WorldWideScience

Sample records for ra-glai ethnic minority

  1. Social determinants of long lasting insecticidal hammock use among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIHs are being evaluated as an additional malaria prevention tool in settings where standard control strategies have a limited impact. This is the case among the Ra-glai ethnic minority communities of Ninh Thuan, one of the forested and mountainous provinces of Central Vietnam where malaria morbidity persist due to the sylvatic nature of the main malaria vector An. dirus and the dependence of the population on the forest for subsistence--as is the case for many impoverished ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A social science study was carried out ancillary to a community-based cluster randomized trial on the effectiveness of LLIHs to control forest malaria. The social science research strategy consisted of a mixed methods study triangulating qualitative data from focused ethnography and quantitative data collected during a malariometric cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 2,045 study participants. RESULTS: To meet work requirements during the labor intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai slash and burn farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home at their fields located in the forest. LLIH use was evaluated in both locations. During daytime, LLIH use at village level was reported by 69.3% of all respondents, and in forest fields this was 73.2%. In the evening, 54.1% used the LLIHs in the villages, while at the fields this was 20.7%. At night, LLIH use was minimal, regardless of the location (village 4.4%; forest 6.4%. DISCUSSION: Despite the free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and LLIHs, around half the local population remains largely unprotected when sleeping in their forest plot huts. In order to tackle forest malaria more effectively, control policies should explicitly target forest fields where ethnic minority farmers are more vulnerable to malaria.

  2. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  3. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...... be seen as an indication of a broader tendency for formerly established rights to be blurred and for duties to replace rights in education and in welfare more generally....

  4. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... come to be positioned in ways which can cumulatively disadvantage them trough intersections of ‘race', gender and social class. The factors that produce such cumulative disadvantage can surely be thought of as institutional racism, however unwitting and unintended" (Phoenix, 2001, p. 137...

  5. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families....

  6. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups?

  7. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities ...

  8. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brief historical overview of ethnic minority problems and politics in Nigeria; the third and fourth sections ... and the ethno-nationalistic Kurds are examples of indigenous peoples. ... Koreans in Japan, the Chinese in Malaysia and the residual European and ... three major institutional paradigms of ethnic conflict management.

  9. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770)

  10. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  11. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...

  12. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish a

  13. Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bouk, S.; Boussaid, W.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712

  14. Ethnic Minority Games Come To Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROSEANNE; GERIN

    2011-01-01

    Ateam of barefoot young peoplet ake to the water on 7.5-meter-long bamboo poles and maintain their stability with ease as they glide across the Hongfeng Lake in southwest China’s Guizhou Province.But unlike local merchants who long agou sed large pieces of bamboo as makeshift floats to get their wares to market,thesey oung people are professional,full-timea thletes in the ethnic minority sport of single bamboo drifting.

  15. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well......This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...... as colonisation at societal levels. While the life course model of agency within structures focuses at the temporal transitions and ‘linked lives’, involving affective depth and complexity of close relationships, especially intergenerational ones between the adult children and their parents. A combination...

  16. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  17. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  18. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  19. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Graaf, N.D. de; Quillian, L.

    2009-01-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermar

  20. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported ti

  2. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  3. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  5. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  6. Complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities predicts system justification in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Winiewski, M.; Bilewicz, Michal; Bukowski, M.; Jost, John T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of complementary stereotyping of ethnic minorities in Poland and its relationship to system justification. Using results from a nationally representative survey we test the hypothesis that complementary stereotypes—according to which ethnic minorities are seen as possessing distinctive, offsetting strengths and weaknesses—would be associated with system justification among Polish majority citizens. For four minorities, results indicated that stereotyping them as ...

  7. Release of Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Construction of 60 Important Projects Begun under the Strategy for the Development of Western China;The Enrollment of 2,500 Students for Master's and PhD Programs from Ethnic Minority Areas;Each of the 55 Ethnic Minorities Having Its Own Brief Written History;The Per-capita Net Income of Rural Residents in Tibet is Growing Constantly;Every Ethnic Group Having its Own NPC Deputy or Deputies;Strengthening Specific Forms of Implementation of the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy;

  8. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  9. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  10. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  11. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  12. The work–study interface: similarities and differences between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke); L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); S.E. Severiens (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGiven the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work–study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work–study interface model, in which the work-related factors work–study

  13. Diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... or in combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...

  14. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  15. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  16. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system. Metho

  18. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system.

  19. Ethnic Minorities and Women at the University of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    Information on ethnic minorities and women at the University of New Mexico is presented. Specialized programs that emphasize recruitment and retention of minority and women students and the amount of money associated with each program are listed. A breakdown by race, nationality, and sex of the 1977 entering freshman class is presented, and a…

  20. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  1. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system. Metho

  2. Minority (Ethnic) Studies in the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The paper offers recommendations for an ethnic studies curriculum at the elementary school level which would be interdisciplinary in nature and integrate the basic skills of reading, writing, and critical thinking. In the social studies, for example, concepts of cultural diversity and universality can be presented in simple form in the early…

  3. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors' access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    The 'Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ' (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers' limited knowledge of the seniors' needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of 'candidacy', which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors' issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated.

  4. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    ’ as such are protected from criticism and structural changes towards multiculturalism and the recognition of the linguistic and cultural rights of minority groups. Alternative and competing positions exist in the research literature in the field, but this literature has been excluded from the level of policy and public...

  6. The Socio-Economic Integration of Ethnic Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking features of the contemporary world is the scale and complexity of international and internal migration and the rapidly increasing size of indigenous ethnic minorities in the national populations of many countries. International migration continues to be mainly from poor to rich nations but the more recent years have seen migration patterns becoming multidirectional, with migration flows moving between developed countries, amongst developing countries as well as from developing to developed countries. The scale of internal migration in some countries is dazzling. For instance, an estimated 260 million ‘peasant workers’ have moved to cities in China. The number of indigenous ethnic minorities in the country has also grown substantially, now reaching 106 million. These and other features of population change pose a serious challenge to policy-makers and the general population in many counties, in terms of making and implementing policies of social inclusion for migrant and indigenous ethnic minorities, ensuring equal access to educational and occupational opportunities, and taking measures to facilitate societal acceptance of the ethnic minority groups. With this in mind, we have, in this thematic issue, collected papers that address issues of ethnic integration in both developed and developing countries.

  7. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  8. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational...... study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. Conclusions:The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite...

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. Positive parenting in ethnic minority families : challenges and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Rosalia Antonia Grada (Rosanneke)

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the current dissertation is to uncover predictors and outcomes of positive parenting in ethnic minority families. Chapter 2 provides an overview of commonly used observational instruments to measure sensitivity, showing the versatility and scientific importance of the construct.

  11. Diabetes prevalence and risk factors among ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujcic-Voortman, J.K.; Schram, M.T.; Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Baan, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ethnic minorities living in Western societies may have a higher prevalence of diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of diabetes among Turkish and Moroccan migrants differs from the indigenous urban population in the Netherlands, and whether these differences can be explained b

  12. Mentoring Ethnic Minority Students: An Education-Community Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Sommerville, Lenola

    1992-01-01

    Mentoring can help ethnic minority students improve communication abilities, remove barriers to academic progress, understand science and other technological concepts, improve math skills, learn good study habits, better test-taking skills, cope with problems, remain in school. Iowa State University's Science Bound is a three-way mentoring…

  13. Multicultural Hong Kong: Alternative New Media Representations of Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Nesterova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities experience misrecognition, prejudice and discrimination in Hong Kong. In response to these challenges, multicultural education there aims to enable young people to recognize diversity in a more tolerant, open-minded way. Educators have been encouraged to not rely only on textbooks, but to include news and digital media…

  14. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  15. Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders in England: A Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek; Sood, Krishan

    2006-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) leaders are greatly under-represented in English schools compared with the number of BME pupils. This paper reports the findings from research with BME leaders in 2004-2005 and links them to insights from a systematic literature review. The paper shows that BME teachers experience many barriers in developing their…

  16. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  17. Assumptions on culture in discourse on ethnic minority health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse...

  18. Ethnic Minorities and the Politics of Identity in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Saleh, Alam

    2016-01-01

    their discussions with others. Here, Alam Saleh, Lecturer in Middle Eastern Politics, University of Exeter, and Rasmus Christian Elling, Assistant Professor of Iranian Studies, University of Copenhagen, introduce each other's recent books on ethnic minorities, identity and nationalism in post-revolution Iran...

  19. Cardiovascular disease by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep Lien M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.

  20. Being Smart is not Enough: the role of psychlogical factors in study success of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the

  1. Antidepressant prescriptions in first and second generation ethnic minorities in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Volkers, A.C.; Verheij, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Ethnic minorities have poor access and different pathways to mental health care as compared to indigenous populations, but less is known about differences in antidepressant treatment in depressed patients among ethnic minorities. This papers studies antidepressant treatment in depressed

  2. Ethnic Minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam: Poverty, Income and Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the asset and income pattern of poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam using data from a 2010 Northern Mountain Baseline Survey (NMBS) of the Second Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project and Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) 2010. The poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains have lower assets and income than ethnic minorities in other regions. Their income is mainly from crops and livestock. Compared with Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minor...

  3. Retaining ethnic minority nursing students (REMNS): a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur-Rahman, V; Gaines, C

    1999-01-01

    The under-representation of minority nurses in the nation is of critical concern for nurse educators. The high attrition rate of minority nursing students, on a local and national level, has not been effectively addressed. Project REMNS (Retaining Ethnic Minority Nursing Students), an innovative, comprehensive project, was designed to increase the retention of minority nursing students at Prairie View A&M University. Pre-clinical nursing students were provided strategies to improve critical thinking, stress management, and reading comprehension skills. This was accomplished by the development and implementation of content relevant computer modules on stress management, nutrition, and critical thinking. Implementation of Project REMNS resulted in an increased number of pre-nursing students admitted and retained in the nursing program.

  4. Encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna

    Background: The Danish healthcare sector, including community pharmacies, faces a modern challenge: a new and growing population group consisting of ethnic minorities with chronic conditions, associated with the prevalence of multiple conditions, poly-pharmacy and adherence issues. Aim: The aim......-study I. Most documents agreed that skin colour and skin covering were part of the definition of ethnic minorities at risk. Major discrepancies were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and an evolutionary explanation...... suggestions on how to improve encounters with immigrant customers, most respondents listed interventions aiming at immigrants, general practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies. In sub-study III, all six interviewees pointed out that Islam allows ill people to refrain from fasting during Ramadan. However...

  5. Safe and effective use of medicines for ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Pernille; El-Souri, Mira Mahmoud; Herborg, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: From studies, we know how ethnic minorities and people with reduced work ability often suffer from health problems, thus being socially disadvantaged. The municipal job centers are confronted with numerous problems related to medicine use and they lack relevant means of referral. Thus......, there was a need to adapt a previously developed and validated medicine-based intervention “safe and effective use of medicines” to this vulnerable group of unemployed ethnic minority patients. Methods: The objective of this before-after study was to improve medicines adherence, health status and work ability...... in self-reported adherence as well as improved concordance for approximately half of the patients. Improvements in adherence removes one barrier for returning to the work force that exists in the complex interaction between adherence, health status and work ability...

  6. Perceived discrimination and self-esteem among ethnic minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, M

    1998-08-01

    In a sample of ethnic minority adolescents in The Netherlands, the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem was investigated. First, the participants perceived a higher level of discrimination directed at their group as a whole than at themselves as individuals. Second, personal self-esteem was relatively independent of group self-esteem. Third, perceived personal discrimination was related to personal self-esteem, and perceived group discrimination was related to group self-esteem. A path model showed 2 pathways to personal self-esteem. In the 1st path, group discrimination had a negative effect on ethnic self-esteem, which, in turn, was related to personal self-esteem. In the 2nd path, perceived personal discrimination had a direct negative effect on personal self-esteem as well as an indirect negative effect stemming from reduced sense of control.

  7. Friendships and outgroup attitudes among ethnic minority youth : The mediating role of ethnic and host society identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munniksma, Anke; Verkuijten, Maykel; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates among ethnic minority adolescents how friendships with ethnic minority and majority group peers are related to their attitudes towards the majority outgroup.Friendships with majority group peers are proposed to be indirectly related to outgroup attitudes through host society

  8. Adopting a critical intercultural communication approach to understanding health professionals' encounter with ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    and anthropology. However, within these disciplines such concepts as culture, interculturality, and ethnicity are subjected to contestation due to co-existing, but competing paradigms. This paper demonstrates how healthcare discourses on ethnic minority patients reflect shifting intercultural communication...... professionals and their approach to ethnic minority patients influence the accessibility of healthcare and availability of health prevention resources of ethnic minorities. When adapting healthcare practice to minority patients, healthcare professionals draw on insights from intercultural communication...... paradigms and advocates the adoption of a critical intercultural communication approach in relation to ethnicity-based health inequality....

  9. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  10. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had attempte

  11. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had attempte

  12. Methodological Principles of Ethnic Minority Life Conditions Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin KLOKOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to the post-industrial society is connected with revaluation of non-material values which become cultural resources acquiring their social and economic measurement. The purpose of the research has been to find new methodological approach for better evaluation of positive and negative results of rapid social changes in local communities of small-numbered ethnic groups in remote areas of Siberia. Up to the present many of these communities have been keeping very specific subsistence economy connected with nomadic pastoralism, hunting and gathering. Now, their traditional values and way of life are endangered by rapid social changes caused mostly by industrial encroachment. The transdisciplinary research made a synthesis of social, economic and ecological approaches and was based on several case-studies. The new methodology for assessment of traditional ethnic groups’ life conditions takes into account that their living space emerged on the intersection of several semiotic systems routed in different value perspectives. The first one is a commonly used value system which includes income level, availability of the community services and other common living-standard criteria. The second one is a traditional value system based on internal ethnic criteria. Assessment of living conditions from external and internal standpoints may differ greatly. Author suggest to assess indigenous minorities life conditions using two scales simultaneously, one of which corresponds to universal assessment criteria, and the other – to ethno-specific criteria characteristic of a specific traditional culture. The new approach advocates for cautious decision making in regional politics and helps to reinforce active cultural security of indigenous minorities, i.e. to raise the ability of the cultural system itself to oppose different kinds of arising challenges.

  13. The role of health insurance in improving health services use by Thais and ethnic minority migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand, a universal coverage health care scheme for Thai citizens and a foreign worker health insurance program for registered foreign workers have been implemented since 2001. This study uses the 2000-2004 panel data of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System to explore the role of health insurance in influencing the use of health care for Thai, Thai ethnic minority, and ethnic minority migrants from 2000 to 2004. The results show that health insurance plays a major role in improving the use of health care for ethnic groups, especially for Thai ethnic minorities. However, a gap still existed in 2004 between health insurance and health care use by ethnic minority migrants and by Thais. The results suggest that improving health insurance status for ethnic minority migrants should be encouraged to reduce the ethnic gap in the use of health care.

  14. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world.

  15. Diversity Summit 2008: challenges in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Razani, Jill; Suarez, Paola; Lafosse, Jose M; Manly, Jennifer; Attix, Deborah K

    2010-11-01

    The 2008 Diversity Summit recognized the many advantages of increasing the number of neuropsychologists from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Summit addressed the aspiration of creating a more ethnically diverse body of neuropsychologists by increasing the recruitment of ethnic minority students to neuropsychology training programs. Challenges to successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students were discussion points at the Summit. This paper summarizes and expands these points and also suggests solutions to these challenges with the aim of stimulating innovative approaches to increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

  16. A Review on Ethnic Minority Linguistic Research Since the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 21st century, research in the field of ethnic minority linguistics has seen new developments in China. The contents and achieve-ments of this research have mainly been concentrated in the following areas:The first being descriptive research into the eth-nic minority languages, including comprehensive de-scriptive research of some specific ethnic minority languages, especially those newly discovered ethnic minority languages, and descriptive research into a particular aspect of ethnic minority languages, inclu-ding their grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. The second being synchronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages, including comparative studies between Chinese and ethnic minority langua-ges, and comparative studies between ethnic minority languages. The third being diachronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages. These include a discussion on the generic issues of the Sino-Tibetan language family, and the reconstruction of the com-mon ancestral words in Sino-Tibetan languages. The fourth being the research into the rescue of endan-gered minority languages. In 2000, China held a seminar on endangered languages for the first time, marking the point when academic circles in China started to realize the urgency of protecting endan-gered languages. The fifth being the research into bi-lingual education in ethnic minorities. Since the ad-vent of the 21st century, research into bilingual edu-cation in ethnic minorities has progressed in leaps and bounds, and a great many papers and scholarly works related to this field have been published. The sixth being the study of the translation of ethnic mi-nority languages. This has become an important field of ethnic minority language research in China. In the new century, research papers on the translation of ethnic minority languages are fewer in number than the actual works of translation, and their main con-tent includes discussions on translation between two specific languages, or the

  17. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  18. CODE CHOICE WITHIN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY IN BRUNEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Chuchu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of globalisation and multilingualism have caused linguistic diversity and emergence of interesting and unique sociolinguistic phenomena, for instance, language contact in intercultural communication. As the study of intercultural communication has yet to be studied at large, this research takes the opportunity to embark on a descriptive study of code choice within intercultural communication, relating to the ethnic minorities in Brunei Darussalam. This investigation aims to identify these ethnics’ preferable code choice within intercultural communication, and their needs and motivations practising those codes in a shared multilingual setting. Involving empirical investigation, this study was conducted on 60 native Brunei ethnics in Mukim Ukong, Tutong District. Research found that study involving multilingual settings and intercultural communications are rather relatively complex sociolinguistic phenomena, where speakers would employ different dialects or languages at an episode of communication, but still mutually understood by each other. To some extent, some speakers also accommodate their speech styles or languages to ease communication process between parties. The hegemony of globalisation, local vernacular, speakers’ background and setting are among others influenced the selection of their everyday code choice.

  19. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-02-10

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships.

  20. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  1. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  2. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  3. Linguistic and Cultural Effects on the Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    Established literature suggests that language problems lead to lower attainment levels in those subjects that are more language dependent. Also, language has been suggested as a main driver of ethnic minority attainment. We use an original dataset of 2,020 secondary school students to show that ethnic minority students in Cyprus underperform…

  4. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic…

  5. The Effects of Student Characteristics on Teachers' Judgment Accuracy: Disentangling Ethnicity, Minority Status, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johanna; Südkamp, Anna; Möller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' judgments of students' academic achievement are not only affected by the achievement themselves but also by several other characteristics such as ethnicity, gender, and minority status. In real-life classrooms, achievement and further characteristics are often confounded. We disentangled achievement, ethnicity and minority status and…

  6. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  7. Double Jeopardy: The Children of Ethnic Minorities. Innocenti Occasional Papers. Child Rights Series, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    This paper examines the state of current research on ethnic minorities and their children and discusses areas in which further study is needed so that effective policy guidelines may be developed within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. A number of examples of ethnic minority situations are presented to…

  8. Therapeutic relationship and dropout in youth mental health care with ethnic minority children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. de Haan; A.E. Boon; J.T.V.M. de Jong; C.A.M.L. Geluk; R.R.J.M. Vermeiren

    2013-01-01

    Background Dropout in youth psychotherapy is high, especially for ethnic minority patients. An important determinant of dropout is the quality of the therapeutic relationship. This study evaluated the association between the therapeutic relationship and dropout in therapy with ethnic minority youth.

  9. Symptoms at first contact for psychotic disorder : Comparison between native Dutch and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hoek, Hans W.

    The incidence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is very high among several ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands, and is most increased for Moroccans. This study compared symptoms at first treatment contact for a psychotic disorder between 117 native Dutch and 165 ethnic minority

  10. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify p...

  11. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  12. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  13. A Tentative Survey of Rejection Act by Minority Ethnic College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    English is the third language for the minority ethnic students. Whether this nature influences them in their English leaning is worthy of study. Basing on Brown&Levinson's face theory,this survey focuses on howthe minority ethnic college students perform rejection act in English.

  14. The Big Picture: The National Achievement Agenda and Minority Ethnic Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes issues of minority student achievement in the context of United Kingdom government policies and the government's Standards and Effectiveness Unit (SEU). Discusses: (1) the big picture; (2) data on ethnic student achievement; (3) SEU policies; (4) government approaches to the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant; and (5) issues for the…

  15. Explaining ethnic polarization over attitudes towards minority rights in Eastern Europe : a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Geoffrey; Need, Ariana

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines divisions between majority and minority ethnic groups over attitudes towards minority rights in 13 East European societies. Using national sample surveys and multilevel models, we test the effectiveness of competing explanations of ethnic polarization in attitudes towards minorit

  16. Adopting a critical intercultural communication approach to understanding health professionals' encounter with ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Even in the Scandinavian countries, where welfare resources such as education and healthcare are offered wholly or partly free of charge, health disparities between the majority populations and ethnic minority groups challenge the national healthcare systems. The knowledge levels of health...... professionals and their approach to ethnic minority patients influence the accessibility of healthcare and availability of health prevention resources of ethnic minorities. When adapting healthcare practice to minority patients, healthcare professionals draw on insights from intercultural communication...... and anthropology. However, within these disciplines such concepts as culture, interculturality, and ethnicity are subjected to contestation due to co-existing, but competing paradigms. This paper demonstrates how healthcare discourses on ethnic minority patients reflect shifting intercultural communication...

  17. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  18. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  19. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  20. A Study on the Change in Occupational Structure of China’ s Ethnic Minorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changde

    2014-01-01

    The occupational structure of the employed population and its changes reflect the level of economic development and the change of social status of a population group .Based on cen-sus data , this paper analyzes the occupational structure of the employed population of China ’ s ethnic minorities.It shows that: 1 ) Among the employed population of the eth-nic minorities ( excepting those people who are en-gaged in forestry , animal husbandry and fishery , etc., a proportion which is higher than the overall population or the Han ) , the proportion is lower than in either the overall population or the Han population . 2 ) The gender differences and directional change of the occupational structure of the em-ployed population indicates that the status of women was gradually promoted during the period 1990 to 2010. 3) Seen from the proportion of those engaged in mental labor versus physical labor;the proportion ethnic minorities engaged in mental labor is low . 4) The degree of diversity in the occupational structure of the ethnic minorities has made some improvement. 5 ) The ethnic differences in occupational structure are obvious . 6) The urbanization level and the educational level of the population are the key factors which determine the occupational structure of the em-ployed population . From this study , we feel that the degree of so-cial exclusion of the ethnic minorities has gone up during the past ten years .This “going up” has lead or is leading to social problems .Hence, it is necessary to pay high attention to this issue .Re-garding this, the author thinks that , firstly, sup-port to ethnic minority education should be en-hanced;secondly , the proportion of ethnic minori-ty people in civil servant recruitment should be im-proved;thirdly, the proportion of the employment of ethnic minority workers in projects in ethnic mi-nority regions should be stipulated .

  1. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care for ethnic minority children: a qualitative assessment among care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeleman Conny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma outcomes are generally worse for ethnic minority children. Cultural competence training is an instrument for improving healthcare for ethnic minority patients. To develop effective training, we explored the mechanisms in paediatric asthma care for ethnic minority patients that lead to deficiencies in the care process. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on care for ethnic minority children with asthma (aged 4-10 years with paediatricians (n = 13 and nurses (n = 3 in three hospitals. Interviews were analysed qualitatively with a framework method, using a cultural competence model. Results Respondents mentioned patient non-adherence as the central problem in asthma care. They related non-adherence in children from ethnic minority backgrounds to social context factors, difficulties in understanding the chronic nature of asthma, and parents’ language barriers. Reactions reported by respondents to patients’ non-adherence included retrieving additional information, providing biomedical information, occasionally providing referrals for social context issues, and using informal interpreters. Conclusions This study provides keys to improve the quality of specialist paediatric asthma care to ethnic minority children, mainly related to non-adherence. Care providers do not consciously recognise all the mechanisms that lead to deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care they provide to ethnic minority children (e.g. communicating mainly from a biomedical perspective and using mostly informal interpreters. Therefore, the learning objectives of cultural competence training should reflect issues that care providers are aware of as well as issues they are unaware of.

  3. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  4. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives: To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design: We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results: In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years, Mongolians (12.44 years, and Zhuang (12.52 years. The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years, Yi (13.74 years, and Uighurs (13.67 years. From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p0.05, 0.15 (p>0.05, and 0.15 (p>0.05 years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion: A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  5. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  6. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  7. Research on Ethnic Minority Representatives in State Council Agencies During the Period of Nanjing National Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xueyin

    2016-01-01

    China is a multi-ethnic country. From the wuzu gonghe ( Five nationalities under one union ) in the early Republic of China to the current union of 56 ethnic groups, the participation of ethnic minorities in political affairs has always been a vital and important factor for the develop-ment of China’s democratic politics. On one hand, the Nanjing National Government was dedicated to the model of a“civil identification” and weakening ethnic characteristics. On the other hand, due to the immense pressure from the resistance of the Japanese invasion and the increase of minority representatives’ appeals, they had to gradually al-low some ethnic elites, as ethnic minority repre-sentatives, to participate in the national affairs so that they could acquire more political identity. Al-though the government of the Republic of China claimed “Five nationalities under one union” as well as declaring many times to guarantee extensive and orderly ethnic minority participation in national affairs, by analyzing cases of elections in the state council agencies during the period of Nanjing na-tional government, not all the promises were imple-mented. I. The general situation of the elections for ethnic minority representatives in the state council agencies. In the National Conference in 1931 , only Mongolia and Tibet were allowed to organize their own elections and send their own ethnic representa-tives. Among the total of 520 national conference representatives, Mongolian representatives accoun-ted for 12 , and Tibetans accounted for 10 . The National Political Council, which also known as“the Congress during war”, was founded on July 6 , 1938 , and was abolished on March 28 , 1948 . It lasted for 9 years and held conferences a total of 4 times. In all the 4 conferences, 10 people were elected as participants to represent Tibet to discuss political affairs, and 18 people were elected as participants representing Mongolia. However, al-though other minorities were

  8. Diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities: barriers to education, treatment and good metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... or in combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...

