may be connected with the lack of quantity estimation of nutrition.

  18. Bee pollen supplementation in diets for rabbit does and growing rabbits - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisa Mirelle Borges Dias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effects of bee pollen (BP on the doe and kits productivity and on the carcass and organs of the rabbits. Twenty White New Zealand does and their kits were used in a randomized block design, with four treatments and five blocks, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 with two supplementation levels for the doe and for the kits after the weaning. BP supplementation for the does did not influence (p > 0.05 the doe and kit productivity during the lactation, except by the kits survival rate (p 0.05 the rabbit performance from the weaning until the slaughter age, the slaughter weight, carcass characteristics, except by the spleen and small intestine weights, higher in supplemented rabbits. It was not recommended that BP supplementation for does and/or rabbits for not improving the rabbit productive performance.  

  19. FALSE YAM (Icacina Oliviformis LEAF MEAL AS AN INGREDIENT IN THE DIET OF WEANER RABBITS (Oryctolagus Cuniculus TO IMPROVE BLOOD PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ANSAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL as a feed ingredient on the hematology of weaner rabbits. There were arranged in three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. The control diet (T0 contained 0% Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL while the treatment diets (T1and T2 contained 5% and 10% IOL, respectively. An amount of 200 g of the experimental diet was given to the animals each day while water was given ad-libitum. Initial blood samples were collected two days earlier before experimental diet was fed. Data were analyzed using Genstat Discovery Edition 3. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in (Haemoglobin Hb concentration, PCV, RBC however all the erythrocytes values increased from the initial low values to higher values. The margin of increase was higher for T1. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the treatment means for WBC, Neutrophiles, Eosinophiles, Monocytes counts in the final readings. The hematology values recorded for all the treatments fell within the normal ranges for rabbits. Feeding 5% and 10% IOL to a weaner rabbits led to an increase in erythrocytes values and could be used in feeding without any detrimental effect.

  20. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  1. [Effect of the brand and generic medicine of pravastatin on dyslipidemia in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Seiichiro; Taguchi, Mutsumi; Hayase, Nobumasa; Kaneta, Shigeru; Takaguri, Akira; Ichihara, Kazuo; Satoh, Kumi

    2009-01-01

    Mevalotin containing pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is the brand medicine and well known to be effective for patients with dyslipidemia. Now, more than 20 generic pravastatins are available for clinical therapy. We compared pharmaceutical property of Mevan,a generic pravastatin, with that of Mevalotin.According to the definition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Mevalotin 10 mg tablets were uniform in pravastatin content, whereas 5 mg tablets were rather variable. Variation in pravastatin content of Mevan 5 mg tablets was the same as Mevalotin 5 mg, whereas that of 10 mg tablets was very variable. The plasma concentration of pravastatin in the normal rabbits continuously increased until 180 min after oral administration of 30 mg Mevan, whereas it increased in a biphasic pattern after 30 mg Mevalotin.All rabbits were fed 0.2% cholesterol diet throughout the experiment. After 8 weeks, oral administration of either Mevalotin or Mevan was started at the dose of 30 mg pravastatin/day for 16 weeks. After a transient increase for a few weeks, the plasma levels of total- and LDL-cholesterol gradually decreased in Mevalotingroup, whereas these levels did not significantly changed in Mevan group within 16 weeks. The level of HDL-cholesterol in Mevan group tended to increase but not in Mevalotin group. The triglyceride level in Mevan group changed as well as that in Mevalotin group until 10 weeks after administration, and then gradually increased. The present results suggest that pharmaceutical properties of Mevan are not always identical with those of Mevalotin.

  2. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ventanas, J; Toldrá, F

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured ham is a traditional product with a strong presence in markets in the Mediterranean area. It is very popular with European consumers and is of enormous economic importance for the meat industry in the Mediterranean area. Although the great palatability of ham largely outweighs other considerations, aspects relating to health and wellbeing are increasingly important factors in consumer decisions. The potential role of ham in a context of healthy nutrition has not been clearly elucidated, especially considering that origins and production methods of dry-cured hams can induce differences in composition. The object of this review was on the one hand to provide an analysis of the components of dry-cured ham and their role in a healthy diet, and on the other hand to suggest possible strategies for improving its nutritional composition.

  3. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... vitamin D might enhance the effect of interferon beta on MS disease activity. The National MS Society ...

  4. The role of nutrition and diet in Alzheimer disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rusha

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrition in modulating Alzheimer disease (AD) remains uncertain. Persons ingesting a Mediterranean-type diet appear to be less likely to develop AD. Epidemiologically, food combinations rich in antioxidant vitamins reduced the risk of AD. Combination formulas (eg, Souvenaid) appear to have small effects on cognition. B-vitamin supplements were mostly disappointing with inconsistent findings, except in countries where bread is not fortified with folate. They were generally negative, as were studies investigating omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Based on this review, a Mediterranean diet and/or a combination supplement, such as Souvenaid, appear to be the most beneficial approaches with the least possible adverse effects to slowing the progression of AD.

  5. Let Food Be Thy Medicine: Diet, Nutrition, and Biomarkers’ Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Lisa; McHugh, Pauline F.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence linking diet—one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors—and risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—the most common cause of dementia—is rapidly increasing. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dietary nutrients, brain aging, and risk of AD are largely unexplored. Recent studies using brain imaging and biological markers of AD have begun to clarify how diet and nutrition modulate risk of AD in cognitively normal individuals, especially those at increased genetic risk. Such knowledge is critical prior to implementing dietary recommendations for prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:26167396

  6. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Cao, Hai-Xia

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets--the Indian Migration Study (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Dhillon, Preet Kaur; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-06-04

    The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p Vegetarians had a higher socioeconomic status, and were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol (p vegetarians consumed more carbohydrates (β = 7.0 g/day (95% CI: 9.9 to 4.0), p vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians.

  8. Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Methods Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Results Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p Vegetarians had a higher socioeconomic status, and were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol (p vegetarians consumed more carbohydrates (β = 7.0 g/day (95% CI: 9.9 to 4.0), p vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians. PMID:24899080

  9. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  10. Nutritional Analysis of Rabbit Meat Fermented Sausage%兔肉发酵香肠营养分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰; 蒋云升; 张文娟; 董立伟; 张伍金; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To prepare rabbit meat fermented sausage with Staphylococcus xylosus C18, Lactobacillus plantation L26, and Debaryo-myces Hansenula Y36 as starter, in order to obtain rabbit meat sausage products which were significantly improved in nutritive value conditions. [ Method ] Rabbit meat sausages inoculated separately with these three strains, or together with all three strains mixed proportionally were compared with that of the control group. The index of free amino acid ( FAA) and free fatty acids (FFA) contained in the products were later analyzed and studied. [Result] The total essential amino acid content in C18 group was the highest although its content of lysinate (Lys) was less than that of group L26 and Y36, and the lipid decomposition capacity of C18 and Y36 exceeded that of L26 while the protein decomposition capacity of them were inferior to L26. [Conclusion] The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA) in multi-fermentated sausages increased; the nutrition value of rabbit meat sausages inoculated with certain strains overtopped groups inoculated with none; the percent of glycine (Gly) in group L26, and serine (Ser) in group C18 both raised, leading to improved sweet taste, and besides, the contents of bitter-taste kinds of amino acid like valine ( Val), methionine ( Met), and isoleucine ( He) were the, lowest.%[目的]以木糖葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus xylosus)C18、植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)L26、德巴利汉逊氏酵母(Debaryomyces hansenula)Y36为发酵剂制作兔肉发酵香肠,以获得营养价值得到显著改善的兔肉发酵香肠制品.[方法]以3种菌单独接种及混合接种兔肉香肠与对照组作比较,选取其所含游离氨基酸、游离脂肪酸进行分析研究.[结果]C18组必需氨基酸总量最高(C18组赖氨酸含量低于L26和Y36组);C18和Y36对脂类的分解能力高于L26,对蛋白质的水解作用则低于L26.[结论]3种菌复合发酵的香肠多不饱和脂

  11. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  12. Adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brants, H A; Löwik, M R; Westenbrink, S; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C

    1990-08-01

    To assess the adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age, the dietary intake (assessed through dietary history with cross-check) of 44 apparently healthy lacto-(ovo-)vegetarians, aged 65-97 years, was evaluated. Adequacy was assessed by a comparison of nutrient intake with (Dutch) recommendations and by evaluating data on nutritional status. The results were also compared with data of elderly omnivores. In contrast to elderly omnivores, percentages of energy from protein (13%), fat (37%), and carbohydrates (50%) as well as P/S ratio (0.63) were close to or within the range of Dutch guidelines regarding a healthy diet (percentages of energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates 10-15, 30-35, and 55%, respectively: P/S ratio 0.5-1.0). For most of the micronutrients studied intake was adequate, and nutrient density of the vegetarian diet was higher than of the omnivorous diet. However, the supply of zinc (average daily intake 8.5 and 7.6 mg for men and women, respectively), iron (because of lower bioavailability of nonheme iron), vitamin B12 (women only: intake 2.3 micrograms/day), and water (daily intake less than 1600 ml for 30% of the vegetarians) need special attention, considering the relatively high prevalence of a marginal status of these nutrients. In conclusion, a lacto-(ovo-)vegetarian diet can be adequate at old age, provided that it is carefully planned, especially with respect to the supply of iron, zinc, and vitamin B12.

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

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    Dayeon Shin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight, 18.5–24.9 (normal, 25.0–29.9 (overweight, and 30 kg/m2 (obese were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM was 50.7 (±0.9. Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5 compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4. The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively. Serum folate concentration (ng/mL was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05. Serum iron concentration (ng/dL was significantly higher in

  14. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom; Huybrechts, Inge; Deriemaeker, Peter; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Keyzer, Willem; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2014-03-24

    The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality. After analysis of the diet questionnaire and the FFQ, 1475 participants were classified as vegans (n = 104), vegetarians (n = 573), semi-vegetarians (n = 498), pesco-vegetarians (n = 145), and omnivores (n = 155). The most restricted diet, i.e., the vegan diet, had the lowest total energy intake, better fat intake profile, lowest protein and highest dietary fiber intake in contrast to the omnivorous diet. Calcium intake was lowest for the vegans and below national dietary recommendations. The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS. Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat) contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians) differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores.

  15. Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Clarys

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010 and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS were calculated as indicators for diet quality. After analysis of the diet questionnaire and the FFQ, 1475 participants were classified as vegans (n = 104, vegetarians (n = 573, semi-vegetarians (n = 498, pesco-vegetarians (n = 145, and omnivores (n = 155. The most restricted diet, i.e., the vegan diet, had the lowest total energy intake, better fat intake profile, lowest protein and highest dietary fiber intake in contrast to the omnivorous diet. Calcium intake was lowest for the vegans and below national dietary recommendations. The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS. Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores.

  16. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

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    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  17. A consensus proposal for nutritional indicators to assess the sustainability of a healthy diet: the Mediterranean diet as a case study

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    Lorenzo M Donini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely inter-related. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity and homogeneity of diets due to globalization, through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns.This consensus position paper defines a suite of the most appropriate nutrition and health indicators for assessing the sustainability of diets based on the MD.Methods: In 2011, an informal International Working Group from different national and international institutions was convened. Through online and face-to-face brainstorming meetings over four years, a set of nutrition and health indicators for sustainability was identified and refined.Results: Thirteen nutrition indicators of sustainability relating were identified in five areas: •Biochemical characteristics of food (A1. Vegetable/animal protein consumption ratios; (A2. Average dietary energy adequacy; (A3. Dietary energy density score; (A4. Nutrient density of diet: •Food Quality (A5. Fruit and vegetable consumption/intakes; (A6. Dietary diversity score: •Environment (A7. Food biodiversity composition and consumption; (A8. Rate of Local/regional foods and seasonality; (A9. Rate of eco-friendly food production and/or consumption: •Lifestyle (A10. Physical activity/Physical inactivity prevalence; (A11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern•Clinical Aspects; (A12. Diet-related morbidity/mortality statistics; (A13. Nutritional Anthropometry. A standardized set of information was provided for each indicator: definition, methodology, background, data sources, limitations of the indicator and references.Conclusions: The selection and

  18. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  19. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, M Altug; Yaymaci, Bengi; Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Acar, Goksemin; Altug, Tuncay; Demir, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia.

  20. [Evaluation of a diet and nutritional status of breast feeding women on the basis of a questionnaire study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, H; Rudzka-Kańtoch, Z; Dylag, H; Strucińska, M; Klemarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    The subjects were 120 breast-feeding mothers whose children were admitted for outpatient or inpatient treatment at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw, between March, 1998 and July, 1999. A special nutritional questionnaire was elaborated with the aim to evaluate subjects' nutritional status as well as their diet. All subjects completed the questionnaire and then selected parameters of their nutritional status and diet were evaluated. For 43 of the women under study it was the first month of lactation, for 33--the fourth month, for 23--the sixth and 21 women had been breast-feeding for more then six months. The subjects were of different age, coming from both urban and rural areas. In the studied group the nutritional status, i.e. body mass indices (BMI) before pregnancy, at the end of pregnancy and during lactation were within the normal range. 65 of the subjects had changed their diet due to pregnancy and 52 due to lactation. Women declared to be used to eating 3-4 meals per day. Having additional snacks was declared by 62.5%. Liquids' intake was on average about 2.5 l/24 hr, range 2-31. Average daily energy intake--2938 kcal/12,980 kJ, the lowest--in a diet of a mother with diabetes, the highest--in a diet of a vegetarian mother. The proportion of protein in energy intake was 15.1%, whereas fat--36.3%. Dietary practices of women under study in the period of lactation were well adjusted to nutritional recommendations for this group, as evidenced by indices of nutritional status (i.e. BMI). Among 120 women, 71 were taking supplementary preparations of vitamins and minerals. It turned out that a level of some vitamins in a daily food intake together with supplementation was definitely too high.

  1. [The energy density and the nutritional quality of diet depending on their sugar content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, Jesús Román

    2013-07-01

    Sugar content in foods cannot be distinguished from added sugar, although it is true that this added sugar brings mainly energy and no other essential nutrients. On the other hand, in the context of diet, sugar helps make it more varied and palatable allowing including foods that may otherwise not be would consume, thus indirectly contributing to the intake of other nutrients. Having interest in knowing the possible relationship between a high intake of sugars and the decrease in micronutrients intake, we noted that the nutrient density of the diet might be influenced by factors such as the high presence of sugar added to food. It seems that this nutritional dilution produced by adding sugar to food is, in general, not very significant and, often, offset by the fortification in micronutrients that we usually can find in many sugary products. After a detailed analysis of the published studies on the subject, it has been found that there is no a clear evidence of the hypothetical micronutrient dilution that would occur by adding sugar to the diet. On the other hand, given that the addition of sugar to the diet doesn't seem to report any remarkable advantages from the point of view of the intake of micronutrients; It seems reasonable to promote a moderate consumption of foods and sugary drinks, so in that way, they become an important extra energy source. It should also be borne in mind that the addition of sugar to the diet does not seem remarkable report any advantage in terms of intake of micronutrients. For this reason, it seems logical that the consumption of sugary food and sweet drinks will be moderate given the ease of consumption and the likelihood of their becoming a major source of energy. Finally, it is concluded on the need for further research on the mechanisms underlying that, up to now showed no, possible displacement of micro-nutrients and other food components of the diet that could occur in cases of consumption of foods with a high sugar content, as

  2. Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of polarized-light therapy in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongsun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-03-01

    The effects of polarized-light therapy (PLT) on high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated in comparison with that of lovastatin in rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 1% cholesterol in diet for 2 weeks and maintained with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks, followed by normal diet for 2 weeks for recovery. Lovastatin (0.002% in diet) or daily 5-min or 20-min PLT on the outside surface of ears was started 2 weeks after induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaques formation covering 57.5% of the arterial walls. Lovastatin markedly reduced both the cholesterol and LDL, but the reducing effect (47.5%) on atheroma formation was relatively low. By comparison, 5-min PLT preferentially decreased LDL, rather than cholesterol, and thereby potentially reduced the atheroma area to 42.2%. Notably, 20-min PLT was superior to lovastatin in reducing both the cholesterol and LDL levels as well as the atheromatous plaque formation (26.4%). In contrast to the increases in blood alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase following lovastatin treatment, PLT did not cause hepatotoxicity. In addition, PLT decreased platelets and hematocrit level. The results indicate that PLT attenuates atherosclerosis not only by lowering blood cholesterol and LDL levels, but also by improving blood flow without adverse effects. Therefore, it is suggested that PLT could be a safe alternative therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  3. Fertility, mortality, milk output, and body thermoregulation of growing Hy-Plus rabbits fed on diets supplemented with multi-enzymes preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gado, Hany M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M; Olafadehan, Oluwarotimi A; Martinez, Maricela A; Al-Momani, Ahmed Q

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility status, milk output, mortality, and body thermoregulation of rabbit does as affected by different levels of multi-enzyme extracts (EZ) in their diets. A total of 120 Hy-Plus rabbit does were divided into four comparable experimental groups (n = 30 does per group). Animals of each group were divided in six pens (five animals per pen), and each pen was used as an experimental unit. The first group was kept untreated and fed a commercial diet alone without enzyme extracts (EZ0), while the other groups were fed the same diet but supplemented with 1 (EZ1), 3 (EZ3), and 5 (EZ5) kg/ton of enzyme extracts, respectively. Feeding EZ additive increased (P < 0.05) conception and kindling rates, litter size and weight at birth, and litter size and bunny weight at weaning, with decreasing (P < 0.05) abortion rate. Moreover, total milk yield increased (P < 0.05) with increasing level of enzyme supplementation. Pre-weaning mortality decreased (P < 0.05) with EZ inclusion. Signs of vitality (rectal temperature, skin temperature, earlobe temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate) were improved with EZ inclusion. For all results, 5 kg EZ/ton of feed was more effective than 1 and 3 kg EZ/ton feed. It can be concluded that supplementation of EZ in rabbit diet decreased mortality rate and enhanced fertility status and milk output.

  4. The tuber extract and flour of Dioscorea alatanormalize the blood lipid profile of rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets

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    Nelis Imanningsih

    2014-08-01

    rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets.Methods:DA tuber extract and flour were administrated to the rabbits for 60 days using completely randomised design. The ration treatment are as follows: 1 Basal ration as negative control (K0, 2 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol, as positive control (K1, 3 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol + DA extract 1.8 g/100 g (KE1, 4 Basal ration + cholesterol 0.5% + DA extract 3.6 g/100 g (KE2, 5 Basal ration with 15% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT1 and 6 Basal ration with 30% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT2. The Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL cholesterol in serum were analysed at baseline, days 28, days 56 and at the end of study.Results:The administration of high cholesterol (1% ration increased blood lipid levels by 16 fold compared to that of control. The administration of 15% and 30% of DA flour could maintain blood lipid profile to normal condition, in particular at 30% substitution DA flour. However the water extract of DA can not maintain a normal blood lipids of high cholesterol treated rabbitsConclusion: Dioscorea alata flour has suggested to have anti-hyperlipidemia effect. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:23-9Key words: Dioscorea alata, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis

  5. The tuber extract and flour of Dioscorea alatanormalize the blood lipid profile of rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2014-08-01

    rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets.Methods:DA tuber extract and flour were administrated to the rabbits for 60 days using completely randomised design. The ration treatment are as follows: 1 Basal ration as negative control (K0, 2 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol, as positive control (K1, 3 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol + DA extract 1.8 g/100 g (KE1, 4 Basal ration + cholesterol 0.5% + DA extract 3.6 g/100 g (KE2, 5 Basal ration with 15% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT1 and 6 Basal ration with 30% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT2. The Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL cholesterol in serum were analysed at baseline, days 28, days 56 and at the end of study.Results:The administration of high cholesterol (1% ration increased blood lipid levels by 16 fold compared to that of control. The administration of 15% and 30% of DA flour could maintain blood lipid profile to normal condition, in particular at 30% substitution DA flour. However the water extract of DA can not maintain a normal blood lipids of high cholesterol treated rabbitsConclusion: Dioscorea alata flour has suggested to have anti-hyperlipidemia effect. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:23-9Key words: Dioscorea alata, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis

  6. Analysis of the declared nutritional behaviours in a group of diabetology nurses educating patients about diabetes diet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The proper nutrition in diabetes is one of the crucial elements of therapy, but in practice, diet of diabetic individuals is commonly improperly balanced, that is associated with lack of nutritional knowledge. The nurses are also often characterized by insufficient knowledge about diabetes diet therapy and poor nutritional behaviors. The aim of the study was to analyze of the declared nutritional behaviors in a group of diabetology nurses and to compare it with declared nutritional behaviors of the control group. The group of 52 nurses recruited from all the regions of Poland working with diabetic patients was analysed and compared with control group of 63 individuals - random non-diabetic patients from all the regions of Poland. They were asked about accomplishing practical recommended nutritional goals for adults in Poland and were able to indicate if they follow detailed recommended nutritional goals "always" (3 points), "sometimes" (1 point) or "never" (0 points). The diabetology nurses rarely declared fish and legumes intake (never or sometimes accomplishing goal: 87%), milk and dairy products intake (75%), as well as moderate sugar and sweets intake (69%). Nurses significantly rarer than control group declared regularity of meals (p=0.0000) and diversion of meals (p=0.0000). The lack of correlation between number of years of working with diabetic individuals and number of obtained points during assessment of nutritional behaviors was observed. The nutritional behaviors of diabetology nurses are not good, even if they educate diabetic patients on daily basis. Nutritional education should be conducted not only in groups of diabetic patients, but also, in groups of diabetology nurses.

  7. [Nutritional status and diet characteristics of a group of adolescents from the rural locality Calama, Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Almanza-López, M J; Pérez-Cueto, J D; Eulert, M E

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 a pilot study was carried out in the rural area of the Bolivian Department of La Paz aiming at the identification of dietary patterns among a group of secondary school adolescents who have little or scarce contact with the urban centres. The study consisted of a food intake survey (24 h recall), the measurement of anthropometrics and sociodemographic information. Nine percent was the global prevalence of overweight, although it was more present in girls. No statistically significant differences were found between nutrients in the diets of boys and girls. The energy intake was distributed in the five usual eating times as follows: 22% breakfast, 20% break time at school, 24% lunch, 12% tea time and 22% dinner. Furthermore, the anthropometric measures of boys were compared with their urban counterparts, where the differences were only significant with students in private schools. The present study can be used for the formulation of nutritional policies in Bolivia.