  9. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  10. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify...... patients from the main ethnic minority groups in Denmark, who were diagnosed with dementia in the period 2005-2007. Three raters independently reviewed the patients' medical records. Data were compared to data from a previous similar study in the general Danish population. Results: Fifty-seven medical...... records were reviewed. An acceptable diagnostic workup was documented in only 23% of the patients. Dementia diagnosis was confirmed in 35%. Significant differences in the quality of the diagnostic evaluation were found between patients from ethnic minorities and the general population. Conclusion...

  11. Health literacy and primary health care use of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M. van der; Heide, I. van der; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Brabers, A.E.M.; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, ethnic minority populations visit their general practitioner (GP) more often than the indigenous population. An explanation for this association is lacking. Recently, health literacy is suggested as a possible explaining mechanism. Internationally, associations betwe

  12. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program for Families with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.

    2017-01-01

    Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic

  13. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and

  14. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sifan Guo; Chunhua Zhao; Qinghua Ma; Hong-peng Sun; Chen-wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall pre...

  15. Hospital based patient coordination for ethnic minority patients - a health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    especially on public medicine expenses and social services. Ethnic minority patients can achieve increased empowerment & Equity in type and quality of hospital care through cross dicplinary cross specialty cultural case management & support between hospital departments and primary sectors......A cross diciplinary, cross specialty, cross sectoral hospital based approach to cultural management of ethnic minority patients is effective in creating more approprite patient flows, better quality of care and increases functional level of patients. Surprisingly the aggregated effect saves...

  16. Background: The Chequered Fortunes of Ethnic Minorities under Changing Political Regimes in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria’s current ethnic minority problems have been shaped by developments in the country’s recent and distant past. Indeed, by most accounts, the fortunes of Nigeria’s ethnic minorities have varied in tandem with changes in the internal territorial configuration of the federation, in the composition and orientation of successive federal government administrations, and in the rules for allocating centralized resources among the constituent governments and segments of the country. In the foll...

  17. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  18. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  19. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-01-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged

  20. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  1. Ethnic Minorities, Language Diversity, and Educational Implications: A Case Study on the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the Dutch situation looks at how growing immigrant numbers and resulting second language groups have prompted a rethinking of traditional concepts of education. First, ethnic population trends across national boundaries in Western Europe are examined and basic statistics on ethnic minorities in the Netherlands are presented. The…

  2. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  3. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-01-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged

  4. Suicidal ideation in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.; Smit, J.H.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van Ameijden, E.; Saharso, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and explored the vulnerability to suicidal ideation across several ethnic minority versus ethnic majority adolescents in the city of Utrecht in The Netherlands. Exploratory analyses were conducted on a dataset obtained from the Municipal Health Services in Utrecht. We

  5. Teachers' and Parental Attribution for School Performance of Ethnic Majority and Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; de Haan, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers' and parental attributions for children's school performance differ depending on the ethnic background of the child. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, real-life attributions within 54 teacher-parent conversations (15 ethnic majority; 39 minority) were examined. The results indicated that,…

  6. Cognitive Training for Ethnic Minority Older Adults in the United States: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuang, Marian; Owusu, Jocelynn T; Spira, Adam P; Albert, Marilyn S; Rebok, George W

    2017-05-30

    Interest in cognitive training for healthy older adults to reduce cognitive decline has grown considerably over the past few decades. Given the shift toward a more diverse society, the purpose of this review is to examine the extent of race/ethnic minority participation in cognitive training studies and characteristics of studies that included race/ethnic minority participants. This review considered peer-reviewed studies reporting cognitive training studies for cognitively healthy, community-dwelling older adults (age 55+) in the United States published in English before December 31, 2015. A total of 31 articles published between 1986 and 2015 meeting inclusion criteria were identified and included in the review. A total of 6,432 participants were recruited across all of the studies, and ranged in age from 55 to 99 years. Across all studies examined, 39% reported racial/ethnic background information. Only 3 of these studies included a substantial number of minorities (26.7% in the ACTIVE study; 28.4% in the SeniorWISE study; 22.7% in the TEAM study). Race/ethnic minority older adults were disproportionately underrepresented in cognitive training studies. Further research should aim to enroll participants representative of various race/ethnic minority populations. Strategies for recruitment and retention of ethnic minority participants in cognitive training research are discussed, which could lead to the development of more culturally appropriate and perhaps more effective cognitive interventions.

  7. Managerial factor of ethnic minority cultural space: changes (1990 – 2000 – years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pekarchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of archival, statistical materials, analytical inputs predecessors considered the place and role of management factor in the development of cultural space Ethnic minorities during 1990 - 2000 - ies. Nonfiction includes problems of participation of public authorities in the cultural renaissance of ethnic minorities in part addresses the issue of directions, principles, nature management decisions involving relevant administrative instruments regarding implementation in practice of the basics of cultural - artistic policy. Importance designated problem caused primarily by the need to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of decision independent state problems of interethnic relations, promoting the principles of many cultural, ethnic and national tolerance and harmony. Fundamental approaches to the creation of prerequisites cooperation executive authorities and representative bodies of national - cultural society, the maintenance of ethnic and cultural needs of ethnic groups in Ukraine. We considered the prospect of continuity and management activities in the direction of improving the principles of such support. Considerable attention is paid to the current management mechanism (mosaic bodies involved in financing, material support, investment projects. At first, in the historiography on the basis of specific methodological tools to analyze conformity issued by the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry departments strategic objectives - development of social and cultural environment Ethnic minorities of Ukraine. Particular attention is given to explaining the problems of social - political participation of ethnic minorities, ethnic consolidation of the principles of conservation of space. Stressed that the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine actively promoted satisfaction ethno-cultural needs of ethnic groups, the revival of their customs and traditions. A significant part of the articl is devoted to clarify

  8. Fiscal Federalism, Ethnic Minorities and the National Question in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Question in Nigeria: Revisiting the Case of the Niger Delta. People ... This study, using content analysis, examined the impact of fiscal federalism and the struggles of ethnic ... superior loyalty of the peoples over the Nigerian citizenship identity.

  9. Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Xu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage protection in China has long been considered as the responsibility of the government. However, over the last 20 years, a number of heritage projects, mainly in ethnic minority regions, have attempted to engage with local communities. These seem to be an attractive alternative to top-down approaches. This paper explores the implications of a bottom-up approach for Chinese ethnic minority heritage management through an examination of the Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village project in Xianrendong in Yunnan province. It is a result of my fascination with the project’s concept and my desire to understand its key characteristics, application and potential for future development in China. After a discussion of cultural performance, modernisation and inside/outside encounters, I conclude by suggesting that well-planned and well-informed community participation, with realistic control, contributes to reconciling tourism and cultural heritage conservation.

  10. Participation in mental health care by ethnic minority users: Case studies from the Netherlands and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares de Freitas, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines participation in mental health care by users from socially disadvantaged ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands and in Brazil. Despite considerable evidence that minority users are under-represented in health participatory spaces in these and other countries around the world,

  11. Dual identity, in-group projection, and out-group feelings among ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on dual identity and in-group projection by considering category prototypicality and indispensability, and by focusing on ethnic minority members and their attitudes towards the native majority and minority out-groups. Among a sample of 491 participants of the three large

  12. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  13. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  14. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  15. Ethnic Minority Languages versus Frisian in Dutch Primary Schools: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus

    1989-01-01

    Compares the position of ethnic minority languages versus Frisian in Dutch primary schools, and considers the roles of legislation, educational models, minority language usage, language attitudes, pressure groups, teacher quality, instructional materials, and the serious lack of basic research data on the acquisition, use, shift, and loss of…

  16. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking. PMID:28275923

  17. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Pottick, Kathleen J; Chen, Yun

    2017-03-08

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking.

  18. On the Improvement of Public Participation in Legislation Mechanism in the Ethnic Minority Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun

    2016-01-01

    The legislative public participation in ethnic minority autonomous areas has its legal basis. The fifth regulation in the lifa fa ( The Leg-islative Law ) of China makes a general require-ment on public participation in legislation. In order to ensure the effective participation of the public in legislation, some ethnic minority autonomous re-gions have outlined some requirements on public comment, demonstration, and hearing during the legislative process through autonomous regulations. These ethnic minority autonomous areas are com-prised of both autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties. However, the breadth and depth of the public participation in legislation in ethnic minority auton-omous areas is inadequate, and a perfect mecha-nism of public participation in legislation in ethnic minority autonomous areas has yet to be formed. This is mainly reflected in the following aspects:1 ) The relevant laws of public participation in leg-islation have not been perfected;2 ) The enthusi-asm of public participation in legislation is not high;3) Legislative information is not fully open, and the feedback mechanism has not been perfec-ted;4 ) The limited approach for public participa-tion in legislation, and the lack of ethnic and re-gional characteristics. To improve the mechanism of public partici-pation in the legislation of ethnic minority autono-mous areas, we can start with the following:1 ) Improving the legal regulation of public participation in the legislation of ethnic minority autonomous areas The state and the ethnic minority autonomous areas should develop operational laws of public participation, so as to provide a legal basis for the public’s participation. The ethnic minority autono-mous areas should fully integrate the actual situa-tion of the local ethnic people and create autono-mous regulations with local characteristics, protect public participation rights, and promote public participation in legislation in an orderly and

  19. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  20. Conducting HIV research in racial and ethnic minority communities: building a successful interdisciplinary research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Frinny R; Dominguez, Dinora C; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, Joann M; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. However, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Eliminating Behavioral Health Disparities and Improving Outcomes for Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Katherine; Ybarra, Rick; Chapa, Teresa; Martinez, Octavio N

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care holds promise for reducing mental health disparities for racial and ethnic minority groups, but studies are lacking. The authors consider critical components of effective integrated models for minority populations, including cultural and linguistic competence and a diverse workforce, and describe emerging best practices. To successfully implement integrated models into practice with minority populations will require guidance from communities, consumers and family members, and national experts.

  2. A Study on the Employment Problems of Ethnic Minority Graduates and Its Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weibo

    2014-01-01

    When China ’ s economic devel-opment slows down , but the number of college graduates constantly increases , the problem of the difficulty of college students finding employment becomes not only an economic problem , but also a social problem , and even a political problem .The problem of employment for ethnic minority college students is much more so .How to solve effectively the problem of the minority college students ’ em-ployment difficulty is an issue related to ethnic uni-ty, social stability and national prosperity and has a very important political , social and economic sig-nificance.Hence, this research is based on the re-sults from a survey conducted at the Southwest U-niversity for Nationalities , and it tries to provide some corresponding suggestions for solving the em-ployment problems of ethnic minority graduates in the universities of Chengdu . The target of this survey were the ethnic mi-nority graduates who enrolled in Southwest Univer-sity for Nationalities in 2009.Using the principles of random sampling , a total number of 500 ques-tionnaires were distributed . Among these 480 questionnaires were completed and collected . Therefore , the efficiency of the questionnaires is 96%.Through the survey , we find that the main problems related to present ethnic minority college students’ employment are four aspects described as follows: 1.Minority college students prefer to work in big cities. The big cities have strong attraction to the mi-nority college students , and half of the graduates prefer to stay in the big cities .This creates a con-tradiction , because the employment situation in the big cities is already so serious that it is difficult for the big cities to accept so many college graduates . However , some minority areas which need talent are not able to attract excellent minority college graduates . 2.The minority college students lack commu-nication skills . Ethnic minority college graduates have their own languages or writing

  3. Maladjustment in statistical minorities within ethnically unbalanced classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, K; Gregory, W L; Stephan, W G

    1990-10-01

    Ascertained if being a member of a statistical minority influences children's adjustment in school, as measured by the AML, a teacher-administered adjustment rating scale. Teachers from a southwest school district evaluated elementary students on aggressive, acting-out behaviors, moody-internalized behaviors, and learning difficulties. Analyses conducted on 376 students revealed significant effects of statistical minority status on certain dimensions of adjustment ratings for both Hispanic and Anglo students. Hispanic students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the moodiness dimension of the AML than nonminority Hispanic students. Anglo students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the aggression dimension of the AML than nonminority Anglo students. These results were interpreted in terms of cultural differences in coping with statistical minority status. Traits commonly exhibited within a culture may intensify and be perceived as maladaptive when stress resulting from being a minority occurs. Implications of the finding that statistical minority status within the school environment influences adjustment are discussed.

  4. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this.

  5. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  6. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: a Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the `leaky pipeline' metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school context. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 interviews and 22 h of classroom observations with British students (aged 11-14) from Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese ethnic backgrounds, this paper identified five `types' of science participation among minority ethnic students. The five types of science participation emerged from an analysis of students' science achievement, science aspiration, science interest and science capital. The characteristics of the five types are as follows: Science adverse students have no aspirations towards science and lacked interest, achievement and capital in science. Science intrinsic students have high science aspirations, interest and capital but low science attainment. Students who are science intermediate have some aspirations, interest and capital in science, with average science grades. Science extrinsic students achieve highly in science, have some science capital but lacked science aspirations and/or interest. Science prominent students are high science achievers with science aspirations, high levels of interest and capital in science. The findings highlight that minority ethnic students participate in science in diverse ways. Policy implications are suggested for each type as this paper provides empirical evidence to counter against public (and even some academic) discourses of minority ethnic students as a homogeneous group.

  7. Explanations for Special Neighbourhood Preferences among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2015-01-01

    be explained either by their social integration, their ethnic background, their resources or by the strength of their feelings of belonging to their country of origin as described by the concept of diaspora. It is also examined if such preferences affect actual moves into such neighbourhoods. The results show...

  8. Preparing Students for Culturally Competent Practice among Ethnic Minority Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the nation's present and projected multicultural aged population is both dramatic and well documented. One result of this growth is a sharpened focus on racial and ethnic disparities in health, health care access, and utilization of services that impact aging adults. This paper presents work conducted by a university-community…

  9. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  10. Older and Wiser: Adult Learning and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadzie, Stella

    1993-01-01

    The British "Older and Wiser" project demonstrated the need for educational opportunities for older adults from minority groups. The double barriers of ageism and racism faced by these adults must be addressed. (SK)

  11. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  12. Attitudes of the ethnic elites members in Vojvodina to minority rights and to interethnic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was done with 100 distinguished members of cultural and media elite members. The results showed that ethnic elites in Vojvodina had better economic position than ordinary citizens, but that one ninth of them was poor. On inter-personal level they are very open towards the members of other ethnic groups. As for the attitudes, ethnic elites members differed from ordinary citizens mostly by strongly supporting market economy and liberal concept of development. They couldn't differentiate clearly between individual and collective rights. This was understandable since in multi-ethnic surrounding where Serbian ethnic nationalism still prevailed individual rights were to the great extent determined by ethnic origin. Minority ethnic communities elites had clearer understanding of this fact because their ethnic groups paid higher price in such circumstances. Members of least numerous ethnic groups mostly favored individual over collective rights, major cause for this being probably their fear from Serbian-Hungarian deal at the expense of third party. Yet, this survey's findings regarding this topic were substantially better than any before, since the awareness of need for collective rights to be recognized grew in all ethnic groups, including Serbs.

  13. The Concept of Ethnic Minorities. International Law and the German-Austrian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Salzborn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following World War I, the League of Nations promoted a liberal system of minority rights conceived on the basis of individual rights and designed to provide human rights protection against discrimination. In reaction to this conception of minorities as deserving democratic protection, an alternate, ethnicallyoriented concept was developed in German-speaking territories, particularly in Germany and Austria, which was based on collective rights and whose goal was ethnically-based legislation (called “Volksgruppenrecht” or “ethnic-group law”. This political concept was gradually developed into a system of international standards. Supporters hoped that ethnically based law would replace international liberal-democratic law. This paper examines how the political paradigm of collective rights was redefined during the 1920s to produce a conceptual system of legal standards, and how successful efforts were in providing a legal foundation for the sociotheoretical concept of “Volksgruppe” (“ethnic group”.

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  16. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in an ethnic minority group in Central Vietnam: implications to health burden and relationship between two ethnic minority groups

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Nga Thi; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2017-01-01

    Thalassemia is a genetic condition that can result in long and expensive treatments, and severe thalassemia may lead to death if left untreated. Couples contributing two genes for thalassemia place their children at particular risk for severe thalassemia. Gene frequency of thalassemia varies in Vietnam, but presents remarkably high levels among some ethnic minority groups. Limited information about thalassemia frequency makes prevention and control of thalassemia difficult. This study aimed t...

  17. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Minority candidates for Westminster continue to suffer electorally from ethnic and religious prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmaier, Mary; Lewis-Beck, Michael; Smets, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    Incumbent political representatives benefit from the presence of British, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) challengers in their constituency, according to a worrying new study into the role that the race and ethnicity of candidates played in the 2010 British General Election. Summarising the research, Mary Stegmaier, Michael Lewis-Beck and Kaat Smets show that the incumbent party in a constituency typically gained at least two percentage points in vote share when they had a Black, Asian or Mi...

  19. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.

  20. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  1. β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in ethnic minority populations of southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Liu, Hongxian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Ma, Shaohui; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships among ethnic minority populations of southwest China were investigated using seven polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the β-globin gene cluster. The haplotypes of 1392 chromosomes from ten ethnic populations living in southwest China were determined. Linkage equilibrium and recombination hotspot were found between the 5′ sites and 3′ sites of the β-globin gene cluster. 5′ haplotypes 2 (+−−−), 6 (−++−+), 9 (−++++) and 3′ haplotype FW3 (−+) were the predominant haplotypes. Notably, haplotype 9 frequency was significantly high in the southwest populations, indicating their difference with other Chinese. The interpopulation differentiation of southwest Chinese minority populations is less than those in populations of northern China and other continents. Phylogenetic analysis shows that populations sharing same ethnic origin or language clustered to each other, indicating current β-globin cluster diversity in the Chinese populations reflects their ethnic origin and linguistic affiliations to a great extent. This study characterizes β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in southwest Chinese minorities for the first time, and reveals the genetic variability and affinity of these populations using β-globin cluster haplotype frequencies. The results suggest that ethnic origin plays an important role in shaping variations of the β-globin gene cluster in the southwestern ethnic populations of China. PMID:28205625

  2. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  3. Assessing the disparity in spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiuli; Pan, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great disparity in spatial accessibility to hospital care between ethnic minority and non-minority regions in China. Being one of the basic social demands, spatial access to hospital care in minority regions draws increasing attention in China in recent years. We performed this study to have a better understanding of spatial access to hospital care in ethnic minority region in China, and to guide the allocation of government investment in the future. Methods Sichuan Prov...

  4. A Study on the Issue of Population Aging among Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changde

    2014-01-01

    There are differences in the issue of population aging among China ’ s various ethnic groups.The aging process of some ethnic groups is very fast, and the structure of their population ag-ing belongs to a typical aging model .Some ethnic groups ’ aging process is relatively slow , and the structure of their aging still belongs to a young model.Moreover, the rate of aging of various eth-nic groups in the same region is also different , e-ven the rates and trends of aging within one specif-ic ethnic group also differ .Hence , the situation of population aging among minorities in China is very complicated . Based on the data from three demographic censuses conducted in 1990, 2000 and 2010, this article analyzes the differences of population aging among various ethnic groups . 1.The Basic Situation of Population Aging a-mong Ethnic Minorities in China According to the census , the population above age 60 among minority populations was 6.29 million in 1990.; It increased to 9.02 million in 2010;and reached above 11.75 million in 2010.The popula-tion above the age of 65 among the minority popula-tion was 4.05 million in 1990; 5.87 million in 1990;and reached 7.83 million in 2010. According to typical international standards of population aging frameworks and statistics from the 2000 census , China ’ s population has already be-come an aging population .Among the total popula-tion of that year , 10.46%of the population was a-bove the age of 60;7.10% of the population was above the age of 65.Among the ethnic minority populations , 8.57% of the population was above the age of 60 , and 5.58% was above the age of 65.Hence, the minority population had not yet become a typical aging population .However , in 2010, the rate of aging in the total minority popu-lation further increased , and it also became a typi-cal aging population . 2 .Ethnic Differences of Population Aging a-mong the Minorities There are 55 ethnic minorities in China , and the rate of aging among these

  5. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Suurmond, J.; Wagner, C.; Bruijne, M. de; Essink-Bot, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban

  6. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  7. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  8. "Peer Social Capital" and Networks of Migrants and Minority Ethnic Youth in England and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Clara Helene Rübner

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses friendships and peer groups of migrant and minority ethnic youth in schools in England and Spain, and critically considers them in relation to existing notions of "peer social capital" and bridging (heterogeneous) and bonding (homogeneous) peer networks. The article argues for an extended understanding of peer…

  9. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  10. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  11. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  12. Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minority Children. A Handbook for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kedar N., Ed.; Varma, Ved P., Ed.

    Contributions to this collection emphasize pragmatic approaches to community health problems and focus on the health needs of ethnic minority children. The following papers are included: (1) "Introduction" (Kedar Nath Dwivedi); (2) "Culture and Personality" (Kedar Nath Dwivedi); (3)"The Immigrant (West Indian) Child in School" (Waveney Bushell);…

  13. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  14. Protective Mechanisms for Depression among Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth: Empirical Findings, Issues, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Cameron, Linda

    2015-12-01

    We (1) review empirical studies that report findings regarding putative protective mechanisms when exposed to risk of depression in African American and Hispanic adolescents; (2) identify key protective mechanisms for different risk contexts that garner empirical support; (3) synthesize the mechanisms identified as protective against depression among racial/ethnic minority adolescents; and (4) discuss improved methods for advancing understanding of resilience against depression in minority youth. The studies were selected from PsycINFO searches that met the following inclusion criteria: participants between 12 and 21 years of age, inclusions of racial/ethnic minority members, examining protection through an interaction with a risk factor, and outcome measures of depression, depressed mood, or depressive symptomatology. We found 39 eligible studies; 13 of which included multiple racial/ethnic groups. The following were supported as protective mechanisms, at least preliminarily, for at least one racial/ethnic group and in at least one risk context: employment, extracurricular activities, father-adolescent closeness, familism, maternal support, attending predominately minority schools, neighborhood composition, non-parent support, parental inductive reasoning, religiosity, self-esteem, social activities, and positive early teacher relationships. To investigate protective mechanisms more comprehensively and accurately across individual, social, and community levels of influence, we recommend incorporating multilevel modeling or multilevel growth curve analyses and large diverse samples.

  15. Nurses' experiences of caring for South Asian minority ethnic patients in a general hospital in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydelingum, Vasso

    2006-03-01

    Healthcare provision for minority ethnic groups in the UK has generally revealed inequalities in access and differential service provision. British healthcare policy has started to address such issues. However, very few studies have specifically examined the experiences of nurses caring for minority ethnic patients. This paper focuses on the focus group interviews of a broader ethnographic study, aimed at describing nurses' experiences of caring for South Asian minority ethnic patients, in a general hospital in the south of England. A sample of 43 nurses of all grades from six medical wards took part in the focus groups: three ward sisters, 22 staff nurses and 18 care assistants; 40 participants were white, one was African-Caribbean and two were South Asian. Data analysis revealed eight themes: changes in service provision; false consciousness of equity; limited cultural knowledge; victim blaming; valuing of the relatives; denial of racism; ethnocentrism, and self-disclosure. The study revealed a good local service response to government policies in addressing inequality. However, there was a tendency to treat all minority ethnic patients the same, with evidence of ethnocentric practices, victim-blaming approaches and poor cultural competence in nursing staff, which raise questions about the quality of service provision. The study indicates that ongoing training and development in the area of cultural competence is necessary.

  16. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  17. Intolerance over time : macro and micro level questions on attitudes towards euthanasia, homosexuality and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands, as many other Western countries, has experienced large shifts in intolerance in only a few decades. Aggregate opinions on euthanasia and homosexuality have become more accommodating over time, whereas the general opinion on the presence of ethnic minorities has become much more

  18. The Importance of Minority Teachers to the Racial and Ethnic Integration of American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Racial and ethnic separation and isolation can be countered through significantly increasing the number of minority teachers. Students learn important societal lessons through the example of cooperative interracial and interethnic relationships among teachers. Discusses implications for teacher education, recruitment, assignment, and retention,…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Minority-Specific Instrumentation in Counseling Research: A Review, Critique, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnani, Haresh B.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews eight instruments specifically conceptualized and developed for use in racial/ethnic minority-focused psychological research: Cultural Mistrust Inventory, African Self-Consciousness Scale, Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised, Modern Racism Scale, Value Orientation Scale, Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, Racial…

  20. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  1. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class…

  2. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  3. Exposure to newspapers and attitudes towards ethnic minorities: A longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Lubbers, M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study aims to test whether exposure to certain newspapers leads people to perceive ethnic minorities as more threatening. Building on cultivation theory as developed by Gerbner, this study extends his theory by looking at the possible effects of exposure to newspapers. Results indicate that exp

  4. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  5. Promoting positive self-esteem in ethnic minority students: The role of school and classroom context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is considered a core component of psychological well-being, and it has long been assumed that disadvantaged ethnic and racial minority children and adolescents suffer from low self-esteem due to discrimination and the internalization of prejudice. Yet research has contradicted this assum

  6. Primary health care use among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Uiters (Anna Helena (Helen))

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aims to provide insight into differences in the actual use of health care services by ethnic minorities as compared to the indigenous Dutch population. Furthermore, the role of different determinants of health care utilisation is studied in order to establish to what

  7. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  8. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  9. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Suurmond, J.; Wagner, C.; Bruijne, M. de; Essink-Bot, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hos

  10. Guidelines for eHealth and social media in sexual health promotion for young ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; den Daas, C.; Boom, C.; David, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recently a rapid growth of modern technologies addressing sexuality and health has taken place. Young ethnic minorities could especially benefit from these eHealth initiatives, but they have to meet their specific needs. Sexual health is a sensitive subject in many cultures and eHealth

  11. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  12. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  13. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  14. A comparison of ethnic minority and majority students: social and academic integration, and quality of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severiens, S.; Wolff, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines students from ethnic minorities and majorities with regard to the relationships between their social and academic integration and their quality of learning. A total of 523 students at four universities completed a questionnaire: analyses of variance were used to examine mean di

  15. Cultural validation of CQI-measurements measuring minority ethnic patients’ perspective on quality of care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmoredjo, J.; Sixma, H.; Plass, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In improving quality of healthcare it is important to take patients’ perspective into account. In the Netherlands, the Consumer Quality Index (CQI) is used for this, though entirely based on a native Dutch perspective. Minority ethnic patients may have different needs. This study assesse

  16. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups, certai

  17. Parent Training among Ethnic Minorities: Parenting Practices as Mediators of Change in Child Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…

  18. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  19. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  20. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups, certai

  1. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  2. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W;

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard...... to dementia services....

  3. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  4. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  5. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this context.…

  6. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Suurmond, J.; Wagner, C.; Bruijne, M. de; Essink-Bot, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hos

  7. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  8. Guidelines for eHealth and social media in sexual health promotion for young ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, O.; den Daas, C.; Boom, C.; David, S.; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C. (Lisette)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recently a rapid growth of modern technologies addressing sexuality and health has taken place. Young ethnic minorities could especially benefit from these eHealth initiatives, but they have to meet their specific needs. Sexual health is a sensitive subject in many cultures and eHealth

  9. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  10. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  11. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  12. Accounting for Ethnic Discrimination : A Discursive Study Among Minority and Majority Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups,

  13. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A nationwi

  14. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  15. Promoting positive self-esteem in ethnic minority students: The role of school and classroom context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/187457344; Verkuyten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is considered a core component of psychological well-being, and it has long been assumed that disadvantaged ethnic and racial minority children and adolescents suffer from low self-esteem due to discrimination and the internalization of prejudice. Yet research has contradicted this

  16. Reflections on ethnic minority psychology: learning from our past so the present informs our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anderson J

    2009-10-01

    Commentary on progress and reflections of conversations that undergirded the advancement of ethnic minority psychology are presented by the author as a perspective of an Elder. Articles in this special issue are considered in terms of the themes that emerged from their narratives on the history of ethnic psychological associations, Division 45, the Minority Fellowship Program, and governance's response to multicultural issues within the American Psychological Association. Themes in the history of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are discussed in terms of the centrality of culture, history, and pride in resilience, treatment in U.S. history, representation in literature, and its implications for training, research and practice, challenges for ethnic psychological associations, and tensions in transition to a multicultural psychology movement. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The process of coping among ethnic minority first-generation college freshmen: a narrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Jean S; Haas, Kumiko

    2003-12-01

    Using a narrative approach, the authors explored the process of coping among ethnic minority college students. Participants were 30 freshmen, predominantly the 1st members of their families to attend college, who wrote journals once a week for 3 weeks on their ways of coping with stress. They also completed a survey of background information. Those who were more successful in coping, compared to those who were less successful, expressed a greater sense of self-efficacy and did not feel that they lacked needed social support. However, those who were more successful in coping did not differ on demographic variables, including ethnicity, gender, country of birth, and parental education. The narratives provide evidence of the complex and interactive process of coping among ethnic minority college students.

  18. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  19. Attitudes and behavioural intentions towards ethnic minorities : an empirical test of several theoretical explanations for the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Geneviève; Scheepers, Peer; Felling, Albert

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, attitudes towards ethnic minorities have become a significant topic for research. A great deal of debate among researchers has concentrated on the distinction between `traditional’ overt attitudes and `contemporary’ covert attitudes towards ethnic minorities. In this article it is

  20. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  1. General Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands and the Reflected Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1988-01-01

    Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…

  2. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  3. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  4. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  5. Attitudes and behavioural intentions towards ethnic minorities : an empirical test of several theoretical explanations for the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Geneviève; Scheepers, Peer; Felling, Albert

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, attitudes towards ethnic minorities have become a significant topic for research. A great deal of debate among researchers has concentrated on the distinction between `traditional’ overt attitudes and `contemporary’ covert attitudes towards ethnic minorities. In this article it is

  6. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in an ethnic minority group in Central Vietnam: implications to health burden and relationship between two ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Van Nguyen, Hoa; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2017-07-01

    Thalassemia is a genetic condition that can result in long and expensive treatments, and severe thalassemia may lead to death if left untreated. Couples contributing two genes for thalassemia place their children at particular risk for severe thalassemia. Gene frequency of thalassemia varies in Vietnam, but presents remarkably high levels among some ethnic minority groups. Limited information about thalassemia frequency makes prevention and control of thalassemia difficult. This study aimed to determine gene frequency of certain types of thalassemia among 390 women of reproductive age of the Ta-Oi ethnic minority. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses were carried out to diagnose thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Of the total participants, 56.1% (95% CI = 51.1-61.1) carried thalassemia genes. A remarkably high frequency of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) of 23.8% (95% CI = 19.7-28.4) was noted. The frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (-3.7 kb deletion) was 26.4% (95% CI = 22.1-31.1), while hemoglobin E (Hb E) and hemoglobin Paksé (Hb Ps) were identified at frequencies of 14.6 (95% CI = 11.2-18.5) and 2.6% (95% CI = 1.4-5.0), respectively. Further analysis of α-globin gene haplotype revealed the same Hb CS haplotype (+ - M + + -) as of the Co-Tu minority, a neighboring minority of the Ta-Oi, indicating that these two minorities may share the same ancestors. This information will be helpful for further studies in population genetics, as well as the development prevention and control program in the region.

  7. Ethnic stratification in northwest China: occupational differences between Han Chinese and national minorities in Xinjiang, 1982-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, E; Xie, Y

    1998-08-01

    The debate on market reforms and social stratification in China has paid very little attention to China's ethnic minorities. We explored rising occupational stratification by ethnicity in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Analyses of census data from 1982 and 1990 pointed to educational disadvantages faced by ethinic minorities as the most plausible explanation for the change. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant increase in the effect of education on high-status occupational attainment but no change in the effect of ethnicity. Net of education, ethnic differences in high-status occupational attainment were negligible. In contrast, large ethnic differences in manufacturing and agricultural occupations persisted after education and geography were statistically controlled.

  8. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE BARRIERS FACING BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNICS WITHIN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vian Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK construction industry is one of the largest employers, positioned as the country’s top employer with over two million employees and projected to continue growth as far as 2011. However, it is facing ongoing skills shortages in a number of professional areas and tends to lack an ethnic diversity of workers compared to the White community of workers across the whole economy. The government’s Ethnic Minority Employment Task Force shows that for any given level of qualification, a Black or ethnic minority person is less likely to be employed, than a similarly qualified White person. Current research into issues surrounding ethnicity, from academia to employment is scarce, particularly in entry and process development within the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to outline the findings from perceptional and experiential barriers of Black and Minority Ethnics (BMEs students and employees, in order to identify perceptional and actual barriers that lead to the under-representation of BMEs within the construction industry; and also to suggest how better knowledge flow mechanisms could lead to a more balanced development, particularly in terms of ethnic diversification in the UK construction industry. The aim was achieved by adopting qualitative and quantitative methods including questionnaire surveys of undergraduate students in a construction related program, employees working within the construction industry and interviews with company directors and human resource managers. The image of the construction industry is found to be one of the major barriers for entry into the industry. Language and cultures form additional barriers for a range of ethnic groupings. Support, in the form of recruitment events, training, mentoring, professional networking, as well as work placement and experience schemes, can smooth entry, retention and progression within the construction industry.

  9. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the cognitive abilities necessary to…

  10. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sonja S; Fiscella, Kevin; Levine, Robert S; Ompad, Danielle C; McDonald, Marian

    2009-10-01

    Racial/ethnic minority populations experience worse health outcomes than do other groups during and after disasters. Evidence for a differential impact from pandemic influenza includes both higher rates of underlying health conditions in minority populations, increasing their risk of influenza-related complications, and larger socioeconomic (e.g., access to health care), cultural, educational, and linguistic barriers to adoption of pandemic interventions. Implementation of pandemic interventions could be optimized by (1) culturally competent preparedness and response that address specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations, (2) improvements in public health and community health safety net systems, (3) social policies that minimize economic burdens and improve compliance with isolation and quarantine, and (4) relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

  12. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  13. Cultural Integration and National Identity Education for Ethnic Minority College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongzheng; WANG Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural integration is an objective historical phenomenon , and also exists in present society .No matter if seen from history or from the present world , cultural integration is the key to ethnic relations as well as an approach for cultural development .The concept of “nation” is a fairly new product introduced from western countries in modern times.It is a people ’ s cognition, ap-praisal and feelings towards the country where they live.It is mainly represented in the national politi-cal community , the structural level as well as the i-dentity in the common spiritual level of the Chinese nation. School education is a very strong tool during the formation process of a “nation”.Since the Qin and Han periods (2nd Century B.C.), China has formed a large -unified web of Chinese culture . After the creation of the New China , China also has paid attention to the development of education for the ethnic minorities , and has taken the task of training the new generation of ethnic minorities as an important national policy .“Fair Education” is the “core idea” of China ’ s ethnic minorities ’ education. This includes preferential policy for ethnic minority-students’ education chances , the investment of teaching resources in ethnic minority areas, and respect for and protection of the cul-tures of the ethnic minorities .Through these ac-tions, the government ensures that the ethnic mi-nority-students living in remote and poor areas get the chance for a fair education like the Han -Chi-nese students .The policy further enhances the e-qual development of , and exchanges among the va-rious nationalities in the whole country; promotes the common development of the ethnic economies , the common prosperity of their cultures , political stability;and finally ensures the citizen ’ s strong identity of the nation . Culturale integration is the foundation of and precondition for the national identity education of the ethnic minorities .On the one hand

  14. Multi-ethnic minority nurses' knowledge and practice of genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bernice; Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Paniagua, Carmen; Rivera, Reynaldo; Hong, Oi Saeng; Spruill, Ida; Bonham, Vence

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory studies establishing how well nurses have integrated genomics into practice have demonstrated there remains opportunity for education. However, little is known about educational gaps in multi-ethnic minority nurse populations. The purpose of this study was to determine minority nurses' beliefs, practices, and competency in integrating genetics-genomics information into practice using an online survey tool. A cross-sectional survey with registered nurses (RNs) from the participating National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Organizations (NCEMNA). Two phases were used: Phase one had a sample of 27 nurses who determined the feasibility of an online approach to survey completion and need for tool revision. Phase two was a main survey with 389 participants who completed the revised survey. The survey ascertained the genomic knowledge, beliefs, and practice of a sample of multi-ethnic minority nurses who were members of associations comprising the NCEMNA. The survey was administered online. Descriptive survey responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Categorical responses in which comparisons were analyzed used chi square tests. About 40% of the respondents held a master's degree (39%) and 42% worked in direct patient care. The majority of respondents (79%) reported that education in genomics was important. Ninety-five percent agreed or strongly agreed that family health history could identify at-risk families, 85% reported knowing how to complete a second- and third-generation family history, and 63% felt family history was important to nursing. Conversely, 50% of the respondents felt that their understanding of the genetics of common disease was fair or poor, supported by 54% incorrectly reporting they thought heart disease and diabetes are caused by a single gene variant. Only 30% reported taking a genetics course since licensure, and 94% reported interest in learning more about genomics. Eighty-four percent believed that their ethnic

  15. End-of-Life Care for People With Cancer From Ethnic Minority Groups: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Melissa A; Dement, Fritz; Gold, Heather T

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic/racial minorities encounter disparities in healthcare, which may carry into end-of-life (EOL) care. Advanced cancer, highly prevalent and morbid, presents with worsening symptoms, heightening the need for supportive and EOL care. To conduct a systematic review examining ethnic/racial disparities in EOL care for cancer patients. We searched four electronic databases for all original research examining EOL care use, preferences, and beliefs for cancer patients from ethnic/racial minority groups. Twenty-five studies were included: 20 quantitative and five qualitative. All had a full-text English language article and focused on the ethnic/racial minority groups of African Americans, Hispanics Americans, or Asian Americans. Key themes included EOL decision making processes, family involvement, provider communication, religion and spirituality, and patient preferences. Hospice was the most studied EOL care, and was most used among Whites, followed by use among Hispanics, and least used by African and Asian Americans. African Americans perceived a greater need for hospice, yet more frequently had inadequate knowledge. African Americans preferred aggressive treatment, yet EOL care provided was often inconsistent with preferences. Hispanics and African Americans less often documented advance care plans, citing religious coping and spirituality as factors. EOL care differences among ethnic/racial minority cancer patients were found in the processes, preferences, and beliefs regarding their care. Further steps are needed to explore the exact causes of differences, yet possible explanations include religious or cultural differences, caregiver respect for patient autonomy, access barriers, and knowledge of EOL care options. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Entrance Exam Admission Policies on Ethnic Minorities and Equal Educational Rights for Minorities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Lang

    2010-01-01

    In 1977, the Chinese government reinstated the national unified college entrance exam enrollment system. As a part of this system, the government also implemented preferential policies on the enrollment of minorities that authorized the increase or decrease of exam scores and enrollment cutoff points; the policies were therefore seen as…

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Adam; Alvarez, Manrique; Rodriguez, Carlos J

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Overall, heart disease accounts for about 1 in 4 deaths with coronary heart disease (CHD) being responsible for over 370,000 deaths per year. It has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups in the USA have higher rates of traditional CHD risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CHD when compared to the non-Hispanic white population. Numerous investigations have been made into the causes of these disparities. This review aims to highlight the recent literature which examines CHD in ethnic minorities and future directions in research and care.

  18. Study on the Influence of Informal institution on Rural Legal Construction in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junlin; DU

    2015-01-01

    The Informal institution in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region has dual effects on rural legal construction. In the process of rural legal construction,it can make up for the defects of formal institution to reduce the cost of legal construction,and increase benefit. It also has negative influence on social function,and can’t be conducive to the social stability,development and harmony. Civil law is to be more valued,thus avoiding and hampering the implementation of national laws and even covering the operation of national laws,so it is impossible to achieve rule of law. The coordinated development of Informal institution and socio-economic development in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region will contribute to stable and harmonious social development in Northwest Region.

  19. Ethnic group identification and group evaluation among minority and majority groups: testing the multiculturalism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2005-01-01

    Following social identity theory, the author hypothesized that members of minority groups are more likely than majority group members to endorse multiculturalism more strongly and assimilationist thinking less strongly. In addition, the multiculturalism hypothesis proposes that the more minority groups endorse the ideology of multiculturalism (or assimilationism), the more (or less) likely they will be to identify with their ethnic in-group and to show positive in-group evaluation. In contrast, the more majority group members endorse multiculturalism (or assimilationism), the less (or more) likely they are to identify with their ethnic group and to show negative out-group evaluation. Results from 4 studies (correlational and experimental) provide support for this hypothesis among Dutch and Turkish participants living in the Netherlands.

  20. Payoffs of Participatory Action Research: Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities Reflect on their Research Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative study that explored the extent to which racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities were empowered by a PAR project that aimed to increase the physical accessibility of their communities. Content analysis of individual interviews revealed the following main themes: (1) increased knowledge of disability rights; (2) increased sense of independence; and (3) increased desire to advocate. Implications of this study include the important role that PAR may play in empowering racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities.

  1. Toward an understanding of the context of anal sex behavior in ethnic minority adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Roye, Carol F

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the context of anal sex behavior among ethnic minority adolescent women has public health implications for behavioral sexual health promotion and risk reduction interventions. African-American (n = 94) and Mexican-American (n = 465) women (14-18 years of age) enrolled in a clinical trial completed semi-structured interviews to assess psychosocial and situational factors and relationships to sexual risk behavior, substance use, sexually transmitted infection/HIV acquisition, and violence. Bivariate analyses with comparisons by anal sex experiences identified differences by ethnicity and higher self-reported histories of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, violence, and stressful psychosocial and situational factors among adolescent women experiencing anal sex. Predictors of anal sex identified through logistic regression included Mexican-American ethnicity, ecstasy use, methamphetamine use, childhood sexual molestation, oral sex, and sex with friends for benefits.

  2. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  3. Over- and under-diagnosis of dementia in ethnic minorities: a nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T R; Vogel, A; Phung, Tien Kieu

    2011-01-01

    was to compare the prevalence of register-based dementia diagnoses in the largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark with the prevalence of register-based dementia diagnoses in the general Danish population. METHODS: By linking the Danish hospital registers with the Danish Civil Registration System, nationwide......, cross-cultural assessment of dementia can be difficult because of language barriers and cultural differences. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Andrew W; Kayssi, Ahmed; Brahmanandam, Soma; Belkin, Michael; Conte, Michael S; Nguyen, Louis L

    2009-08-01

    Gender and ethnicity are factors affecting the incidence and severity of vascular disease as well as subsequent treatment outcomes. Although well studied in other fields, balanced enrollment of patients with relevant demographic characteristics in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is not well known. This study describes the reporting of gender and ethnicity data in vascular surgery RCTs and analyzes whether these studies adequately represent our diverse patient population. We conducted a retrospective review of United States-based RCTs from 1983 through 2007 for three broadly defined vascular procedures: aortic aneurysm repair (AAR), carotid revascularization (CR), and lower extremity revascularization (LER). Included studies were examined for gender and ethnicity data, study parameters, funding source, and geographic region. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed to obtain group-specific procedure frequency as an estimate of procedure frequency in the general population. We reviewed 77 studies, and 52 met our inclusion criteria. Only 85% reported gender, and 21% reported ethnicity. Reporting of ethnicity was strongly associated with larger (>280 participants), multicenter, government-funded trials (P Women are disproportionately under-represented in RCTs for all procedure categories (AAR, 9.0% vs 21.5%; CR, 30.0% vs 42.9%; LER, 22.4% vs 41.3%). Minorities are under-represented in AAR studies (6.0% vs 10.7%) and CR studies (6.9% vs 9.5%) but are over-represented in LER studies (26.0% vs 21.8%, P < .001 for all). Minority ethnicity and female gender are under-reported and under-represented in vascular surgery RCTs, particularly in small, non-government-funded and single-center trials. The generalizability of some trial results may not be applicable to these populations. Greater effort to enroll a balanced study population in RCTs may yield more broadly applicable results.

  5. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions.

  6. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Daniele E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12 from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender

  7. Emergence of pregnancy-related listeriosis amongst ethnic minorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Grant, K A; Little, C L; Kafatos, G; Gillespie, I A

    2010-07-08

    Listeriosis is a rare but severe food-borne disease that predominantly affects pregnant women, the unborn, newborns, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Following a large outbreak in the 1980s, specific food safety advice was provided to pregnant women and the immunocompromised in the United Kingdom. Following two coincident yet unconnected cases of pregnancy-related listeriosis in eastern European women in 2008, a review of the role of ethnicity in pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales was undertaken in 2009. Cases reported to the national listeriosis surveillance scheme were classified as 'ethnic', belonging to an ethnic minority, or 'non-ethnic' based on their name, and trends were examined. Between 2001 and 2008, 1,510 cases of listeriosis were reported in England and Wales and, of these, 12% were pregnancy-related cases. The proportion of pregnancy-related cases classified as ethnic increased significantly from 16.7% to 57.9% (chi-square test for trend p=0.002). The reported incidence among the ethnic population was higher than that among the non-ethnic population in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (Relative Risk: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 5.29; 3.82, 1.82 to 8.03; 4.33, 1.74 to 10.77, respectively). This effect was also shown when analysing data from January to September 2009, using extrapolated live births as denominator. Increased immigration and/or economic migration in recent years appear to have altered the population at risk of pregnancy-related listeriosis in England and Wales. These changes need to be taken into account in order to target risk communication strategies appropriately.

  8. Research on the System of Town Buildingin China’s Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Changde

    2015-01-01

    Town building is one of the most important methods for China to promote new-pat-terns of urbanization in ethnic minority areas. This article analyzes the characteristics of the scale, distribution,population and economic development of towns in ethnic areas. The study finds that at present,the population scale of the towns in ethnic areas is relatively small;town construction in eth-nic areas takes place with a low population densi-ty;and the contacts between towns are weak;In the recent decade,the industrial and occupational structure of the population in ethnic regions shows a reversed adjustment trend. Although there are some improvement in infrastructure construction in these towns,the overall infrastructure in the rural area of the towns is backward—cable TV,waste treatment,per capita electricity and highway den-sity lag largely behind other parts of the country, and, if compared with the eastern and central parts,the gap is even greater. Most employees of towns in the ethnic areas still take the primary in-dustry sector as their priority( agriculture,forest-ry,etc);the proportion of non-farm employment is less than 40%. Employment in secondary indus-try is low. The driving function of industrial ag-glomeration in the towns is weak,and it is difficult to drive the economic development of the towns. Although agriculture is still the base and main body of the town economy in the ethnic areas,invest-ment in agriculture is insufficient. The increasing returns and positive externalities from economic ac-tivity on spatial agglomeration is an important moti-vation for the economic development of less devel-oped bodies.

  9. Federalism and Ethnic Minorities in Ethiopia: Ideology, Territoriality, Human Rights, Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bassi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 Ethiopia has adopted a new constitution, considered one of the most advanced in terms of provisions for human rights. The progressive ratification of several international treaties on minority rights had already begun in 1991, immediately after the fall of the Derg regime. This progress has brought Ethiopia into the UN monitoring system, but the review of the official UN documents reveals the mismatch between the mentioned constitutional and international steps and the on-ground situation. This article considers two possible causes of this gap. The first is the particular form of ethnic federalism, first introduced with the Charter of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia and later developed in the new constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE. The second is the contradiction between the constitutional theory based on the fundamental political freedoms, and the political practice of the ruling party, grounded in revolutionary democracy, a post-Marxist ideology based on the Leninist democratic centralism and on some of the principles of the developmental state. In this article the problems identified by a UN independent expert on minority issues have been reconsidered with reference to the Ethiopian pastoral minorities. Special attention is paid to the controversy on the construction of the Gibe 3 dam along the course of the Omo River. This article claims that minority and indigenous rights are compatible with ethnic federalism as defined in the FDRE constitution, but are in conflict with the praxis inspired by the working ideology of the ruling party.

  10. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  11. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.

  12. Achieving Ethnic Minority Students’ Inclusion: A Flemish School’s Discursive Practices Countering the Quasi-Market Pressure to Exclude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Patrizia; Mampaey, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify how ethnically diverse schools can discursively maintain a good reputation. Reputation allows attracting the mixed student population necessary to achieve inclusion or closing the gap between the attainment of ethnic majority and minority students. In semi-market educational systems where students are free…

  13. Towards access for all? Policy and research on access of ethnic minority groups to natural areas in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jay, M.; Peters, K.B.M.; Buijs, A.E.; Gentin, S.; Kloek, M.E.; O'Brien, L.

    2012-01-01

    Migration and growing ethnic diversity pose new questions for forest and nature policy and research, especially on the equality of access to natural areas. This paper compares national approaches in policy and research on ethnic minority groups' access to natural areas in four Western-European count

  14. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    .   Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross...... to reduce ethnic inequalities in health.  ...

  15. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  16. Do arterial stiffness and wave reflection underlie cardiovascular risk in ethnic minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Faconti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this “excess risk” in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from “risk” to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly. In fact, structural and functional changes of the vascular system may be identifiable at very early stages of life when traditional factors are not yet developed. Arterial stiffening, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity, and wave reflection parameters, especially augmentation index, seem to be an important pathophysiological mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease and predict mortality independent of other risk factors. However, data regarding these arterial indices in ethnic minorities are relatively rare and the heterogeneity between populations, techniques and statistical methods make it difficult to fully understand their role.