  8. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  9. Promoting a healthy diet in antenatal care: Qualitative studies of barriers to nutrition communication among women of different ethnic backgrounds in the Oslo Area

    OpenAIRE

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and weight status of the mother influences not only her own health and foetal growth, but also the offspring’s future risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Given the rise in the proportion of pregnant women globally with overweight and diet-related chronic diseases, efforts to promote a healthy diet and weight management in pregnancy are urgently needed. Pregnant women may be motivated to eat healthily and be more receptive for nutrition-related information. Howev...

  10. Diet quality and attention capacity in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Labayen, Idoia; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Henriksson, Hanna; Kersting, Mathilde; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-06-01

    Adolescence represents an important period for the development of executive functions, which are a set of important cognitive processes including attentional control. However, very little is known regarding the associations of nutrition with components of executive functions in adolescence. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate associations of dietary patterns and macronutrient composition with attention capacity in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 384 (165 boys and 219 girls) adolescents, aged 12·5-17·5 years, from five European countries in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Attention capacity was examined using the d2 Test of Attention. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24 h recalls using a computer-based self-administered tool. Three dietary patterns (diet quality index, ideal diet score and Mediterranean diet score) and macronutrient/fibre intakes were calculated. Linear regression analysis was conducted adjusting for age, sex, BMI, maternal education, family affluence scale, study centre and energy intake (only for Mediterranean diet score). In these adjusted regression analyses, higher diet quality index for adolescents and ideal diet score were associated with a higher attention capacity (standardised β=0·16, P=0·002 and β=0·15, P=0·005, respectively). Conversely, Mediterranean diet score or macronutrient/fibre intake were not associated with attention capacity (P>0·05). Our results suggest that healthier dietary patterns, as indicated by higher diet quality index and ideal diet score, were associated with attention capacity in adolescence. Intervention studies investigating a causal relationship between diet quality and attention are warranted.

  11. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  12. Effects of a nutritional intervention program based on the self-determination theory and promoting the Mediterranean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Leblanc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine gender differences in the impact of a nutritional intervention based on the self-determination theory and promoting the Mediterranean diet on changes in eating-related self-determined motivation and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Changes in eating-related self-determined motivation were larger in men than in women in response to the intervention and at follow-up, but the magnitude of change decreased with time in both genders. Changes in eating-related self-determined motivation were positively associated with changes in the Mediterranean diet adherence in response to the intervention and at follow-up in men only, suggesting that the nutritional program seems to fit better men than women.

  13. A New Model For Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat Utilizing Total Enteral Nutrition to Overfeed a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...

  14. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients.

  15. Nutritive value of full-fat sunflower seeds in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R K; Purushothaman, M R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and inclusion level of sunflower seed (SFS) in broiler diets. SFS contained 38.7% ether extract (EE), 16.9% CP, 14.9% crude fiber (CF), 3.5% ash, 0.57% lysine, and 0.46% methionine (89.2% DM basis). The AME (kcal/ kg) content of SFS in roosters was 5,225 and in broilers at 4, 18, and 35 d of age was 3,493, 5,132, and 5,162, respectively. The CP, EE, and CF digestibilities were 80.4, 71.2, and 11.4%, respectively. In an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet containing SFS at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, SFS up to 20% did not affect weight gain and feed consumption, but the feed conversion ratio was improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol content, muscle cholesterol content, dressing percentage, liver weight, and giblet weight (as % live weight) were comparable among all treatment groups. Abdominal fat was increased in birds fed 20% SFS. Percentage skin was decreased in broilers fed > or = 10% SFS.

  16. Feasibility of Internet-based Post-secondary Nutrition Education: Incorporating Features of the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Bernstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Internet continues to serve as an ideal venue for health education interventions promoting behavior change. Due to the progressive expansion in online education programs, new methodologies that contribute across health education and program planning continuums are needed. Methods: This ecologic study investigated the change in student dietary behav-ior and food choices following an original online education intervention that introduced the Mediterranean diet (MD) in a community college in Houston, Texas. A non-probability convenience sample (n=65) provided pretest-posttest data measuring knowledge of and attitudes toward the MD. The intervention was incorporated into an undergraduate nutrition course, delivered entirely online and evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) survey. Results: The intervention improved total participant population from a mean KIDMED score of poor (4.12) to a mean score of high (8.45) indicating an increase in knowledge of MD dietary guidelines and a positive shift in favorable attitude, particularly among men. Conclusion: This study provides a unique pedagogical illustration of online learn-ing that introduce a specific evidence-based dietary guideline to a college student population. A detailed discussion of findings and lessons learned is provided. PMID:26290824

  17. Nutritional evaluation of babassu endocarp meal type II with different inclusions in sheep diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemilly Cristina Menezes Sá

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of the Babassu coconut for edible oil production generates many co-products and has great potential to be used in ruminant nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different inclusions of endocarp meal type II of Babassu coconut (BEMII on intake and digestibility of sheep diets. Twenty non-castrated male sheep with an undefined breed were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications. The animals received an experimental diet with increasing inclusions of BEMII (0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, and 22.5%. Increasing additions of the coproduct negatively influenced dry matter intake (g/BW and g/kg0.75. Crude protein intake (in grams per day decreased linearly with the inclusion of BEMII, presenting a reduction of 49.35 g/d. The inclusion of 7.5% showed the best response for energy balance among all inclusions and presented the closest nitrogen balance value when compared to the control group; therefore, this inclusion percentage is the best for endocarp meal utilization.

  18. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2014-10-01

    Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Diet, nutritional status and food related traditions of Oraon tribes of New Mal (West Bengal), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Poonam C; Srivastava, Sapna

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2001 census conducted by the Government of India, India has more than 84 million tribals who constitute 8.2% of India's population. The Oraons are an agricultural tribe found mainly in Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The present study was undertaken on a group of Oraon tribals working in a tea gardens of New Mal in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. The children attended the local primary school. The Oraons are covered by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India, which is concerned with the health, nutrition and development of children and their mothers. To evaluate the effect of ICDS, the practices of adults towards hygiene, medication, addictive substances and diet were also recorded. 500 Oraon tribals, including 200 men and 150 women aged 20-45 years, and 150 children aged 6-12 years, were surveyed for their dietary intake by 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire methodology and anthropometry, and a description of food-related traditions. The diet of all Oraon groups was deficient in all food groups. Cereal intake was least deficient, while the intake of milk and fruit was almost negligible. Their diet was supplemented by a locally grown green leafy vegetable dheki saag, and fermented leftover rice. The energy available from the diet for all age groups was only 52-53% of the recommended dietary allowances of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Children were enrolled in a midday meal program at the local primary school; however, their energy intake was severely deficient, and of the same order as their parents. The mean basal mass index (BMI) of adult Oraons was not low, but children were severely undernourished. Men were less undernourished than were women. Some potentially useful traditions practiced included wiping washed utensils with leaves of a local plant mirchaiya, preparing herbal tablets called ranoodava to make an alcoholic and a medicinal drink called hadiya

  1. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P nutrition's importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  2. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

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    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  3. [Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity: comparison of caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Velázquez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.

  4. Comparison of the nutritional status and outcome in thermal burn patients receiving vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets

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    Samira Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of adequate nutritional support in burned patients cannot be overemphasised. For adequate long-term compliance by the patients, diet should be formulated in accordance with their pre-burn dietary habits, religious beliefs, and tastes. Patients and Methods: A study was conducted in 42 consecutive patients suffering from 10% to 50% of 2 nd and 3 rd degree thermal burns with the aim to compare nutritional status, clinical outcome, and cost-effectiveness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. The patients were divided into two groups depending upon their pre-injury food habits. Total calories were calculated by Curreri formula. Both groups were compared by various biochemical parameters, microbiological investigations, weight , status of wound healing, graft take, and hospital stay and they were followed for at least 60 days postburn. Results: The results were comparable in both groups. Vegetarian diet was found to be more palatable and cost-effective. Conclusion: Vegetarian diet is a safe and viable option for the patients suffering from burn injury. The common belief that non-vegetarian diet is superior to vegetarian diet is a myth.

  5. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

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    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  6. Diet and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Evaluation of a Nutrition Education Leaflet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. J.; Fearon, K. C. H.; Buckner, K.; Richardson, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a needs-based, nutrition education leaflet on nutritional knowledge. Design: Comparison of nutritional knowledge levels before and after exposure to a nutrition education leaflet. Setting: A regional colorectal out-patient clinic in Edinburgh. Method: A nutrition education leaflet, based on an earlier…

  7. [Assessment of nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the impact of diet on COPD risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posłuszna, Dominika; Doboszyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that in patients with COPD malnutrition affects 10-15% of patients with mild to moderate stage of disease and 50% of patients with advanced stage of disease. Available studies indicate that weight loss and muscle mass loss are negative prognostic indicators, therefore early diagnosis of malnutrition seems to be a key measure in the treatment of COPD. In the article the authors discuss and compare the most commonly used methods to assess nutritional status and provide information on the impact of diet on risk of COPD in the future. Nutritional status of patients with COPD is difficult to assess. To date, no published standards are available. Reliable and accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential for planning further care and may contribute to the improvement of nutritional status and contribute positively to the course of the disease.

  8. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutritional Components of Fujian White Rabbit Muscle%福建白兔肌肉营养成分分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩锋; 陈冬金; 孙世坤; 桑雷; 谢喜平; 兰扬生; 林萍萍

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨福建地方家兔肌肉品质特性,对福建白兔的肌肉常规营养成分和氨基酸进行测定,并对其蛋白质营养价值作出评价.结果显示:福建白兔肌肉水分含量为75.84%,粗蛋白质20.50%,粗脂肪2.20%,粗灰粉1.03%,肌肉氨基酸总量为17.62%,必需氨基酸为7.05%,鲜味氨基酸为7.61%.氨基酸评分(AAS)和化学评分(CS)均表明:第一限制性氨基酸是蛋十胱氨酸,第二限制性氨基酸是缬氨酸.研究表明,福建白兔公兔与母兔常规营养成分和氨基酸的含量与组成均无显著性差异,肌肉中粗蛋白含量高,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量丰富,营养价值较高,具有较好的食用价值.%Inorder to study the characters of meat quality of Fujian local rabbits,Fujian white rabbit's meat quality including nutritional components and amino acid were analyzed,and protein nutritive value was evaluated as well.The results showed that,contents of moisture,crude protein,crude fat and crude ash of the rabbit muscles were 75.84%,20.50% and 1.03%,respectively.The total amino acid(TAA),essential amino acids(EAA),delicious amino acids were 17.62%,7.05% and 7.61%,respectively.The amino acid score (AAS) and chemical score (CS) showed that,Met + Cystine was the first limiting amino acids,and valine randed second.The research showed that there were no significant difference between the male and female Fujian white rabbit in the nutritive composition,amino acid contents and compositions.Therefore,Fujian white rabbit is a kind of healthy product which is delicious and full of nutrients for human.

  9. Sexual dimorphism of the feto-placental phenotype in response to a high fat and control maternal diets in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tarrade

    Full Text Available Maternal environment during early developmental stages plays a seminal role in the establishment of adult phenotype. Using a rabbit model, we previously showed that feeding dams with a diet supplemented with 8% fat and 0.2% cholesterol (HH diet from the prepubertal period and throughout gestation induced metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Here, we examined the effects of the HH diet on feto-placental phenotype at 28 days post-coïtum (term = 31 days in relation to earlier effects in the blastocyst (Day 6. At 28 days, both male and female HH fetuses were intrauterine growth retarded and dyslipidemic, with males more affected than females. Lipid droplets accumulated in the HH placentas' trophoblast, consistent with the increased concentrations in cholesteryl esters (3.2-fold, triacylglycerol (2.5-fold and stored FA (2.12-fold. Stored FA concentrations were significantly higher in female compared to male HH placentas (2.18-fold, p<0.01, whereas triacylglycerol was increased only in HH males. Trophoblastic lipid droplet accumulation was also observed at the blastocyst stage. The expression of numerous genes involved in lipid pathways differed significantly according to diet both in term placenta and at the blastocyst stage. Among them, the expression of LXR-α in HH placentas was reduced in HH males but not females. These data demonstrate that maternal HH diet affects the blastocyst and induces sex-dependent metabolic adaptations in the placenta, which appears to protect female fetuses from developing severe dyslipidemia.

  10. Nutrition knowledge and Mediterranean diet adherence in the southeast United States: Validation of a field-based survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Mary Rose; Marincic, Patricia Z; Nahay, Katie L; Baerlocher, Brittany E; Willis, Amy W; Park, Jieun; Gaillard, Philippe; Greene, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce chronic disease risk and is a recommended diet for prevention and management of diabetes. Adherence to the MD in the southeast United States where obesity and diabetes are highly prevalent is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) construct a survey instrument relevant to the general population integrating both MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence questions from previously validated instruments, and 2) assess MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence in a sample population in the southest United States. Adherance was assessed using the validated short MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS). A MD nutrition knowledge (MDNK) questionnaire was developed from previously validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaires and was validated using 127 university students enrolled in three courses with varying levels of nutrition education. Cronbach's α for internal validity of MDNK was acceptable for a short questionnaire (0.653). Test-retest reliability was established (r = 0.853). Field validation of the three-part survey instrument (MEDAS, MDNK and demographic questions) was subsequently performed in 230 adults shopping at supermarkets and farmers markets in eastern Alabama. Total MDNK and MEDAS scores were significantly higher in students with formal nutrition education and in patrons of farmers markets. Greater MD adherence, assessed by dividing MEDAS scores into thirds, was found with increasing formal nutrition education in university students (p = 0.002) and in farmers market participants (p < 0.001). There was a weak but significant association between MDNK and MEDAS scores within university students and participants in the field. Together, the MDNK-MEDAS survey instrument is an effective tool for assessing baseline knowledge and adherence and can be used to target nutritional interventions to improve MD adherence for prevention and management of diabetes and other chronic disease.

  11. Importance of taste, nutrition, cost and convenience in relation to diet quality: Evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Concerns with taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience are said to be key influences on food choices. This study examined the importance of food-related attitudes in relation to diet quality using US national level data. Interactions by socioeconomic status (SES), gender and race/ethnicity were tested. Analyses of 8957 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010) were conducted in 2014-15. Perceived importance of taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience in dietary choices were assessed using 4-point Likert scales. Education and family income-to-poverty ratio (FIPR) were SES indicators. Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), a measure of adherence to 2010 dietary guidelines, was the diet quality measure. Survey-weighted regressions examined associations between attitudes and HEI, and tested for interactions. Taste was rated as "very important" by 77.0% of the US adults, followed by nutrition (59.9%), cost (39.9%), and convenience (29.8%). However, it was the perceived importance of nutrition that most strongly predicted HEI (β: +8.0 HEI scores among "very important" vs. "not at all important"). By contrast, greater importance for taste and convenience had a weak inverse relation with HEI (β: -5.1 and -1.5 respectively), adjusting for SES. Significant interactions were observed by race/ethnicity, but not SES and gender. Those who prioritized nutrition during food shopping had higher-quality diets regardless of gender, education and income in the US. Certain racial/ethnic groups managed to eat healthy despite attaching importance to cost and convenience. This is the first evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using national data, which has huge implications for nutrition interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: Access to dietician services must complement population health approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie eSegal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden.Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into; i population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; ii pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods; iii regulations to modify the food environment, and iv the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of ‘junk foods’ is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons.Given the major role of diet in health it is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.

  13. Effect of inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles from barley, wheat and corn in isonutritive diets on the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits

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    G. Alagón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how the dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS could affect the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits, four experimental diets were formulated from a control diet without DDGS (C, including 20% of barley DDGS (Db20, 20% of wheat DDGS (Dw20 and 20 (Dc20 or 40% (Dc40 of corn DDGS. Animals had free access to medicated versions of the diets until 49 d, and then to unmedicated diets until 59 d of age. The performance trial was done using 475 three-way crossbred weaned rabbits of 28 d of age, individually housed in 5 batches. Caecal fermentation traits were determined in 20 animals per diet and at 42 d and at 59 d of age. No significant effect of the growing diet on mortality, morbidity or sanitary risk index was observed. In the whole period and respect to the control group, animals fed with Db20 showed higher dry matter (DM and digestible energy (DE intake (+6 and +12%, respectively; P<0.05, but similar daily weight gain (DWG and increased feed conversion ratio (+9%; P<0.05. Similarly, and regardless of its inclusion level, the increase in DE intake of animals fed with corn DDGS (+9, respectively; P<0.05 did not increase DWG. In contrast, higher DM and DE intake of animals fed with Dw20 (+8; P<0.05 resulted in a higher DWG (+2.8 g/d; P<0.05 than those fed with C. Although inclusion of DDGS at 20% did not affected main caecal parameters controlled at 42 d, caecum of animals fed with the diet Dc40 was characterized by greater N-NH3 and valeric acid and lower total volatile fatty acids and acetic acid concentrations than the average of the other groups (on av. +5.2±1.7 mmol/L, +0.29±0.07 mol/100 mol, –17.17±4.41 μmol/L and –2.60±0.99 mol/100 mol, respectively; P<0.05. At 59 d of age, higher caecal DM, and propionic and valeric acid concentration and lower values of total volatile fatty acids and acetic/propionic rate were observed for DDGS inclusion at 20% compared to the control (+1

  14. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  15. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  16. Successful early elemental diet nutritional support in an esophageal cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Chao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our case involved a 58-year-old man with a medical history of moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Positron emission tomography (PET and computed tomography (CT scan revealed a tumor in the upper two-thirds of the esophagus, with a maximal length of 14.4 cm and at least 6 enlarged lymph nodes. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT was performed on June 12, 2015, and a chest CT 2 weeks later revealed partial tumor response and shrinkage of the right upper paratracheal lymph node. The patient (cT3N3MO, stage III c underwent esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction, lymph node dissection, and jejunostomy on July 6, 2015. Bodyweight (BW loss occurred because of inadequate calorie intake. The nutrition support team (NST commenced an intervention and estimated the patient's malnutrition status from the BW loss (>8% in 3 months, body mass index (BMI, 21 kg/m2, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, 5.7 mm, arm circumference (AC, 20 cm, and serum albumin level (2.7 g/dL. The NST administered an enteral nutrition formula with an elemental diet (Peptamen through enterostomy feeding, and provided meals according to the patient's digestive ability. The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA improved from 13 to 5, and energy support increased from 10 to 30 kcal/kg BW, with the BMI rising from 21 to 22 kg/m2, TSF from 5.7 to 7.0 mm, AC from 20 to 21.7 cm, and serum albumin level from 2.7 to 3.1 g/dL. The patient's wound healed completely.

  17. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  18. Combining Low Price, Low Climate Impact and High Nutritional Value in One Shopping Basket through Diet Optimization by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corné van Dooren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to find diets with low price and low climate impact, yet fulfilling all nutritional requirements. Methods: Optimization by linear programming. The program constrains 33 nutrients to fulfill Dutch dietary requirements. In a second cycle, the upper boundary for climate impact through greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE is set to 1.6 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day (CO2eq. In a third cycle, the costs are set on €2.50 as a constraint. The objective function of the optimization maximized the most consumed food products (n = 206 for male and female adults separately (age 31–50. Results: A diet of 63 popular and low priced basic products was found to deliver all required nutrients at an adequate level for both male and female adults. This plant-based, carbohydrate and fiber-rich diet consists mainly of wholegrain bread, potatoes, muesli, open-field vegetables and fruits. The climate impact of this diet is very low (1.59 kg CO2eq/day compared to the average Dutch diet. By constraining costs, a low carbon diet of €2.59/day is possible. Conclusions: A two-person diet consisting of 63 products and costing €37 per week can simultaneously be healthy and yet have half the average climate impact. Linear programming is a promising tool to combine health and sustainability on both societal and individual levels.

  19. Indicadores del valor nutritivo del Hidroforraje de Leucaena leucocephala para la alimentación de conejos - Nutritive values indicators of the Leucaena leucocepahla hydroforage for rabbit feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Valoy, B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLos hidroforrajes son alimentos considerados de alto valor nutricional. Con el objetivo de determinar indicadores del valor nutritivo del hidroforraje de Leucaena (HFL para ser utilizado en la alimentación de los conejos, serealizaron las siguientes determinaciones: composición química del alimento, perfil aminocídico, presencia de metabolitos secundarios, propiedades físicas y digestibilidad in vitro.AbstractHydroforages are considered as feed of a high nutritive value. The main aim of this survey was to determine the indictors of the Leucaena leococephala hydroforage (LHF nutritive value to be used in feeding rabbits. The fallowing aspects were taken into account to reach such objective: feed chemical composition, aminoacid profile, presence of secondary metabolites, physical properties and invitro digestibility. In an experiment it was used a completely aleatorized design.

  20. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  1. Metabolomics in nutritional epidemiology: identifying metabolites associated with diet and quantifying their potential to uncover diet-disease relations in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N; Huang, Wen-Yi; Xiao, Qian; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Sinha, Rashmi; Cross, Amanda J

    2014-07-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging field with the potential to advance nutritional epidemiology; however, it has not yet been applied to large cohort studies. Our first aim was to identify metabolites that are biomarkers of usual dietary intake. Second, among serum metabolites correlated with diet, we evaluated metabolite reproducibility and required sample sizes to determine the potential for metabolomics in epidemiologic studies. Baseline serum from 502 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was analyzed by using ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Usual intakes of 36 dietary groups were estimated by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary biomarkers were identified by using partial Pearson's correlations with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between samples collected 1 y apart in a subset of 30 individuals were calculated to evaluate intraindividual metabolite variability. We detected 412 known metabolites. Citrus, green vegetables, red meat, shellfish, fish, peanuts, rice, butter, coffee, beer, liquor, total alcohol, and multivitamins were each correlated with at least one metabolite (P metabolomics in nutritional epidemiology. We identified dietary biomarkers by using metabolomics in an epidemiologic data set. Given the strength of the associations observed, we expect that some of these metabolites will be validated in future studies and later used as biomarkers in large cohorts to study diet-disease associations. The PLCO trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002540. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  3. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2011-01-01

    -six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs...... bacterial groups (Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus species) increased with time. We conclude that a switch from parenteral to enteral nutrition rapidly induces diet-dependent histopathological, functional, and proinflammatory insults to the immature intestine. Great care is required when introducing...... no histopathological lesions, increased maltase activity, and induced changes in gene expressions related to tissue development. Total bacterial density was high after 2 days of parenteral feeding and was not significantly affected by diet (colostrum, formula) or length of enteral feeding (8–34 h), except that a few...