  17. Do racial and ethnic minority patients fare worse after SCI?: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Kelli W; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Shamburger, Aisha; Stevens, Lillian F; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have identified differences in SCI outcomes between racial and ethnic groups, but findings have never been synthesized to give clinicians and researchers a coherent picture of the problem. The goals of the current project were to (1) conduct a critical literature review of studies specifically investigating racial and ethnic disparities in spinal cord injury care, services, and outcomes; (2) explore possible causative factors that may explain these disparities; (3) propose strategies that may reduce disparities and improve access, service, and outcomes for minority patients with SCI; and (4) generate ideas for future research in this area. A search using MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and HealthSource resulted in 49 articles discussing hospital, mental health, physical functioning, employment, quality of life, and family outcomes. Results indicated that after an SCI, racial and ethnic minority groups have shorter hospital lengths of stay, higher rehospitalizations rates, higher levels of depression, more days in poor health, greater degrees of unemployment, more difficulties with mobility, lower self-reported subjective well-being and quality of life and life satisfaction, and greater risk of marital breakup. A variety of causative factors, intervention strategies, and directions for future research are presented.

  18. Do arterial stiffness and wave reflection underlie cardiovascular risk in ethnic minorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faconti, Luca; Nanino, Elisa; Mills, Charlotte E; Cruickshank, Kennedy J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this "excess risk" in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from "risk" to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly. In fact, structural and functional changes of the vascular system may be identifiable at very early stages of life when traditional factors are not yet developed. Arterial stiffening, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity, and wave reflection parameters, especially augmentation index, seem to be an important pathophysiological mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease and predict mortality independent of other risk factors. However, data regarding these arterial indices in ethnic minorities are relatively rare and the heterogeneity between populations, techniques and statistical methods make it difficult to fully understand their role.

  19. Social Stratification of Education by Ethnic Minority Groups over Generations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Lessard-Phillips

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has been conducted both on the social stratification of education at the general level and on the educational attainments of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The former has established the increasing fluidity in the class–education association, without paying much attention to ethnicity, whilst the latter has shown reinvigorated aspirations by the second generation without fine-grained analyses. This paper adds to this literature by examining the relationship between family class, ethno-generational status and educational attainment for various 1st, 1.5, 2nd, 2.5, 3rd and 4th generations in contemporary UK society. Using data from Understanding Society, we study the educational attainment of different ethno-generational groups. Our analysis shows high educational selectivity among the earlier generations, a disruptive process for the 1.5 generation, high second-generation achievement, and a ‘convergence toward the mean’ for later generations. Parental class generally operates in a similar way for the ethno-generational groups and for the majority population, yet some minority ethnic groups of salariat origins do not benefit from parental advantages as easily. An ‘elite, middle and lower’ structure manifests itself in the intergenerational transmission of advantage in educational attainment. This paper thus reveals new features of class-ethno relations hitherto unavailable in UK research.

  20. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  1. The Ukrainian Minority in Brno: A Qualitative Research on Ethnic Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Součková Taťána

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the presentation of the temporary results of the qualitative ethnological research concerning the Ukrainian minority in Brno, Czech Republic. It is aimed on the description of the basic principles of the life of the diaspora in Brno and expressing the ethnic identity of the Ukrainians. After the introductory part author defines the methodological approach as well as the techniques used while carrying out the research. Following part of the article is aimed on characterizing the main attributes of the Ukrainian ethnic identity according to the informants. Moreover, the perception of the presence of the Ukrainian diaspora in Brno is illustrated by the conclusions acquired from the open-ended interviews with the Czech participants.

  2. A culturally competent education program to increase understanding about medicines among ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2014-01-01

    focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two....... In contrast to the USA or the UK, serving ethnically diverse populations is still a relatively new phenomenon for the Danish healthcare system. Ethnic minorities with a non-Western background comprised a total of 6.9 % of the Danish population. METHODS: Data were collected through qualitative research. Four...... methods: a written quiz for knowledge evaluation and focus group interviews for process evaluation. It took place during the first semenester of 2012. Results The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with the knowledge about medicines inherited from their parents. They also expressed...

  3. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  4. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  5. Dealing With Cultural Diversity : The Endorsement of Societal Models Among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in

  6. Strategies for Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35…

  7. Accessibility and use of touchscreens by black and ethnic minority groups in the three cities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jean; Jackson, Margot

    2005-08-01

    The public are being encouraged by Government, at a national level, to take a greater role in the management of their health and healthcare but information to support this is not always accessible to black and ethnic minority group members who do not speak or read English. This study looks at the feasibility of providing health-related information in a multilanguage format through a touchscreen kiosk. Three touchscreen kiosks were programmed with information on 10 health topics translated into five languages: Chinese, Bengali, Gujarati, Urdu and Mirpuri Punjabi. Information was provided orally and in written format. Over an 18-month period the touchscreens were rotated between settings including health centres and libraries, located in deprived areas of Leicester, Sheffield and Nottingham. Information was logged on each individual user with respect to language used, topic selected, age group and gender of user. A number of users were invited to complete a short questionnaire about their use and ease of use of the touchscreen. Touchscreens were accessed by 2,456 people across all ages, 53% of whom were male. Urdu and Gujarati were the most frequently accessed languages (37 and 38%, respectively) and Bengali used least (9%). There was some variation in use by setting. Most of the 508 people questioned who had used the touchscreen found it easy to use. Ease of use was related to home computer use and to being younger in age. The five most popular topics accessed by 12% or more users were stress, diabetes, blood pressure, healthy eating and exercise. Topic choice varied by language used by males but not by females. Touchscreens providing health information in ethnic minority languages can be successfully accessed by black and ethnic minority groups, particularly those living in deprived areas. Touchscreens proved acceptable to, and were used by, the targeted audience.

  8. The Formation of Intimate Partnerships among Ethnic Minority Youth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    The project was by conducted by the author and researchers from the Danish National Institute of Social Research Institute and draws upon a survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=61). The participants in the study are youth and parents belonging to the five biggest ethnic minority grou...... intimate partnerships are formed by Danish youth. The article presents a critique of the existing concept of the reductionistic either own choice or parental choice, and appeals for a broader concept, which focuses on both own choice and parental accept....

  9. Intimate Partnership Formation & Intergenerational Relationships Among Ethnic Minority Youth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    and the family with theories about modernisation/individualisation and discrimination effects. The dominating tendencies in the inter-generational relationships between young people and their parents on the subject of the young people's intimate partnership formation are analysed and discussed. The ethic...... minority youth and parents' reflections on the ethnic majority partnership formation patterns are delineated. The analyses indicate that relationships between young people and parents on the issue of intimate partnership formation can be cooperative or in opposition. This is contrary to the widespread...

  10. Effect of interventions to improve health care services for ethnic minority populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Forsetlund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Since the early 1990s there has been an increasing awareness of social and ethnic inequity in health and for the last few years there has also been an increasing focus on disparities in the quality of health services to ethnic minority groups. The aim of this review was to collect and summarise in a systematic and transparent manner the effect of interventions to improve health care services for ethnic minorities.Methods: We searched several medical databases for systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. Two researchers independently screened for and selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data and graded the quality of the evidence for each outcome in the included studies. The analysis was done qualitatively by describing studies and presenting them in tables.Results: We included 19 primary studies. The interventions were targeted at reducing clinical, structural and organisational barriers against good quality health care services. Eight studies examined the effect of educational interventions in improving outcomes within cross-cultural communication, smoking cessation, asthma care, cancer screening and mental health care. In six comparisons the effect of reminders for improving health care services and patient outcomes within cancer screening and diabetes care was examined. Two studies compared professional remote interpretation services to traditional interpretation services, two studies compared ethnic matching of client and therapist and two studies examined the effect of providing additional support in the form of more personnel in the treatment of diabetes and kidney transplant patients. Most patients were African-Americans and Latin-Americans and all ages were represented.Conclusions: Educational interventions and electronic reminders to physicians may in some contexts improve health care and health outcomes for minority patients. The quality of the evidence varied from low to very low. The quality of

  11. Shared decision-making for cancer care among racial and ethnic minorities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Javid, Sara H; Haozous, Emily A; Alvord, Lori Arviso; Flum, David R; Morris, Arden M

    2013-12-01

    To assess decision-making for cancer treatment among racial/ethnic minority patients, we systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies of "shared decision-making," "cancer," and "minority groups," using PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and EMBASE. We identified significant themes that we compared across studies, refined, and organized into a conceptual model. Five major themes emerged: treatment decision-making, patient factors, family and important others, community, and provider factors. Thematic data overlapped categories, indicating that individuals' preferences for medical decision-making cannot be authentically examined outside the context of family and community. The shared decision-making model should be expanded beyond the traditional patient-physician dyad to include other important stakeholders in the cancer treatment decision process, such as family or community leaders.

  12. Intimate Partnership Formation Among Ethnic Minority Youth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    included. The findings point to a complex picture, which challenges the dominant discourse about the ‘intergenerational conflicts and problematic partnership formation’ among the minority youth. They direct attention towards multiple modes of forming intimate relationships among the youth  involving......This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of intimate partnership formation among ethnic minority in the Nordic countries with focus on generational conflicts,  psychosocial intervention in the context of transnationalism, including the country of residence as well as the country of origin......). The interplay between individualism and interconnectedness is studied through vertical and horizontal relationships within a socio-cultural psychological framework in the studies through quantitative and qualitative research. The state intervention policies related to the so called forced marriages are also...

  13. The use of ethnic minority populations in published psychological research, 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Schiavo, R Steven

    2005-09-01

    For this study, the authors analyzed the contents of 16 psychology journals for the presence of empirical articles on African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans during the period ranging from 1990 to 1999. In 6 APA journals, there was a low percentage (4.7%) of such articles. African Americans were the most studied ethnic group. Data collected for this study also indicated that minority research has been increasing more in non-APA journals than in APA journals. In both APA and non-APA journals, counseling-oriented journals had higher percentages of minority articles than did journals of other subdisciplines. Possible explanations, consequences, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  15. Ethnic Minority Protection and Anti-discrimination in Central Europe Before and After EU Accession: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores key policy developments regarding ethnic minority protection and anti-discrimination in contemporary Poland. More specifically, it examines the relationship between domestic policy formation and the European context. Before 2004, the European Union applied membership conditionality in order to attempt to stimulate candidate member states in post-communist Central Europe to adopt special minority protection measures. As a result, most of these countries turned to the official recognition of the ethnic specificity of minority groups and the acceptance of group-related cultural entitlements, not only as norms in their own right but also as the basis for a policy of stimulating ethnocultural diversity in the new member states have been less focused on group-related rights but have emphasized the themes of social inclusion, anti-discrimination and equal opportunities. I explore how, in this new European context, Polish policies on ethnic minority protection have developed. Through a comparison of dominant Polish perceptions of minority protection issues with dominant discourses about the preservation of ethnic diversity promoted by EU institutions, this article shows the linkages between recent developments in Polish minority policy-making and the current European initiatives in this field. It also shows important points of disjuncture between the way in which European institutions have framed issues of ethnocultural diversity and the way in which Polish policy-makers have worked out minority protection.

  16. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.

  17. Intimate Partnership Formation and Intergenerational Relationships among Ethnic Minority Youth in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singla

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research project drawing upon in-depth qualitative interviews (N=61 and data from a survey (N=628 of young people and parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark. The theoretical framework combines conceptualisations about conflict and the family with theories about modernisation/individualisation and discrimination effects. The dominating tendencies in the inter-generational relationships between young people and their parents on the subject of the young people’s intimate partnership formation are analysed and discussed. The ethic minority youth and parents’ reflections on the ethnic majority partnership formation patterns are delineated. The analyses indicate that relationships between young people and parents on the issue of intimate partnership formation can be cooperative or in opposition. This is contrary to the widespread discourse about serious conflicts between generations. Thus the article criticises the reductionistic conception of partnership formation being a question of either-or processes, i.e. own choice or parental choice, and appeals for broad concepts which include both-and processes, i.e. own choice and parental accept.

  18. Health Insurance Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Same-Sex Relationships: An Intersectional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Conclusions. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage. PMID:25880954

  19. Securing recruitment and obtaining informed consent in minority ethnic groups in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Tapash

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous health research has often explicitly excluded individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds due to perceived cultural and communication difficulties, including studies where there might be language/literacy problems in obtaining informed consent. This study addressed these difficulties by developing audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent and recording data. This report outlines 1 our experiences with securing recruitment to a qualitative study investigating alternative methods of data collection, and 2 the development of a standardised process for obtaining informed consent from individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds whose main language does not have an agreed written form. Methods Two researchers from South Asian backgrounds recruited adults with Type 2 diabetes whose main language was spoken and not written, to attend a series of focus groups. A screening tool was used at recruitment in order to assess literacy skills in potential participants. Informed consent was obtained using audio-recordings of the patient information and recording patients' verbal consent. Participants' perceptions of this method of obtaining consent were recorded. Results Recruitment rates were improved by using telephone compared to face-to-face methods. The screening tool was found to be acceptable by all potential participants. Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent were easy to implement and accepted by all participants. Attrition rates differed according to ethnic group. Snowballing techniques only partly improved participation rates. Conclusion Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent are an acceptable alternative to written consent in study populations where literacy skills are variable. Further exploration of issues relating to attrition is required, and a range of methods may be necessary in order to maximise response and participation rates.

  20. Genetic profile characterization and population study of 21 autosomal STR in Chinese Kazak ethnic minority group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been constantly discovered, studied, and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study, forensic human individual identification, and paternity tests.

  1. 'Foreigners', 'ethnic minorities', and 'non-Western allochtoons': an analysis of the development of 'ethnicity' in health policy in the Netherlands from 1970 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helberg-Proctor, Alana; Meershoek, Agnes; Krumeich, Anja; Horstman, Klasien

    2017-01-31

    The Netherlands, because of the sustained and systematic attention it paid to migrant and minority health issues during the last quarter of the twentieth century, has been depicted as being progressive in its approach to healthcare for migrants and minorities. Recently, however, these progressive policies have changed, reflecting a trend towards problematising issues of integration in order to focus on the responsibilities that migrants and ethnic minorities bear in terms of their health. This article explores these shifts and specifically the development of particular categories of ethnicity, and examines the wider consequences that have arisen as a result. The analysis presented here entailed a qualitative content analysis of health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities from 1970 to 2015, and examined various documents and materials produced by the institutions and organisations responsible for implementing these healthcare policies during the period from 1970 to 2015. Four distinct periods of political discourse related to health policy for migrants and ethnic minorities were identified. These periods of political discourse were found to shape the manner in which ethnicity and various categories and representation of foreigners, later ethnic minorities, and at present non-Western allochtoons are constructed in health policy and the implantation practices that follow. At present, in the Netherlands the term allochtoon is used to describe people who are considered of foreign heritage, and its antonym autochtoon is used for those who are considered native to the Netherlands. We discuss the scientific reproduction and even geneticisation of these politically produced categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon-a phenomenon that occurs when politically produced categories are prescribed or taken up by other health sectors. The categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon in the health sciences and the

  2. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  3. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.

  4. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  5. Interventions to Enhance Breast Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Christopher M.; Blackman, Dionne J.; Peek, Monica E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions designed to enhance breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment among minority women. Most trials in this area have focused on breast cancer screening, while relatively few have addressed diagnostic testing or breast cancer treatment. Among patient-targeted screening interventions, those that are culturally tailored or addressed financial or logistical barriers are generally more effective than reminder-based interventions, especially among women with fewer financial resources and those without previous mammography. Chart-based reminders increase physician adherence to mammography guidelines but are less effective at increasing clinical breast examination. Several trials demonstrate that case management is an effective strategy for expediting diagnostic testing after screening abnormalities have been found. Additional support for these and other proven health care organization-based interventions appears justified and may be necessary to eliminate racial and ethnic breast cancer disparities. PMID:17881627

  6. Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes-experiences from a Danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...

  7. Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes-experiences from a Danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-01-01

    focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...

  8. Predictors of Attitudes Towards the Rights of Ethnic Minorities of Student Teenagers in a Romanian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hatos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article will endeavor to build a causal model of ethnic attitudes of students in grades 8 to 12 from a great Transylvanian city with a large Hungarian population. The theoretical model built at the beginning of the study was tested applying multivariate statistical techniques to data of a survey of about 2500 teenagers. My results show that attitudes about the rights of members of minorities are attributable to both individual and contextual factors. On the one hand, gender, cognitive constraints and selfesteem play an important role in this attitudinal make up. On the other hand, the relative positions on in-group and out-group in the special context of interaction – in my case the classroom – are playing important parts in determining how strong the biases will be.

  9. Affective and attributional features of acculturative stress among ethnic minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, Amber L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol; Walker, Rheeda L

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the affective features of acculturative stress or its relation to attributional styles for negative events. The authors examined associations among acculturative stress, attributional style, and positive and negative affect among 96 ethnic minority college students. They hypothesized that acculturative stress would be characterized by elevated negative affect and global and stable attributions for negative events. Consistent with prediction, acculturative stress was significantly associated with negative affect and global attributions, even when controlling for other relevant predictors. Attributional style did not account for the association between negative affect and acculturative stress. Positive affect and stable and internal attributional styles were not related to acculturative stress. The authors discuss implications for reducing stress associated with acculturation.

  10. Study on E- tourism and Sustainability in Ethnic Minority Regions of West Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雨涛

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the current situation of sustainable development in the ethnic minority regions in west Sichuan province of China, and the challenges they are confronted,especially after the devastating 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The author argues that E-tourism can be introduced into these regions to support the tourism industry, one of the pillar industries in these regions, and expounds the necessity and significance to develop E-tourism. The paper also sets forth some strategies and countermeasures to foster the sustainable development by applying ICT to develop the E-tourism market and enhance the competitiveness and attraction with the aid of education, involvement of higher education institutions and collaboration in every level.

  11. [Analysis of trace elements in the deaf-muted children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youledusi, Abudurusuli; Jian-ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between trace elements and auditory function in the deafness children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi. There were 27 deaf-muted children in this study and 30 children with normal hearing as control. Sample of serum and hair from two groups were collected, and we tested 17 kinds of trace elements by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. The content of trace elements in serum including Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Se, V and Pb from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P elements including Mn, Sr, Sn, and Bi was much lower than that of control group (P content of those trace elements including Ba, Cr, Ag, Co, Ti, and Ni in serum from both testing and control groups was found no significant difference with each other (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the content of the trace elements including Sn and Se in hairs from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P content of the trace elements including Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, Sr, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ti and Ba in hairs from deaf-muted group was much lower than that of control group (P content of the trace element including Cu, Ag, Cd, and Bi in hairs from deaf-muted group was found no significant difference between each other (P > 0.05). The content of some trace elements in serum and hairs of deaf-muted children is found a significant difference compared with children with normal hearing. This study indicates that some trace elements may relate to auditory function among ethnic minorities in Urumchi.

  12. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyong T.; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B.; Jang, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N=1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin’s Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  13. Depression in Racial and Ethnic Minorities: the Impact of Nativity and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This research examines factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder in racial and ethnic minorities residing in the USA, with an emphasis on the impact of nativity, discrimination, and health lifestyle behaviors. The Healthy Migrant Effect and Health Lifestyle Theory were used to inform the design of this project. The use of these frameworks not only provides insightful results but also expands their application in mental health disparities research. Logistic regression models were implemented to examine risk factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Data were derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 17,249). Support was found for the hypothesis that certain immigrants, specifically Asian and Afro-Caribbean, have lower odds of depression as compared their non-immigrant counterparts. Although, Hispanic immigrants directionally had lower odds of depression, this finding was not statistically significant. Furthermore, engaging in excessive alcohol consumption was associated with higher rates of depression (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, p discrimination on depression was found to be significant, even when controlling for demographics. Of all racial and ethnic groups, foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans had the lowest rate of depression at 7 % followed by foreign-born Asians at 8 %.

  14. Psychotherapists' outcomes with White and racial/ethnic minority clients: First, the good news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jeffrey A; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Locke, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate whether psychotherapists differ in their effectiveness with clients, (b) determine whether disparities exist within therapists' caseloads in their outcomes with White and racial and ethnic minority (REM) clients, (c) explore therapist factors that might contribute to observed therapist effects, and (d) identify whether treatment outcomes varied for REM and White clients. A sample of 3,825 clients seen by 251 therapists at 45 college counseling centers completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms at the beginning and end of individual psychotherapy. Therapists differed in their effectiveness at reducing general distress across clients, and evidence was found for disparities within therapists' caseloads in their effectiveness with REM and White clients. Effect sizes were small. Disparities within therapists' caseloads were not a function of any therapist variable that was studied. Therapy outcomes were similar for White and REM clients. Therapist multicultural competence can, and should, be considered in terms of measurable outcomes across client racial/ethnic groups. It is possible to identify multiculturally expert therapists who evidence competence with both REM and White clients and who might serve as models from whom the field could learn.

  15. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changingWorld

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrantsexceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelledby the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generatingincreasing clinical and administrative problems to NationalHealth Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases(NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line,due to the high number of cases at risk, duration andcost of diseases, and availability of effective measures ofprevention and treatment. We reviewed the documentsof International Agencies on migration and performeda PubMed search of existing literature, focusing onthe differences in the prevalence of diabetes betweenmigrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD inmigrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetesconvergence, risk of diabetes progression and standardof care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcaresystems, differences in socioeconomic status andbarriers generated by the present culture of biomedicinemake high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and notprotected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugsand primary care services in specific ethnic groups arefar from being money-saving, and might produce higherhospitalization rates due to disease progression andcomplications. Efforts should be made to favor screeningand treatment programs, to adapt education programs tospecific cultures, and to develop community partnerships.

  16. Social housing provision for minority ethnic older people with dementia: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Valerie; Manthorpe, Gillian

    2015-11-08

    Little research has explored how not-for-profit housing providers, often termed Housing Associations in the United Kingdom, meet the needs of older tenants with dementia who are from black and ethnic minority communities. This article presents findings from an exploratory study conducted in 2015. The study took an audit approach, investigating current practice and policy in 12 Housing Associations. All were developing their understanding of dementia; some were augmenting their standard rented property portfolio to include housing with care provision; and most had policies relating to equalities and diversity and were offering dementia training to members of staff. None appeared to have fully integrated the three strands of housing services, dementia care, and cultural or ethnicity-related needs and preferences. A range of strategies was reported as being developed to meet tenants' changing circumstances. Anxiety about the cost of adaptations was commonly reported, although the nature and extent of this were ill-defined. Discussion focuses on the findings' implications for housing providers and for dementia professionals.

  17. Recommendations to improve physical activity among teenagers- A qualitative study with ethnic minority and European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Sopna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the key challenges and explore recommendations from teenagers to promote physical activity with a focus on ethnic minority children. Methods Focus groups with teenagers aged 16-18 of Bangladeshi, Somali or Welsh descent attending a participating school in South Wales, UK. There were seventy four participants (18 Somali, 24 Bangladeshi and 32 Welsh children divided into 12 focus groups. Results The boys were more positive about the benefits of exercise than the girls and felt there were not enough facilities or enough opportunity for unsupervised activity. The girls felt there was a lack of support to exercise from their family. All the children felt that attitudes to activity for teenagers needed to change, so that there was more family and community support for girls to be active and for boys to have freedom to do activities they wanted without formal supervision. It was felt that older children from all ethnic backgrounds should be involved more in delivering activities and schools needs to provide more frequent and a wider range of activities. Conclusions This study takes a child-focused approach to explore how interventions should be designed to promote physical activity in youth. Interventions need to improve access to facilities but also counteract attitudes that teenagers should be studying or working and not 'hanging about' playing with friends. Thus, the value of activity for teenagers needs to be promoted not just among the teenagers but with their teachers, parents and members of the community.

  18. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke B. Snijder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%; only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  19. Awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic testing for cancer risk among ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katie E J; Freeman, Madeleine; Fraser, Lindsay; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Lanceley, Anne

    2017-05-25

    Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups' awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups. More detailed research is needed in countries other than the US and

  20. Facilitating the recruitment of minority ethnic people into research: qualitative case study of South Asians and asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Sheikh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders.Interviews were conducted with 36 researchers (19 UK and 17 US from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and ten community leaders from a range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds, followed by self-completion questionnaires. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated where necessary, and transcribed. The Framework approach was used for analysis. Barriers to ethnic minority participation revolved around five key themes: (i researchers' own attitudes, which ranged from empathy to antipathy to (in a minority of cases misgivings about the scientific importance of the question under study; (ii stereotypes and prejudices about the difficulties in engaging with minority ethnic populations; (iii the logistical challenges posed by language, cultural differences, and research costs set against the need to demonstrate value for money; (iv the unique contexts of the two countries; and (v poorly developed understanding amongst some minority ethnic leaders of what research entails and aims to achieve. US researchers were considerably more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities, which appeared to a large extent to reflect the longer-term impact of the National Institutes of Health's requirement to include minority ethnic people.Most researchers and community leaders

  1. The "narcissism of minor differences" theory: Can it explain ethnic conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolstø Pål

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many ethnic conflicts and civil wars in the 20th century the cultural differences between the warring groups were very small. The bloody conflicts between Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians during the breakup of Yugoslavia are a case in point. This observation has led some commentators to conclude that a lack of objective cultural markers between groups may itself be conducive to violence: When the members of two groups are difficult to tell apart, violence is inserted in order to create identity boundaries between them. One particular version of this theory goes under the name ‘narcissism of minor differences’. This expression goes back to Sigmund Freud, who applied it both to individual psychology and in his philosophy of culture. The notion has been largely ignored by practicing psychotherapists, but over the last decades, however, it has been discovered by journalists and social scientists and applied to cases of collective rather than individual violence. The present article examines some of the articles and books that expound the ‘the narcissism of minor differences’-concept in order to assess the explanatory strength and weaknesses of this theory. .

  2. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddes, Allard R; Monteiro, Maria-Benedicta; Justo, Mariline G

    2014-06-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their in-group over the Black and Roma out-groups on the SSS measure, social preferences and positive as well as negative trait attributions. Generally, the Black and Roma showed equal SSS, preferences and trait attribution for their in-group and the high status White out-group, but not the other low-status out-group. With age White children generally demonstrated higher SSS for Black and Roma, preferred them more and attributed more positive traits. For low-status groups, an age effect was found only for Black children who preferred the Roma more with age and attributed more positive traits. Changes on preferences and trait attribution depending on age-group were mediated by SSS. It is concluded that minority group's SSS does not parallel the objective status hierarchy but, rather, is a dynamic reorganisation of group's relative positions serving strategies to cope with their minority condition.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Minorities at Increased Risk for Gastric Cancer in a Regional US Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elizabeth; Duan, Lewei; Wu, Bechien U

    2017-04-01

    Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States. We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status. Subgroup analysis was performed for language and socioeconomic status by race/ethnicity. The incidence of gastric cancer in the reference (non-Hispanic white) population was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-8.7) cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence values for Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic black persons were higher: 12.7 (95% CI, 11.1-14.3), 12.7 (95% CI, 11.7-13.7), and 11.8 (95% CI, 10.3-13.2) cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively (all P gastric cancer; the odds ratio (OR) for non-Hispanic black persons was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.22-1.72; P gastric cancer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.6-4.4) (all P gastric cancer in Asians (P = .05). Higher annual median income was associated with reduced risk (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = .0004). In a population study in Southern California, we found racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%-50% increase in risk of gastric cancer compared with the non-Hispanic white population. In addition to H pylori infection, smoking, family history, and low socioeconomic status were also associated with increased risk. Further characterization of high-risk groups may identify populations appropriate for targeted screening. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Agyemang, C.; Schene, A.H.; Peters, R.J.; Stronks, K.; Kunst, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Baseline d

  5. Bilingualism is more than just the sum of two parts : the family context of language development in ethnic minority children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevoo, Maria Johanna Lambertina

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to provide inside into the family context of language development in ethnic minority children. In Chapter 2, the results of the meta-analyses show that host language proficiency has a positive effect on the school outcomes of early literacy, reading, spelling, mathematics, and

  6. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  7. Depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Z. Acarturk; V. Nierkens; C. Agyemang; K. Stronks

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although evidence indicates a strong association between depressive symptoms and smoking among host and migrant adults, less is known about this relationship among young ethnic minority groups in Europe. This paper aims to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and

  8. China's one-child policy and "the mystery of missing women": Ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 40 million women are ‘missing’ in China. We exploit a special provision in the Chinese one-child policy (OCP; allowing for preferential treatment of ethnic minority groups) to revisit the mystery of these missing women, and in particular to explore the contri

  9. Explaining Sustained Inequalities in Ethnic Minority School Exclusions in England--Passive Racism in a Neoliberal Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The enquiries into police action in the Stephen Lawrence murder, the Macpherson report and the subsequent race relations legislation have altered the political, professional and wider social climate of debate on equality issues, including inequalities in minority ethnic exclusions. The paper analyses the meanings given to racism and institutional…

  10. Promoting Cultural Responsiveness: Teachers' Constructs of an Assessment Classroom Environment for Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2015-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about how diverse learning needs of ethnic minority students could be better fulfilled. This study examines local teachers' constructs of assessment classroom environments. Using qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with 32 teachers from three secondary schools, this study shows ways in…

  11. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  12. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, K.; Nicolaou, M.; van Valkengoed, I.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migr

  13. Politics of belonging, from national to personal: The political framing of 'Dutch' identity and ethnic minority citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootman, M.; Duyvendak, J.W.; Stokes-DuPass, N.; Fruja, R.

    2016-01-01

    Why do nations still matter in citizenship studies? In this chapter, we explore this question from an individual, lived, perspective and argue that the macro-level of the nation-state is very relevant for citizens who are seen as ethnic and religious minorities. Using the case of the Netherlands, we

  14. Pharmaco-economic evaluation of targeted hepatitis A vaccination for children of ethnic minorities in Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Beutels, Ph; Schilthuis, H.; Bos, J.M.; van den Hoek, J.A.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Estimate cost-effectiveness of vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) for children of ethnic minorities in Amsterdam. Background: Pharmaco-economic analysis is relevant for motivating reimbursement of vaccination costs in the framework of a programmatic approach to vaccination of

  15. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  16. Adapting and Implementing a School-Based Resilience-Building Curriculum among Low-Income Racial and Ethnic Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Marlotte, Lauren; Garcia, Ediza; Aralis, Hilary; Lester, Patricia; Escudero, Pia; Kataoka, Sheryl

    2017-01-01

    Although youth are at risk for exposure to adversity and trauma, many youth, especially ethnic and racial minorities, do not have access to mental health care. Resilience-building curriculums can teach important internal resilience skills and provide support to students who may not receive prevention or treatment services. We adapted a resilience…

  17. Effect of a School-Based Test Anxiety Intervention in Ethnic Minority Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Costa, Natalie M.; Marks, Allison B.; Romano, Dawn M.; Verrett, Shannon L.; Brown, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a school-based test anxiety intervention among ethnic minority youth. The study used a prospective intervention design with a sample of (N = 94) ninth graders from New Orleans exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Thirty youth with elevated test anxiety completed a primarily behavioral (e.g., relaxation…

  18. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  19. Pharmaco-economic evaluation of targeted hepatitis A vaccination for children of ethnic minorities in Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Beutels, Ph; Schilthuis, H.; Bos, J.M.; van den Hoek, J.A.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Estimate cost-effectiveness of vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) for children of ethnic minorities in Amsterdam. Background: Pharmaco-economic analysis is relevant for motivating reimbursement of vaccination costs in the framework of a programmatic approach to vaccination of eth

  20. Viewing Restorative Approaches to Addressing Challenging Behaviour of Minority Ethnic Students through a Community of Practice Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Janice; Berryman, Mere

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionately high rates of school exclusion and lower levels of academic achievement of students from particular minority ethnic groups have been a focus of investigation in educational research across the world for some time. This articles uses a communities of practice framework to examine how restorative practice can draw on family…

  1. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  2. Post Traumatic Stress, Context, and the Lingering Effects of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster among Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Marino, Reshelle C.; Romano, Dawn M.; Scott, Brandon G.; Perry, Andre M.; Triplett, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the stability of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a predominantly ethnic minority sample of youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Youth (n = 191 grades 4th thru 8th) were screened for exposure to traumatic experiences and PTSD symptoms at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) post-disaster. PTSD…

  3. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  4. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  5. A Study of Ethnic Minority College Students: A Relationship among the Big Five Personality Traits, Cultural Intelligence, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Education are challenged to educate an increasing, diverse ethnic minority population. This study examines (1) if the theory of the Big Five personality traits as a predictor of the cultural intelligence theoretical model remains constant with ethnic minority college students attending a southeastern United States…

  6. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  7. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emel

    2012-01-01

    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  8. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  9. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karen Jenum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD. Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective: To review ethnic differences in: 1 adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2 future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3 prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design: Literature review. Results: Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions: Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention.

  10. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  11. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  12. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  13. Black and minority ethnic group involvement in health and social care research: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Shoba; Campbell, Stephen M; Giles, Sally J; Morris, Rebecca L; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh

    2017-08-15

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is growing internationally, but little is known about black and minority ethnic (BME) involvement and the factors influencing their involvement in health and social care research. To characterize and critique the empirical literature on BME-PPI involvement in health and social care research. Systematic searches of six electronic bibliographic databases were undertaken, utilizing both MeSH and free-text terms to identify international empirical literature published between 1990 and 2016. All study designs that report primary data that involved BME groups in health or social care research. Screening was conducted by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality appraisal were performed independently. Data extraction focused on the level(s) of PPI involvement and where PPI activity occurred in the research cycle. Studies were quality-assessed using the guidelines for measuring the quality and impact of user involvement in research. Data were analysed using a narrative approach. Forty-five studies were included with the majority undertaken in the USA focusing on African Americans and indigenous populations. Involvement most commonly occurred during the research design phase and least in data analysis and interpretation. This is the first systematic review investigating BME involvement in health and social care research internationally. While there is a widespread support for BME involvement, this is limited to particular phases of the research and particular ethnic subgroups. There is a need to understand factors that influence BME involvement in all parts of the research cycle. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rap Music Use, Perceived Peer Behavior, and Sexual Initiation Among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Baker, Kimberly A; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth; Swain, Honora; Emery, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that rap music use is associated with risky sexual behavior in ethnic minority youth; however, it is unknown whether rap music use impacts sexual initiation specifically and, if so, which factors mediate this impact. Thus, we investigated the longitudinal relationship between hours spent listening to rap music in seventh grade and sexual initiation in ninth grade. We also examined the role of perceived peer sexual behavior as a potential mediator of this relationship. We analyzed data from students (n = 443) enrolled in a school-based randomized controlled trial of a sexual health education curriculum collected at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Rap music use and perceived peer sexual behavior were assessed in seventh grade, whereas sexual initiation was assessed in ninth grade. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. At baseline, rap music use was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, parental music rules, and sexual behavior, but not with gender or parental education. Rap music use was a significant predictor of sexual initiation on univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. Mediation analysis showed that the association between hours spent listening to rap music and sexual initiation was significantly mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. Rap music use in early adolescence significantly impacts sexual initiation in late adolescence, partially mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. More research is needed to understand how rap music influences perceptions of peer sexual behavior, which, in turn, influence early sexual initiation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recruitment, retention and matriculation of ethnic minority nursing students: a University of Mississippi School of Nursing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Audwin; Williams, P Renee; Beacham, Tracilia; Elliott, Rowena W; Northington, LaDonna; Calvin, Rosie; Hill, Mary; Haynes, Avis; Winters, Karen; Davis, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    According to Bednash (2000), the future of health care pivots on an adequate supply of appropriately educated and skilled professional registered nurses. Recognizing the long history of and the struggles by African-American (AA) nurses for education and equality in the nursing profession, it is essential that more African-American students be recruited, retained, and matriculated into the profession of nursing. African-American nurses have always contributed to the care of the poor and the sick and played a decisive role in the improvement of the health of their communities. The Bureau of Health Professions Division of nursing (March 2000) reported that 86.6 percent of the registered nurse population were white while 12.3 percent represented racial and ethnic minority groups. Given the current racial/ethnic background of the registered nurse population in the United States, there is an obvious disparity in the representation of minorities in the nursing profession, in spite of the increasing number of minorities represented in the general population. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to document strategies that are used to actively recruit, retain, and graduate ethnic minority students from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) School of Nursing (SON).

  16. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements.

  17. A Case Study of Ethnic Minorities as Tourism Entrepreneurs: Their Involvement in Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Miral

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tourism activities excluding the e-tourism activities as matter of their nature (service taker and provider take place face to face between people. In addition tourism activities encourage bonding people both for tourists and the tourism services providers. Tourism creates cohesion for many different cultural groups. One of the cities in Turkey, Izmir is a good example with including too many culturally oriented groups such as Levantines, Greek, Jewish, rarely Armenians. In this paper there are two research questions are hold; how is being the other (ethnic minority as tourism entrepreneurs in tourism industry in Izmir and their involvement in sustainable tourism development is investigated and if tourism activities help connecting different cultural groups together and closer is investigated. So regarding these research questions, the research methodology in this paper is qualitative. For that reason, semi structured interview technique is applied to people are belong to different cultural groups and identities whom entrepreneurs in tourism industry. Semi structured interview technique is a commonly used an interview method depending on providing deep understanding of participants` perceptions, thoughts and behaviors. In general, understanding of the other brings feeling respect to others` cultural beliefs and lifestyle and this will make peace and harmony to where they live together. As a result, with the light of these research questions being the other entrepreneurship in sustainable tourism development in Izmir is evaluated. Furthermore, in this research is tried to indicate the advantageous and disadvantageous and importance of different cultural groups for sustainable tourism development

  18. Research on Cultivation of Ethnic Minorities IT Talents in Nationalities Universities

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    Shuang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote cultural and information undertakings of the ethnic minorities such as digital publication and network governance, a series of experience training programs for nationalities universities are established to cultivate high-quality IT technology talents. Here, Dalian Nationalities University is taken as an example. These training programs adopted a so called "four-phrases, five capabilities" training method. That is, four phrases consist of professional quality training, professional basic theory strengthening, job skills training and job practice, centering on training five capabilities of professional morality, software programming fundamentals, language competence, software engineering and project practice. Based on the training method, one well-rounded and multiple perspective assessment method are put forward. This assessment system integrated academic knowledge evaluation and professional competence assessment, adopting various forms such as coding, competition, discussion, peer review online and deliverables exhibition. These practice training courses break through the knowledge barrier and put emphasis on professional competence cultivation, which improves teaching quality and assesses learning effects objectively and fairly during teaching process.

  19. [Polymorphisms of 21 short tandem repeat loci of Salar minority ethnic group in Qinghai Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Yan-bin; Li, Kai; Wang, Jian-wen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the polymorphisms of 21 short tandem repeat (STR)loci of Salar minority ethnic group in Qinghai Province. Blood samples were collected from 120 unrelated healthy Salar individuals from Gandu town in Hualong county. DNA templates were screened by home-made AGCU21+1 kit. The findings were further compared with those of Hans in Zhejiang Province, Hans in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Tibetans in Tibet Autonomous Region, and Tujias in Hubei Province. The allele frequencies of 21 STR loci ranged 0.0042-0.4917, the genotype frequencies ranged 0.0083-0.3750, the power of discrimination ranged 0.796-0.948, the heterozygosity ranged 0.650-0.817, the polymorphism information contents ranged 0.590-0.810, and the power of exclusion ranged 0.355-0.630. The cumulative coupling probability was 1.75×10(-20), and the cumulative power of exclusion was 0.9999999. Significant differences were found at 14, 12, 12, 13 of the 21 STR loci between Salar and Hans of Zhejiang Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Tibetans of Tibet Autonomous Region, and Tujias of Hubei Province (Pethnic group from Qinghai Province and therefore suitable for population genetics study, screening of disease-related genes, and forensic individual identification.

  20. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

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    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. METHOD: Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  1. Racial and ethnic minority patients report different weight-related care experiences than non-Hispanic Whites

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    Kristina H. Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare patients' health care experiences, related to their weight, across racial and ethnic groups. In Summer 2015, we distributed a written survey with telephone follow-up to a random sample of 5400 racially/ethnically and geographically diverse U.S. adult health plan members with overweight or obesity. The survey assessed members' perceptions of their weight-related healthcare experiences, including their perception of their primary care provider, and the type of weight management services they had been offered, or were interested in. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity and responses to questions about care experience. Overall, 2811 members (53% responded to the survey and we included 2725 with complete data in the analysis. Mean age was 52.7 years (SD 15.0, with 61.7% female and 48.3% from minority racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMI was 37.1 kg/m2 (SD 8.0. Most (68.2% respondents reported having previous discussions of weight with their provider, but interest in such counseling varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic blacks were significantly less likely to frequently avoid care (for fear of discussing weight/being weighed than whites (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26–0.90. Relative to whites, respondents of other race/ethnicities were more likely to want weight-related discussions with their providers. Race/ethnicity correlates with patients' perception of discussions of weight in healthcare encounters. Clinicians should capitalize on opportunities to discuss weight loss with high-risk minority patients who may desire these conversations.

  2. Associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms among young adults: The moderating role of racial-ethnic minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N=140; Mage=22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities.

  3. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  4. Postoperative comparison of result of renal transplantation between ethnic minorities and Han recipients after receiving kidneys from Han donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-wen CUI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the outcomes and postoperative complications of renal transplant recipients of ethnic minorities and Han population in China, and investigate the differences between them. Methods  Clinical data from 89 minorit y patients and 100 Han patients who had received renal transplant of Hans' donators in Organ Transplantation Center of PLA from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The general data before transplantation, and rate of short-term survival of the graft, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, acute rejection, and pulmonary infection after transplantation were analyzed and compared. Results  No statistical difference was found in the preoperative personal profile between the recipients of minorities and Han nationality. In the recipients of minorities and Han nationality, the 1-year graft survival rate was 89.9% and 92%, the respective incidence of DGF was 28.1% and 27.0%, and the respective incidence of acute rejection was 22.5% and 19.0%, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05. The incidence of pulmonary infection was higher in minority recipients (30.3% than in Han recipients (10.0%, P0.05. Conclusion  The short-term clinical outcome of renal transplant recipients seems to be similar in different Chinese ethnic groups, but the incidence of pulmonary infection is higher in minority recipients, so it is important to strengthen monitoring in early postoperative period.

  5. Maternal care and birth outcomes among ethnic minority women in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissler Mika

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care during pregnancy and labour is of great importance in every culture. Studies show that people of migrant origin have barriers to obtaining accessible and good quality care compared to people in the host society. The aim of this study is to compare the access to and use of maternity services, and their outcomes among ethnic minority women having a singleton birth in Finland. Methods The study is based on data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register in 1999–2001 linked with the information of Statistics Finland on woman's country of birth, citizenship and mother tongue. Our study data included 6,532 women of foreign origin (3.9% of all singletons giving singleton birth in Finland during 1999–2001 (compared to 158,469 Finnish origin singletons. Results Most women have migrated during the last fifteen years, mainly from Russia, Baltic countries, Somalia and East Europe. Migrant origin women participated substantially in prenatal care. Interventions performed or needed during pregnancy and childbirth varied between ethnic groups. Women of African and Somali origin had most health problems resulted in the highest perinatal mortality rates. Women from East Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Somalia had a significant risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns. Most premature newborns were found among women from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. Primiparous women from Africa, Somalia and Latin America and Caribbean had most caesarean sections while newborns of Latin American origin had more interventions after birth. Conclusion Despite good general coverage of maternal care among migrant origin women, there were clear variations in the type of treatment given to them or needed by them. African origin women had the most health problems during pregnancy and childbirth and the worst perinatal outcomes indicating the urgent need of targeted preventive and special care. These study results

  6. Improving pathways into mental health care for black and ethnic minority groups: a systematic review of the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2009-01-01

    Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.

  7. The family-school-primary care triangle and the access to mental health care among migrant and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta; Moleiro, Carla

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the concepts of mental health and help seeking behaviours of migrant and ethnic minority families constitutes an important step toward improving the intercultural competence of health and education professionals. This paper addresses these goals among ethnic and migrant minorities in Portugal. For this a multi-informant approach was selected. The study involved nine focus groups (N = 39) conducted with different samples: young immigrants (12-17 years), immigrant parents, teachers and health professionals. The results showed similarities and differences in concepts of mental health, as well as help seeking processes. Stigma continued to be recognized as a barrier in the access to mental health care. The paper argues that providing adequate training on mental health on cultural diversity competencies to health and education professionals can contribute to a better inter-communication and -relation system in the family-school-primary care triangle and thus facilitate access to mental health care for youth.

  8. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies.

  9. Geographic access to food shelves among racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born residents in the Twin Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Lopez, Amy Maheswaran; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-01-01

    Place-based disparities in access to affordable food sources (e.g., supermarkets) have been well documented, but geographic access to emergency food sources (e.g., food panties, also known as food shelves) is unknown. This study examined the geography of emergency food in the Twin Cities, MN. U.S. Census and American Community Survey data were used to estimate the average distance to the closest food shelf according to area racial/ethnic composition and foreign-born group composition. In adjusted models, areas with the highest proportion of minority groups had shorter distances to the nearest food shelf (0.13-1.03 log-transformed miles, p ethnic minorities and foreign-born groups may have access to emergency food, but efforts are needed to evaluate the healthfulness and culturally relevance of these offerings.

  10. Socio-Economic Determinants of Household Income among Ethnic Minorities in the North-West Mountains, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quang Tuyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates both commune and household determinants of household income among ethnic minorities in the North-West Mountains – the poorest region of Vietnam. The findings show that the vast majority of the sample households heavily depend on agricultural activities. Factors affecting household income per capita are examined using multiple regression models and the findings confirm the important role of education, non-farm employment and fixed assets in improving household income. In addition, some commune variables such as the presence of the means of transportation, post offices and non-farm job opportunities are found to have an increasing impact on household income. The findings suggest that policies for poverty reduction should aim at both commune and household levels. Policies that focus on improving the access of ethnic minorities to education and non-farm employment are expected to be effective ways of enhancing their income.

  11. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nierkens Vera; van Valkengoed Irene; Nicolaou Mary; Hosper Karen; Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-secti...

  12. On the discrepancy of access to higher education in a province with a large ethnic minority population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yunchuan; ZHANG Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey of students from different social strata,different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs)in Yunnan,an ethnic minority (EM)province,this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from different strata in the EM province in order to find a breakthrough to narrow the gap.

  13. Factors affecting the disclosure of diabetes by ethnic minority patients: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes and related complications are common among ethnic minority groups. Community-based social support interventions are considered promising for improving diabetes self-management. To access such interventions, patients need to disclose their diabetes to others. Research on the disclosure of diabetes in ethnic minority groups is limited. The aim of our study was to explore why diabetes patients from ethnic minority populations either share or do not share their condition with people in their wider social networks. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 32 Surinamese patients who were being treated for type 2 diabetes by general practitioners in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results Most patients disclosed their diabetes only to very close family members. The main factor inhibiting disclosure to people outside this group was the Surinamese cultural custom that talking about disease is taboo, as it may lead to shame, gossip, and social disgrace for the patient and their family. Nevertheless, some patients disclosed their diabetes to people outside their close family circles. Factors motivating this decision were mostly related to a need for facilities or support for diabetes self-management. Conclusions Cultural customs inhibited Surinamese patients in disclosing their diabetes to people outside their very close family circles. This may influence their readiness to participate in community-based diabetes self-management programmes that involve other groups. What these findings highlight is that public health researchers and initiatives must identify and work with factors that influence the disclosure of diabetes if they are to develop community-based diabetes self-management interventions for ethnic minority populations.

  14. Pain Management Programmes for Non-English-Speaking Black and Minority Ethnic Groups With Long-Term or Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A E; Shaw, R L

    2015-12-01

    Increasing ethnic diversity in the UK means that there is a growing need for National Health Service care to be delivered to non-English-speaking patients. The aims of the present systematic review were to: (1) better understand the outcomes of chronic pain management programmes (PMPs) for ethnic minority and non-English-speaking patients and (2) explore the perspectives on and experiences of chronic pain for these groups. A systematic review identified 26 papers meeting the inclusion criteria; no papers reported on the outcomes of PMPs delivered in the UK. Of the papers obtained, four reported on PMPs conducted outside the UK; eight reported on ethnic differences in patients seeking support from pain management services in America; and the remaining papers included literature reviews, an experimental pain study, a collaborative enquiry, and a survey of patient and clinician ratings of pain. The findings indicate a lack of research into UK-based pain management for ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking patients. The literature suggests that effective PMPs must be tailored to meet cultural experiences of pain and beliefs about pain management. There is a need for further research to explore these cultural beliefs in non-English-speaking groups in the UK. Culturally sensitive evaluations of interpreted PMPs with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the effectiveness of current provision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. "How do ethnic minority patients experience the intercultural care encounter in hospitals? a systematic review of qualitative research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrie, Liesbet; Gastmans, Chris; Mahieu, Lieslot; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Denier, Yvonne

    2017-01-19

    In our globalizing world, caregivers are increasingly being confronted with the challenges of providing intercultural healthcare, trying to find a dignified answer to the vulnerable situation of ethnic minority patients. Until now, international literature lacks insight in the intercultural care process as experienced by the ethnic minority patients themselves. We aim to fill this gap by analysing qualitative literature on the intercultural care encounter in the hospital setting, as experienced by ethnic minority patients. A systematic search was conducted for papers published between 2000 and 2015. Analysis and synthesis were guided by the critical interpretive synthesis approach. Fifty one articles were included. Four dimensions emerged, describing the intercultural care encounter as (1) a meeting of two different cultural contexts of care, (2) in a dynamic and circular process of (3) balancing between the two cultural contexts, which is (4) influenced by mediators as concepts of being human, communication, family members and the hospital's organizational culture. This review provides in-depth insight in the dynamic process of establishing intercultural care relationships in the hospital. We call for a broader perspective towards cultural sensitive care in which patients are cared for in a holistic and dignity-enhancing way.