  4. An update on diet and nutritional factors in systemic lupus erythematosus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2017-03-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterised by multiple organ involvement and a large number of complications. SLE management remains complicated owing to the biological heterogeneity between patients and the lack of safe and specific targeted therapies. There is evidence that dietary factors can contribute to the geoepidemiology of autoimmune diseases such as SLE. Thus, diet therapy could be a promising approach in SLE owing to both its potential prophylactic effects, without the side effects of classical pharmacology, and its contribution to reducing co-morbidities and improving quality of life in patients with SLE. However, the question arises as to whether nutrients could ameliorate or exacerbate SLE and how they could modulate inflammation and immune function at a molecular level. The present review summarises preclinical and clinical experiences to provide the reader with an update of the positive and negative aspects of macro- and micronutrients and other nutritional factors, including dietary phenols, on SLE, focusing on the mechanisms of action involved.

  5. NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 2: MENTAL HEALTH, AGING, AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A HEALTHY DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nutrition and Fitness held in Athens, Greece, on June 91-2, 2004 are presented in the book as a second volume of the series. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on nutrition and fitness by taking into consideration i mental health, ii psychiatric disorders, iii menopause, iv osteoporosis, v aging and vi healthy diet. The book also discusses the role of government in implementing a healthy diet and physical activity lifestyle. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of four parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i Mental Health, ii Aging, Osteoporosis and Physical Activity, iii Defining the Components of a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Health and iv The Role of Government in Implementing a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle. In each specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for researchers, psychiatrists, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, geneticists, dietitians, food scientists, policy makers in government, private food industry and healthcare professionals in the fields of social and preventive medicine, geriatrics, public health, sports medicine. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in nutrition, metabolism, social and preventive medicine, clinical nutrition, diabetics, genetics, obesity, public health, aging and osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders and sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRITIONAL TREATMENT ASSESSED BY THE QUALITY OF THE DIET IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Dilui; Moraes, Glaucia; Rosa, Glorimar; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of nutritional treatment is important protective factor for the prevention of recurrences of cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of nutritional treatment and to know the eating pattern and the quality of an adjuvant diet for optimized clinical treatment in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD). This is a clinical trial with a three-month duration conducted with 116 patients of both sexes with (CCAD) in secondary prevention. The patients underwent nutritional treatment and blood pressure, anthropometric, biochemical and dietetic (24-hour recall) measures were collected. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R) was calculated for assessing diet quality. The average age was 62.5 ± 7.8 years. The nutritional treatment reduced: weight -1.5 ± 2.3 kg; p < 0.01; body mass index -0.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2; p < 0.01; waist circumference -2.0 ± 0.1cm; p < 0.01; neck circumference -0.8 ± 0.1; p < 0.01 cm; concentrations of plasma insulin -1.3 ± 0.5mU/ mL p < 0.03, glycated hemoglobin -0.4 ± 0.1 mg/dL; p < 0.01 (- 0,004 mmol/L), and HOMA-IR (-0.8 ± 3.9; p < 0.03); and increased insulin sensitivity 6.64 ± 23,9 x10-3; p < 0.01. The nutritional treatment increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients who adhered to the diet after BHEI-R control 1.7 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04 (0,04 mmol/L). Three-month nutritional treatment promoted reduction of saturated fats consumption (-1.9 ± 0.5%; p=<0.01), cholesterol (-67.7 ± 18.6 mg/d; p < 0.01), and sodium(815.2 ± 146.5 mg/d; p < 0.01); and 20.7% of the patients finished the study with a healthy diet. The intensive nutritional treatment was effective in reducing anthropometric measures and improving glycemic control.

  7. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter: e0127586

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Joly; Samuel K Wasser; Rebecca Booth

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  8. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  9. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  10. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  11. Soybean Meal and Soy Protein Concentrate in Early Diet Elicit Different Nutritional Programming Effects on Juvenile Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    There is now strong evidence that early nutrition plays an important role in shaping later physiology. We assessed here whether soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) in early diet would modify zebrafish responses to these products in later life. We fed zebrafish larvae with SPC-, SBM-, or a control-diet for the first 3 days of feeding and then grew all larvae on the control diet up to juveniles. Finally, we assessed the expression in juveniles of genes involved in inflammation/immunity, the breakdown of extracellular matrix, luminal digestion, and intestinal nutrient absorption/trafficking. First feeding SBM had wider, stronger, and more persistent effects on gene expression with respect to SPC. Juveniles fed with SPC at first feeding were more prone to inflammation after refeeding with SPC than fish that never experienced SPC before. Conversely, zebrafish that faced SBM at first feeding were later less responsive to refeeding with SBM through inflammation and had higher expression of markers of peptide absorption and fatty acid transport. Results indicate that some features of inflammation/remodeling, presumably at the intestine, and nutrient absorption/transport in fish can be programmed by early nutrition. These findings sustain the rationale of using zebrafish for depicting molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional programming.

  12. Diet Assessment Methods in the Nurses' Health Studies and Contribution to Evidence-Based Nutritional Policies and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Sampson, Laura; Rosner, Bernard; Camargo, Carlos A.; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to diet assessment methods and evidence-based nutritional policies and guidelines. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Through periodic assessment of diet by validated dietary questionnaires over 40 years, the NHSs have identified dietary determinants of diseases such as breast and other cancers; obesity; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases; and neurodegenerative and mental health disorders. Nutritional biomarkers were assessed using blood, urine, and toenail samples. Robust findings, from the NHSs, together with evidence from other large cohorts and randomized dietary intervention trials, have contributed to the evidence base for developing dietary guidelines and nutritional policies to reduce intakes of trans fat, saturated fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, red and processed meats, and refined carbohydrates while promoting higher intake of healthy fats and carbohydrates and overall healthful dietary patterns. Conclusions. The long-term, periodically collected dietary data in the NHSs, with documented reliability and validity, have contributed extensively to our understanding of the dietary determinants of various diseases, informing dietary guidelines and shaping nutritional policy. PMID:27459459

  13. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( nutritional value of wheat middlings-based diets.

  14. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    group. Conclusion Protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation periods did not provoke obesity in adulthood. Nutritional recovery with soybean diet decreased the body weight at the expense of lower energy efficiency with repercussion on lean mass.

  15. Biomarkers of diabetes risk in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (2008–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, S; Cole, D; Nicholson, S; Bayes, I; Teucher, B; Bates, B; Mindell, J; Tipping, S; Deverill, C; Stephen, A M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008–2009), year 2 (2009–2010) and year 3 (2010–2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5 years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19–64 years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged ≥65 years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1–6.9 mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged ≥65 years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (≥7 mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations ≥6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged ≥65 years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention. PMID:24052516

  16. Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Juvik, E; Hetland, H; Krogdahl, A

    2004-02-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to compare nutritive values of ground and whole wheat diets containing titanium oxide as indigestible marker. 2. In Experiment 1, a wheat and soy isolate based cold-pelleted diet, in which all the wheat was ground in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm sieve, was compared with a diet in which about half (375 g/kg) of the ground wheat was taken out of the diet and supplied as whole wheat mixed into the diet after pelleting. 3. In Experiment 2, a diet based on ground wheat and soy isolate which was pelleted after preconditioning (final temperature 81 degrees C) was compared with a diet in which 500 g of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat mixed into the diet before pelleting. 4. In Experiment 1, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and starch digestibility measured at ileal as well as faecal level, while weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were not affected. Jejunal chyme showed increased amylase activity and bile salt concentration. 5. In Experiment 2, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased dry matter content as well as bile content of gizzard, and stimulated an increase in gizzard as well as pancreas weight. Jejunal amylase and bile concentrations were not significantly affected and neither were growth, FCE or AME. 6. Results from this experiment indicate that the improved feed value sometimes observed with whole wheat may be associated with modulation of digestive processes resulting in increased pancreas and liver secretions.

  17. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido para coelhos em crescimento Apparent digestibility of diets with different starch levels for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do amido dietético sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, para coelhos em fase de crescimento, quatro dietas experimentais foram elaboradas de forma a conter níveis crescentes de amido de milho (23, 28, 33 e 38% de amido total na base da matéria seca (MS, os quais foram fornecidas a 20 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, distribuídos em gaiolas de metabolismo individuais, segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram efeito linear crescente para os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e amido, à medida que aumentou o nível de amido dietético nas dietas experimentais. O nível de 38% de amido dietético proporcionou, portanto, o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade para o amido (87,26%. Não foram observadas diferenças para os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, em relação aos diferentes níveis de amido nas dietas experimentais. No entanto, para o teor de extrato etéreo (EE, foi verificado melhor aproveitamento (89,46% para os animais alimentados com a dieta contendo 23% de amido. Os coelhos foram eficientes em digerir o amido de milho, quando este apresentou alta participação na porção carboidrato total da dieta.With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietetic starch on the nutrients apparent digestibility for rabbits in the growing phase, four experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing corn starch levels (23, 28, 33 and 38% total starch levels in dry matter [DM] basis. A total of 20 White New Zealand rabbits were allotted to metabolism cages in a completely randomized design. The results showed a crescent linear effect for the coefficients of apparent digestibility for DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and starch as the dietary starch level increased in

  18. Nutritional value of some feedstuffs used in the diet of captive capybaras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Nóbrega Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Five pen-raised adult female capybaras were used in five digestibility trials in a Latin square design, to determine, for capybaras, the nutritional values of Cameroon grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon; Napier grass (P. purpureum cv. Napier; corn grain; cassava hay, comprising leaves and stems; and palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis cake. These feedstuffs were provided separately or mixed, in a completely randomized manner, in different experimental periods. The digestibility of each feedstuff not supplied alone was estimated by difference. The animals were individually introduced in metabolism pens. Following a 10-day period of adaptation to each diet, feed intake was recorded and total fecal output was collected over five consecutive days. Energy, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities of Cameroon grass were, respectively, 0.88 (±0.07, standard deviation, 0.63 (±0.39 and 0.82 (±0.15. For Napier grass they were 0.84 (±0.05, 0.63 (±0.12 and 0.72 (±0.10; for corn grain, 0.92 (±0.05, 0.97 (±0.20 and 0.83 (±0.14; for cassava hay, 0.86 (±0.12, 0.84 (±0.14 and 0.43 (±0.16; and for palm kernel cake 0.94 (±0.05, 0.85 (±0.14, and 0.97 (±0.05. These digestibilities in capybaras were higher than the digestibilities of the same feedstuffs in other livestock. These results can be explained by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the capybara, which lead to a high rate of nutrient digestion and absorption.

  19. Intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet attenuates alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats. Rats received chow (controls) or extended intermittent access (24h twice a week; Int-HFD) to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet for six weeks. Standard rodent chow was available ad-libitum to all groups and food intake was measured. Following HFD exposure, 20.0% ethanol, 2.0% sucrose intake and endocrine peptide levels were evaluated. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark (LD) box apparatus. Rats in the Int-HFD group displayed a binge-like pattern of feeding (alternations between caloric overconsumption and voluntary caloric restriction). Surprisingly, alcohol intake was significantly attenuated in the Int-HFD group whereas sugar consumption was unaffected. Plasma acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the Int-HFD group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Moreover, rats in the Int-HFD group spent more time in the light side of the LD box compared to controls, indicating that binge-like feeding induced anxiolytic effects. Collectively, these data suggest that intermittent access to HFD attenuates alcohol intake through reducing anxiety-like behavior, a process potentially controlled by elevated plasma ghrelin levels.

  20. Nutritive value of the meat and bone meals from cattle or pigs in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, P; Versteegh, H A; van der Honing, T Y; Kogut, T J; Jongbloed, A W

    2001-08-01

    The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents (224, 306, 387, and 209,293, 430 g/kg, respectively) were tested for digestibility at a 10% inclusion level. The MBMcattle and MBMpig with the lowest ash (224 and 209 g/kg, respectively) were tested also at 20% inclusion. A basal diet (corn-soybean meal) was used as a control. Two-week-old broiler chickens were used in four replicates per treatment (14 to 32 d of age). The AMEn of MBM was high (10.51 to 13.04 MJ/kg DM). Species origin had no significant effect, whereas more ash and a higher inclusion level decreased the AMEn. The factors investigated showed no significant effect on the excretal digestibility of CP or on total AA. Excretal digestibility of total amino acids (AA) ranged from 60 to 65%. The ileal digestibility of CP and AA of MBMpig with 209 g/kg ash was also tested at 10 and 20% inclusion. Excretal digestibility was significantly higher than ileal digestibility of CP (63.8 and 55.8%, respectively) and total AA (60.9 and 56.2%, respectively). The 20% inclusion level resulted in a lower digestibility for both methods. The digestibility of CP was measured by four different in vitro techniques, based on pepsin digestibility. The data showed a large variation and did not correlate at all with the in vivo digestibility values.

  1. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  2. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Classic and Modified Ketogenic Diets for Treatment of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Kelly; Sewak, Sarika L

    2017-08-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) therapy is an established form of treatment for both pediatric and adult patients with intractable epilepsy. Ketogenic diet is a term that refers to any diet therapy in which dietary composition would be expected to result in a ketogenic state of human metabolism. While historically considered a last-resort therapy, classic KDs and their modified counterparts, including the modified Atkins diet and low glycemic index treatment, are gaining ground for use across the spectrum of seizure disorders. Registered dietitian nutritionists are often the first line and the most influential team members when it comes to treating those on KD therapy. This paper offers registered dietitian nutritionists insight into the history of KD therapy, an overview of the various diets, and a brief review of the literature with regard to efficacy; provides basic guidelines for practical implementation and coordination of care across multiple health care and community settings; and describes the role of registered dietitian nutritionists in achieving successful KD therapy. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional status and growth of children on macrobiotic diets: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnelie, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis reports on the relationship between diet, growth, blood chemistry, psychomotor development, and clinical findings in the Dutch population of children on macrobiotic diets.- The macrobiotic diet mainly consisted of cereals, pulses and vegetables with small additions of seaweeds, fermented

  4. Diet quality on meatless days: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To compare diet quality scores between adult non-meat eaters and meat eaters, and to compare the consumption of diet components across quintiles of diet quality. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) we...

  5. Comparison of the Protective Effects of Individual Components of Particulated trans-Sialidase (PTCTS), PTC and TS, against High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelo, Shérrira M; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes; Pereira, Jaqueline J; Reis, Marcia M; Kawakami, Joyce T; Ikegami, Renata N; Palomino, Suely A P; Wadt, Nilsa S Y; Agouni, Abdelali

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) and membrane-shed microparticles (MPs) in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. H&S Science and Biotechnology developed PTCTS, composed by natural particles from medicinal plants (PTC) combined with trans-Sialidase (TS), to combat MPs and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Our aim was to determine the effects of the different components of PTCTS in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Rabbits were fed with high cholesterol diet for 12 weeks and treated during the last 6 weeks with either vehicle, PTC, TS, or PTCTS. Lipid profile and quantification of MPs positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and oxidized LDL antigens were carried out. Aortas and organs were then histologically analyzed. PTCTS reduced circulating MPs positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and oxidized LDL antigens, reduced the plaque area in the abdominal aorta, and caused positive remodeling of the ascendant aorta. PTC caused positive remodeling and reduced plaque area in the abdominal aorta; however, TS had a lipid lowering effect. PTCTS components combined were more effective against atherosclerosis than individual components. Our data reinforce the infectious theory of atherosclerosis and underscore the potential role of circulating MPs. Therefore, the removal of Mycoplasma-derived MPs could be a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  6. Nutritional value of diets disclosed in non-scientific magazines - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p349

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Vanessa Gomes de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional value of weight-loss diets disclosed in non-scientific magazines. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study carried out in two phases (first investigation in 2007; second investigation in 2009, in which 120 weight-loss diets were randomly selected from 24 magazines divided into three groups based on cost. The menus were evaluated with regard to calories, macronutrients and fiber, using the Diet Pro 2 program. The SPSS program (version 15.0 was used for statistical analysis, with the results expressed as mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s paired post hoc comparison was used for the quantitative study of the nutrients in each group of magazines and each phase of the study. The Student’s t-test was used for the comparisons of mean values obtained with the diets and established recommendations. The level of significance was set at 5.0%. Results: The energy supply was higher in 2007. Over time, mean protein content in the diets diminished, lipid content remained similar and glucose content increased. Based on the recommended values, the diets were characterized as hypoglycemic, high-protein and normolipidemic. The content of micronutrients was lower than recommended amounts in both years assessed. The fiber content increased in the second year in relation to the first, but did not reach the recommended level. Conclusion: Diets showed inadequacies of macro and micronutrients in the two studied years, with an imbalance between their components.

  7. Nutrition Facts Panel use is associated with diet quality and dietary patterns among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Vega-López, Sonia; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-08-14

    The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate. Settings Hartford County, Connecticut, USA. Latino adults (n 203), ≥21 years of age, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, glycosylated Hb≥7 %, and without medical conditions limiting physical activity. Participants' education level, diabetes-related knowledge and English speaking were positively associated with NFP use. At the higher percentiles of diet quality score, NFP use was significantly associated with higher diet quality. Similarly, NFP users were more likely to consume a 'healthy' dietary pattern (P=0·003) and less likely to consume a 'fried snack' pattern (P=0·048) compared with NFP non-users. The association between reported NFP use and diet quality was positive and significantly stronger among participants who reported consuming a healthier diet. While NFP use was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, not using NFP was associated with a less-healthy, fried snack pattern. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand whether improving NFP use could be an effective intervention to improve diet quality among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

  8. 糖尿病人群食谱设计及营养分析%Diabetics Diets and Their Nutritional Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜忠; 陶宗虎; 向芳

    2015-01-01

    以糖尿病患者营养膳食指南为理论依据,在控制能量、增加复合碳水化合物、增加蛋白质摄入、限制脂肪摄入及补充矿物质和维生素供给的基础上,针对糖尿病患者进行营养套餐设计,并对设计出的食谱进行深入系统的营养分析,为改善糖尿病人群的营养状况,促进糖尿病人群生活质量和健康水平的提高提供依据.%According to the theoretical dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes, the article gives sugges-tions on nutritional diets for diabetics, with an aim to control energy, increase complex carbohydrates, in-crease protein intake, limit fat intake and provide mineral and vitamin supplementation.The diets are also dis-sected for nutritional analyses, which help to improve the nutritional status of diabetics, quality of their life, and their health conditions.

  9. 胃癌患者的营养膳食%Nutritional Diet in Patients With Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹

    2015-01-01

    胃癌是我国最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,发病率为消化恶性肿瘤之首。胃癌与膳食营养有着密不可分的关系,胃癌患者更应该注意营养膳食。本研究分别对胃癌患者、胃癌术后患者及胃癌化疗患者的营养膳食进行指导,护理,促进胃癌患者早日康复。%Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in our contry,which accounted for the highest percentage in the gastric-intestine malignant tumor. The relationship between gastric cancer and dietary nutrition is inseparable. The patients of gastric carcinoma should pay more attention to the nutrition diet. For the patients of gastric carcinoma,postoperative patients with gastric cancer and gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with guidance and care on the nutrition diet to promote patients’recovery as soon as possible.

  10. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  11. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ...

  12. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    with the recommended values and depending on food preferences and habits, and 2) further optimizing the diet composition with regard to carbon footprint (CF). Methods: We used a simple modelling of the ‘Traditional’, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fast food’ patterns identified from national dietary data (1)Knudsen et al......Background and aims: A healthy diet complies with the national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR2012). In this study we aim at 1) developing new healthy diet compositions by a simple diet modelling technique that ensures a nutrient content in accordance....... 2014) into isocaloric healthy diets that fulfil and the Danish FBDGs and NNR2012 with respect to both micro- and macronutrients. Furthermore we updated the list of estimated carbon footprint (CF) of food items included in the diets and further optimized the diet composition with regard to CF. Extension...

  13. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C

    2006-08-01

    Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.

  14. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  15. Diet and Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  16. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  17. Nutritional status of students of primary and secondary education of Valencia and the relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Navarro-Solera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity is reaching very high in the Spanish pediatric population favouring obesity in adults. To know the nutritional status of students from six schools in the province of Valencia and its degree of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD.Material and methods: Cross-sectional study that included 777 students, 49.9% were boys and 50.1% girls aged between 8 and 16 years. Weight and height of each participant was determined and body mass index (BMI was calculated. From the Z-score BMI was calculated. KIDMED test was used to study the degree of adherence to the MD.Results: The prevalence of overweight was 14.5 % and 10.0% obese. A total of 53.3%, 30.1% and 16.6% of the whole sample showed a high, medium and low adherence to the MD, respectively. Age, sex and nutritional status were evaluated according to the adherence to the MD. Chi-squared analysis indicated significant association between academic course and nutritional status with the adherence to the MD. Being older and having a higher BMI supposed lower adherence to the MD.Conclusions: We confirmed that the adherence to the MD has significant association with the nutritional status of young people, worsening with increasing age. These results corroborate the need to re-learn eating habits.

  18. Effects of nutrition level of concentrate-based diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P  0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).

  19. Preclinical study of the interference of different nutritional diets on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of etoricoxib

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchetti, Erica S.; Costa Dos Santos, Kelem; Perazzo,Fábio F.; Carvalho, José C.T.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the interference of the association of different types of nutritional diet in the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of etoricoxib in in vivo models. The following assays were used: a) Rat paw edema induced by carrageenan; b) Induction of the granulomatous tissue by cotton pellet; c) Dermatitis induced by croton oil; d) Vascular permeability by histamine in rats; e) Writhing test by acetic acid in mice; f) Formalin test in mice and; g) Stress-i...

  20. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    of milk to the current average diet could result in a health benefit for American adults, assuming that existing foods associated with substantial health benefits are not substituted, such as fruits and vegetables. The net health benefit is further increased when considering an iso-caloric substitution...... of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate...