  16. Mobile technology for obesity prevention: a randomized pilot study in racial- and ethnic-minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Mayo, Matthew S; Carlson, Susan E; Rapoff, Michael A; Goggin, Kathy J; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2014-04-01

    Mobile technologies have wide-scale reach and disseminability, but no known studies have examined mobile technologies as a stand-alone tool to improve obesity-related behaviors of at-risk youth. To test a 12-week mobile technology intervention for use and estimate effect sizes for a fully powered trial. Fifty-one low-income, racial/ethnic-minority girls aged 9-14 years were randomized to a mobile technology (n=26) or control (n=25) condition. Both conditions lasted 12 weeks and targeted fruits/vegetables (FVs; Weeks 1-4); sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; Weeks 5-8), and screen time (Weeks 9-12). The mobile intervention prompted real-time goal setting and self-monitoring and provided tips, feedback, and positive reinforcement related to the target behaviors. Controls received the same content in a written manual but no prompting. Outcomes included device utilization and effect size estimates of FVs, SSBs, screen time, and BMI. Data were collected and analyzed in 2011-2012. Mobile technology girls used the program on 63% of days and exhibited trends toward increased FVs (+0.88, p=0.08) and decreased SSBs (-0.33, p=0.09). The adjusted difference between groups of 1.0 servings of FVs (p=0.13) and 0.35 servings of SSBs (p=0.25) indicated small to moderate effects of the intervention (Cohen's d=0.44 and -0.34, respectively). No differences were observed for screen time or BMI. A stand-alone mobile app may produce small to moderate effects for FVs and SSBs. Given the extensive reach of mobile devices, this pilot study demonstrates the need for larger-scale testing of similar programs to address obesity-related behaviors in high-risk youth. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobile Technology for Obesity Prevention A Randomized Pilot Study in Racial and Ethnic Minority Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Carlson, Susan E.; Rapoff, Michael A.; Goggin, Kathy J.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies have wide-scale reach and disseminability, but no known studies have examined mobile technologies as a stand-alone tool to improve obesity-related behaviors of at-risk youth. Purpose To test a 12-week mobile technology intervention for use and estimate effect sizes for a fully powered trial. Methods Fifty-one low-income, racial/ethnic minority girls aged 9–14 years were randomized to a mobile technology (n=26) or control (n=25) condition. Both conditions lasted 12 weeks and targeted fruits/vegetables (FV; weeks 1–4), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB; weeks 5–8), and 2 screen time (weeks 9–12). The mobile intervention prompted real-time goal setting and self-monitoring and provided tips, feedback, and positive reinforcement related to the target behaviors. Controls received the same content in a written manual but no prompting. Outcomes included device utilization and effect sizes estimates of FV, SSB, screen time, and BMI. Data were collected and analyzed in 2011–2012. Results Mobile technology girls used the program on 63% of days and exhibited trends toward increased FVs (+0.88, p=0.08) and decreased SSBs (−0.33, p=0.09). The adjusted difference between groups of 1.0 servings of FV (p=0.13) and 0.35 servings of SSB (p=0.25) indicated small to moderate effects of the intervention (Cohen’s d=0.44 and −0.34, respectively). No differences were observed for screen time or BMI. Conclusions A stand-alone mobile app may produce small to moderate effects for FV and SSB. Given the extensive reach of mobile devices, this pilot study demonstrates the need for larger-scale testing of similar programs to address obesity-related behaviors in high-risk youth. PMID:24650843

  18. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  19. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  20. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  1. The Medicaid Expansion Gap and Racial and Ethnic Minorities With Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We compared the race and ethnicity of individuals residing in states that did and did not expand Medicaid in 2014. Findings indicated that African Americans and Native Americans with substance use disorders who met new federal eligibility criteria for Medicaid were less likely than those of other racial and ethnic groups to live in states that expanded Medicaid. These findings suggest that the uneven expansion of Medicaid may exacerbate racial and ethnic disparities in insurance coverage for substance use disorder treatment. PMID:25905851

  2. [Prevalence of anemia and its association with nutritional status among Chinese students of ethnic minorities in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, B; Hu, P J; Ma, J

    2016-06-18

    To analyze the prevalence of anemia and its proportions of severity, and to examine the association between anemia and nutritional status among Chinese students of ethnic minorities, so as to provide bases for the prevention and treatment of anemia. The subjects were Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years, sampled from the 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for screening anemia (2001) was used, and the proportion rates of mild, moderate and severe were analyzed. The nutritional status was defined according to the growth references of body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-score for 5-19 years developed by the WHO. Stepwise Logistic regression was used to assess the association between anemia and nutritional status, gender, urban/rural areas, age and ethnic minorities. The prevalences of anemia were 4.4%, 26.4%, 6.6% and 5.8% in Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students, respectively, of whom, the prevalence of anemia was highest in rural girls and reached 4.8%, 42.0%, 9.0% and 6.7%, respectively. Most of the ethnic minorities' students belonged to mild anemia, and the prevalence of severe anemia was 1.4%, 12.9%, 1.6% and 1.9% in Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students, respectively. Stepwise Logistic regression showed that the girls, rural students, students aged 12 years and 17 years, Hui, Zhuang and Korean students were more likely to develop anemia than the boys, urban students, students aged 7 years and Mongolian students. The overweight students were less likely to develop anemia compared with the normal students and there was no significant association between anemia and thinness or obesity when the other factors were controlled (P>0.05). The epidemic of anemia was different in the different ethnic minorities and the prevalence of anemia in Hui students was of moderate public health concern according to the WHO's criteria. We should pay more attention to

  3. An Exploration of Specialist Palliative Care Nurses' Experiences of Providing Care to Hospice Inpatients from Minority Ethnic Groups-Implication for Religious and Spiritual Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Henry; Fiona Timmins

    2016-01-01

      The aim of this research study was to gain an understanding of nurses' experiences of providing care to patients from minority ethnic groups within the specialist palliative care inpatient unit of an Irish hospice...

  4. Assimilation ideology and situational well-being among ethnic minority members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experimental questionnaire studies were conducted to test whether assimilation ideology affects the relationship between ethnic self-esteem and situational well-being of Turkish-Dutch participants. Social identity theory argues that ethnic identity can buffer the effects of group identity threat

  5. Ethnic Group Identification and Group Evaluation Among Minority and Majority Groups : Testing the Multiculturalism Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Following social identity theory, the author hypothesized that members of minority groups are more likely than majority group members to endorse multiculturalism more strongly and assimilationist thinking less strongly. In addition, the multiculturalism hypothesis proposes that the more minority gro

  6. The Effect of Residential Concentration on Voter Turnout among Ethnic Minorities.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local...... effect of local candidates and, in particular, local co-ethnic candidates on voter turnout. We find that the presence of candidates in general and co-ethnic candidates running for office in a neighborhood has a moderate positive mobilization effect. However, taking this factor into account, the effect...... concentration of same-ethnicity voters increases, so does the individual's propensity to turn out for the election. In general, the concentration of non-Western immigrants in the neighborhood has only a very limited impact on an immigrant's propensity to vote. Finally, we investigate the possible mobilizing...

  7. The Effect of Residential Concentration on Voter Turnout among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local...... effect of local candidates and, in particular, local co-ethnic candidates on voter turnout. We find that the presence of candidates in general and co-ethnic candidates running for office in a neighborhood has a moderate positive mobilization effect. However, taking this factor into account, the effect...... concentration of same-ethnicity voters increases, so does the individual's propensity to turn out for the election. In general, the concentration of non-Western immigrants in the neighborhood has only a very limited impact on an immigrant's propensity to vote. Finally, we investigate the possible mobilizing...

  8. Liking and disliking minority-group classmates : Explaining the mixed findings for the influence of ethnic classroom composition on interethnic attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias H.; Mäs, Michael; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Research on the influence of the number of ethnic minority group classmates on majority group students' interethnic attitudes produced conflicting results. With data from 728 early adolescents, we found that the effect of the ethnic class composition depends on two opposing student-level mechanisms.

  9. Liking and disliking minority-group classmates : Explaining the mixed findings for the influence of ethnic classroom composition on interethnic attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias H.; Maes, Michael; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Research on the influence of the number of ethnic minority group classmates on majority group students’ interethnic attitudes produced conflicting results. With data from 728 early adolescents, we found that the effect of the ethnic class composition depends on two opposing student-level mechanisms.

  10. Genetic polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-Ⅱ of Chinese Tu ethnic minority group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Chen; Yajun Deng; Yonghui Dang; BO Zhang; Haofang Mu; Xiaoguang Yu; Lin Li; Chunxia Yan; Teng Chen

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the two hypervariable segments HVS-Ⅰ and HVS-Ⅱ of 108 Chinese Tu ethnic minority group samples for forensic and population genetics purposes.Comparing with Anderson sequence,79 polymorphic loci in HVS-Ⅰ and 40 in HVS-Ⅱ were found in Chi-nese Tu ethnic minority group mtDNA sequences,and 90 and 64 haplotypes were then defined.Haplotype diversity and the mean pair-wise differences were 0.9903:±0.0013 and 5.7785 in HVS-Ⅰ,and 0.9777±0.0013 and 3.5819 in HVS-Ⅱ,respectively.By analyzing the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 1,6180 to 1,6193 in HVS-Ⅰ,we defined some new types of sequence variations.We also compared the relationship between Tu population and other populations using mtDNA HVS-Ⅰ sequences.According to Rst genetic distances,the phylogenetic tree showed that the Tu population,the Xi'an Han population,the Chinese Korean,and the Mongol ethnic group were in a clade.This indicated a close genetic relationship between them.There were far relations between the Tu population and other Chinese southern Han populations,Siberian,European,African,and other foreign populations.The results suggest that Tu population has a multi-origin and has also merged with other local populations.

  11. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Rabin, Laura A; Spadaccini, Amanda T; Barr, William B

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists' multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists' assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals.

  12. Integration of ethnic minorities during group-work for vocational teachers-in-training in health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. Methods After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an “action research” approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Results Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years’ classes without the intervention. Conclusions Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students’ tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity. PMID:28132033

  13. Integration of ethnic minorities during group-work for vocational teachers-in-training in health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goth, Ursula Småland; Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie

    2017-01-28

    To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an "action research" approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years' classes without the intervention. Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students' tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity.

  14. Research Participation by Low‐Income and Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups: How Payment May Change the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James F.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one‐third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self‐reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low‐risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross‐sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual‐level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non‐Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment. PMID:24127923

  15. Research participation by low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups: how payment may change the balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-10-01

    Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono-Kihara Masako

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548. In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7% of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  17. Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M; Evans-Campbell, Teresa Tessa; Udell, Wadiya; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Pearson, Cynthia R; MacDonald, Meg M; Duran, Bonnie

    2016-09-01

    The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Moreover, many mentoring the mentor models assume generic (i.e. White) mentees with little attention to the concerns of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM). This has led to calls for increased attention to diversity in research training programs, especially in the field of HIV where racial/ethnic disparities are striking. Diversity training tends to address the mentees' cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations, and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of UREM, both for White and UREM mentors.

  18. Towards fair health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities: the case-study of ETHEALTH in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, progress in the development of health policies that address the needs of migrants and ethnic minorities has been slow. This is partly due to the absence of a strategic commitment by the health authorities. The Ministry of Public Health commissioned the ETHEALTH (EThnicity &HEALTH) group to formulate relevant recommendations to the public authorities with a view to reducing health inequalities among ethnic minorities. This paper describes the political process and the outcomes of the ETHEALTH expert group. Results After ten meetings, the ETHEALTH group came up with 46 recommendations, which were presented at a national press conference in December 2011. Target groups concerned by these recommendations covered both irregular migrants and migrants entitled to the national insurance coverage. Recommendations were supported by the need of combining universal approaches to health care with more specific approaches. The scope of the recommendations concerned health care as well as prevention, health promotion and access to health care. When analysing the content of the recommendations, some ETHEALTH recommendations were not fully measurable, and time-related; they were, however, quite specific and realistic within the Belgian context. The weak political commitment of an executive agency was identified as a major obstacle to the implementation of the recommendations. Conclusions The ETHEALTH group was an example of scientific advice on a global health issue. It also demonstrated the feasibility of coming up with a comprehensive strategy to decrease ethnic health inequalities, even in a political context where migration issues are sensitive. Two final lessons may be highlighted at the end of the first phase of the ETHEALTH project: firstly, the combination of scientific knowledge and practical expertise makes recommendations SMART; and, secondly, the low level of commitment on the part of policymakers might jeopardise the effective implementation of

  19. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  20. Violence against women in the militarized Indian frontier: beyond "Indian culture" in the experiences of ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2012-03-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in India is commonly attributed to an overarching metacultural patriarchal framework. Focusing on this national culture of violence obscures the experiences of VAW among ethnic minority women. This article focuses on VAW in Northeast India, a region populated by large numbers of Scheduled Tribes with different cultural norms, and where society has become militarized by ongoing insurgency and counterinsurgency. Though tempting, militarization alone is not a sufficient explanation for VAW; instead, this article focuses on the interplay between nonfamilial and familial contexts in creating a "frontier culture of violence" in which VAW is experienced and contested.

  1. Widening access to cardiovascular healthcare: community screening among ethnic minorities in inner-city Britain – the Healthy Hearts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Inessa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Britain is concentrated in inner-city areas such as Sandwell, which is home to a diverse multi-ethnic population. Current guidance for CVD risk screening is not established, nor are there specific details for ethnic minorities. Given the disparity in equitable healthcare for these groups, we developed a 'tailored' and systematic approach to CVD risk screening within communities of the Sandwell locality. The key anticipated outcomes were the numbers of participants from various ethnic backgrounds attending the health screening events and the prevalence of known and undiagnosed CVD risk within ethnic groups. Methods Data was collected during 10 health screening events (September 2005 and July 2006, which included an assessment of raised blood pressure, overweight, hyperlipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, smoking habit and the 10 year CVD risk score. Specific features of our approach included (i community involvement, (ii a clinician who could deliver immediate attention to adverse findings, and (iii the use of an interpreter. Results A total of 824 people from the Sandwell were included in this study (47% men, mean age 47.7 years from community groups such as the Gujarati Indian, Punjabi Indian, European Caucasian, Yemeni, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. A total of 470 (57% individuals were referred to their General Practitioner with a report of an increased CVD score – undetected high blood pressure in 120 (15%, undetected abnormal blood glucose in 70 (8%, undetected raised total cholesterol in 149 (18%, and CVD risk management review in 131 (16%. Conclusion Using this systematic and targeted approach, there was a clear demand for this service from people of various ethnic backgrounds, of whom, one in two needed review from primary or secondary healthcare. Further work is required to assess the accuracy and clinical benefits of this community health screening approach.

  2. Facilitators and barriers to success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a predominately white baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene B; Williams-Jones, Pamela; Lewis-Trabeaux, Shirleen; Mitchell, Denise

    2012-07-01

    This study identified facilitators and barriers to academic success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a BSN program. The following research questions were asked: What factors (a) facilitate academic performance; (b) are barriers to academic performance; (c) influence the college experience and academic success; (d) within the nursing department, influence academic success; (e) What is the impact of socialization on academic performance; (f) What were facilitators of academic success identified among study participants; and, (g) Which facilitators, identified by subjects, were most common among those participants? A retrospective-descriptive study design consisted of a sample of all minority students who were enrolled in clinical at a baccalaureate nursing program between 2005 and the fall of 2010. Bandura's theory on self-efficacy was used. Loftus and Duty's Survey of Factors Influencing Student Retention and Academic Success was adapted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 with ANOVA to determine if a significant difference in responses existed.

  3. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  4. Educational Strategies of Minority Youth and the Social Constructions of Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    From observations of different minority groups in the nine countries participating in the EDUMIGROM research programme, this chapter explores minority students' views on their educational options and the role they attribute to schooling in their life. She distinguishes three types of educational...

  5. Disparities in solid organ transplantation for ethnic minorities: facts and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R S D; Fishman, J A

    2006-11-01

    The Diversity and Minority Affairs Committee of the American Society of Transplantation (AST) convened a symposium to examine organ transplantation in underserved and minority populations. The goals of the meeting included 'benchmarking' of solid organ transplantation among minority populations, review of the epidemiology of end-organ damage, exploration of barriers to transplantation services and development of approaches to eliminate disparities. Participants noted that minority populations were more likely to be adversely affected by limited preventive medical care, lack of counseling regarding transplant options, and delays in transplant referrals for organ transplantation. These features largely reflect economic disadvantage as well as the reduced presence of minority professionals with training in transplant-related specialties. Participants in the conference noted that recent changes in organ allocation policies had improved access to minority individuals once listed for renal transplantation. Similar advances will be needed for other organs to address inequities in pretransplant care and underrepresentation of minorities among transplant professionals. The biologic basis of differences in transplant outcomes for minority recipients has not been adequately studied. Research funds must be targeted to address biologic mechanisms underlying disparate transplant outcomes including the impacts of environment, education, poverty and lifestyle choices.

  6. Earnings Differentials Between Whites and Ethnic Minorities: The Cases of Asian Americans, Blacks, and Chicanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiobu, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    The three aspects of the differential earnings between non-Spanish surnamed, native-born whites and blacks, Chinese, Mexican, and Japanese Americans considered are: (1) rates of return on age, education, and occupation; (2) the net cost of minority status; and (3) the possible effects of raising minority socioeconomic status to white levels. (NQ)

  7. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  8. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma R; Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee's ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report.

  9. Care for the protection of ethnic minorities in Slovenian legislation and in standards for libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Markovič

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the achievements of a modern state is the care for minorities. In Slovenia,there are two autochthon national communities, Italian and Hungarian. The article brings a short estimate on whether minority problems are adequatety regulated in Slovenian legislation and standards in the field of librarianship.Eventual failings and possibilities for their improvement are discussed.Ali statements, evaluations and considerations refer mostly to the area of Slovensko Primorje, respectively municipalities of Koper, Izola and Piran where members of Italian minority are living. However, general statements and proposed solutions can be applied wider on the territory of Slovenia.

  10. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  11. Adapting CBT for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority patients: examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Rivera, Edwin I; Hofmann, Stefan G; Barlow, David H; Otto, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we illustrate how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be adapted for the treatment of PTSD among traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations, providing examples from our treatment, culturally adapted CBT, or CA-CBT. CA-CBT has a unique approach to exposure (typical exposure is poorly tolerated in these groups), emphasizes the treatment of somatic sensations (a particularly salient part of the presentation of PTSD in these groups), and addresses comorbid anxiety disorders and anger. To accomplish these treatment goals, CA-CBT emphasizes emotion exposure and emotion regulation techniques such as meditation and aims to promote emotional and psychological flexibility. We describe 12 key aspects of adapting CA-CBT that make it a culturally sensitive treatment of traumatized refugee and ethnic minority populations. We discuss three models that guide our treatment and that can be used to design culturally sensitive treatments: (a) the panic attack-PTSD model to illustrate the many processes that generate PTSD in these populations, highlighting the role of arousal and somatic symptoms; (b) the arousal triad to demonstrate how somatic symptoms are produced and the importance of targeting comorbid anxiety conditions and psychopathological processes; and (c) the multisystem network (MSN) model of emotional state to reveal how some of our therapeutic techniques (e.g., body-focused techniques: bodily stretching paired with self-statements) bring about psychological flexibility and improvement.

  12. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  13. Racial discrimination is associated with distressing subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms among US urban ethnic minority young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Greenspoon, Michelle; Ellman, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Racial discrimination is related to depression, anxiety, and severe psychological distress, and evidence drawn from studies emanating from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands suggest racial discrimination is also related to clinical psychosis and subthreshold psychotic symptoms in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations. The present study sought to determine the association between racial discrimination experiences and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) in a United States (US) urban, predominantly immigrant and REM young adult population. A cohort of 650 young adults was administered a self-report inventory for psychosis risk [i.e., Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ)], and the Experiences of Discrimination Questionnaire. The PQ allowed the dimensional assessment of APPS, as well as the categorical assessment of a potentially "high risk" group (i.e., 8 or more APPS endorsed as distressing), the latter of which was based on previous validation studies using the structured interview for prodromal syndromes. The relations between self-reported racial discrimination and APPS, and racial discrimination and "high" distressing positive PQ endorsement were determined, while accounting for anxiety and depression symptoms. Racial discrimination was significantly associated with APPS and with significantly higher odds of endorsing eight or more distressing APPS, even after adjusting for anxiety and depression symptoms. The present study provides preliminary evidence that racial discrimination among US ethnic minorities may be associated with APPS, as well as potentially higher risk for psychosis.

  14. A Study of English Acquisition of Pre-college Ethnic Minority Students under the Multi-Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Chun

    2015-01-01

    The multi-cultural background of pre-college ethnic minority students provides with a living model for developing second language teach-ing and related research.An investigation of the re-lationship between having a multi-cultural back-ground and English acquisition,and an analysis of its negative and positive influences will be helpful for improving the quality of teaching.In recent years,the research on college English teaching has been of concern both at home and abroad, and many books and articles related to this field have been published.These publications have provided an analysis on the status and main problems of col-lege English teaching with regard to course ar-rangement,teaching models,teaching methods,sys-tems of evaluation,and the specific needs of Eng-lish in society, etc.Some suggestions for English teaching reform have been proposed in order to solve some outstanding problems,such as the short-age of providing speaking-listening opportunities in English teaching,or the relatively poor communica-tion abilities of the students.In recent years, the cultural background of the students has been ex-plored ,which could have an important influence on English teaching.However, most of the research has focused on theoretical issues,and less on prac-tical useage.Moreover, there has been much less research on the influence and role of the pre-col-lege ethnic students'multi-cultural background. Hence,this article intends to start with the English level of the pre-college ethnic minority students, and,based upon an analysis of the different cultur-al backgrounds of the various students,explores the effect of English teaching within this background of cultural diversity.The purpose is to propose practi-cal and valuable solutions of these questions—how do teachers teach? And, how do students learn?The influence of the diversified cultural background of the pre-college ethnic minority students on their second language ( English) acquisition is obvious.

  15. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the

  16. Stress-Related Growth in Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Measurement Structure and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Aldridge, Arianna A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-related growth is defined as the perception or experience of deriving benefits from encountering stressful circumstances and, thus, has been identified as a protective factor against stress. The current study revised and subsequently validated scores on an existing measure of stress-related growth in a sample of racial/ethnic minority…

  17. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and... tobacco product advertising and promotion that is designed to appeal to specific racial and ethnic... information about the advertising and promotion of menthol and other cigarettes to youth in general, and...

  18. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, H. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of sch

  19. Use of health care services by ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: do patterns differs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiters, E.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Foets, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article examines the nature of ethnic differences in health care utilisation by assessing patterns of use in addition to single service utilisation. METHODS: Data were derived from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. A nationally representative sample of 104 genera

  20. Use of health care services by ethnic minorities in The Netherlands : do patterns differ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiters, Ellen; Devillé, Walter L.J.M.; Foets, Marleen; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This article examines the nature of ethnic differences in health care utilisation by assessing patterns of use in addition to single service utilisation. Methods: Data were derived from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. A nationally representative sample of 104 genera

  1. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi; Ngoc Hoat, Luu

    2012-01-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned...

  2. Self-esteem and multiculturalism : an examination among ethnic minority and majority groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research tests the self-esteem argument for multiculturalism: the idea that acceptance and recognition of cultural diversity is crucial for personal self-feelings because of its support for ethnic identity. Results from three studies using two different methodologies (correlational and experime

  3. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, H. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of sch

  4. Self-esteem and multiculturalism : an examination among ethnic minority and majority groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research tests the self-esteem argument for multiculturalism: the idea that acceptance and recognition of cultural diversity is crucial for personal self-feelings because of its support for ethnic identity. Results from three studies using two different methodologies (correlational and experime

  5. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, H. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in end-of-life costs: why do minorities cost more than whites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh; Kronman, Andrea C; Young-Xu, Yinong; Ash, Arlene S; Emanuel, Ezekiel

    2009-03-09

    Racial and ethnic minorities generally receive fewer medical interventions than whites, but racial and ethnic patterns in Medicare expenditures and interventions may be quite different at life's end. Based on a random, stratified sample of Medicare decedents (N = 158 780) in 2001, we used regression to relate differences in age, sex, cause of death, total morbidity burden, geography, life-sustaining interventions (eg, ventilators), and hospice to racial and ethnic differences in Medicare expenditures in the last 6 months of life. In the final 6 months of life, costs for whites average $20,166; blacks, $26,704 (32% more); and Hispanics, $31,702 (57% more). Similar differences exist within sexes, age groups, all causes of death, all sites of death, and within similar geographic areas. Differences in age, sex, cause of death, total morbidity burden, geography, socioeconomic status, and hospice use account for 53% and 63% of the higher costs for blacks and Hispanics, respectively. While whites use hospice most frequently (whites, 26%; blacks, 20%; and Hispanics, 23%), racial and ethnic differences in end-of-life expenditures are affected only minimally. However, fully 85% of the observed higher costs for nonwhites are accounted for after additionally modeling their greater end-of-life use of the intensive care unit and various intensive procedures (such as, gastrostomies, used by 10.5% of blacks, 9.1% of Hispanics, and 4.1% of whites). At life's end, black and Hispanic decedents have substantially higher costs than whites. More than half of these cost differences are related to geographic, sociodemographic, and morbidity differences. Strikingly greater use of life-sustaining interventions accounts for most of the rest.