  1. [Household availability of ready-to-consume food and drink products in Chile: impact on nutritional quality of the diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto M, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo; Martins, Ana Paula; Moubarac, Jean Claude; Monteiro, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Processed foodstuff may have a lower nutritional value than natural products. To analyze the impact of ready-to-consume products on diet quality of Chilean households. A national representative sample of 10,096 households, based on the 6th Survey on Household Budget and Expenses (VI Encuesta de Presupuestos y Gastos Familiares, 2006-2007), was studied. Foodstuffs were classified as follows: 1) Unprocessed foods or minimally processed foods (G1); 2) Processed culinary ingredients (G2); and 3) Ready-to-consume products (G3). Calorie contribution and energy availability of each household food group, was calculated. The nutritional profile of the national food basket was calculated and compared with two simulated baskets (G3 vs G1+G2), based on international nutritional recommendations. Overall energy availability was of 1,885 kcal per capita/ day; 24% derived from unprocessed foods (G1), 21% from processed culinary ingredients (G2) and 55% from ready-to-consume products (G3), whose proportion increased along with income level. The 2007 national food basket contained an excess of total fat (34% vs 30%), free sugars (16% vs 10%), energy density (2.1 vs 1.3 kcal/gram) and a low amount of fiber (8.4 vs 12.5 g/1,000 kcal). The basket consisting in ready-to-consume products (G3) had a higher percentage of carbohydrates (61% vs 46%) than the basket consisting in unprocessed foods and ingredients (G1+G2). It also had a higher percentage of free sugars (17% vs 15%), less dietary fiber (7 vs. 10 g/1,000 kcal) and, above all, a higher energy density (2.6 vs 1.6 kcal/g). The Chilean dietary pattern, based on ready-to-consume products (G3), is affecting the nutritional quality of the diet.

  2. Effects of Inclusion of Two Probiotic Strains Isolated From “Sha’a”, a Maize-Based Traditionally Fermented Beverage on Lipid Metabolism of Rabbits fed a Cholesterol-Enriched Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zambou Ngoufack François; Kaktcham Pierre Marie; Fonteh Anyangwe Florence; Guetiya Wadoum Raoul; Sieladie Djomne Victor

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S isolated from Sha’a and evaluate their effects on lipid metabolism of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. The strains were tested in vitro for their acid and bile tolerance, capability to remove cholesterol from MRS broth and to deconjugate bile salts. For in vivo studies, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp10S and Lp11S were administered to rabbits fed on cholesterol-enriched diet (standar...

  3. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  4. Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opyd, Paulina M; Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Milala, Joanna; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław

    2017-10-02

    Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW). It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from apple seed

  5. Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina M. Opyd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C and amygdalin (AMG groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW. It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from

  6. Digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas simplificadas baseadas em forragens para coelhos em crescimento Apparent digestibility of nutrients of simplified diets based on forages for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Ferreira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de dietas simplificadas à base de forragens sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em coelhos Nova Zelândia branco. As dietas experimentais foram: referência (REF, feno de alfafa (FAL, feno das folhas de rami (FRA, feno das folhas de amoreira (FAM e feno do terço superior da rama da mandioca (FMA. A digestibilidade das dietas foi influenciada pelo tipo de alimento estudado; a FMA apresentou coeficientes de digestibilidade inferiores às demais dietas para todos os princípios nutritivos analisados. Para a dieta FAM, os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos princípios nutritivos foram maiores (P0,05. Os valores estimados de energia digestível (kcal ED/kg MS e proteína digestível (%PD/MS foram, respectivamente, para o feno de alfafa: 2285,27 e 16,04; feno das folhas de rami: 1857,88 e 16,37; feno das folhas de amoreira: 2838,48 e 15,12 e feno do terço superior da mandioca: 2155,55 e 10,57.The effect of simplified diets based on forages on the apparent digestibility in white New Zealand rabbits was evaluated. The treatments were based on the following diets: reference (REF, hay of alfalfa (FAL, hay of rami leaves (FRA, hay of mulberry leaves (FAM and hay of upper to 1/3 aereal part of cassava (FMA. The type of food affected the digestibility of the diets. The FMA diet showed low coefficients of digestibility in comparison to the other diets for all the analyzed nutrients. For the FAM diet the coefficients of apparent digestibility of the nutrients had higher values (P0.05. The estimated values of digestible energy (kcal DE/kg DM and digestible protein (%DP/DM were, respectively, 2285.27 and 16.04 for alfalfa hay, 1857.88 and 16.37 for hay of rami leaves, 2838.48 and 15.12 for hay of mulberry leaves and 2155.55 and 10.57 for hay of upper to 1/3 aereal part of cassava.

  7. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. Normal Diet: Pregnancy and Lactation. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Janice Hovasi; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  9. Diet and physical activity as determinants of nutritional status in elderly women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the relationship between physical activity, dietary intake and nutritional status in elderly women.Background of the study was a lack of knowledge about the existence of nutritionally unfavourable pathways associated to the age-assoc

  10. Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions to Human Nutrition and Health: Managing Genome–Diet Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOVER, PATRICK J.; CAUDILL, MARIE A.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently convened a workshop to review the state of the various domains of nutritional genomics research and policy and to provide guidance for further development and translation of this knowledge into nutrition practice and policy. Nutritional genomics holds the promise to revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and facilitate the establishment of (a) genome-informed nutrient and food-based dietary guidelines for disease prevention and healthful aging, (b) individualized medical nutrition therapy for disease management, and (c) better targeted public health nutrition interventions (including micronutrient fortification and supplementation) that maximize benefit and minimize adverse outcomes within genetically diverse human populations. As the field of nutritional genomics matures, which will include filling fundamental gaps in knowledge of nutrient–genome interactions in health and disease and demonstrating the potential benefits of customizing nutrition prescriptions based on genetics, registered dietitians will be faced with the opportunity of making genetically driven dietary recommendations aimed at improving human health. PMID:18755320

  11. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  12. 兔肉营养特点与人体健康%Nutritive characteristics of rabbit meat and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳; 杨佳艺; 王国栋; 李洪军

    2012-01-01

    文章从我国居民营养素摄入现状出发,对近年来国内外兔肉营养成分的研究进行了综述,重点阐述了其脂肪酸的组成、胆固醇、氨基酸和矿物质的含量等,特别是它高蛋白质、低胆固醇、低热量、高比例的多不饱和脂肪酸、高赖氨酸、高钾低钠、高维生素B12的特点,是一种符合我国居民现代需求的优质肉品。%Based on the nutrients intake of our residents,this article summarized domestic and overseas researches on nutrients of rabbit meat in recent years,focused on the composition of fatty acid,the content of cholesterol,amino acid and mineral substance,especially,on rabbit meat’s characteristics of high content of protein,vitamin B12,potassium,lysine and polyunsaturated fatty acid and its low content of cholesterol,energy and sodium.Rabbit meat was a kind of excellent meat which met the modern demand of our residents.

  13. Ancient grains and pseudocereals: chemical compositions, nutritional benefits, and roles in 21st century diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent history, refined grains have replaced whole grains in the human diet. However, refined grains have fewer phytochemicals and more starches than whole grain. In addition, studies have shown that inclusion of whole grains in a daily diet results in decreased risk of cancer and cardiovascular ...

  14. Nutrition, oxidative stress and intestinal dysbiosis: Influence of diet on gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Mazzola, Margherita; Leone, Angelo; Sinagra, Emanuele; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Damiani, Provvidenza; Cappello, Francesco; Gerges Geagea, Alice; Jurjus, Abdo; Bou Assi, Tarek; Messina, Massimiliano; Carini, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Microbiota refers to the population of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that inhabit the entire gastrointestinal tract, more particularly the colon whose role is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and control the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota is called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis redisposes to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and indeterminate colitis. The purpose of this literature review is to elucidate the influence of diet on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the healthy gut and the role of diet in the development of dysbiosis. The "Western diet", in particular a low - fiber high fat/high carbohydrate diet is one factor that can lead to severe dysbiosis. In contrast, "mediterranean" and vegetarian diets that includes abundant fruits, vegetables, olive oil and oily fish are known for their anti-inflammatory effects and could prevent dysbiosis and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  16. Effect of vitamin E nutritional supplementation on the pathological changes induced in the ileum of rabbits by experimental infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalie, E; Kouzi, K; Poutahidis, T; Abas, Z; Sarris, K; Iliadis, N; Kaldrymidou, E

    2006-05-01

    A well-established rabbit model of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) disease was used to examine whether vitamin E (VE) nutritional supplementation had an effect on the pathological changes induced in the bowel by EPEC. Quantitative methods were used to evaluate the influence of VE on bacterial colonization, intestinal mucosal architecture and inflammation, and intestinal epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. VE did not affect EPEC colonization and did not give significant protection against EPEC-induced changes and diarrhoea. Although VE had no effect on the EPEC-related increase of enterocyte apoptosis, it clearly contributed to an acceleration of epithelial cell proliferation in the ileal crypts. This finding may explain why ileal morphometry undertaken in this study showed that VE ameliorated somewhat the effects of EPEC on intestinal mucosal architecture. Quantitative studies on inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa revealed that VE nutritional supplementation resulted in an increased neutrophilic and mononuclear inflammatory cell response to EPEC infection, which did not contribute, however, to the clearance of infection.

  17. [Nutritional state and shortcoming of micronutrients on schooled youth's diet on the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez López, Rosa María; Fausto Guerra, Josefina; Valadez, Figueroa Isabel; Ramos Ramos, Alfredo; Loreto Garibay, Oscar; Villaseñor Farias, Martha

    2012-06-01

    The adolescence is a stage of high nutritional risk due to the increased requirements, changes in eating habits and potential risk. There are documented evidence of micronutrient deficiency among the population of Mexico. To evaluate the nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of adolescents. The sample consisted of 307 adolescents. We analyzed the body composition by using anthropometric indicators. To determine the intake of micronutrients, the 24 hours reminder and software Mexfoods were used. The percentages that indicate adequate intake were classified according to the following breakpoints: Below minimum requirements, when intake was or = 50% and or = 75%. The BMI indicated that 21.8% of students of both sexes showed malnutrition and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27.9%. The micronutrient intake results indicated significant deficiencies in iron (p = 0.002), zinc (p = 0.000) and calcium (p = 0.002). The B-complex vitamins were those that had lower failure rates. We identified that the diet of adolescents has significant micronutrient deficiencies and that adolescent girls resulted with the major deficiencies. It is urgent to develop strategies, to reduce the problems of food deficit in adolescents.

  18. 养生中的体育运动与营养饮食%The Sports and Nutrition Diet Regimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田福军

    2016-01-01

    Physical health needs the combination of exercise and nutrition, they are independent and rely on each other, both be short of one cannot. If just sport without compensatory nutrition, can cause damage to the body; If only supplements did not pay attention to physical exercise, so will cause the body appear deformity. For keeping in good health, slow movement is more reasonable than strenuous exercise, science diet is more healthy than wayward diet.%保持身体健康需要运动与营养的结合,运动与营养既独立又相互依靠,二者缺一不可。如果只是运动而不补充营养,就会造成身体的损伤;如果只补充营养却不注意锻炼身体,将会导致身体出现畸形。对于养生来说,舒缓运动比激烈运动更加合理,科学饮食比任性饮食更加健康。

  19. Nutrition and Health of the Modern Diet%现代饮食营养与健康

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹菲菲

    2013-01-01

    With the people′s living standards improve,modern life diet to food nutrition, food hygiene and dietary balance theory, arrange meals in science, get more nutrients from food to meet the different needs of different groups of people. Through the analysis and evaluation of nutrition,food selection, reasonable cooking, diet management and therapeutic knowledge guidance,to achieve common disease prevention and auxiliary treatment of modern people, getridofsub-healthstate.%  随着人民生活水平的不断提升,现代生活的饮食将以食品营养学、食品卫生学、膳食平衡理论等为指导,科学安排膳食,更好的从食物中获取更多的营养来满足不同人群的不同需求。通过营养分析评价、食物选择、合理烹调、饮食配餐及食疗知识的指导,达到预防及辅助治疗现代人群的常见病症,摆脱亚健康状态。

  20. The best of two worlds: how the Greenland Board of Nutrition has handled conflicting evidence about diet and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional diet in Greenland consists to a large extent of meat and organs of seal and other marine mammals, which is polluted by POPs and mercury. These substances are present in the blood of Greenlanders in concentrations well above international guidelines, and as these contaminants are suspected of having negative impacts on health, some action should be taken. On the other hand, traditional food is also an important source of health promoting micronutrients that are not provided by imported food in sufficient quantities, for example vitamin D, long chain n-3 fatty acids, and selenium, not to mention the traditional diet's function as a social glue that is perceived as important for Inuit identity in Greenland. The proportion of the total diet that comes from marine mammals is on a constant decrease, and especially children and young adults consume rather little seal and whale. The traditional food items are consequently being replaced by imported food, and among the imported food items several rather unhealthy items are popular, that is carbonated soft drinks with sugar, sweets, chips and farmed (red meat with a high content of saturated fat. Together with a decrease in physical activity, this dietary transition has resulted in a severe epidemic of overweight and diabetes. In giving advice to the public, the Greenland Board of Nutrition was therefore faced with the challenge to retain the benefits of the traditional diet while minimizing the contaminant exposure, and at the same time to counteract the effects of poor quality imported food. The Board tried to balance the known and suspected positive and negative aspects of the total diet in relation not only to physical health but to general wellbeing, and decided on 10 simple recommendations. As the consumption of traditional food becomes less prominent and as the consumption of food rich in empty calories increases, the guidelines are continuously revised and updated.

  1. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  2. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660 Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Scapinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a ração referência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95, 76,64, 75,04 e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63 e 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (p Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and to evaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry

  3. Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of sodium, whether or not they taste salty. That’s why it’s important to use the Nutrition ... Label. Surprisingly, some foods that don’t taste salty can still be high in sodium, which is ...

  4. Effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenwanthanang, Puttavee; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Porntadavity, Sureerut

    2011-04-12

    Curcuma comosa has been known to have potential use in cardiovascular diseases, but its immunoregulatory role in atherosclerosis development and liver toxicity has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with 1.0% cholesterol for one month and were subsequently treated with 0.5% cholesterol either alone, or in combination with 5mg/kg/day of simvastatin or with 400mg/kg/day of Curcuma comosa powder for three months. The expression of IL-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in the isolated abdominal aorta and liver were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Liver toxicity was determined by hepatic enzyme activity. Curcuma comosa significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a stronger reduction in IL-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression compared to that was suppressed by simvastatin treatment. However, neither Curcuma comosa nor simvastatin affected the expression of anti-inflammation cytokines. In the liver, Curcuma comosa insignificantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significantly increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering the activity of hepatic enzymes. In contrast, simvastatin significantly increased the MCP-1 and TNF-α expressions and serum ALT level, without affecting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that Curcuma comosa exerts anti-inflammatory activity in the aorta and liver without causing liver toxicity, indicating that Curcuma comosa is a potential candidate as an alternative agent in cardiovascular disease therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia M Bianchi

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition is critical to the health of both mother and offspring, but there is a paucity of data on the nutritional adequacy of diets during pregnancy.Our objective was to identify to what extent pregnancy reduces the nutritional adequacy of the expecting mother's diet and if this nutritional gap can be resolved by simple quantitative or qualitative changes in the diet.We evaluated the observed overall nutritional adequacy of diets of French and American women of childbearing age participating in ENNS (n = 344 and NHANES (n = 563 using the probabilistic approach of the PANDiet system, resulting in a 100-point score. Then, we simulated the changes in the PANDiet scores of women of childbearing age who would remain on their diet during pregnancy. Finally, by either increasing the quantity of consumed foods or using eleven snacks recommended during pregnancy, we simulated the effect of a 150-kcal increase in the energy intake of French women.Observed PANDiet scores were equal to 59.3 ± 7.0 and 58.8 ± 9.3 points respectively in France and in the US. Simulation of pregnancy for women of childbearing age led to a decrease in nutritional adequacy for key nutrients during pregnancy and resulted in reducing PANDiet scores by 3.3 ± 0.1 and 3.7 ± 0.1 points in France and in the US. Simulated 150-kcal increases in energy intake proved to be only partially effective in filling the gap both when the quantity of food consumed was increased and when recommended snacks were used.The decrease in nutritional adequacy induced by pregnancy cannot be addressed by simply following generic dietary guidelines.

  6. Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clélia M.; Mariotti, François; Verger, Eric O.; Huneau, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal nutrition is critical to the health of both mother and offspring, but there is a paucity of data on the nutritional adequacy of diets during pregnancy. Objective Our objective was to identify to what extent pregnancy reduces the nutritional adequacy of the expecting mother’s diet and if this nutritional gap can be resolved by simple quantitative or qualitative changes in the diet. Materials and Methods We evaluated the observed overall nutritional adequacy of diets of French and American women of childbearing age participating in ENNS (n = 344) and NHANES (n = 563) using the probabilistic approach of the PANDiet system, resulting in a 100-point score. Then, we simulated the changes in the PANDiet scores of women of childbearing age who would remain on their diet during pregnancy. Finally, by either increasing the quantity of consumed foods or using eleven snacks recommended during pregnancy, we simulated the effect of a 150-kcal increase in the energy intake of French women. Results Observed PANDiet scores were equal to 59.3 ± 7.0 and 58.8 ± 9.3 points respectively in France and in the US. Simulation of pregnancy for women of childbearing age led to a decrease in nutritional adequacy for key nutrients during pregnancy and resulted in reducing PANDiet scores by 3.3 ± 0.1 and 3.7 ± 0.1 points in France and in the US. Simulated 150-kcal increases in energy intake proved to be only partially effective in filling the gap both when the quantity of food consumed was increased and when recommended snacks were used. Conclusions The decrease in nutritional adequacy induced by pregnancy cannot be addressed by simply following generic dietary guidelines. PMID:26959492

  7. A leucine-rich diet and exercise affect the biomechanical characteristics of the digital flexor tendon in rats after nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Benevides, Gustavo Pereira; Alferes, Leda Maria Totti; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Gomes, Laurecir

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the capacity of athletic performance depends on adequate nutrition, which ensures optimal function of the musculoskeletal system, including tendon stability. However, little is known about the status of tendons and extracellular matrix modifications during malnutrition and nutritional recovery when leucine is used in response to exercise conditioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collagen content and biomechanical aspects of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in malnourished rats submitted to nutritional recovery (control diet or leucine-rich diet) and aerobic physical activity. After 60 days of undernourishment (6% protein diet), the malnourished rats were subsequently nutritionally recovered with a control diet or leucine-rich diet and trained or not (swimming, without overload) for 5 weeks. The biomechanical analysis and quantification of hydroxyproline were assessed in the DDFT in all experimental groups. The leucine-rich diet increased hydroxyproline content in the tension region, independently of the training. In the compression region, hydroxyproline content was higher in the malnourished and leucine-trained groups. Biomechanical analysis showed a lower load in the malnourished and all-trained groups. The lowest stress was observed with control-trained animals. The nutritional-recovered groups showed higher strain values corresponding to control group, while the lowest values were observed in malnourished and trained groups. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet stimulates collagen synthesis of the DDFT, especially when in combination with physical exercise, and seems to determine the increase of resistance and the biomechanical characteristics of tendons.

  8. Identifying sustainable foods: the relationship between environmental impact, nutritional quality, and prices of foods representative of the French diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, Gabriel; Soler, Louis-Georges; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable diets, as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization, need to combine environment, nutrition, and affordability dimensions. However, it is unknown whether these dimensions are compatible, and no guidance is available in the official recommendations. To identify foods with compatible sustainability dimensions. For 363 of the most commonly consumed foods in the Second French Individual and National Study on Food Consumption, environmental impact indicators (ie, greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, acidification, and eutrophication), and prices were collected. The nutritional quality of the foods was assessed by calculating the score for the nutritional adequacy of individual foods (SAIN) to score for disqualifying nutrients (LIM) ratio. A sustainability score based on the median GHG emissions, price, and SAIN:LIM was calculated for each food; the foods with the best values for all three variables received the highest score. The environmental indicators were strongly and positively correlated. Meat, fish, and eggs and dairy products had the strongest influence on the environment; starchy foods, legumes, and fruits and vegetables had the least influence. GHG emissions were inversely correlated with SAIN:LIM (r=-0.37) and positively correlated with price per kilogram (r=0.59); the correlation with price per kilocalorie was null. This showed that foods with a heavy environmental impact tend to have lower nutritional quality and a higher price per kilogram but not a lower price per kilocalorie. Using price per kilogram, 94 foods had a maximum sustainability score, including most plant-based foods and excluding all foods with animal ingredients except milk, yogurt, and soups. Using price per kilocalorie restricted the list to 42 foods, including 52% of all starchy foods and legumes but only 11% of fruits and vegetables (mainly 100% fruit juices). Overall, the sustainability dimensions seemed to be compatible when considering price per kilogram of food. However

  9. Selected physiologic variables are weakly to moderately associated with 29 biomarkers of diet and nutrition, NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Bridgette M H; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    The physiologic status of an individual may influence biomarkers of nutritional status. To help researchers with planning studies and interpreting data, we assessed the associations between common physiologic variables (fasting, inflammation, renal function, and pregnancy) and 29 biomarkers of diet and nutrition measured in blood or urine in a representative sample of the adult U.S. population (aged ≥ 20 y; pregnancy variable and iron indicators limited to women aged 20-49 y) participating in NHANES 2003-2006. We compared simple linear regression (model 1) with multiple linear regression [model 2, controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, supplement use, and the physiologic factors (and urine creatinine for urine biomarkers)] and report significant findings from model 2. Not being fasted was positively associated with most water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) and related metabolites (RMs). Some WSV, fat-soluble vitamin (FSV) and micronutrient (MN), and phytoestrogen concentrations were lower in the presence of inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥ 5 mg/L), whereas fatty acids and most iron indicators were higher. Most WSVs and RMs were higher when renal function was impaired [estimated glomerular filtration rate function, however, showed several large differences for WSV and RM concentrations. This descriptive analysis of associations between physiologic variables and a large number of nutritional biomarkers showed that controlling for demographic variables, smoking, and supplement use generally did not change the interpretation of bivariate results. The analysis serves as a useful basis for more complex future research.

  10. Diet and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths: acculturation and socioeconomic factors in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Robert E; Marquis, Grace S; Jensen, Helen H

    2003-12-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor diet, food insufficiency, and poor child health. Hispanic households have disproportionately low incomes. Acculturation-related changes may augment the effects of poverty on children's diet and health. The goal was to determine the associations that acculturation, measured by parents' language use, and income have with dietary intakes and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths. Data on 2985 Hispanic youths aged 4-16 y were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Nutrient intake data were from one 24-h dietary recall. The analysis was controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and program variables. Parents' exclusive use of Spanish was associated in bivariate analyses with differences in intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and folate and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. When other factors were controlled for, less acculturation was associated with differences in intakes of energy and sodium and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. Individuals in poorer households had higher intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and some micronutrients. Although not significant for all indicators of food insufficiency, consistent patterns showed that household food insufficiency decreased with less acculturation (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7 for adult meal size reduced) and increased with low income [odds ratio: 5.9 (3.0, 11.7) for not enough food and 5.4 (2.2, 13.4) for child meal size reduced]. Both acculturation and poverty have roles in children's diets and in household food insufficiency. Culturally specific public health and nutrition education should complement efforts to improve the financial security of low-income households.

  11. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Diet and glycaemia : the markers and their meaning. A report of the Unilever Nutrition Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, Marjan; Boers, Hanny M.; Ceriello, Antonio; Kilpatrick, Eric S.; Mela, David J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-relate

  13. Diet and glycaemia : the markers and their meaning. A report of the Unilever Nutrition Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, Marjan; Boers, Hanny M.; Ceriello, Antonio; Kilpatrick, Eric S.; Mela, David J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-relate

  14. Dietary education for university students : Effect of putting the poster related to diet or nutrition in the sign stand on university cafeteria dining tables

    OpenAIRE

    冨永, 美穂子; 濱端, 倫子

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a university cafeteria as a place of dietary education by putting 10 kinds of poster related to diet or nutrition in the sign stand on the dining tables at a university cafeteria over a period of 10 weeks (1 week for each poster). We conducted a questionnaire survey among students using the cafeteria with respect to such items as requests to the cafeteria, awareness of nutritional balance, frequency of eating breakfast, and utility of the posters i...

  15. Nutritive value of diets with different carbohydrates for adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Mara de Lima Fontellas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Tephritidae, especially of the genus Anastrepha (Schiner, 1868, have been observed to feed on a wide variety of natural diets. The fruit on which they feed, in general, are rich in sugar content, chiefly glucose, frutose and sucrose, which are also the sugars that those insects utilise better. Neither the behavioural mechanisms, nor the physiological ones, that control food selection by insects, are well known. Because some of those aspects are not known for the species Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 either, and in order to understand their biology better, three experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, it was checked whether there was a difference in metabolic profit by those insects, when fed the carbohydrates more frequently found in nature, as resulting in a bigger egg production and higher survival rate at the end of the experiment. In the second, it was checked whether A. obliqua can regulate diet ingestion according to carbohydrate content in dry as well as wet diets. In the third experiment, measurements were made to establish the lowest carbohydrate concentration flies are able to recognise in the diet. Analysis of the data showed that ingestion of carbohydrates which are commonly found in nature, in association with a protein source, is very well utilised by females of A. obliqua. It was also shown that .those insects are not probably able to compensate for the difference in carbohydrate content in dry diets, whereas they do so for wet diets. In relation to discrimination threshold, it seems that it is related to the higher occurrence of the carbohydrate in their normal diet, that is, they can recognise carbohydrates that are common in their natural diet better than the less frequent ones.

  16. Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets - the Indian Migration Study (IMS).

    OpenAIRE

    Shridhar, K; Dhillon, PK; Bowen, L.; Kinra, S; Bharathi, AV; Prabhakaran, D.; Reddy, KS; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. METHODS Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical act...

  17. Application of ethnic food composition data for understanding the diet and nutrition of South Asians in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Santosh; Ashkanani, Fatemah; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Husain, Wafaa

    2013-10-01

    Lack of food composition data, recipe information and portion sizes for ethnic foods are commonly reported problems for dietary assessment of ethnic minority groups. One of the main aims of this study was to use food composition data to validate portion sizes, identify important sources of nutrients and describe the characteristics of the South Asian diet. The top five ethnic foods containing highest levels of selected nutrients were lamb balti (3mg/100g iron), lamb kebab (3.2mg/100g zinc), mixed dhal (62μg/100g folate), fish curry (1.4μg/100g vitamin D), ghee (968μg/100g retinol) and toor dhal (9.1g/100g dietary fibre). Typical adult South Asian diets included traditional cereals (chapatti, rice and paratha) and low consumption of meat dishes; with vegetable curries contributing most towards energy intake. A higher consumption of full fat milk and fruit juices by toddlers and school children were observed when compared with the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK.

  18. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  19. Nutritional and biochemical effects of aspartame intake in rats under an experimental diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martinez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of aspartame intake in rats under a diet mimicking the trends of fat consumption in the society. The composition of the experimental diet was within the recommended human limits except the saturated fat amount supplying from coconut fat. Rats under the experimental diet showed an increase in the body weight, transitory increase in the blood pressure and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides alongside a transitory reduction in plasma urea versus the standard group. Rats under the experimental diet plus aspartame intake (54.8 ± 7.3 mg/kg bw/day did not show any increase of body weight and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides while showed an improvement in the plasma value of urea with respect the group under only the experimental diet. However, the aspartame group showed a more maintained increase of blood pressure. In conclusion, experimental diet produces negative effects on cardiovascular risk factors of the rats while the aspartame intake under the experimental feeding had mixed effects on the cardiometabolic factors of the animals.

  20. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  1. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  2. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis; Naoel Hassan Feres; Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza; Roberto Vilela Veloso; Vanessa Cristina Arantes; Nair Honda Kawashita; Edson Moleta Colodel; Bárbara Laet Botosso; Marise Auxiliadora de Barros Reis; Márcia Queiroz Latorraca

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and ...

  3. An animal model of Kashin-Beck disease induced by a low-nutrition diet and exposure to T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P; Yao, Y; Yang, J; Shen, B; Zhou, Z; Pei, F

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the combined roles of a low-nutrition diet (low levels of protein, iodine, and selenium) and T-2 toxin in bone development and to establish an experimental animal model of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) that reliably mimics the disease's pathological changes for further study of the pathogenesis and prevention of the disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided among four groups: group A, normal diet; group B, normal diet plus T-2 toxin; group C, low-nutrition diet; and group D, low-nutrition diet plus T-2 toxin exposure. The radiographic and histopathological changes in the tibial growth zone, plate cartilage and metaphysis were examined. In group D, all epiphyseal plates were blurred, thin, and irregular. Tibias were significantly shorter in group D than in groups A and B. After 4 weeks, epiphyseal plates showed chondrocyte necrosis, with the more obvious necrosis appearing in groups C and D. The positive rate of lamellar necrosis was significantly higher in group D than in groups B and A (P diet and T-2 toxin exposure demonstrated radiographic and histopathological abnormalities of the proximal epiphyseal plate and the tibial metaphysis that are very similar to the bone changes found in patients with KBD. This animal model will be helpful for further study of the pathogenesis and prevention of KBD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Family nutrition program assistants' perception of farmers' markets, alternative agricultural practices, and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyak, Sarah; Ledlie Johnson, Meredith; McFerren, Mary; Serrano, Elena

    2014-01-01

    To explore Family Nutrition Program assistants' perception of farmers' markets and alternative agricultural practices for themselves and their clients. Cross-section design, survey of Virginia Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (NEP) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education Family Nutrition Program assistants (n = 52) working with limited-resource populations. Twenty-one percent to 55% of FNP assistants valued alternative agricultural practices, and only 5% to 8% of FNP assistants perceived that their clients did so. Benefits to shopping at farmers' markets included supporting local economies, and food price, quality, and safety. Barriers included lack of transportation, location/convenience, hours, and food prices. Assistants rated the benefits to shopping at farmers' markets similarly for themselves and their clients, but rated many of the barriers to shopping at farmers' markets as significantly lower (P < .05) for themselves than for their clients. Future assistant trainings should address the connection between agriculture and health, and how to overcome barriers to shopping at farmers' markets for their clients. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet choice in weight-restored patients with eating disorders: progressive autonomy process by nutritional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human eating behaviour is regulated by multiple factors. Anorexia nervosa patients show a restrictive eating pattern while bulimia nervosa patients present bingeing-purging episodes. Although treatments are specially successful in the normalization of body composition, maladaptive eating behaviours tend to persist being a risk factor for relapse and recurrence. Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the quality of the nutritional choice of eating disorders patients after a year of nutritional education and to assess improvements in choice capacity. Methods: Thirty-one outpatients of an eating disorders unit planned a menu after body composition normalization and repeated this plan each three months during a one-year programme of nutritional education. Results: Patients improved the time spent on the assignment (p < 0.01, Body Mass Index (p < 0.01, their body fat mass (p < 0.01 and the content of energy (p < 0.05, carbohydrates (p < 0.01 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05 in their chosen menus. No differences were found on proteins, total fat or fat profile, vitamins or minerals. 12.9% and 3.2% of the patients chose their menu according to the recommendations of caloric and lipid profile, respectively, after a year of nutritional education. Discussion: Although patients improved energy and carbohydrates content of the menus they tended to reduce caloric and fat food choices, which could lead to relapse and recurrence. Specific nutritional education programmes along with the mandatory psychological and psychiatric treatment may be effective. Conclusions: One year of nutritional education combined with psychological and psychiatric treatment improved those factors usually involved in relapse and recurrence, thus contributing to a proper outcome.

  6. [Quality of the diet "before and during" a weight loss treatment based on Mediterranean Diet; behavioural therapy and nutritional education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Falo, Eva María; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Esteban, Alberto; Alburquerque, Juan José; Garaulet, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El método de pérdida de peso (dieta mediterránea, terapia de comportamiento y educación nutricional) ha mostrado ser efectivo en el tratamiento de la obesidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar y comparar la calidad de las dietas ingeridas antes y durante el tratamiento mediante el Índice de Alimentación Saludable (IAS) y su relación con diferentes variables. Materiales y métodos: La muestra fue de 392 pacientes (330 mujeres, 62 hombres), edad 39,3 ± 11,5 años y IMC de 31,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. A partir del recuerdo-24 h previo al tratamiento y del registro dietético 7 días se estimó el IAS de “antes” y “durante” tratamiento. El IAS consta de 10 variables que representan el cumplimiento de objetivos nutricionales para la población española (SENC, 2004). Resultados: Dieta previa, presentó un IAS “necesita mejorar” (68,6 ± 11,6) con lípidos (%) (43,9 ± 8,4) y AGS (% lípidos) (67,4 ± 20,1) elevados, además el contenido en AGM (% lípidos) (27,8 ± 15,1) fue insuficiente. El IAS varió en función del IMC siendo el de obesos inferior al de personas con sobrepeso (65,1 ± 11,6 vs 69, 2 ± 13,9; P dieta ingerida durante el tratamiento mejoró notablemente IAS (91,4 ± 9,7). El IAS de las mujeres fue superior (92,3 ± 9,1) al de los hombres (84,4 ± 12,0) (P dieta estudiada durante el tratamiento de pérdida de peso mejoró significativamente en relación a la dieta habitual del paciente. El IAS de la dieta durante el tratamiento se asocia con el sexo, el estado ponderal (sobrepeso y obesidad) y con el éxito del tratamiento (> 5% de pérdida del peso inicial).

  7. The role of diet and nutritional intervention for the management of patients with NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Francisco; George, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    During the last few decades, the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have dramatically increased. Nutrition and modern lifestyle habits are intimately involved in this epidemiological change. Although lifestyle intervention can theoretically revert the metabolic disturbances and prevent the long term complications of NAFLD, its efficacy is diminished in clinical practice by poor implementation and reduced adherence to lifestyle intervention programs. In this article we summarize the main elements of dietary interventions for NAFLD, describe practical strategies to optimize efficacy and review potential nutritional strategies under development that hopefully will improve outcomes in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional and in vitro antioxidant properties of edible wild greens in Iberian Peninsula traditional diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Dafne; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Wild greens are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables. Herein, nutritional and in vitro antioxidant properties of the sprouts of three commonly used species were determined. Wild asparagus revealed the highest levels of moisture (84.6 g/100 g fw), ash (12.3 g/100 g dw), proteins (22.4 g/100 g dw), total sugars (9.24 g/100 g dw), including sucrose (4.27 g/100 g dw) and of the essential n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (44.5 %); white bryony gave the highest contents of reducing sugars...

  9. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    Background and aims: A healthy diet complies with the national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR2012). In this study we aim at 1) developing new healthy diet compositions by a simple diet modelling technique that ensures a nutrient content in accordance...... with the recommended values and depending on food preferences and habits, and 2) further optimizing the diet composition with regard to carbon footprint (CF). Methods: We used a simple modelling of the ‘Traditional’, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fast food’ patterns identified from national dietary data (1)Knudsen et al...... of modelling was used to optimise the diets with regard to their estimated carbon footprint (CF). Results: Around 365 food items are included in the three food patterns. Based on literature CF of these foods is updated, including the contribution from waste, transportation and cooking at home. Despite...

  10. Application of the Nutrition Functional Diversity indicator to assess food system contributions to dietary diversity and sustainable diets of Malawian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2015-09-01

    Dietary diversity is associated with nutrient adequacy and positive health outcomes but indicators to measure diversity have focused primarily on consumption, rather than sustainable provisioning of food. The Nutritional Functional Diversity score was developed by ecologists to describe the contribution of biodiversity to sustainable diets. We have employed this tool to estimate the relative contribution of home production and market purchases in providing nutritional diversity to agricultural households in Malawi and examine how food system provisioning varies by time, space and socio-economic conditions. A secondary analysis of nationally representative household consumption data to test the applicability of the Nutritional Functional Diversity score. The data were collected between 2010 and 2011 across the country of Malawi. Households (n 11 814) from predominantly rural areas of Malawi. Nutritional Functional Diversity varied demographically, geographically and temporally. Nationally, purchased foods contributed more to household nutritional diversity than home produced foods (mean score=17·5 and 7·8, respectively). Households further from roads and population centres had lower overall diversity (PFunctional Diversity score is an effective indicator for identifying populations with low nutritional diversity and the relative roles that markets, agricultural extension and home production play in achieving nutritional diversity. This information may be used by policy makers to plan agricultural and market-based interventions that support sustainable diets and local food systems.

  11. Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0% ± SD 13.0% vs. 2.3 ± SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ≈14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ≈22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF BREAD WASTE AS A REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE IN THE DIET OF GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. OMOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize fraction of the diet of growing snails partially or wholly with bread waste (BW on performance characteristics and cost benefits was studied for 12 weeks. A total of 120 growing snails (Archachatina marginata of mean weight 83.67 ± 3.5g of about 3 months of age were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments, BW1, BW2, BW3 and BW4 in which maize fraction of the diet was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with BW respectively, in a completely randomized design replicated 3 times. The parameters measured were feed intake, weight gain, shell length, width and thickness. Feed conversion ratio and cost/weight gain were calculated. The results showed that significant differences were not observed in the mean total feed intake, weight gain and shell increment (P>0.05. The results also revealed that dietary treatments had no significant influence on the dressing percentage (P>0.05 which varied between 41.25 and 41.28%. The total feed cost and cost per weight reduced as the level of BW in the diet increased from 0 to 100%. The highest cost/ weight gain (CW of N223.2 was recorded in diet containing 0% BW while the lowest CW was recorded in diet containing 100%BW. Based on the present results maize fraction of snail’s diet could be replaced with bread waste up to 100% at reduced cost without any adverse effect on performance of growing snails.

  13. Breed and winter nutrition effects on diet digestibility and intake of cows grazing bahiagrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter feed comprises one of the largest costs for cattle production. This study was initiated to evaluate two winter nutrition programs for cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum nutatum) pastures in central Florida. Purebred Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano cows (30/breed), aged 3 to 13 yrs, were assig...

  14. Comparison of three instructional strategies in food and nutrition education: developing a diet plan for a diabetic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; `Logan'Arrington, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1) peer discussion with just-in-time information (JIT information), (2) peer discussion without JIT information), and (3) independent performers. The learners' performance in the three conditions was analyzed. The results presented here describe the role of prior knowledge and JIT information across the conditions and the interaction of the two factors as well as the instructional implications of the findings.

  15. mHealth to Improve the Diet Among Low-Income Populations Enrolled in an Established U.S. Nutrition Program: Design and Rationale of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Noel Fedesco; Evans, David A.; Nolan Kline; William Bart Collins

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To describe the theoretical basis, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial to improve the diet and nutrition of low-income families in the United States. Background: Numerous community and state-wide programs exist in the United States to help improve the health and well-being of people with low incomes. One state-wide program, Small Steps to Health (Small Steps), focuses on improving diet and nutrition among SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) recipients. S...

  16. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  17. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  18. Nutritive value of diets containing fish silage for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Bonne, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Soberano, Sofía; Taboada, J Gabriel; Pérez, Marquelia; Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Espinosa, L Gabriela; Sotelo, Angela

    2012-08-30

    Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Nutritional and economic values of by-products used in poultry diets in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; CHrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two soybean meals (S1, S2) and two palm meals (P1, P2) from solvent and expeller processing, and two cotton meals (C1, C2) both from solvent processing on the bioeconomic performances of broilers. 360 broilers Red Bro were fed six diets containi...

  20. The Nutritional Role of Flavored and White Milk in the Diets of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L., III

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some schools are removing flavored milk from lunchrooms based on the perception that consumption has a negative impact on the overall dietary quality. The goal of this study was to assess the contribution of flavored and white milk in the diets of children. Methods: Intake data from children 2 to 18?years (N?=?7332) participating in…

  1. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzyme in a standard lactation diet, on total tract digestibility of nutrients, milk yield, and weight loss in late lactation, where feed intake is highest. A total of 20 fir...

  2. Improving the nutritive values of solid heavy phase to substitute corn in laying hens diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurma Pasaribu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid heavy phase (SHP, a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be used as a feedstuff to replace corn in poultry diet. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP by supplementation of enzymes and amino acids in order to increase the proportion of SHP to substitute corn in layer diet. There are three enzymes i.e.: Balitnak production (BS4, a commercial single enzyme (consist of mannanase and comercial multienzymes were tested. All the enzymes were mixed with fresh SHP in different dose, dried and ground. The nutrient digestibility of these materials was measured in order to decide the optimum level of each enzyme. Based on this result, a feeding trial was carried out. Experimental diets were formulated to study the effect of substitusion of 25% or 50% corn with dried SHP or enzymes-treated SHP on the performances of the layers. The effect of methionine and lysine supplementation into diets contained high levels of SHP was also studied. Results showed that all enzymes studied could increase the energy (TME of the SHP. BS4 enzyme and the commercial multienzimes, except single enzyme, also increase the true protein digestibility of the SHP. The optimum dose of each enzyme for each kg dry mater of SHP was 13.3 ml BS4, 2 g single enzyme and 3 g multienzymes. Substitution of 25% corn in layer diet with dried SHP or enzymes-treated SHP did not significantly impair the performances (hen-day egg production and FCR of layers. However, substitution of 50% corn with SHP + multienzymes or SHP + single enzyme significantly impaired the performances of the layers. Addition of methionine and lysine amino acids restored the performance of the hens fed with SHP + commercial multienzyimes, but not those fed with high levels of SHP + commercial single enzyme. Substitution of 50% corn with SHP + BS4 enzime did not significantly impaire the performance of layers and therefore

  3. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  4. Diabetes and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  5. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  6. Valor nutricional de la dieta en embarazadas sanas: Resultados de una encuesta dietética en gestantes Nutritional value of the diet in healthy pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Irles Rocamora

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el nivel de adecuación nutricional de la dieta habitual en gestantes pertenecientes a nuestra área sanitaria. Ámbito: Área Sanitaria Valme. Sevilla. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo aleatorio transversal. Sujetos: Cuarenta y nueve gestantes de primer trimestre. Intervenciones: Se valoró la ingesta diaria, por recordatorio de 24 horas y por encuesta de consumo semanal. Los datos obtenidos se comparan con las ingestas diarias recomendadas de nutrientes y con las raciones diarias recomendadas para determinados grupos de alimentos. Al mismo tiempo, se realizó una valoración antropométrica y analítica básica. Resultados: La ingesta calórica fue la recomendada (2.208 ± 475 kcal/día. La dieta contenía un exceso de proteínas (88 ± 21 g/día, de grasa (97 ± 27 g/día, con predominio de grasas monoinsaturadas (46,9 ± 5,5% sobre las saturadas (36,6 ± 7,2% y poliinsaturadas (15,1 ± 7%, (p Goal: The purpose of the present paper is to describe the level of nutritional adequacy of the regular diet of pregnant women belonging to our health-care area. Scope: Health-care area of Valme Hospital, Seville. Design: Randomized transversal descriptive study. Subjects: Forty-nine pregnant women during their first trimester. Interventions: The daily intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour reminder sheet and a weekly consumption survey. The data obtained were compared with the recommended daily intake of nutrients and with the recommended daily allowances for various foods. At the same time, an anthropometric and basic analysis were also carried out. Results: The calorie intake was as recommended (2,208 ± 475 kcal/day. The diet contained excessive amounts of proteins (88 ± 21 g/day and fat (97 ± 27 g/day, with a predominance of monounsaturated fats (46.9 ± 5.5% over saturated (36.6 ± 7.2% or polyunsaturated fats (15.1 ± 7%, (p <0.0005. Nonetheless, the diet was short on carbohydrates (44%, fibre

  7. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  8. Influencia de la textura de la dieta sobre el estado nutricional en adultos mayores Influence of the texture of the diet on the nutritional state in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jürschik Giménez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermera tiene un papel fundamental en el campo de la alimentación, sobre todo en la vigilancia de la composición de las dietas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir el tipo de paciente que lleva una dieta triturada y analizar la influencia de la dieta triturada sobre el estado nutricional. Se trata de un estudio transversal con personas de 65 años o más, atendidas en centros asistenciales de la ciudad de Lleida. El estudio descriptivo se realizó a través de la prueba de χ². La comparación entre la variable dependiente y la media de los valores totales del test Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA y otros datos nutricionales se analizó a través del test-t de Student. Se pudo concluir que las personas que requerían dieta triturada estaban peor nutridas que las que requerían una dieta normal.The nurse has a key role in the field of nutrition, especially in monitoring the composition of the diets. The objectives of this study were to describe the type of patient who carries a pulverized diet and analyze the influence of diet on nutritional status crushed. This is a cross-sectional study with people 65 years or older and who attended medical centres in the city of Lleida. The descriptive study was conducted through the test χ². The comparison between the dependent variable and the average of the total value of the test Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA and other nutritional data was analyzed by Student's t-test. We concluded that people who needed diet were crushed worse than those fed a normal diet required.