  7. Inequities in tobacco retailer sales to minors by neighbourhood racial/ethnic composition, poverty and segregation, USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Landrine, Hope; Torres, Essie; Gregory, Kyle R

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco retailers are an important source of tobacco products for minors. Previous research shows racial discrimination in sales to minors, but no national study has examined neighbourhood correlates of retailer under-age sales. We accessed publicly available results of 2015 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspections of tobacco retailers (n=108 614). In this cross-sectional study, we used multilevel logistic regression to predict the likelihood of retailer sale to a minor based on tract characteristics. We assessed the proportion of residents identifying as American Indian, Asian, Black, Latino and White; Isolation Index scores for each racial/ethnic group; the proportion of people less than age 65 living in poverty; and the proportion of residents age 10-17 in relation to retailer inspection results. The proportion of American Indian residents, Black residents, Latino residents and residents less than age 65 under the poverty line in a neighbourhood are independently, positively associated with the likelihood that a retailer in that neighbourhood will fail an under-age buy inspection. The proportion of White residents and residents age 10-17 are independently, negatively associated with the likelihood of sale of tobacco products to a minor. Isolation Index scores show a similar pattern. In multivariable models holding neighbourhood characteristics constant, higher proportions of Black (+), Latino (+) and age 10-17 (-) residents remained significant predictors of the likelihood of under-age sale. Regulatory agencies should consider oversampling retailers in areas with higher likelihood of sales to minors for inspection. Interventions with tobacco retailers to reduce inequities in youth access should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Ethnofederalism and the Accommodation of Ethnic Minorities in Burma: United They Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    is reserved for my God and my Savior, Jesus Christ . I entrust the totality of my life to His gracious and generous hands, and I am continually in...examine Burma’s pre-colonial and colonial history, focusing on the origins of the country’s deep ethnic differences, and on the emergence of its main...misgiving originating from the past, cooperation and “close relations” were possible as long as “hereditary rights, customs and religions” were

  9. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.

  10. The Application Status of Psychological Scale for the Study of the Psychological Health of Ethnic Minority College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Can; Liu Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the numbers of college students who drop out of school due to mental disorders have increased dramatically. In recent years, reports on college students’ mental health crisis have drawn more and more public at-tention. Therefore, the mental health status of col-lege students is becoming a serious focus in the field of psychology. However,there are few studies on the mental health of ethnic minority college students. As a standardized practical screening instru-ment, the psychological assessment scale has be-come a widely used tool for many universities to e-valuate psychological problems. This paper intends to analyze the characteristics of the psychological scales commonly used in ethnic minority colleges, and clearly describe the status of its application. Through searching thefull-text database CNKI,we discovered that there are several tools concerning psychological scale that are used commonly in eth-nic minority colleges, including the Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL - 90 ) , Zung Self - Rating Scales(SDS/SAS),Psychological Health Inventory ( PHI) ,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire( EPQ) , 16 PF Questionnaire ( 16 pf ) , and the College Students’Personality Health Questionnaire ( UPI ) . We did a comparative analysis on them as follows:1. The Symptom Checklist-90-R( SCL-90-R ) is a self -reporting psychometric question-naire published in 1975 . It is designed to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symp-toms of psychopathology. It is still one of the most widely used instruments in the investigation of the mental health of college students. 2. The Zung Self - Rating Depression Scale (SDS)and Zung Self -Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) were designed by psychiatrist William W. K. Zung. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scaleis used to as-sess the level of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder. The Zung Self-Rating Anx-iety Scale was designed to assess a patient’s level of anxiety. Both of them are commonly used in

  11. Researching Changing Language Learning Identities for Ethnic Minority Education Policy Formulation: A Case Study of Macau S.A.R., China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Noronha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper the authors discuss preliminary findings from research on language learning identities of ethnic minority groups for education policy formulation. The research aims to identify and interpret changing language identities, preferences, modes of learning, and discourse affected by the transformation of the economic, social, and cultural environment of Macau since the territory was designated as a Special Administrative Region (S.A.R. following the return of sovereignty from Portugal to China in 1999. The research is particularly concerned with identifying the perceptions held by ethnic minorities of the determinants for achievement and success in an education system polarized by language preference and priority. The case of the cross-cultural identity of the ‘Macanese’ is presented as a preliminary study to inform education policy and advocate further research on ethnic minorities in Macau.

  12. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population’s genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice. PMID:23733431

  13. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-06-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.

  14. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flink Ilse JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5; information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1. When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression, poor

  15. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  16. 少数民族心理压力的结构与问卷编制%The development of a psychological stress questionnaire for ethnic minorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    植凤英; 张进辅

    2013-01-01

    Based on the factual living of ethnic minority people, the research explored the structure of ethnic minorities' psychological stress, developed a questionnaire of ethnic minorities' psychological stress and 1 325 ethnic minorities were invited to complete the questionnaire. Examined the theoretical ideas of the questionnaire according to the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the questionnaire , and tested the reliability and validity of the survey. Results showed; the structure of ethnic minorities' psychological stress contained six factors, the factors were acculturative stress, daily life stress, job or employment stress, health or accident stress, burden or education stress, the love or marriages stress. The self-developed questionnaire could be suitable for measuring psychological stress of ethnic minorities reliably and validly.%从国内少数民族民众的生活实际出发,对少数民族的心理压力结构进行探讨,并编制少数民族心理压力问卷对1 325名少数民族民众进行调查.通过对调查结果的探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析,修正问卷的理论构想,检测问卷的信度和效度.结果表明:少数民族心理压力主要有文化适应压力、日常生活压力、工作就业压力、健康与变故压力、负担管教压力和婚恋问题压力;自编的少数民族心理压力问卷具有良好的信效度.

  17. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  18. Acculturation strategies among ethnic minority workers and the role of intercultural personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, K.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2006-01-01

    In an increasingly diverse work context minority employees strive to place and define themselves in terms of work and cultural identities. Based on Berry's acculturation model (1990), we defined and tested preferred acculturation strategies at work. It was predicted that the dual identity, reflectin

  19. Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs: What Can Be Learned when Whites Are in the Minority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Rosemary B.; Henry, Wilma J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the authors wonder--why has the academic community not stepped through the looking glass to see what diversity looks like and what might be learned when Whites are in the minority? They believe there is much to be learned from exploring the experience of White college students and their perceptions of race and racism when they…

  20. Responses of Liberal Democratic Societies to Claims from Ethnic Minorities to Community Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Basil R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the place of minority rights within two liberal societies, focusing on immigrants from former French and British colonies, by examining two court cases that address cultural and religious expression (wearing cultural/religious attire in schools). Examines how the societies' procedures and ideologies resulted in different outcomes for…

  1. ETHNIC MINORITY ELITES IN POST-COMMUNIST COUNTIRES: THE CASE OF ESTONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the unity versus fragmentation patterns of minority elites and its influence on democratic processes. More generally, the article makes an attempt to analyse the reasons why the “voice“ of the noncore elite is not heard within Estonian polity.

  2. Analysis of the Ecological Migration Pattern in Ethnic Minority Areas——A Case Study of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By taking Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an example,this paper analyzes the ecological migration pattern in ethnic minority areas.The basic patterns of development for poverty relief in Ningxia are in-situ migration and new area development pattern.The new area development pattern includes three types,namely small town development pattern around urban radiation districts,urban labor migration pattern,and large-scale ecological migration pattern.Finally,successful experience of ecological migration in Ningxia is summarized.First,scientific industrial planning shall be made on the basis of proper selection of ecological migration location in immigrant settlement regions.Second,scientific and comprehensive ecological migration policies should be formulated.

  3. Analysis of Batik Value Chain in Ethnic Minority Areas--A Case Study of Danzhai County in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on value chain analysis method,we surveyed and interviewed interest groups of batik industry in Danzhai County.From raw material production,product processing,marketing,organization and management,we discussed the supply chain of batik products in ethnic minority areas,and analyzed favorable factors of batik industry development and obstacles to interest groups developing batik industry.Finally,we put forward corresponding policy suggestions,including strengthening farmers’ ability in batik production section,enhancing capability construction of batik cooperatives and associations,increasing cultural value added of batik products,bolster policy and financial support of government departments,and promoting establishment of cooperative mechanism for handicrafts.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease in young patients: challenges faced by black and minority ethnic communities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Christopher; Nash, Avril; Lloyd, Michele; Brooks, Fiona; Lindsay, James O; Poullis, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Despite this rise in prevalence, there is a paucity of research relating to ethnicity and IBD outside the USA. Furthermore, the symptoms of IBD are reported to start during childhood or adolescence in 20-25% of people with the condition. It is therefore important that young people's experiences of diagnosis, treatment and living with IBD are fully understood to ensure effective services and information provision. The study reported on in this paper was commissioned by a UK charity (Crohn's and Colitis UK) with the aim of increasing understanding of the specific issues and service needs of young people with IBD from BME communities. Empirical research entailed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 young people from BME groups accessed through gastroenterology departments at three collaborating NHS hospitals in England serving ethnically diverse populations. Interviews were carried out from June to December 2010 and sought to capture young people's views with IBD. A thematic analysis of their experiences identified many commonalities with other young people with IBD, such as the problematic route to formal diagnosis and the impact of IBD on education. The young people also experienced tensions between effective self-management strategies and cultural norms and practices relating to food. Moreover, the ability of parents to provide support was hampered for some young people by the absence of culturally competent services that were responsive to the families' communication needs. The findings highlight the need for more culturally appropriate information concerning IBD, and improved responsiveness to young people with IBD within primary care and the education system, as well as culturally competent messaging relating to the specific nature of the condition among the wider South Asian and black communities.

  5. Genetic analysis of 24 Y-STR loci in the Miao ethnic minority from Yunnan Province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Gu, Tao; Yao, Jinyong; Yang, Canming; Du, Lei; Pang, Jing Bo; Rao, Min; Nie, Aiting; Hu, Liping; Nie, Shengjie

    2017-02-14

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 252 unrelated Miao male individuals from Pingbian county, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, southwestern China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.2683 (DYS391) to 0.9312 (DYS527a/b). According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 214 different haplotypes were obtained, 186 of which were unique. The overall haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated to be 0.9983 and 0.8492, respectively. In addition, three different triplications were observed at the DYS527a/b marker, and 1 intermediate allele and six single off-ladder alleles were observed at four markers. We analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Yunnan Miao ethnic minority and 18 other ethnic groups. The results obtained using pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that Yunnan Miao had a closer genetic relationship with Yunnan Han and Hunan Miao individuals. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationship between Miao individuals and other groups.

  6. Sourcing Program: To identify outstanding women and ethnic minorities in research and research management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1991-08-01

    To meet the challenges of the changing demographics and a projected shortage of technically trained workers in the 21st century, Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) is increasing its commitment to develop a diverse work force with the abilities to carry out the Laboratory's missions. In addition to the recruitment programs already established at LLNL, a sourcing program to identify outstanding women and minorities in research and research management was initiated in the summer of 1990. A research methodology, time table, selection criteria, and data generation strategy were designed and implemented for this program. Through extensive contacts with R D facilities, women's and minority professional organizations, national research councils, technical professional societies and universities, other sourcing programs were investigated and evaluated and a network of contacts and resources was developed. This report describes the design and implementation of the sourcing program targeting outstanding women and minorities in science and engineering. It details the investigation and evaluation of sourcing programs in other R D facilities and provides information regarding methods and sources used to identify potential candidates. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation Preferences Among Minority and Majority Youth: Norms and Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto; Lickel, Brian; Gupta, Manisha; Tropp, Linda R; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Mora, Eduardo; De Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Valdenegro, Daniel; Cayul, Oscar; Miranda, Daniel; Saavedra, Patricio; Bernardino, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, Mages  = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms supporting contact and quality of intergroup contact at Time 1 predicted student's changes in Mapuche identification at Time 2, which in turn predicted changes in support for adoption of Chilean culture and maintenance of Mapuche culture at Time 2; some of the relationships between these variables were found to be moderated by age and ethnicity. Conceptual and policy implications are addressed in the Discussion. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Beijing’s Policies for Managing Han and Ethnic-Minority Chinese Communities Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James To

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overseas Chinese (OC form a vast network of powerful interest groups and important political actors capable of shaping the future of China from abroad by transmitting values back to their ancestral homeland (Tu 1991. While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP welcomes and actively seeks to foster relations with the OC in order to advance China’s national interests, some cohorts may be hostile to the regime. In accordance with their distinct demographic and ethnic pro-files, the CCP’s qiaowu (侨务, OC affairs infrastructure serves to entice, co-opt, or isolate various OC groupings. This article summarises the policies for managing different subsets of OC over the past three dec-ades, and argues that through qiaowu, the CCP has successfully unified cooperative groups for China’s benefit, while preventing discordant ones from eroding its grip on power.

  9. Exploring healthy eating among ethnic minority students using mobile technology: Feasibility and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Wilson, Kelcey; O'Carroll, Dympna; Lovering, Meghan; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Iannuccilli, Alyssa; Luk, Stephanie; Shoemaker, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Interventions aiming to help ethnically diverse emerging adults engage in healthy eating have had limited success. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of and adherence to an intervention capitalizing on mobile technology to improve healthy eating. Participants created an online photo food journal and received motivational text messages three times a day. Satisfaction with the intervention was assessed, as were control variables including depression and body dissatisfaction. In addition, weight and height were measured. Levels of adherence to the photo food journal were high with approximately two photos posted a day at baseline. However, adherence rates decreased over the course of the study. Body dissatisfaction positively predicted adherence, while body mass index negatively predicted study satisfaction. Mobile technology provides innovative avenues for healthy eating interventions. Such interventions appear acceptable and feasible for a short period; however, more work is required to evaluate their viability regarding long-term engagement.

  10. Strategies of Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n=50) and 35 in-depth interviews with African American, Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander MSM (aged 18+) recruited in Los Angeles, CA. This process revealed five strategies that MSM of color employed in order to mitigate the impact of racism and homophobia. To minimize opportunities for stigmatization, men used (1) concealment of homosexuality and (2) disassociation from social settings associated with stigmatization. To minimize the impact of experienced stigma, men (3) dismissed the stigmatization and (4) drew strength and comfort from external sources. Men also actively countered stigmatization by (5) direct confrontation. More research is needed to understand the efficacy of these coping strategies in mitigating negative health consequences of stigmatization and discrimination. PMID:21517663

  11. The Adaptation of Ethnic Minority Merchants to Urban Culture and An Innovative Urban Ethnic Work Method---Taking the Formation and Influence of Yi Fruit Dealers in Chengdu as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Linying

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the Yi fruit sellers in Chengdu as a case study,and analyzes the data obtained from household interviews conducted dur-ing 2014.The author uses the data,to demonstrate the reason for the formation of the Yi fruit dealers and the impacts on their society.The author puts forward some workable recommendations for urban management concerning ethnic minority govern-ance.During the process that an ethnic minority settles into and seeks development in cities, they are eager to learn general information about the rules of urban marketing,as well as the basic rights and interests of city people.However, it was diffi-cult for them to acquire this beneficial information. In current urban management work, an interven-tion-oriented model is prioritized with regard to managing population of ethnic minorities who have come in from outside.Within the framework of ur-ban management, we must choose an approach of“prevention first, and intervention second” con-cerning the governance of this population of ethnic minorities who have come in from the outside.In other words,only by discovering and solving prob-lems in a timely and effective manner will it be possible to build a harmonious society.Therefore, this article proposes the following workable recom-mendations.

  12. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article.

  13. Hot topics, urgent priorities, and ensuring success for racial/ethnic minority young investigators in academic pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Mendoza, Fernando S; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Mendoza, Jason A; Pachter, Lee; Espinoza, Juan; Fernandez, Cristina R; Arnold, Danielle D P; Brown, Nicole M; Gonzalez, Kymberly M; Lopez, Cynthia; Owen, Mikah C; Parks, Kenya M; Reynolds, Kimberly L; Russell, Christopher J

    2016-12-09

    The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012. RAPID targets applicants who are members of an underrepresented minority group (URM), disabled, or from a socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged background. The program, which consists of both a research project and career and leadership development activities, includes an annual career-development and leadership conference which is open to any resident, fellow, or junior faculty member from an URM, disabled, or disadvantaged background who is interested in a career in academic general pediatrics. As part of the annual RAPID conference, a Hot Topic Session is held in which the young investigators spend several hours developing a list of hot topics on the most useful faculty and career-development issues. These hot topics are then posed in the form of six "burning questions" to the RAPID National Advisory Committee (comprised of accomplished, nationally recognized senior investigators who are seasoned mentors), the RAPID Director and Co-Director, and the keynote speaker. The six compelling questions posed by the 10 young investigators-along with the responses of the senior conference leadership-provide a unique resource and "survival guide" for ensuring the academic success and optimal career development of young investigators in academic pediatrics from diverse backgrounds. A rich conversation ensued on the topics

  14. Video-feedback intervention increases sensitive parenting in ethnic minority mothers: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmur, Sengul; Mesman, Judi; Malda, Maike; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Ekmekci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Using a randomized control trial design we tested the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive adaptation of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a sample of 76 Turkish minority families in the Netherlands. The VIPP-SD was adapted based on a pilot with feedback of the target mothers, resulting in the VIPP-TM (VIPP-Turkish Minorities). The sample included families with 20-47-month-old children with high levels of externalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity, nonintrusiveness, and discipline strategies were observed during pretest and posttest home visits. The VIPP-TM was effective in increasing maternal sensitivity and nonintrusiveness, but not in enhancing discipline strategies. Applying newly learned sensitivity skills in discipline situations may take more time, especially in a cultural context that favors more authoritarian strategies. We conclude that the VIPP-SD program and its video-feedback approach can be successfully applied in immigrant families with a non-Western cultural background, with demonstrated effects on parenting sensitivity and nonintrusiveness.

  15. "Forgotten Lore": Can the Socratic Method of Teaching Be Used to Reduce the Attainment Gap of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Dan; Wild, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Teaching standards within the UK's higher education sector are under unprecedented scrutiny not only in terms of perceived "highly variable" standards of teaching but also in relation to the clear attainment gap between black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) students and their white counterparts. Gentle taps at the door to the higher…

  16. Three Advantages of Cross-National Comparative Ethnography--Methodological Reflections from a Study of Migrants and Minority Ethnic Youth in English and Spanish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Clara Rübner

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the strengths of using ethnographic research methods in cross-national comparative research. It focuses particularly on the potential of applying such methods to the study of migrants and minority ethnic youth in education, where large-scale quantitative studies or single-sited ethnographies are currently dominant. By linking…

  17. Tolerance through education : Mapping the determinants of young people’s attitudes towards equal rights for immigrants and ethnic/racial minorities in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isac, Maria Magdalena; Brese, Falk; Diazgranados, Silvia; Higdon, Julia; Maslowski, Ralf; Sandoval-Hernandez, Andres; Schulz, Wolfram; Werf, Greetje van der

    2015-01-01

    Many civic and citizenship education programmes in Europe promote the development of tolerance towards immigrants or, more in general, towards people of ethnic/racial minorities or different cultural backgrounds. Although individuals form their attitudes in multiple settings, schools and educational

  18. Social-Cognitive Predictors of STEM Career Interests and Goal Persistence in College Students with Disabilities from Racial and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Johnson, Ebonee T.; Kundu, Madan; Chan, Fong D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics's (STEM) self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and contextual supports and barriers to STEM educational goals in college students with disabilities from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using…

  19. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  20. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  1. Tolerance through education : Mapping the determinants of young people’s attitudes towards equal rights for immigrants and ethnic/racial minorities in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isac, Maria Magdalena; Brese, Falk; Diazgranados, Silvia; Higdon, Julia; Maslowski, Ralf; Sandoval-Hernandez, Andres; Schulz, Wolfram; Werf, Greetje van der

    2015-01-01

    Many civic and citizenship education programmes in Europe promote the development of tolerance towards immigrants or, more in general, towards people of ethnic/racial minorities or different cultural backgrounds. Although individuals form their attitudes in multiple settings, schools and educational

  2. Nombrando y definiendo a los "otros": minorías étnicas y allochtonen en los Países Bajos = Naming and branding the "others": ethnic minoritues and allochtonen in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garces Mascarenas, B.

    2009-01-01

    The immigrant population in the Netherlands has been named and defined under the categories of ethnic minorities and allochtonen. Although these categories are directly related to specific policies, these terms became very soon common social categories. The extended use of the term ethnic minority l

  3. Maternal Vitamin D Insufficiency Early in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Preterm Birth in Ethnic Minority Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Negar; Auger, Nathalie; Herba, Catherine M; Wei, Shuqin; Allard, Catherine; Fink, Guy D; Fraser, William D

    2017-06-01

    Background: Maternal vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] preterm and spontaneous preterm births.Objective: We explored the relation between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration in the first trimester (8-14 wk of gestation) and the risk of preterm and spontaneous preterm births (preterm birth (preterm and spontaneous preterm births with the use of splines in logistic regression by ethnicity.Results: The distributions of maternal vitamin D status (75 nmol/L) were different in preterm and spontaneous preterm birth cases compared with controls but only in women of ethnic minority (P-trend = 0.003 and 0.024, respectively). Among ethnic subgroups, sub-Saharan Africans (P-trend = 0.030) and Arab-West Asians (P-trend = 0.045) showed an inverse relation between maternal vitamin D status and the risk of preterm birth. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentrations of 30 nmol/L were associated with 4.05 times the risk of preterm birth in the total ethnic minority population (95% CI: 1.16, 14.12; P = 0.028) relative to participants with a concentration of 75 nmol/L. In contrast, there was no such association among nonethnic women (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.82; P = 0.85). There was no association when we considered only spontaneous preterm births in the total ethnic minority population (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 0.39, 7.79; P = 0.46).Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in ethnic minority women in Canada. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. 美国少数族裔文学特点概述%The Brief Review on American Ethnic Minority Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建荣

    2011-01-01

    American ethnic minority literature refers to the published writings,mainly novels and poetry,created in English by the non-white minorities,which presents the self-images and cultural identities of minority communities in the American society in which the mainstream literature is foregrounded.American ethnic minority literature mainly focuses on the themes of racism and sexism and has several differences from American literature which reflects mainstream culture.Here the characteristics of American ethnic minority are summarized.A conclusion is draw that American ethnic minority literature is the essential part of the whole culture and the product of the interaction of cultures.It makes cultures colorful and encourages individuals to work on more harmonious society.%美国少数族裔文学指由非白种少数族裔作家用英语创作的,以小说和诗歌为主的文学形式。美国少数族裔文学作品主要以种族主义和性别歧视为主题,展现美国主流文化为背景的社会中少数民族集体的自我意象和文化身份,与反映主流文化的美国主流文学有许多不同之处。通过对美国少数族裔文学特点的分析,可以认识到:少数族裔文学是文化之间交融的产物,是美国整体文化的一个必要组成部分,这不仅丰富了美国文化的多样性,而且激励了社会个体朝着构建更和谐的社会而努力。

  5. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  6. Genetic diversities of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs of a Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group in Lhasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.

  7. Homegardens of the Cao Lan, a Tai-Speaking Ethnic Minority in Vietnam’s Northern Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijika Timsuksai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cao Lan are a Tai-speaking ethnic group living in the Midlands of Northern Vietnam. Homegardens are an important component of their agroecosystem. The ecological structures of each homegarden of 17 households of the Cao Ngoi village in Tuyen Quang province were described and modal patterns identified. Most homegardens have organically shaped planting areas with indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and contain multiple species within the same bed or planting area. All of the gardens have multiple vegetation levels, with the largest share having 5 levels and a majority having more than 50% of their planting area covered by overlapping vegetation layers. Biodiversity is high with a total of 113 species recorded. Most plant species are used for food, but smaller numbers have ornamental, medicinal, and construction uses or are used for animal fodder, as stimulants, or for other purposes. Comparison of the modal structure of the Cao Lan homegardens with several Tai minority groups in Northeast Thailand, shows that, although the Cao Lan have been geographically isolated from other Tai groups for many centuries, their homegardens share a similar structural pattern, one commonly referred to as the tropical forest type. This structure is very different from the temperate type gardens of the Kinh in Vietnam with whom the Cao Lan share a common environment and are in frequent contact. The persistence of a common structural pattern among these related Tai ethnic groups, despite their inhabiting different environments, and having had no direct contact with each other for a very long time, suggests that culture exerts a strong influence over agroecosystem structure.

  8. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei Xu

    Full Text Available Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas.This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI. Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people, however only 169 (48.0% households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2% residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05, however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN was significantly lower (34.5%, P<0.0001. The annual cash income per person (ACIP was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (P<0.0001, where families with an ACIP of CNY10000 or more were much more likely to use nets. House type was strongly associated with bed net use (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 2.81, 7.91; P<0.0001, where those with traditional wood walls and terracotta roofs were significantly more likely to use nets, and the head of household's knowledge was an independent factor (OR: 5.04, 95% CI: 2.72, 9.35; P<0.0001, where those who knew bed nets prevent malaria were significantly more likely to use nets too.High bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  9. Spotlight on equality of employment opportunities: A qualitative study of job seeking experiences of graduating nurses and physiotherapists from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, John; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues. Although there is better national data on the scale of inequalities in the healthcare workforce, there is a gap in our understanding about the experience of job seeking, and the factors that influence disadvantage in nursing and other professions such as physiotherapy. This qualitative study seeks to fill that gap and explores the experience of student nurses (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=6) throughout their education and during the first 6-months post qualification to identify key experiences and milestones relating to successful employment particularly focusing on the perspectives from different ethnic groups. Participants were purposively sampled from one university to ensure diversity in ethnic group, age and gender. Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at course completion and 6 months later. Two main themes were identified. The 'proactive self' ('It's up to me') theme included perceptions of employment success being due to student proactivity and resilience; qualities valued by employers. The second theme described the need to 'fit in' with organisational culture. Graduates described accommodating strategies where they modified aspects of their identity (clothing, cultural markers) to fit in. At one extreme, rather than fitting in, participants from minority ethnic backgrounds avoided applying to certain hospitals due to perceptions of discriminatory cultures, 'I wouldn

  10. New Media Streaming and Cultural Development in Ethnic Minority Areas%新兴媒体流与少数民族地区文化发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小凤

    2011-01-01

    文章在分析新媒体的发展现状和新媒体在少数民族地区发展的文化背景的基础上,探讨了新媒体与少数民族文化价值的关系.%The paper analyzes the current development of new media and the cultural background of new media in the development of ethnic minority areas, on the basis, explores the relations between new media and cultural values of ethnic.