  9. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  10. 食疗剂型在肠内营养支持中的应用和前景%Application and Prospect of Enteral Nutrition With Diet Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续延军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨食疗剂型在肠内营养支持中的应用前景。方法在中医辩证理论指导下,根据肠内营养制剂分类及食疗的理论基础,对食疗与肠内营养结合应用现状及发展趋势进行探讨。结果通过合理处方搭配,将食疗与肠内营养有机结合起来,为临床营养支持增添新的内容,可在改善患者食欲、呼吸、血脂,调节胃肠功能等诸多方面起到显著效果。结论食疗药膳现已在临床疾病预防和治疗中广泛应用,其与肠内营养支持相结合更有助于发挥功能改善的作用。%Objective To explore the application prospect of enteral nutrition with diet formulations. Methods Under the guidance of TCM dialectical theory, according to the theoretical basis of classification and enteral nutrition preparations diet,explored the application prospect of enteral nutrition with diet formulations. Results Through reasonable prescription,tie-in the organic combination of diet and enteral nutrition added new content for clinical nutrition support,and played a significant effect in improving patient appetite,breathing,blood lipid,regulating gastrointestinal function and many other aspects. Conclusion Dietotherapy medicinal food has been widely used in clinical disease prevention and treatment and play a better function of improvement with the combination of enteral nutrition support.

  11. Nutrition knowledge is associated with higher adherence to Mediterranean diet and lower prevalence of obesity. Results from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; De Lucia, Francesca; Olivieri, Marco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia; Bonanni, Americo

    2013-09-01

    A Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with reducing the risk of cardiovascular and chronic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nutrition knowledge in determining possible differences among dietary patterns in a general population from a Mediterranean region. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a subsample of 744 subjects enrolled in the population-based cohort of the Moli-sani Project. A 92-item questionnaire on nutrition knowledge was elaborated, validated and administered. Dietary information were obtained from the EPIC food frequency questionnaire and adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was evaluated both by the a priori Greek Mediterranean diet score and the a posteriori approach obtained by principal component analysis. Nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The odds of having higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increased with greater nutrition knowledge. The odds ratio of being obese significantly decreased with increasing nutrition knowledge levels. The results showed that nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and with lower prevalence of obesity in a Southern Italian region with Mediterranean diet tradition independently from education and other socioeconomic factors.

  12. Maternal diets, nutritional status, and zinc in contemporary Mexican infants' teeth: Implications for reconstructing paleodiets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Alexis E; Goodman, Alan H

    2009-11-01

    Despite attempts to use zinc (Zn) concentrations in hard tissues to comment upon the degree of carnivory in past populations, zinc has yielded inconsistent trophic level effects. The question of what, if anything, zinc in human enamel reveals regarding past diets is the focus of this research. We test whether the zinc content of deciduous tooth enamel from contemporary Mexican infants varies by maternal dietary variables such as zinc intake, proportion of animal products consumed, and dietary components that are known to impact zinc absorption. Deciduous teeth were collected from former participants in a longitudinal study of maternal and infant diet and function in highland Mexico. The Zn/Ca ratios of both prenatal and postnatal regions of 37 anterior teeth representing 26 individuals were assessed via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal dietary data collected during lactation were not correlated with zinc levels in the early postnatal enamel of infants' teeth, which were forming at the same time. In the case of prenatal enamel, zinc values were correlated with the consumption of foods known to influence Zn bioavailability, most notably tortillas (P = 0.008; r = 0.510), but not with meat consumption. Unexpectedly, women who consumed diets with poor zinc bioavailability during pregnancy gave birth to infants whose prenatal enamel demonstrated the highest Zn/Ca ratios, possibly due to enhanced zinc absorption during pregnancy for those mothers suffering most from long-term micronutrient deficiency. These results would suggest that zinc is not a reliable trophic level indicator.

  13. Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Michael S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been estimated that 30–40 percent of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle and dietary measures alone. Obesity, nutrient sparse foods such as concentrated sugars and refined flour products that contribute to impaired glucose metabolism (which leads to diabetes, low fiber intake, consumption of red meat, and imbalance of omega 3 and omega 6 fats all contribute to excess cancer risk. Intake of flax seed, especially its lignan fraction, and abundant portions of fruits and vegetables will lower cancer risk. Allium and cruciferous vegetables are especially beneficial, with broccoli sprouts being the densest source of sulforophane. Protective elements in a cancer prevention diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, chlorophyll, and antioxidants such as the carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin. Ascorbic acid has limited benefits orally, but could be very beneficial intravenously. Supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics also has merit as anticancer dietary measures. When a diet is compiled according to the guidelines here it is likely that there would be at least a 60–70 percent decrease in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers, and even a 40–50 percent decrease in lung cancer, along with similar reductions in cancers at other sites. Such a diet would be conducive to preventing cancer and would favor recovery from cancer as well.

  14. Nutritional and economic values of by-products used in poultry diets in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; CHrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    diets at each phase. The body weight was significantly lower in S2 at d 21 (419 g in S1 vs 320 g in S2) and at d 49 (1531 g in S1 vs 1374 g in S2). At d 49, the highest average body weight (1543 g in C1) was significantly different from the lowest weight (1374 g in S2). However, the daily body weight......). On the contrary, no significant effect of the processing technolkogy was noticed on the FC and the EFE with palm meals and cotton meals diets. The metabolizability of energy was affected by the diet, while it was the contrary for nitrogen. Computed per kg of metabolic body size (kg0.75), the daily intake...... of nitrogen was significantly affected by the processing technology of all three types of meals. On the contrary, only the processing technology of cotton meals had significant effect on the intake of ME. It can be concluded that in Benin the processing of soybean meal had significant effects on bio...

  15. Nutritional efects of antidiabetic diets on concentartion of tissue antioksidant on rats with induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crceva - Nikolovska Radmila

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play as a pathogenesis in the development of diabetes mellitus. There are many reports indicating the changes in parameters of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The role of dietary management in diabetes mellitus is to provide a proper balance of total nutrients while meeting the special dietary needs of the patient. Complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber help to delay the absorption of glucose from the intestinal tract and minimize postprandial fluctuation of glucose. The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of special antidiabetic diet treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in the initial stages of the development of diabetes. The findings of the present study suggest that special diet formula useful for prevention of progressive hyperglycaemia in aged provoked diabetes in dogs could not restore the imbalance of cellular defense mechanism provoked by streptozotocin. Soluble fiber in the diet may also prolong gastrointestinal transit time, allow greater water absorption, and promote the production of short chain fatty acids which nourish the intestinal mucosa.

  16. Effects of deployment on diet quality and nutritional status markers of elite U.S. Army special operations forces soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Taylor, Jonathan C; Means, Gary E; Murphy, Nancy E; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McClung, James P

    2017-07-03

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) Soldiers deploy frequently and require high levels of physical and cognitive performance. Nutritional status is linked to cognitive and physical performance. Studies evaluating dietary intake and nutritional status in deployed environments are lacking. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of combat deployment on diet quality and serum concentrations of nutritional status markers, including iron, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), glucose, and lipids, among elite United States (U.S.) Army SOF Soldiers. Changes from baseline to post-deployment were determined with a repeated measure within-subjects design for Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, intake of foods, food groups, key nutrients, and serum nutritional status markers. Dietary intake was assessed with a Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The association between post-deployment serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) and PTH was determined. Analyses of serum markers were completed on 50 participants and analyses of dietary intake were completed on 33 participants. In response to deployment, HEI-2010 scores decreased for total HEI-2010 (70.3 ± 9.1 vs. 62.9 ± 11.1), total fruit (4.4 ± 1.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5), whole fruit (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.4), dairy (6.2 ± 2.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.4), and empty calories (14.3 ± 3.2 vs. 11.1 ± 4.5) (P ≤ 0.05). Average daily intakes of foods and food groups that decreased included total dairy (P Dietary intake of calcium (P = 0.05) and vitamin D (P = 0.03) decreased. PTH increased from baseline (3.4 ± 1.6 vs. 3.8 ± 1.4 pmol/L, P = 0.04), while there was no change in 25-OH vitamin D. Ferritin decreased (385 ± 173 vs. 354 ± 161 pmol/L, P = 0.03) and soluble transferrin receptor increased (16.3 ± 3.7 vs. 17.1 ± 3.5 nmol/L, P = 0.01). There were no changes in glucose or lipids. Post-deployment, serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with PTH (r = -0.43, P

  17. Mediterranean diet as a nutrition education and dietary guide: misconceptions and the neglected role of locally consumed foods and wild green plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Detopoulou, Vivian; Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the previous century the Seven Countries Study first revealed the health benefits of the traditional Cretan diet. The Cretan diet was subsequently used as a basis to form the worldwide known 'Mediterranean diet'. This dietary scheme was visualized as a food pyramid, aimed to constitute a nutrition education tool and guide for the general public and scientific community. However, the way this dietary guide has been perceived by both the public and in certain cases by the scientific community may be oversimplified. From the nutritional point of view, some of the neglected parts of this diet concern the role of locally consumed wild greens, herbs, walnuts, figs and snails, all sources of n-3 fatty acids. The above foods with the addition of fish provide a n-6:n-3 ratio of 2:1 whereas in Northern Europe and the USA the same ratio is 10-20:1. Moreover, the flavonoid and antioxidant content of the traditional Cretan diet may have been underestimated. Despite the increasing knowledge on the bioprotective profile of the traditional Cretan diet, there is a need to revisit the way this knowledge is transferred to the public emphasizing the importance of some neglected food items and nutrients.

  18. Nutrición enteral con dieta inmunomoduladora perioperatoria Enteral nutrition with peri-surgery immunomodulating diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdel-lah Fernández

    2005-12-01

    ía postoperatorio respecto del 5º día. Las diferencias son en la mayoría de los casos estadísticamente significativas. Resultaron ser partícipes en la ecuación de predicción de la morbimortalidad las variables, colesterol, enfermedades asociadas, PCR, IgM y sexo varón. Conclusiones: Las variables analizadas, excepto el sexo, parecen ser indicadores adecuados para el estudio de la respuesta a la agresión quirúrgica y así mismo a la nutrición enteral. La nutrición perioperatoria inmunomoduladora creemos que recupera las cifras de parámetros nutricionales postoperatorios.La nutrición enteral por yeyunostomía es bien tolerada y con morbilidad baja y poco severa.Objective: To assess the nutritional peri-surgical status of patients suffering from esophageal or gastric cancer, treated with esophagectomy and total gastrectomy, respectively, and to analyze the impact of an enteral immunomodulating diet on postsurgical complications. Setting: Patients admitted to the Surgery Department of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. Patients and methods: Patients submitted to esophagectomy and/or total gastrectomy to whom early enteral nutrition (EN is provided with an immunomodulating diet. Interventions: All patients were prescribed an immunomodulating diet of 1000 Kcal/day p.o. plus a normal grinded diet that they started on the 5th presurgical day and pursued during the immediate postsurgical period (within the first 24 hours with EN through a jejunostomy catheter, in a progressive way until reaching 25 kcal/kg/day at days 4-5. EN was kept in place for at least the first 10 days after surgery and laboratory checkups were done before surgery and at days 5 and 10 after surgery. We also performed a prediction equation, with morbidity as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. Results: Sixty-eight patients were studied of whom 36 (35 men and 1 women suffered from esophageal cancer and 32 (21 men and 11 women from gastric cancer. Mean age of

  19. The influence of Ketogenic diet on the rabbit spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury%生酮饮食对在体兔脊髓缺血再灌注损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祥文; 刘志强; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of Ketogenic diet on rabbit spinal cord ischemia -reperfusion injury. Methods 45 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, group A was given sham-operated, group B was given normal diet (normal diet, ND) + ischemia-reperfusion, group C was given Ketogenic diet (Ketogenic diet, KD) after 6 weeks + is-chemia-reperfusion. B, C group were given ligation of rabbit abdominal aorta (A group weared tie line and was not connected ) 30 minutes, then reperfusion 48 hours, the three groups of neurological evaluation were observed, the neurons was his-tologicaly observed, the protection of KD on myocardial ischemia -reperfusion injury in rats was evaluated. Results Group A of neurological evaluation, histological observation of neurons were both normal. The neurological of group B was significantly disordered, neuronal cell morphology was abnormal. The level of neurological dysfunction, abnormal neuronal cell morphology of group C were lighter than those of group B. Conclusion The ischemia-reperfusion injury reduces after the Ketogenic diet intervention.%目的 探讨生酮饮食对兔脊髓缺血再灌注损伤的影响.方法 选用健康雄性兔45只,随机分为三组,A组行假手术,B组给予正常饮食(normal diet,ND)+缺血再灌注,C组生酮饮食(ketogenic diet,KD)6周后+缺血再灌注,B、C组结扎兔腹主动脉(A组只穿线不接扎)30 min后,再灌注48 h,观察三组神经功能评价、病理组织学观察神经元细胞,评价KD对兔心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用.结果 A组神经功能评价、病理组织学观察神经元细胞正常.B组神经功能出现明显障碍,神经元细胞形态异常.C组神经功能障碍程度、神经元细胞形态异常较B组轻.结论 用生酮饮食干预后脊髓缺血再灌注损伤减轻.

  20. Composição química e contribuição nutritiva de cecotrofos de diferentes dietas Chemical composition and nutritive contribution of cecothrophes from different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vidal da Costa Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de cinco fontes de fibra sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos em termos de matéria seca e proteína bruta foram estudados. Quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia branco foram alojadas em gaiolas metabólicas, por 12 dias, para adaptação às dietas. No 13º dia, para evitar a coprofagia, os animais receberam um colar de madeira por um período de 24 horas, procedendo-se à coleta dos cecotrofos de duas em duas horas. A dieta padrão tinha como principal fonte de fibra o feno de alfafa. As outras dietas foram caracterizadas pela substituição isométrica do feno de alfafa por feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, palha de feijão, palha e sabugo de milho branco e o feno coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Foi observado efeito do tipo de dieta sobre a composição química dos cecotrofos e o teor de PB ingerida por cecotrofia, porém a produção de cecotrofos não diferiu entre dietas.The effects of five fiber sources on the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribution on dry matter and crude protein base were studied. Forty White New Zealand female rabbits were housed in metabolic cage for 12 days to adaptation to the diets. In the 13th day, to prevent coprophagy, the animals received a necklace of wood for a period of 24 hours, and the cecotrophes were collected every two hours. The standard diet had the alfalfa hay as a mainly fiber source. The other diets were characterized by isometric replacement of alfalfa hay by pigeon pea hay (Cajanus cajan, bean straw, white corn with cob and husks and coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon. Effect of diet type on cecotrophes chemical composition and crude protein content ingested by cecotrophy was observed, however the cecotrophes production was not different among diets.

  1. Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cornale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed (SHS dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15% of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.

  2. Design and development of a meal system for the elderly. [public health - nutrition/diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Food preference surveys (taste tests) were performed for 95 food items (which were selected from an original list of 150 items), and 21 menus were developed from the survey results. Each menu contains an entree, two side dishes, dessert, and a beverage. Food manufacturing specifications for freeze dried foods, frozen foods, and beverages are examined, and product labeling and packaging requirements are discussed. The nutritional value of the various foods is listed in tabular form, and sample product labels are shown. Cost estimates per serving are also included.

  3. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you maintain a healthy weight. Reduce your sugar intake! A diet with lots of sugar can have too many calories and too few nutrients. It can also contribute to tooth decay. Reduce your salt and sodium intake to help reduce your risk of high blood ...

  4. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  5. Associations of diet quality with cognition in children - the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2015-10-14

    Evidence on the associations of dietary patterns with cognition in children is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score with cognition in children. The present cross-sectional study sample included 428 children aged 6-8 years (216 boys and 212 girls). The BSDS and the DASH score were calculated using data from 4 d food records, higher scores indicating better diet quality. Cognition was assessed by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) score, a higher score indicating better cognition. Among all children, the BSDS (standardised regression coefficient β = 0·122, P =0·012) and the DASH score (β = 0·121, P =0·015) were directly associated with the Raven's CPM score. Among boys, a lower BSDS (β = 0·244, P< 0·001) and a lower DASH score (β = 0·202, P= 0·003) were related to a lower Raven's CPM score. Boys in the lowest quartile of the BSDS (22·5 v. 25·3, P= 0·029) and the DASH score (22·4 v. 25·7, P= 0·008) had a lower Raven's CPM score than those in the highest quartile of the corresponding score. Among girls, the BSDS or the DASH score were not associated with cognition. In conclusion, a poorer diet quality was associated with worse cognition in children, and the relationship was stronger in boys than in girls.

  6. Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland.

  7. Nutrition and fasting mimicking diets in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases and immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter D

    2017-01-27

    Complex and coordinated signals are necessary to initiate and sustain the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. These signals, which are known to determine T-cell fate and function, also depend on the metabolic state of the organism. Recent studies indicate that both the type and levels of nutrients can influence the generation, survival and function of lymphocytes and therefore can affect several autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the dysregulation of lymphocytes during autoimmunity and aging, the mechanisms associated with loss of immune function, and how fasting mimicking diets and other dietary interventions affect autoimmunity and immunosenescence.

  8. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  9. Nutrition for the ageing brain: Towards evidence for an optimal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Camprubi-Robles, Maria; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Bánáti, Diána; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Bowman, Gene L; Caberlotto, Laura; Clarke, Robert; Hogervorst, Eef; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Lucca, Ugo; Manach, Claudine; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Mitchell, Ellen Siobhan; Perneczky, Robert; Perry, Hugh; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Thuret, Sandrine; van de Rest, Ondine; Vandewoude, Maurits; Wesnes, Keith; Williams, Robert J; Williams, Robin S B; Ramirez, Maria

    2017-05-01

    As people age they become increasingly susceptible to chronic and extremely debilitating brain diseases. The precise cause of the neuronal degeneration underlying these disorders, and indeed normal brain ageing remains however elusive. Considering the limits of existing preventive methods, there is a desire to develop effective and safe strategies. Growing preclinical and clinical research in healthy individuals or at the early stage of cognitive decline has demonstrated the beneficial impact of nutrition on cognitive functions. The present review is the most recent in a series produced by the Nutrition and Mental Performance Task Force under the auspice of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe (ILSI Europe). The latest scientific advances specific to how dietary nutrients and non-nutrient may affect cognitive ageing are presented. Furthermore, several key points related to mechanisms contributing to brain ageing, pathological conditions affecting brain function, and brain biomarkers are also discussed. Overall, findings are inconsistent and fragmented and more research is warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms and to establish dose-response relationships for optimal brain maintenance in different population subgroups. Such approaches are likely to provide the necessary evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform about new dietary recommendations on how to prevent cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIET AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN ELDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Portela, Clarissa Lima; de Carvalho Sampaio, Helena Alves; Pereira de Melo, Maria Luísa; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Maia Pinto, Francisco José; Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las interrelaciones entre enfermedad grasa no alcohólica del hígado (HGNA) y factores dietéticos en una población de ancianos hipertensos. Métodos: 229 pacientes ancianos hipertensos fueron evaluados desde junio a diciembre del 2009. Todos los pacientes que aceptaron participar en el estudio firmaron un consentimiento libre e informado. Fueron realizadas evaluaciones antropométricas y de composición corporal. El diagnóstico de HGNA fue determinado por el American Guidelines. El consumo alimenticio regular fue estimado a través de una encuesta alimentaria de recordatorio de 24 horas. Resultados: el exceso de peso, ponderado por el índice de masa corporal y el exceso de grasa abdominal, fueron asociados con HGNA (p < 0,001). Un perfil inverso fue encontrado con las variables dietéticas. Conclusión: el grupo estudiado presentó una situación de riesgo para la salud, considerando los marcadores del estado nutricional. La dieta regular pareció ser inadecuada, mostrando exceso de sodio bajo consumo de fibras y vegetales.

  11. Trends in diet and Alzheimer's disease during the nutrition transition in Japan and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) rates in Japan and developing countries have risen rapidly in recent years. Researchers have associated factors such as the Western diet, obesity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with risk of AD. This paper evaluates whether the dietary transition might explain the rising trend of AD prevalence in Japan and in developing countries, evaluating other factors when possible. This study used two approaches to see whether dietary or other changes could explain AD trends in Japan and developing countries. One approach involved comparing trends of AD in Japan with changes in national dietary supply factors, alcohol consumption, and lung cancer mortality rates from zero to 25 years before the prevalence data. The second compared AD prevalence values for eight developing countries with dietary supply factors from zero to 25 years before the prevalence data. For Japan, alcohol consumption, animal product, meat and rice supply, and lung cancer rates correlated highly with AD prevalence data, with the strongest correlation for a lag of 15-25 years. In the eight-country study, total energy and animal fat correlated highly with AD prevalence data, with a lag of 15-20 years. Mechanisms to explain the findings include increased obesity for the eight countries, and increases in cholesterol, saturated fat, and iron from increases in animal products and meat supply for Japan. Evidently AD rates will continue rising in non-Western countries for some time unless we address major risk factors involving diet, obesity, and smoking.

  12. Association between Nutritional Awareness and Diet Quality: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES. Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18–69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS, dietary diversity score (DDS and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI. Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02, positively with both dietary diversity (p < 0.0001, and adequacy to dietary recommendations (p < 0.0001, independent of demographic factors, weight status and SES. Further adjustment for household income in the EDS-related multivariable model, reduced the β coefficient by 47% for the “moderate importance” category and 36% for the “high importance” category. Likewise, the β coefficient decreased by 13.6% and 10.7% in the DDS-related model, and by 12.5%, and 7.1% in the RCI-related model, respectively, across awareness categories. Nutritional awareness has a direct effect on diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research.

  13. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  14. The Effect of Lactobacillus isolates on growth performance, immune response, intestinal bacterial community composition of growing Rex Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhu, Y; Li, F; Huang, L

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus isolates on intestinal bacterial community composition of growing Rex Rabbits. A total of 120 weaned Rex Rabbits (30 days old, 30 per group) were used for the experiment, which started after an adaptation period of 7 days. The control group was fed with basal diet only, while the treatment I, II and III groups were fed with basal diet adding antibiotics, Lactobacillus zeae (LB1) and Lactobacillus casei (L3) respectively. Growth performance, immune response and intestinal flora have been examined. The results obtained were as follows: (i) F/G of the rabbits fed with Lactobacillus isolates was significantly lower than that of the control group (p rabbits with Lactobacillus isolates. (iii) Lactobacillus isolates had no influence on the number of mast cells in duodenum and jejunum, but increased the number of mast cells in caecum significantly (p rabbit's intestinal flora can be changed by Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics, especially for the microbial diversity and abundance in the caecum. In conclusion, the application of proper Lactobacillus isolates can improve the growth performance, enhance the immunological function and adjust the intestinal micro-ecosystem of growing Rex Rabbits. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  16. Understanding the association between diet and nutrition in upper gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Human vulnerability to cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The esophagus, in particular, is highly vulnerable to the combined effects of exposure to environmental carcinogens and malnutrition, particularly in certain extreme environments of the developing world. Even in high-income countries, dietary carcinogens and nutrition play a major role in the etiology of oropharyngeal, esophageal and, to a lesser extent, gastric cancers, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. A thorough understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the vulnerability of these organs to neoplasia would shed further light on the etiology of upper gastrointestinal cancers in all environments. In the meantime, the epidemiological evidence suggests that the risks can be minimized by dietary patterns that adhere closely to current public health recommendations, coupled with maintenance of body mass index within the healthy range.

  17. The Integrated Impact of Diet On Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2017-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce flight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g.,omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, fruits, and vegetables). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of closed chamber confinement, realistic mission simulation, in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the dysregulated physiology observed in astronauts. Biosampling of crew members will occur at selected intervals, with complete dietary tracking. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Data collection will also include complete dietary tracking. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological and biochemical shifts in relation to nutrient in take and

  18. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  19. Performance and digestibility of nutritional components of diets containing byproducts of oleaginous in lambs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Correia Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluate introduction of byproducts of oleaginous in lambs feeding. Diets were composed for 30% of Tifton hay and 70% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, soybean cake, sunflower cake and peanut cake, limestone and mineral mixture, as dites: FS – control with soybean meal, TS – soybean cake as part of the concentrate, TG sunflower cake as part of the concentrate and TA – peanut cake as part of the concentrate. For performance evaluating 24 Santa Inês lambs with initial age and weight of 70 days and 19 + 2 kg, according to a completely randomized design. For digestive evaluate, weight Santa Inês sheep with initial age and weight of 70 days and 16 + 1.2 kg, adapted to the use of bag, for collect feces. Animals were distributed in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin Square and means were compared by Tukey’s test with 5% significance level. By the performance trial, duration of confinement, weight gain, fed conversion and the dry matter intake were not affected (P>0,05, with averages of 54.29 days, 259 g/day, 4.29 kg of DM/kg and 1.32 kg/day, respectively. There were no difference P>0,05 for intake DM, OM, CP, CT and CE among diets, digestibility trial with averages of 76.23; 74.47; 76.44; 41.12; 73.00 and 93.00%, respectively. There were no differences for digestibility DM, OM, CP, ADF, CT and NCF. The partial substitution of the soybean meal for byproducts of oleaginous was a good proteic alternative in the feeding of lambs.

  20. Roles of diet protein and temperature in the growth and nutritional energetics of juvenile slider turtles, Trachemys scripta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Harold W.; Spotila, James R.; Congdon, Justin D.; Fischer, Robert U.; Standora, Edward A.; Avery, Susan B.

    1993-01-01

    We determined the effects of dietary protein and Ta on growth rates, food consumption rates, digestion rates, and digestive efficiencies of juvenile slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Results from this study provide a clearer understanding of how these environmental factors interact in influencing body sizes and growth rates of individuals in wild slider turtle populations. Changes in plastron length, carapace length, and body mass were significantly greater for T. scripta eating 25% and 40% crude protein diets than for those eating 10% crude protein. Those consuming 10% crude protein showed significant decreases in body mass and plastron length over a 13-wk period. Individuals at Ta's of 15°, 22°, 28°, or 34° C had food ingestion rates (kJ wk⁻¹) that increased markedly with an increase in Ta. Increasing dietary crude protein concentration increased turtle ingestion rates and influenced the positive effect of Ta. Increasing dietary crude protein concentration alone did not significantly affect turtle consumption rates but did significantly influence the positive effect of Ta. Digestive efficiencies were very high (because of the pelleted diet). Those turtles that ate at 15° C had a digestive efciency of 99.5%, as compared with 98.3% at 22° C, 94.8% at 28° C, and 95.8% at 34° C. Dietary protein concentration did not influence the digestive efficiencies of T. scripta. These data suggest that dietary protein is an important nutritional component to the growth of juvenile slider turtles and that elevated thermal conditions, combined with a high dietary protein availability, may explain the very high growth rates of slider turtles in some wild populations.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population. PMID:21788627

  2. Low whole grain intake in the UK: results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-28

    Increased whole grain intake has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Countries including the USA, Canada, Denmark and Australia have specific dietary guidelines on whole grain intake but others, including the UK, do not. Data from 1986/87 and 2000/01 have shown that whole grain intake is low and declining in British adults. The aim of the present study was to describe whole grain intakes in the most current dietary assessment of UK households using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11. In the present study, 4 d diet diaries were completed by 3073 individuals between 2008 and 2011, along with details of socio-economic status (SES). The median daily whole grain intake, calculated for each individual on a dry weight basis, was 20 g/d for adults and 13 g/d for children/teenagers. The corresponding energy-adjusted whole grain intake was 27 g/10 MJ per d for adults and 20 g/10 MJ per d for children/teenagers. Whole grain intake (absolute and energy-adjusted) increased with age, but was lowest in teenagers (13-17 years) and younger adults up to the age of 34 years. Of the total study population, 18% of adults and 15% of children/teenagers did not consume any whole-grain foods. Individuals from lower SES groups had a significantly lower whole grain intake than those from more advantaged classifications. The whole grain intake in the UK, although higher than in 2000/01, remains low and below that in the US and Danish recommendations in all age classes. Favourable pricing with increased availability of whole-grain foods and education may help to increase whole grain intake in countries without whole-grain recommendations. Teenagers and younger adults may need targeting to help increase whole grain consumption.

  3. Dieta e aspectos nutricionais no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Diet and nutritional aspects in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Karin Klack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisaram a influência dos fatores nutricionais sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES e abordaram uma alternativa complementar em seu tratamento. A autoimunidade e o processo inflamatório do LES estão relacionados à presença de dislipidemias, obesidade, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e síndrome metabólica, que devem ser adequadamente consideradas para diminuir o risco cardiovascular. Uma alimentação com moderado teor energético e proteico, mas rica em vitaminas, minerais (principalmente os antioxidantes e ácidos graxos mono/poli-insaturados, pode promover ação benéfica protetora contra danos tissulares e supressão da atividade inflamatória, além de auxiliar no tratamento dessas comorbidades. A dietoterapia é uma abordagem promissora, e algumas recomendações podem oferecer melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes com LES.The authors reviewed the influence of nutritional factors on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and discussed an alternative treatment option. The autoimmunity and inflammatory process of SLE are related to the presence of dyslipidemia, obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which should be properly considered to decrease cardiovascular risk. A diet with moderate protein and energy content, but rich in vitamins, minerals (especially antioxidants, and mono/polyunsaturated fatty acids can promote a beneficial protective effect against tissue damage and suppression of inflammatory activity, in addition to helping the treatment of those comorbidities. Diet therapy is a promising approach and some recommendations may offer a better quality of life to patients with SLE.

  4. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  5. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  6. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-12-18

    Food processing alters food from its natural state for safety, convenience, taste or palatability. Previous research suggests that industrially processed foods, and diets high in these products, tend to be less healthful. However, most previous work is based on household, rather than individual-level, data. Little has been reported on the relationship between processed food consumption and markers of health; or on socio-demographic correlates of processed food consumption. Our objective was to describe: the nutritional content of foods classified according to degree of processing; the nutritional content of diets with different relative intakes of processed foods; the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with different relative intakes of processed foods; and the association between intake of processed foods and body weight. Secondary analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12), a large national cross-sectional study of diet. Dietary information was collected using four-day, unweighed, food-diaries. Foods were classified as: unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF; foods with no processing or mostly physical processes applied to single whole foods), processed ingredients (PI; extracted and purified components of single whole foods), or ultra-processed food products (UPF; products produced from industrial combining of MPF and PI). Two thousand one hundred seventy four adults were included. MPF and diets high in these foods, had the most healthful nutritional profile. UPF did not necessarily have the least healthful nutritional profile, but diets high in these foods did. Women, and older adults consumed more energy from MPF, and less from UPF. Those living in lower occupation social class households consumed less energy from MPF, but no more from UPF. Only higher intake of PI was consistently, inversely, associated with body weight. This is the first study to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual

  7. Gamma-tocopherol as a possible marker for nutrition-related risk: results from four National Diet and Nutrition Surveys in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, C J; Mishra, G D; Prentice, A

    2004-07-01

    Relationships between vitamin E status (alpha and gamma-tocopherol and their ratio in plasma), anthropometric and biochemical indices, and food and nutrient intakes, were studied in four British National Diet and Nutrition Surveys: children aged 1.5-4.5 years, young people aged 4.0-18.0 years, adults 19.0-64.0 years and adults aged > or = 65.0 years. gamma-Tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio declined with age. In older women gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratios were directly related to indices of obesity. In young men alpha- and gamma-tocopherols were directly correlated with obesity, but gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio was not. For young people and toddlers, fewer obesity indices were available and relationships were weaker. Other fat- and water-soluble vitamin indices correlated directly with alpha-tocopherol and inversely with gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio. Whereas alpha-tocopherol correlated directly with 'healthy' nutrient choices (such as intrinsic sugars, dietary fibre, vitamins and potassium) and inversely with 'unhealthy' choices (extrinsic sugars and monounsaturated fats, i.e. avoidance of polyunsaturated fat), gamma-tocopherol and the gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio related inversely with 'healthy' choices. Food groups had analogous relationships; thus, alpha-tocopherol related directly to use of polyunsaturated fats, fresh fruits and fruit juices, and inversely to non-polyunsaturated fats and extrinsic sugar. The reverse was true for gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships are obscure, the gamma-tocopherol:alpha-tocopherol ratio may reveal poor dietary choices, status predictors and a propensity for obesity in later life, especially in women.

  8. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Silos-Espino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about 13% by the seventh week. Haemoglobin counts increased by 4.5% and 9% when rabbits were fed with fresh and boiled aguamiel, respectively. Haematocrit counts increased from 2.6% to 5.3%. Mean corpuscular volume did not show a change. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin significantly increased up to 12% above that previously reported on rabbits. Observed Fe (fixed to transferrin, transferrin and ferritin content increased slightly when fresh aguamiel was included in the diet, as compared to the control. In bone, Fe increased 79.3% (boiled aguamiel while P increased 23.6% (fresh aguamiel. In antioxidant activity determination, the aguamiel showed 20% with respect to that found in coffee and/or grape juice (commercial beverages with a high antioxidant capability, 226.2 µmol gallic acid equivalent and 35.1 mg ascorbic acid in 250 mL, respectively. These results showed that aguamiel is an innocuous beverage to feed animals, conferring some beneficial properties, and it could be considered as a nutraceutical product.

  9. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  10. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  11. Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Isanaka, Sheila; Liu, Enju; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males.

  12. [Nutritional knowledge of parents of preschool children from Nowy Sacz and the vicinity. 4. The role of nutrients and principles of composing a diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess knowledge of parents of preschool children from Nowy Sqcz and the vicinity about the role of nutrients and principles of composing a diet. Parents of 121 six-year-old children filled in the questionnaires on the role of nutrients and principles of composing a diet. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied population was divided according to children's gender Children's gender had statistically significant influence on parents' answers to eight questions. A higher percentage of the parents of boys answered correctly to as many as seven of those questions. Also to the remaining questions, statistically not significant, the parents of boys gave more correct answers. Low level of nutritional knowledge of the studied parents shows the need to spread basic information on human nutrition by publishing it in daily press, popular science books and the mass media.

  13. Ideal diet versus athletic performance: a study about nutritional stereotypes applied by triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kanno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype is a term designated to some generalized perceptions that people attri-bute to another individual, groups, objects and/or events. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the priorities that nutritionist and triathletes attributed to food to enhance the sport performance. Method: The sample was composed by 56 subjects, splited in two groups: Nutritionists (G1, n = 29 and Triathletes (G2, n = 27. The Intake Food Priority Question-naire (QPA, composed by food groups, was used to evaluate the importance of each food in the athletic performance. Results: To the data analysis, each food was grouped into one of the eight categories designed in nutrition pyramid. An arithmetic means were elaborated to categories and it was performed t tests for independent samples to compare nutritionists and triathletes priorities about each category. There were no differences between groups in Vegetables, Leguminous, Fruits and Sugar/Candies categories and, also, to the black coffee item. However, the triathletes overestimated the Cereals/Breads/Tubercle and Meat/Eggs categories and underestimated the Milk/Dairy Products and Oils/Fat categories. Conclusion: The triathletes overestimated some macronutrients (carbohydrates and proteins in detriment from another, like lipids.

  14. Predição da digestibilidade da matéria seca de rações em coelhos em crescimento Prediction of dry matter digestibility of diets in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    the dry matter (DM digestibility of rations for growing rabbits, by means of equations based on the concept of ideal nutritive entity. One hundred 42-day-old rabbits from the Botucatu Genetic Group were used. Sixteen rations were tested, containing roughage (paper, corn cobs, sugarcane bagasse or pine shavings, plus corn, soybean meal, soybean oil, kaolin and common salt. Roughages were included at four levels, to obtain 22, 28, 34 or 40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF and 16% crude protein (CP. The experiment was accomplished in two periods, in a randomized block design. Positive linear effect of NDF on DM intake was observed. The means of DM digestibility varied between 60.10 and 80.78%. There was a negative linear effect of NDF, as well as of the NDF content × roughage interaction on the DM apparent digestibility. Both CP and cell contents behaved as ideal nutritive entity, but the fibrous components did not. To predict DM digestibility, three models were tested; the best model was based on the cell contents, with true digestibility fixed at 1; another on the NDF content, whose digestibility was predicted by means of an empiric equation; and the third one on the endogenous loss of cell contents. The main difficulty in the formulation of models for apparent DM digestibility prediction is to estimate, with precision, NDF digestibility and cell contents endogenous loss. Future studies evaluating higher fiber levels in the diets are needed. For diets with fiber content within the range tested in the present study, model 3, which includes, besides neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and lignin, is recommended.

  15. The Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project: Rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq, Andrea M; Lien, Lillian F; Boan, Jarol; Arlotto, Michelle; Slentz, Cris A; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Rochon, James; Gallup, Dianne; McMahon, Ross L; Bain, James R; Stevens, Robert; Millington, David; Butler, Mark D; Newgard, Christopher B; Svetkey, Laura P

    2005-12-01

    This paper outlines the rationale and design of the Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project, in which detailed biologic profiling of three hundred and fifty obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 30-50 kg/m(2)) will be conducted as they lose weight via seven distinct interventions. These profiles will be compared to those of fifty normal, healthy, control participants (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The interventions include the following: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, dietary interventions of differing macronutrient composition and diverse pharmacologic interventions. Outcome variables include eight conventional metabolites and CRP measured by standard clinical chemistry techniques, twenty hormones of energy balance and fuel homeostasis measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ten pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines measured using Luminex xMAP technology, one hundred and one intermediary metabolites measured by targeted mass-spectrometry-based methods, and physiologic variables such as body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), air displacement plethysmography, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT), insulin sensitivity measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) and metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. Results from this study will expand our knowledge of the biology of obesity and weight regulation and may lead to targeted strategies for its treatment and control.

  16. Bioactive Compounds Offered in Microcapsules to Determine the Nutritional Value of Copepods’ Natural Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörthe C. Müller-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, feeding Calanus pacificus seston and a food consisting of seston and microcapsules (μ-caps, i.e., protein and lipid μ-caps to test for potential biochemical limitation. Seston was collected off Scripps Pier (La Jolla, CA, USA. Whereas protein μ-caps were too small to be efficiently ingested, lipid μ-caps rich in ω3-highly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω3-HUFA were ingested similarly to natural seston and lipids were assimilated. However, egg production experiments exhibited that animals fed with lipid μ-caps didn’t produce significantly more eggs than with seston of equal carbon concentration and egg production even declined when the diet consisted of 50% lipid μ-caps. Thus, the content of certain ω3-HUFA seemed to have been sufficiently high in seston to prevent limitation. Algal counts revealed that seston consisted mainly of plankton rich in those fatty acids, such as cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and ciliates in the edible size range. This might be characteristic for upwelling systems like the area off Southern California which are known for high trophic transfer efficiency.

  17. Estudo comparativo da proteína do feno de maniçoba em relação à proteína do feno de alfafa na ração de coelhos Comparative study of maniçoba hay crude protein in relation to alfafa hay crude protein in the diet of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Brito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição parcial da proteína bruta (PB do feno da alfafa (FA pela PB do feno de maniçoba (FM na alimentação de coelhos em crescimento, bem como o valor nutricional da proteína bruta do feno de maniçoba. Foram estudados os parâmetros de desempenho, digestibilidade, rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes nobres submetidos às dietas experimentais. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro níveis de substituição (0, 25, 50 e 75% da proteína do feno de alfafa pelo feno de maniçoba. A substituição crescente dos níveis de feno maniçoba resultou em um aumento linear no consumo de ração e no ganho de peso de forma quadrática aos 83 dias, mostrando que esse ingrediente pode ser utilizado como substituto ao feno de alfafa na dieta de coelhos. A proteína do feno da alfafa pode ser substituída parcialmente pela proteína do feno de maniçoba.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value and the partial substitution of crude protein (CP of alfalfa hay (FA with CP hay maniçoba (FM in diets for growing rabbits. The performance, digestibility, carcass yield and prime cuts parameters submitted to experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75% of protein alfalfa hay and maniçoba hay. The increasing substitution levels of maniçoba hay resulted in a linear increase in feed intake and weight gain quadratically at 83 days, showing that this ingredient can be used as a substitute for alfalfa hay in the diet of rabbits. The protein of alfalfa hay can be partially replaced by the maniçoba protein hay.

  18. [Diet and polymer standard vs. standard in the nutritional status of elderly patients with fragility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramos, Gissel Karelly; Pedraza-Zárate, Miguel Ángel; Franco-Álvarez, Nubia; González-Velázquez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los pacientes geriátricos con fragilidad evidencian diferentes cambios fisiológicos, por lo que les son indicadas dietas poliméricas para mantener y/o modificar su estado nutricio. El objetivo de este artículo es demostrar el efecto al cambiar de una dieta estándar y polimérica a una dieta estándar en el estado nutricio en el paciente geriátrico con fragilidad. Métodos: ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado en 23 pacientes geriátricos, de 70 años de edad o más, con fragilidad, en un periodo comprendido de julio a diciembre de 2014. Se determinó estado nutricional mediante la Mini Nutritional Asssessment y el índice de masa corporal. Análisis estadístico descriptivo, Chi cuadrada, t de Student y McNemar. Resultados: en el G1: fueron 12 pacientes y en el G2 11, se constató un cambio positivo en el G1 en el estado nutricional, siendo inicialmente de 14.00 (malnutrición) y al final de 22.75 (riesgo de desnutrición). De acuerdo al IMC (kg/m2) se evidenció al inicio, al 25 % de pacientes con desnutrición leve, pero los resultados finales arrojan cifras con un porcentaje nulo de pacientes desnutridos. Conclusiones: el consumo de dieta estándar y polimérica incrementa el peso corporal, IMC y el estado nutricio en pacientes geriátricos con fragilidad.

  19. Gynecologic and obstetric findings related to nutritional status and adherence to a gluten-free diet in Brazilian patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, L M S

    2004-08-01

    This study shows a broad analysis of gynaecological and obstetrical disturbances in patients with celiac disease in relation to their nutritional status and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Seventy-six adult celiac patients were analyzed according to nutritional status and 18 children/adolescents to gluten-free diet adherence. As controls, 84 adults and 22 adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome were used The significant findings were observed as follow: adult celiac patients, irrespective of the nutritional status, were younger than controls, presented delayed menarche, secondary amenorrhea, a higher percentage of spontaneous abortions, anemia and hypoalbuminemia. No differences were observed regarding the number of pregnancies, age at menopause and duration of the reproductive period. After treatment, patients presented with normal pregnancies and one patient presented spontaneous abortion. The adolescents who were not adherent to gluten-free diet presented delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhea. In conclusion, gluten per se could explain the disturbances and malnutrition would worsen the disease in a consequent vicious cycle. Therefore, celiac disease should be included in the screening of reproductive disorders.

  20. Chemical and Physical Predictors of the Nutritive Value of Wheat in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. E. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish relationships between chemical and physical parameters of wheat with performance and digestibilities of feed components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Ninety-four wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolism cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI, liveweight gain (LWG and gain:feed were measured weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, ME:gain, dry matter retention, oil and neutral detergent fibre (NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were humanely killed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal dry matter, starch and protein digestibility. When wheat parameters were correlated with bird performance data, it was found that specific weight was not significantly (p>0.05 related to bird performance. Bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed were best correlated (p<0.05 with the rate of starch digestion, although the coefficients of correlation (r were still low (0.246 to 0.523. A negative relationship (p<0.01 between AME and total (r = −0.432 and soluble (r = −0.304 non starch polysaccharide (NSP was observed in this study. Thousand grain weight (TG was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.299, LWG (r = 0.343 and gain:feed (r = 0.371. When establishing multiple regression relationships, correlation coefficients greater than 0.8 were achieved for DMI, LWG, gain:feed and ileal crude protein digestibility. However, the economics involved in determining the parameters involved in the regressions make the process impractical.

  1. Diet and glycaemia: the markers and their meaning. A report of the Unilever Nutrition Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, Marjan; Boers, Hanny M; Ceriello, Antonio; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Mela, David J; Priebe, Marion G; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-01-28

    Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-related exposures may be beneficial not only for diabetic patients but also for the general population. A variety of markers have been used to track different aspects of glycaemic exposures, with most of the relevant knowledge derived from diabetic patients. The assessment of glycaemic exposures among the non-diabetic population may require other, more sensitive markers. The present report summarises key messages of presentations and related discussions from a workshop organised by Unilever intended to consider currently applied markers of glycaemic exposure. The particular focus of the meeting was to identify the potential applicability of glycaemic exposure markers for studying dietary effects in the non-diabetic population. Workshop participants concluded that markers of glycaemic exposures are sparsely used in intervention studies among non-diabetic populations. Continuous glucose monitoring remains the optimal approach to directly assess glycaemic exposure. Markers of glycaemic exposure such as glycated Hb, fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and advanced glycation end products can be preferred dependent on the aspect of interest (period of exposure and glucose variability). For all the markers of glycaemia, the responsiveness to interventions will probably be smaller among the non-diabetic than among the diabetic population. Further validation and acceptance of existing glycaemic exposure markers applied among the non-diabetic population would aid food innovation and better design of dietary interventions targeting glycaemic exposure.

  2. Working towards healthy and sustainable diets: the ‘Double Pyramid Model’ developed by the Barilla Center for Food & Nutrition to raise awareness about the environmental and nutritional impact of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fernando Ruini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN has produced an updated version of the traditional Food Pyramid based on the Mediterranean Diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed more periodically are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian included animal products (eggs and dairy but no flesh; and the third (vegan was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean Diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption

  3. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption.

  4. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, M S

    2000-01-01

    Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Subjects were recruited at a health ministers' reunion based on adherence to the Hallelujah diet for at least 2 years. Serum cobalamin and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) assays were performed. Follow-up with sublingual tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements was carried out on subjects with abnormal MMA results. 49 subjects were tested. Most subjects (10th to 90th percentile) had followed this diet 23-49 months. 6 subjects had serum B12 concentrations B12 concentrations 0.20). The urinary MMA assay is effective for identifying early metabolic cobalamin deficiency. People following the Hallelujah diet and other raw-food vegetarian diets should regularly monitor their urinary MMA levels, consume a sublingual cobalamin supplement, or consume cobalamin in their food.

  6. Associations between diet-related diseases and impaired physiological mechanisms: a holistic approach based on meta-analyses to identify targets for preventive nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2013-10-01

    In nutrition research, analyzing the relationship between a diet-related chronic disease and impaired metabolism is a common reductionist approach. Meta-analyses have enabled quantification of these relationships. There is, however, a need for more holistic approaches to determine the sequence of connections between diseases and associated physiological mechanisms. The objective of this exhaustive review was to collect scientific evidence – with priority given to quantitative reviews – published between 1950 and 2011 to assess the relationships between major diet-related chronic diseases and deregulated mechanisms. The results revealed that diabetes and obesity are the key diseases that lead to all other diet-related chronic diseases, while cancer, cardiovascular disease, skeletal disease, and sarcopenia are endpoint diseases. Liver disease, kidney disease, digestive disease, and mental illness are consequences as well as causes of other diet-related chronic diseases. All diseases have multifactorial causes, and most result from decreased antioxidant status, acid-base imbalance, increased inflammatory status, impaired carbohydrate/lipid/one-carbon metabolism, impaired functioning of neurons and DNA transcription, hypertension, and/or modified digestive microflora. Nutritional strategies that focus on the prevention of obesity and diabetes should be prioritized in order to reduce the prevalence of other major chronic diseases.

  7. Diet choice in weight-restored patients with eating disorders; progressive autonomy process by nutritional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El comportamiento alimentario humano está regulado por numerosos factores. Mientras los pacientes con anorexia nerviosa muestran un patrón nutricional restrictivo, los pacientes con bulimia nerviosa presentan episodios de atracón y purgas. Aunque los tratamientos son muy efectivos en la normalización de la composición corporal los comportamientos alimentarios inadecuados tienden a mantenerse constituyendo un factor de riesgo de recaídas y recidivas. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la calidad de la elección nutricional de pacientes con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria durante un programa de un año de educación nutricional analizando la mejoría en la capacidad de elección. Método: Treinta y un pacientes de una unidad de trastornos alimentarios planificaron un menú tras la normalización de la composición corporal, tarea que repitieron cada tres meses durante el año de intervención. Resultados: Los pacientes mejoraron el tiempo emplea - do en configurar el menú (p < 0,01), el Índice de Masa Corporal (p < 0,01), la masa grasa corporal (p < 0,01), la energía (p < 0,05), los carbohidratos (p < 0,01) y los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (p < 0,05) de los menús planificados. No hubo diferencias en cuanto al total de grasas, perfil lipídico, vitaminas y minerales. El 12,9% y 3,2% de los pacientes escogieron sus menús de acuerdo a las recomendaciones de perfil calórico y lipídico, respectivamente, tras el año de tratamiento. Discusión: Aunque los pacientes mejoraron el contenido energético y los carbohidratos en los menús elegidos, tendieron a reducir el contenido calórico y las grasas en su elección, lo que puede conducir a una peor evolución. Conclusiones: Durante un año de educación nutricional, junto con el correspondiente tratamiento psicológico y psiquiátrico, se observó una mejoría en los factores dietéticos habitualmente implicados en una posible mala evolución.

  8. Bean – an important element of a healthy diet. Nutritional values analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wawryka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a rich source of various nutrients. In the Polish culture, one of the varieties of beans has a special significance. Due to the appearance of seeds – on the bright seeds there are dark red spots in the shape of the Piast eagle – at the times of annexation, it was recognised as a symbol of patriotism. Cultivation was therefore banned then by the authority. Today, this bean variety was entered on the list of traditional products in Poland. Bean in Poland is one of the twelve Christmas Eve dishes. Health benefits of legumes have been known since the ancient times in many countries. Anticancer properties are due to the presence of enzymes which affect the division, differentiation, and apoptosis cells in the body. Rich in phytoestrogens, especially isoflavones, they protect women against the development of hormone-dependent cancers and reduce the symptoms associated with menopause. Rich in fibre, they regulate the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have prebiotic properties. They also reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. By influencing the expression of genes involved in β-oxidative fats and gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, they reduce triglyceride levels, LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol. Moreover, they help to maintain a normal body weight and reduce high blood pressure. It is therefore recommended particularly for people suffering from the metabolic syndrome or predisposed to its occurrence. It is advised to increase the content of legumes in our diet because of the health benefits and taste.

  9. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979-1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7-14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17-47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47-49% NDF) but high in protein (26-42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic environments to

  10. Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Portugal: Pregnant Women Nutrition in Portugal and its Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: Tem havido baixa adesão ao padrão da dieta mediterrânica na população portuguesa. Nesta perspectiva, procedemos à revisão crítica do estado de nutrição das mulheres em idade fértil, grávidas e recém-nascidos, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma revisão narrativa crítica de estudos recentes com qualidade e inquéritos nacionais oficiais, que tivessem avaliado a dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e de grávidas portuguesas e sua influência no estado de nutrição dos respetivos fetos e recém-nascidos. Resultados: Foram selecionados e analisados cinco estudos ecológicos multinacionais que incluíram Portugal, dois inquéritos oficiais nacionais sobre disponibilidade de alimentos, sete estudos nacionais sobre dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas e cinco estudos nacionais sobre a influência de fatores nutricionais maternos no crescimento dos fetos. A prevalência de excesso de peso/obesidade em mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas aumentou substancialmente associada à diminuição da adesão à dieta mediterrânica. As variações no consumo de energia e macronutrientes na gravidez parecem não ter impacto significativo no estado de nutrição dos fetos. Pelo contrário, o excesso de peso/obesidade pré-concecional associa-se a aumento de adiposidade ao nascer e o excessivo aumento de peso na gravidez associa-se ao excesso ponderal na infância. Os fatores potencialmente relacionados com a baixa adesão à dieta mediterrânica, merecendo futura investigação, incluem políticas agrícolas da União Europeia que promoveram a produção de grupos alimentares não tipicamente mediterrânicos a baixo preço e a pouca capacidade financeira referida pela população portuguesa para aquisição de alimentos de qualidade. Conclusão: A recuperação dos hábitos dietéticos mediterrânicos tradicionais deve ser incluída em estratégias de prevenção e tratamento do

  11. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  12. Changes in the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and c-reactive protein following administration of aqueous extract of piper sarmentosum on experimental rabbits fed with cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mekhlafi Hesham M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation process plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s on inflammatory markers like vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods Forty two male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into seven groups; (i C- control group fed normal rabbit chow (ii CH- cholesterol diet (1%cholesterol (iii X1- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg (iv X2- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (125 mg/kg (v X3- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (250 mg/kg (vi X4- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (500 mg/kg and (vii SMV group fed with 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg. All animals were treated for 10 weeks. Blood serum was taken for observing the inflammatory markers at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results Rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol diet (CH showed significant increase in the level of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP compared to the C group. The levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP in the 1% cholesterol group and supplemented with P.s (500 mg/kg were significantly reduced compared to the cholesterol group. Similar results were also reported with simvistatin group. Conclusion These results suggest that the supplementation of Piper sarmentosum extract could inhibit inflammatory markers which in turn could prevent atherosclerosis.

  13. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Buscail, Camille; Alles, Benjamin; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL)-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods. Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample), with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%); with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%), with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates) to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively. The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  14. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Julia

    Full Text Available Front-of-pack (FOP nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods.Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample, with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%; with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%, with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively.The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  15. NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 2): MENTAL HEALTH, AGING, AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A HEALTHY DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LIFESTYLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2005-01-01

    ...) psychiatric disorders, iii) menopause, iv) osteoporosis, v) aging and vi) healthy diet. The book also discusses the role of government in implementing a healthy diet and physical activity lifestyle...

  16. Effect of gluten-free diet on the growth and nutritional status of children with coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gluten-free diet (GFD presents the basis of coeliac disease (CD treatment. If strictly applied, the disorders of the small bowel mucosa and other disease signs rapidly resolve. Objective. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of GFD on the growth and nutritional status of children with the classical form of CD. In addition, we analyzed the differences between these parameters with the duration and the patients' compliance with GFD. Methods. The study goals were achieved on a sample of 90 children, 56 female and 34 male, aged 0.5-7.5 (1.53±1.05 years, with the classic CD diagnosed on the basis of typical pathohistological findings of the small bowel mucosa and clinical recovery of patients on GFD. The duration of the patients' follow-up was 1.08-8.75 (3.03±1.14 years, i.e. until the age of 2.5-15 (4.59±1.78 years. The initial and control values of body height (BH in relation to matched values for age and gender were expressed in percentiles, while the deviation in body weight (BW for the matched values of height and gender was expressed in percentages. The referent haemoglobin (Hb rate in blood, as a laboratory indicator of nutritional status in children aged up to 5 years was ≥110 g/L, and for those aged above 5 years it was ≥115 g/L. Compliance with GFD was based on the pathohistological findings of the small bowel mucosa or determination of tissue transglutaminase. Results. Over the studied period, the effect of GFD was highly significant, both on the increase of BH percentiles (37.62±26.26 vs. 57.22±25.29; p<0.001, and on the decrease of BW deficit 11.58±10.80 vs. 0.89±8.194; p<0.001. After the treatment period, none of the children showed slowed growth rate or BW deficit above 20%, while BW deviation ranging between 10-20% in relation to the referent values was registered in 17 (18.19% and the excess of over 20% in 2 patients. In 86 (95.56% patients, control Hb values in blood were normal, while mild

  17. Short-Term Evaluation in Growing Rats of Diet Containing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia12 Entomotoxin: Nutritional Responses and Some Safety Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mourão Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cry1Ia12 entomotoxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain is currently being expressed in cotton cultivars to confer resistance to insect-pests. The present study aimed to assess the effects of a diet containing Cry1Ia12 protein on growing rats. A test diet containing egg white and Cry1Ia12 (0.1% of total protein as a protein source was offered to rats for ten days. In addition, an acute toxicity bioassay was performed in rats with a single oral dose of the entomotoxin (12 mg/animal. No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the test diet when compared to those receiving a control diet (egg white. The analysed parameters included relative dry weight of internal organs, duodenum histology, blood biochemistry, and nutritional parameters. The results of the acute toxicity test showed no mortality or behaviour alteration. Thus, Cry1Ia12 toxin at the tested concentration does not cause deleterious effects on growing rats when incorporated in the diet for 10 days.

  18. Short-term evaluation in growing rats of diet containing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia12 entomotoxin: nutritional responses and some safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luciane Mourão; Farias, Davi Felipe; Muchagata, Relinda Campos Carvalho; de Magalhães, Mariana Quezado; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Rocha, Thales Lima; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Mulinari, Fernanda; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2010-01-01

    The Cry1Ia12 entomotoxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain is currently being expressed in cotton cultivars to confer resistance to insect-pests. The present study aimed to assess the effects of a diet containing Cry1Ia12 protein on growing rats. A test diet containing egg white and Cry1Ia12 (0.1% of total protein) as a protein source was offered to rats for ten days. In addition, an acute toxicity bioassay was performed in rats with a single oral dose of the entomotoxin (12 mg/animal). No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the test diet when compared to those receiving a control diet (egg white). The analysed parameters included relative dry weight of internal organs, duodenum histology, blood biochemistry, and nutritional parameters. The results of the acute toxicity test showed no mortality or behaviour alteration. Thus, Cry1Ia12 toxin at the tested concentration does not cause deleterious effects on growing rats when incorporated in the diet for 10 days.

  19. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  20. Analysis of gene expression in rabbit muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the demand for high quality food. Meat and meat products may be considered as irreplaceable in human nutrition. Breeding livestock to higher content of lean meat and the use of modern hybrids entails problems with the quality of meat. Analysing of livestock genomes could get us a great deal of important information, which may significantly affect the improvement process. Domestic animals are invaluable resources for study of the molecular architecture of complex traits. Although the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for economically important traits in domestic animals has achieved remarkable results in recent decades, not all of the genetic variation in the complex traits has been captured because of the low density of markers used in QTL mapping studies. The genome wide association study (GWAS, which utilizes high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, provides a new way to tackle this issue. New technologies now allow producing microarrays containing thousands of hybridization probes on a single membrane or other solid support. We used microarray analysis to study gene expression in rabbit muscle during different developmental age stages. The outputs from GeneSpring GX sotware are presented in this work. After the evaluation of gene expression in rabbits, will be selected genes of interest in relation to meat quality parameters and will be further analyzed by the available methods of molecular biology and genetics.

  1. Valor nutritivo e utilização do feno de Desmodium ovalifolium em substituição ao feno de alfafa para coelhos em crescimento Nutritional feeding value and use of Desmodium ovalifolium hay replacing alfafa hay for rabbits in growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    1999-11-01

    nutritional feeding value and the performance of rabbits fed with diets including desmodium hay (Desmodium ovalifolium. The digestibility trial used 14 male New Zealand White rabbits, with 50 days of age, in a completely randomized design with two treatments and seven replications. A reference diet and a test in which desmodium hay replaced 25% of the reference diet on DM basis were used. Digestible dry matter, digestible protein and digestible energy contents of desmodium hay, based on the total dry matter, were respectively, 17.97% and 4.77%, and 821kcal/kg. In the performance trial, 72 New Zealand White rabbits were used, 36 males and 36 females, 40 to 90 days old, alloted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments, six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and other five diets where Desmodium ovalifolium hay replaced 15%, 30%, 45%, 60% or 75% of the alfafa hay, on crude fiber basis. The daily feed intake and weight gain during the period of 40 to 90 and 70 to 90 days old and the feed conversion in the period of 70 to 90 days old, as well as the final weight and carcass weight at 90 days, showed better result for the animals fed with desmodium diet. Excluding the diet reference, the regression analysis, according to the levels of alfalfa hay substitution, showed that not only the performance but also rabbits carcass traits were similar during the experimental period. The results showed that desmodium hay at those inclusion levels replaced efficiently alfalfa hay in rabbits rations.

  2. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  3. The Integrated Impact of Diet on Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological

  4. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  5. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  6. Nutritional status and functional digestive histology of the carnivorous Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Hayley J; Tong, Lydia; Shaw, Michelle; Van Sluys, Monique; McAllan, Bronwyn; Raubenheimer, David

    2017-03-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia. Currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat Devil Facial Tumor Disease. Only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in Tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. More information is needed on Tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. Our study aimed to investigate the current nutritional status of Tasmanian devils in a captive population and functional morphology and histology of their gastrointestinal tract. Animals were maintained on a diet of kangaroo, rabbit, quail and chicken wings and digestibility of these items by the devils was high (>85% for dry matter, protein and lipid). Kangaroo and rabbit were high protein diet items while the quail and chicken wings provided high lipid to the diet, and carbohydrates were minimal (≤3% energy). Maintenance energy requirements were determined to be 620kJkg(-0.75)d(-1) with no significant difference between males and females. Opportunistic samples for gastrointestinal morphology were obtained from captive specimens. Tasmanian devils have a simple digestive tract similar to other dasyurid species. Both the morphology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract show specialization for a high protein carnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: a Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashvee Dunneram

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modifi-cation measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle.

  8. 基层护士营养KAP改善对糖尿病患者膳食营养的影响%Effects of diet and nutrition for diabetic patients on improving nurse nutrition KAP in basic hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾维; 潘群; 尤荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基层医院护士营养KAP改善对糖尿病患者膳食营养的影响.方法 经培训的护士对102例糖尿病患者进行多形式的营养教育,结合中国营养师培训教材及中国居民膳食营养素推荐摄入标准(RNIs)进行评价.结果 糖尿病患者膳食结构干预前后(除蛋类以外)差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);膳食中三大产热营养素比例差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)、三餐热能分布均较干预前合理,差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 护士营养KAP改善,可帮助糖尿病患者建立良好的膳食行为.%Objective To investigate the effects of diet and nutrition for diabetic patients on improving nurse nutrition KAP in basic hospital. Methods 102 diabetic patients received multiple nutrition education by trained nurses, and were evaluated by the China dietitian training materials and the Chinese dietary reference nutrient intake standard (RNIs). Results The dietary patterns (except eggs) of the diabetic patients were all significant different before and after the intervention (P < 0.05); the proportion of three big heat nutrients in diet and heat energy distribution in three meals also had significant different (P < 0.01). Conclusion Improving nurse nutrition KAP can help diabetic patients establish a good dietary behavior.

  9. Efficacy of a nutritional education program to improve diet in patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program: outcomes of a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Maria Luisa Eliana; Biffi, Barbara; Gheri, Chiara Francesca; Sarli, Ennio; Rafanelli, Elena; Graziano, Emanuela; Vidali, Sofia; Fattirolli, Francesco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Macchi, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Dietary habits are widely reported to play a primary role in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary intervention that includes nutritional education. Proper nutrition plays an important role in cardiovascular health outcomes and in decreasing morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as highlighted in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an educational program to improve the diet of cardiac rehabilitation patients compared to usual treatment. 160 patients with CAD, (124 M, 36 F) were randomized into two groups. Data analysis was conducted on 133 patients (11 % dropped out). All enrolled patients attended two educational seminars about proper nutrition and cardiovascular prevention, and completed a questionnaire about dietary habits (before CAD). The Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated, and basal glycaemia and plasma lipids were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study (12 months after hospital discharge). The intervention group patients underwent a mid-term evaluation of nutrient intakes, BMI, and received a personalized educational reinforcement by a dietitian. At the end of the study, the intervention group was shown to have significantly reduced their daily caloric intake (reduction of total proteins, total fat, carbohydrate, alcohol), and showed a significant reduction of weight and BMI compared to the control group. Individual nutritional counseling session as a reinforcement of a standard educational program is effective in reducing caloric intake and BMI, which may reduce cardiovascular risk factors in cardiovascular patients.

  10. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights to Education: IEPs and 504s Teacher Perspectives Homeschooling Camps Pediatric Transplant PPHN (persistent pulmonary hypertension of ... Rights to Education: IEPs and 504s Teacher Perspectives Homeschooling Camps Pediatric Transplant PPHN (persistent pulmonary hypertension of ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, whole grains, dark green leafy vegetables and cold water fish. People who have diabetes or AMD or are at risk for these diseases can also benefit by following a low-glycemic (low-GI) index ...

  12. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  13. Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-15

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p nut consumers had a higher percentage (p nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating.

  14. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2017-08-01

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers.

  16. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  17. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein in a percentage of 17% (control, C or 6% (low, L during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp. or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp. after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  18. Diet Quality Index as a predictor of short-term mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Calle, Eugenia E; Flagg, Elaine W; Coates, Ralph J; Ford, Earl S; Thun, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was developed to measure overall dietary patterns and to predict chronic disease risk. This study examined associations between DQI and short-term all-cause, all-circulatory-disease, and all-cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a cohort of US adults aged 50-79 years enrolled in a prospective study. After 4 years of follow-up (1992-1996), there were 869 deaths among 63,109 women and 1,736 deaths among 52,724 men. All study participants reported being disease free at baseline in 1992-1993. In age-adjusted Cox models, a higher DQI, which was indicative of a poorer quality diet, was positively related to all-cause and all-circulatory-disease mortality rates in both women and men and to cancer mortality in men only. However, in fully adjusted Cox models, only circulatory disease mortality was clearly positively related to DQI and only in women (medium-low-quality diet vs. highest-quality diet: rate ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.89). Although trend tests indicated significant positive relations between DQI and all-cause mortality, effects were small (rate ratios

  19. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 'junk food' diet on offspring food preferences and fat deposition can be mitigated by improved nutrition during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Vithayathil, M; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to a maternal junk food (JF) diet in utero and during the suckling period has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable food and increase the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether the effects of prenatal exposure to JF could be ameliorated by cross-fostering offspring onto dams consuming a standard rodent chow during the suckling period. We report here that when all offspring were given free access to the JF diet for 7 weeks from 10 weeks of age, male offspring of control (C) or JF dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams (C-JF, JF-J