  11. The Correlation of FDI Foreign Trade and Economic Growth in Ethnic Minority Areas-Based on An Empirical Analysis of Guangxi during the Years 1990 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen; Li Xuan

    2016-01-01

    International trade and investment have been two major topics in the field of interna-tional economics. They are also two main ways to deepen foreign economic ties. With the rapid de-velopment of the China—ASEAN free trade area and the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone, international trade and investment have had an important influ-ence on the ethnic areas of Guangxi. Guangxi is a frontier and coastal minority area, and as well as an important window opening on to the ASEAN e-conomic sphere and economic hinterland. It has great power and vitality for economic development within the ASEAN economic sphere. However, Guangxi, if compared with domestic developed are-as, is a relatively backward region within China’s economy. Its level for utilizing FDI( Foreign Direct Investment) lags behind, and its foreign trade vol-ume has definitely lagged far behind that in the more developed coastal provinces. This has severe-ly restricted the economic and social transformation of the Guangxi, and is an important obstacle for re-alizing a “well -off” society in ethnic areas. In recent years, resulting in the increasing external dependency in ethnic areas, the development of foreign investment has kept steady. This has played an important role in promoting technological progress and adjusting the industrial structure in ethnic areas. At the same time, foreign investment has also increased the speed of the ethnic minority areas’ ability to absorb advanced technology and management experience. This, in turn, has had great significance for further exploring international markets. However, the various regions in China have differences in their utilization of FDI and for-eign trade, so, effective an evaluation for exploring foreign trade and FDI has had a specific effect on the economic growth in ethnic areas, which can provide certain reference points for ethnic minority areas to formulate economic policy. Based on the relevant data of exports, imports and economic growth collected

  12. Advantageous and disadvantageous impacts of tourism development on the living of Li ethnic minority villagers in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing-yu; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2003-06-01

    Around the Mt. Wuzhishan in Hainan Island, China, tourism development has been rapidly progressed by the government and private companies since the 1980s, especially since the late 1990s, and consequently the living conditions of the Li ethnic minority people in Shuiman village, located in its center, have been drastically changing. As expected by the government, the villagers' income has increased by means of wage labors, selling the local products to the tourists, and compensatory payments for crops grown in the customary land when its use right was transferred to the company. Various changes in their lifestyle have contributed to the release from poverty and the overall improvement in basic human needs and primary health care. The villagers' flexible decision-makings on their living and environment use, with application of their traditional knowledge for resource uses, have been effective for sustainable human-environment relations, though further changes due to orders and requests of the government and companies may lead to environmental deterioration. Furthermore, inter-household differentiation in income and the perception on tourism development and agricultural development has been enlarged. These situations are discussed from the viewpoint of community-based sustainable development.

  13. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  14. “Not Designed for Us”: How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059

  15. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  16. Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nierkens Vera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts, religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334 and women (n = 339 aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups. Results Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively, but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI 0.40-1.46. In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%. This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24 could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men. Conclusions The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first

  17. The Inclusion of Ethnic Minority Patients and the Role of Language in Telehealth Trials for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia; Hunt, Daniel; Ward, Danielle; Rooshenas, Leila; Edwards, Louisa

    2016-09-26

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious, pervasive metabolic condition that disproportionately affects ethnic minority patients. Telehealth interventions can facilitate type 2 diabetes monitoring and prevent secondary complications. However, trials designed to test the effectiveness of telehealth interventions may underrecruit or exclude ethnic minority patients, with language a potential barrier to recruitment. The underrepresentation of minorities in trials limits the external validity of the findings for this key patient demographic. This systematic review examines (1) the research reporting practices and prevalence of ethnic minority patients included in telehealth randomized controlled trials (RCTs) targeting type 2 diabetes and the trial characteristics associated with recruiting a high proportion of minority patients, and (2) the proportion of included RCTs that report using English language proficiency as a patient screening criterion and how and why they do so. Telehealth RCTs published in refereed journals targeting type 2 diabetes as a primary condition for adults in Western majority English-speaking countries were included. Ethnically targeted RCTs were excluded from the main review, but were included in a post hoc subgroup analysis. Abstract and full-text screening, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were independently conducted by two reviewers. Of 3358 records identified in the search, 79 articles comprising 58 RCTs were included. Nearly two-thirds of the RCTs (38/58) reported on the ethnic composition of participants, with a median proportion of 23.5% patients (range 0%-97.7%). Fourteen studies (24%) that included at least 30% minority patients were all US-based, predominantly recruited from urban areas, and described the target population as underserved, financially deprived, or uninsured. Eight of these 14 studies (57%) offered intervention materials in a language other than English or employed bilingual staff. Half of all identified RCTs (29

  18. Culturally Authentic Scaling Approach: A Multi-Step Method for Culturally Adapting Measures for Use with Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerda Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing ethnic and racial diversity of youths in the U.S., researchers must be conscious of how youth are being recruited, retained, and assessed in research programs. In this article, we describe an efficient and replicable methodology, the Culturally Authentic Scaling Approach (CASA, which can be implemented to culturally adapt measures for use with ethnic minority and immigrant youths. Specifically, the steps involved in the CASA method are described, including developing community partnership, evaluating the theoretical equivalence, adjusting the selection and administration of measures. Engaging in an on-going dialogue with the community to increase cultural validity and build community relationships is also discussed. Addressing the cultural validity of measures used with ethnic and immigrant youths enhances the probability that the information obtained will be reflective of the cultural background of the participants and an accurate assessment of their experiences

  19. The impact of culturally competent diabetes care interventions for improving diabetes-related outcomes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, P; Sandhu, H K; Cannaby, A M; Sturt, J A

    2012-10-01

    To examine the evidence on culturally competent interventions tailored to the needs of people with diabetes from ethnic minority groups. MEDLINE (NHS Evidence), CINAHL and reference lists of retrieved papers were searched from inception to September 2011; two National Health Service specialist libraries were also searched. Google, Cochrane and DARE databases were interrogated and experts consulted. Studies were included if they reported primary research on the impact of culturally competent interventions on outcome measures of any ethnic minority group with diabetes. Paper selection and appraisal were conducted independently by two reviewers. The heterogeneity of the studies required narrative analysis. A novel culturally competent assessment tool was used to systematically assess the cultural competency of each intervention. Three hundred and twenty papers were retrieved and 11 included. Study designs varied with a diverse range of service providers. Of the interventions, 64% were found to be highly culturally competent (scoring 90-100%) and 36% moderately culturally competent (70-89%). Data were collected from 2616 participants on 22 patient-reported outcome measures. A consistent finding from 10 of the studies was that any structured intervention, tailored to ethnic minority groups by integrating elements of culture, language, religion and health literacy skills, produced a positive impact on a range of patient-important outcomes. Benefits in using culturally competent interventions with ethnic minority groups with diabetes were identified. The majority of interventions described as culturally competent were confirmed as so, when assessed using the culturally competent assessment tool. Further good quality research is required to determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of culturally competent interventions to influence diabetes service commissioners. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  20. [Polymorphism of 11 non-CODIS STRs in a population sample of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in northeastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Aleksandrowicz-Bukin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Population genetic data for 11 STRs included in the Humantype Chimera kit were obtained by multiplex PCR and subsequent automated fluorescent detection (ABI 310) from a sample of 125 unrelated individuals of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in Podlasie Region (NE Poland). The genotype distributions conformed to HWE for all the analyzed loci except D2S1360 and D21S2055. The highly polymorphic systems exhibit high informativeness and are a potential extension to CODIS loci.

  1. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Dan; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-Xia; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capi...

  2. 民族地区图书馆事业政策综论%A Review of the Policy of Librarianship in Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云; 孔繁秀

    2015-01-01

    论文将民族地区图书馆事业政策分为改革开放时期民族图书馆事业政策、现代化转型时期民族地区图书馆事业政策、大发展大繁荣时期的民族图书馆事业政策,梳理了不同历史时期的民族地区图书馆政策,并分析了这些政策对特定时期民族地区图书馆事业产生的重要影响。通过对各个阶段民族地区图书馆事业政策的内容和意义的全面把握,以期对我国民族地区图书馆事业发展概貌进行考察。%This paper divides librarianship in ethnic minority areas into three parts:national library policy in reform era, policy of library cause in national regions during the period of modern transition and national library policy of big development and boom, analyzes the polices’ significant impact on the development of the librarianship in ethnic minority areas in each historical stage. It is hoped to have an oversight of the librarianship in ethnic minority areas through a comprehensive grasp of the policies context and meaning in various stages of libraries in ethnic minority areas.

  3. Understanding the complex interplay of barriers to physical activity amongst black and minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom:a qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Koshoedo, Sejlo A.; Paul-Ebhohimhen, Virginia A; Jepson, Ruth G.; Watson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Background To conduct a meta-ethnographic analysis of qualitative studies to identify barriers to Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) individuals engaging in physical activity in the UK context. Methods A qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnographic methods to synthesis studies of barriers to engaging in physical activity among BME groups in the UK. A comprehensive search strategy of multiple databases was employed to identify qualitative research studies published up to October 2012. The eleven...

  4. Ethnic Tourism -- A Helicopter from "Huge Graveyard" to Paradise? Social impacts of ethnic tourism development on the minority communities in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Wu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s, ethnic tourism has been oneof the key industries promoted by the government of Guizhouprovince in Southwestern China. This industry has broughttremendous changes to the communities of local ethnic peoplesin destination areas, especially in improving their economiclife. However, although ethnic tourism does bring manypositive results to local peoples, it also has a negative sideas well. This paper investigates, from a local perspective,some of these impacts, taking the Miao/Hmong communities as acase study. The author contends that if ethnic governments andresidents want to sustain their culture and society, they musthave an awareness and understanding of both the positive andnegative impacts of tourism when considering a project intheir community.

  5. On the Folk Faith of the Ethnic Minorities in Western Regions%西域民族民间信仰简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 张芳

    2014-01-01

    民间信仰是古代西域各族群信仰体系普遍的基本特征和表现,在西域各时期民众的习俗生活中,都有诸多体现。即使在今天,西域各民族的民俗生活中仍遗留了较多原始信仰的文化痕迹,这些文化遗存在西域社会发展过程中长期影响着西域各族民众的生活和文化空间,并形成了西域民族信仰的多彩空间。%Folk faith has been an universal feature and manifestation in the belief systems of the ethnic minorities in Western Regions since the ancient times, and it incarnates in the life styles and customes of the people there in all periods. Even today quite a few primitive beliefs are still retained in the folk life of the ethnic minorities in Western Regions, such as Mazdaism, Jing religion, Moni religion, Saman religion, Taoism, etc. They are affecting the consciousness of the ethnic minorities in Xingjiang. And it makes their faith diversified.

  6. 关于少数民族法律人类学的反思%Reflection on Ethnic Minority of Legal Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿羽

    2011-01-01

    很多少数民族法律民族志,只是在进行资料创新而非观点创新,经验和理论呈现出"两张皮"样态:一边是少数民族奇闻趣事的繁琐陈列;另一边是跟经验材料关系不大的各种大名鼎鼎的理论。少数民族法律民族志要真正实现"从实践出发",需要:深入经验调查,实现知识的可解释性;展开交流对话,实现知识的可积累性;进行区域比较,实现知识的可类型化。%Many ethnic minority of legal ethnography put the attention on the material innovation rather than the view innovation,experience and theory presented"two skins"shape:One side was ethnic minority of odd things,the other side is all kinds of famous theory which were not much concern with experience.If ethnic minority of legal anthropology want to really realize from the practice of"starts from practice",should investigate further and realize the explanatory of knowledge,communicate and let the knowledge can be accumulated,and regional compare and let the knowledge can be typed.

  7. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Quinlan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  8. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-dan WANG; Chun-mei SHEN; Wen-juan LIU; Yu-dang ZHANG; Guang YANG; Jiang-wei YAN; Hai-xia QIN

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus,which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS),in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,China.A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system.Using capillary electrophoresis,the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped.A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group,and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965.The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background,for individual identification,and for paternity testing in forensic practice.

  9. 羌族刺绣图案设计探源与分析%Investigation and analysis on designs of embroidery patterns of Qiang Ethnic Minority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 张皋鹏

    2012-01-01

    以羌族刺绣图案设计元素特征作为研究对象,通过对已收集羌族刺绣图案资料的整理对比,提取出图案中每一题材的造型元素;结合羌族刺绣历史文化内涵和图案设计理论,分析其题材、造型、形式、色彩特征,形成图文分析资料.分析表明羌族刺绣具有较高审美价值,其图案造型形象生动,构图错落有致,图案元素丰富又生动,艺术风格率真灵动,在现代艺术设计中和艺术市场上具有极高的价值;指出羌族刺绣设计开发中存在的问题,并提出解决对策.%Targeting features of elements in embroidery of Qiang Ethnic Minority, this thesis compares data of patterns in embroidery of Qiang Ethnic Minority, which has been collected, extracts molding elements of each theme of patterns, combines with historical and cultural connotation with theories of pattern design, analyzes its subject matter, molding, form, color characteristics and summarizes the graphic and textual materials. Finally, the analyses shows that the embroidery of Qiang Ethnic Minority holds high aesthetic value because the modeling of their patterns is vivid, the composition of their pictures is well-proportioned, the elements of their patterns are abundant and the art styles are forthright and sincere. Therefore, the embroidery of Qiang Ethnic Minority is of great value. Finally, this thesis not only puts forward problems in the development and design of the embroidery of Qiang Ethnic Minority but also proposes countermeasures.

  10. The celebration of the Tenth Anniversity of founding of the center on Minority Women's Studies of Central Ethnic University & The Third International Academic Seminar on Women's Development and progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoWei

    2004-01-01

    To celebrate the Tenth Anniversity of founding of the Center on Minority Women's Studies, the Third International Academic Seminar on Women's Development and Progress, was organized by the Central Ethnic University, on 16, 17, Oct. in Beijing.

  11. The Right Logic in Social Integration of the Migrating Ethnic Minorities%流动少数民族社会融入的权利逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆平辉; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    Although the social integration of the migrating ethnic minorities could be regarded as an issue of cultural acceptance,behavioral adaptation and identity in theory,it actually should be considered as the realization and protection of minority rights in legal theory.It's reasonable and operable to measure the level of the social integration of the migrating ethnic minorities by minority rights standards.The major obstacles to the social integration of the migrating ethnic minorities are the shortage of due respect for group identity,the restriction for the equal and effective political participation,and the embarrassment to the free and equal communication.In order to promote the level of social integration of the migrating ethnic minorities,we need a policy transition from the well-being guarantee to the rights guarantee for eliminating the institutional inequality factors impeding social integration by law and policy.%流动少数民族社会融入在理论上是一个文化接纳、行为适应和身份认同问题,但在法律上却是一个是少数人权利的实现与保障问题。用少数人权利的标准来衡量目前流动少数民族社会融入状况具有合理性和可操作性。目前,流动少数民族的群体特征未得到应有的尊重,平等有效的政治参与受到制约,社会经济融入和文化融入实现困难成为影响其社会融入的主要原因。促进流动少数民族社会融入的政策方向需要有权利保障,要通过法律和政策来消除阻碍流动少数民族社会融入的制度性不平等因素。

  12. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and determinants of intakes between children of Dutch origin and non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut-Inge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is low in the Netherlands and a key target in healthy diet promotion. However, hardly any information is available on differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between Dutch children and ethnic minority children. Therefore, the aim of present study was to determine differences in usual fruit and vegetable intake between native Dutch and non-Western ethnic minority children and to study differences in and mediating effects of potential psychosocial and environmental determinants. Methods Ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable consumption, psychosocial and environmental determinants and mothers' educational level were measured with a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Complete data was available for 521 10–11 year-old-children, of which 50.5% of non-Western origin. Differences between the groups regarding potential determinants and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed with Mann Whitney tests or multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses were also conducted to assess mediating effects. Results Ethnic minority girls ate fruit more frequently (1.41 ± 1.0 times/day than Dutch girls (1.03 ± 0.82 times/day; no differences in frequency of intake were found for vegetables or among boys. Ethnic differences were found for almost all potential determinants. The Dutch children reported lower scores on these determinants than the ethnic minority children, except for perceived self-efficacy and barriers to eat fruit and vegetables. Knowledge of recommendations and facilitating behaviors of the parents mediated the association between ethnicity and fruit consumption among girls. Conclusion Ethnic minority girls in the Netherlands appear to have more favorable fruit intakes than Dutch girls, and ethnic minority children in general show more positive prerequisites for fruit and vegetable consumption. Interventions

  13. Opportunities for healthier child feeding. Does ethnic position matter? - self-reported evaluation of family diet and impediments to change among parents with majority and minority status in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2014-07-01

    Health inequality between ethnic groups is expressed in differences in the prevalence of diet related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare barriers toward eating healthier among ethnic majority and minority parents in Denmark. A postal survey was carried out among 2511 parents with either Danish or non-western ethnic minority descendant background, investigating barriers on cultural, structural, social, individual, and practical levels. The results showed that compared with parents of Danish origin, ethnic minority parents were more likely to evaluate their own diets negatively (OR 3.0, CI 1.7-5.3), and to evaluate their children's diets negatively (OR 4.6, CI 2.5-8.4). In addition, ethnic minority parents to a higher degree experienced barriers to eating healthier than Danish parents did. Most salient was ethnic minority parents' expression of a lack of control over their own food intake and the food given to their children in everyday life. Such a lack of control was identified on practical, social, structural and individual levels. Young age of the parents was found to explain some of the differences between ethnic groups. It is concluded that dietary interventions directed at parents of small children should address not only cultural background but also barriers operating on practical, social, structural, and individual levels, as some of these influence ethnic minorities and the majority population differently. Further exploration of the importance of young age and the interplay between structural and cultural factors in the lives of ethnic minority families is needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Are All Minority Women Equally Buffered from Negative Body Image? Intra-Ethnic Moderators of the Buffering Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J.; Cole, Elizabeth R.; Ward, L. Monique

    2010-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is normative among European American women, and involvement with predominant culture or linking self-worth to weight may intensify the association between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness for women of color. Our study investigated whether orientation to other ethnic groups (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure) and…

  15. Enhancing Health Communication Outcomes Among Ethnic Minority Patients: The Effects of the Match Between Participation Preferences and Perceptions and Doctor-Patient Concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Sanne; Schouten, Barbara C; Street, Richard L; van den Putte, Bas; van Weert, Julia C M

    2016-12-01

    Ethnic minority patients are less participative in medical consultations compared to ethnic majority patients. It is thus important to find effective strategies to enhance ethnic minority patients' participation and improve subsequent health outcomes. This study therefore aimed to investigate the relation between the match between patients' preferred and perceived participation and doctor-patient concordance in preferred doctor-patient relationship on patient satisfaction, fulfillment of information needs, and understanding of information among Turkish-Dutch and Dutch patients. Pre- and postconsultation questionnaires were filled out by 136 Dutch and 100 Turkish-Dutch patients in the waiting rooms of 32 general practitioners (GPs). GPs completed a questionnaire too. Results showed that a match between patients' preferred and perceived participation was related to higher patient satisfaction, more fulfillment of information needs, and more understanding of information than a mismatch for both patient groups. For doctor-patient concordance a conditional main effect on all outcome measures emerged only among Turkish-Dutch patients. That is, for patients who were discordant with their GP, higher perceived participation was related to lower satisfaction, worse fulfillment of information needs, and worse understanding of the information. In order to improve medical communication GPs should thus primarily be trained to tailor their communication styles to match patients' preferences for participation.

  16. 中国少数民族残疾人的现况调查%Epidemiological study on disabilities among ethnic minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嵘; 陈功; 宋新明; 张蕾; 郑晓瑛

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence rates of disabilities among the ethnic minority people in China. Methods Utilizing stratified, multiphase, and cluster probability sampling design, 2 526 145 persons were investigated and screened by trained interviewers,including 297 761 persons with ethnic minority backgrounds. Respondents scoring positive for potential problems were referred to physician for further diagnosis on disability and on scale measurement.Results The overall prevalence rate of disability for both ethnic minority and Han population were 6.24% (95%CI:6.16%-6.51% ) and 6.41% (95% CI: 6.38%-6.51% ) respectively. The total aggregate age-adjusted prevalence rate of disability was 7.31% for persons with ethnic minority. The prevalence rate of disabilities in male was significantly higher than that in females (7.31% vs. 6.75% ). The ranking of prevalence rates on different type of disabilities were: physical disability 1.90% (95%CI:1.89%-1.91%), hearing disability 1.34%(95%CI: 1.33%-1.35%), multiple disability 1.14%(95%CI:1.13%-1.15% ), vision disability 0.99% (95%CI: 0.97%-1.01% ), psychiatric disability 0.38%(95%CI:0.37%-0.40% ), intellectual disability 0.38% (0.37%-0.39%) and speech disability 0.12% (0.11%-0.13% ). Cerebral Palsy, genetic diseases, tympanitis, cerebral disease and mental retardation (not including unknown items) were the major causes for disabled children with ethnicity background.Degenerated diseases, including osteoarthropathy, cerebrovascular disease, elderly-related deafness or cataract were most important causes for ethnic minority persons aged 60 or over. Injury, including traffic accident was important disabled-related factor for persons with minority ethnicity aged 15-59.The main causes and ranking of causes for ethnical minority were similar with that for Han population.Conclusion The prevalence rate of disability for ethnic minority persons was significantly higher than that for Han population in China. Prevention for different

  17. Predicting ethnic minority children's vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: different pathways for host and ethnic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-09-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the Netherlands. Mothers reported on their language use with the child, frequency of reading by both parents, and availability of children's books in the ethnic and the host language. Children's Dutch and Turkish vocabulary were tested during a home visit. SES was related to maternal language use and to host language reading input. Reading input mediated the relation between SES and host language vocabulary and between maternal language use and host language vocabulary, whereas only maternal language use was related to ethnic language vocabulary. During transition to formal reading education, one should be aware that children from low-SES families receive less host language reading input.

  18. 狼与古代草原民族的渊源探析%Exploration of Relations between Wolf and Grassland Ethnic Minorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛毅娜

    2012-01-01

    有关回纥、突厥、乌孙、蒙古族等草原民族以狼为同一母题的族源传说文献记载颇丰。比较研究可发现其狼祖族源传说具有趋同性和嫁接性两大特征。其作为草原民族的精神信仰与草原民族的民族性格、生存理念及风俗习惯等存在着内在联系。梳理廓清其联系亦能进一步认识古代草原民族的民族血缘关系、民族融合进程、民族文化认同等相关历史信息。%There has been an abundant documents about legend that wolf is the origin clan of some grassland ethnic minorities such as the HuiGe, the Turks, the Wusun, the Mongolian. A comparative study of these legends shows two features: convergence and grafting of the legend. And it is found that the spiritual faith of grassland ethnic minorities has an internal relation with their personality, survival ideology and traditions and customs. So a further study of the relations between the wolf and the origins of the grassland ethnic minorities will be sure to help make clear some related historical information such as national blood relations, national amalgamation process and nation- al cultural identity as well.

  19. Successful Strategies for Practice-Based Recruitment of Racial and Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial: the IDEAS for a Healthy Baby Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Sarah L; Youssef, Yara; Pekow, Penelope S; White, Katharine O; Guhn-Knight, Haley; Lagu, Tara; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-12-01

    Racial/ethnic minority patients are often underrepresented in clinical trials. Efforts to address barriers to participation may improve representation, thus enhancing our understanding of how research findings apply to more diverse populations. The IDEAS (Information, Description, Education, Assistance, and Support) for a Healthy Baby study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention to reduce barriers to using publicly reported quality data for low-income, racial/ethnic minority women. We used strategies grounded in a health equity framework to address barriers to recruitment and retention in three domains: preparation, process, and patient-centeredness. "Preparation" included teaching study staff about health inequities, role-playing skills to develop rapport and trust, and partnering with clinic staff. "Processes" included use of electronic registration systems to pre-screen potential candidates and determine when eligible participants were in clinic and an electronic database to track patients through the study. Use of a flexible protocol, stipends, and consideration of literacy levels promoted "patient-centeredness." We anticipated needing to recruit 800 women over 18 months to achieve a completion goal of 650. Using the recruitment and retention strategies outlined above, we recruited 746 women in 15 months, achieving higher recruitment (87.1 %) and retention rates (97.3 %) than we had anticipated. These successful recruitment and retention strategies used for a large RCT promoted inclusivity and accessibility. Researchers seeking to recruit racial and ethnic minority pregnant women in similar settings may find the preparation, process, and patient-centered strategies used in this study applicable for their own studies. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784575 , 1R21HS021864-01.

  20. Ethnic minority, young onset, rare dementia type, depression: A case study of a Muslim male accessing UK dementia health and social care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jemma L

    2016-07-01

    A case study comprised of formal interviews, formal observations and informal discussions investigated the motivations and experiences accessing dementia care health and social care services for a Muslim, Pakistani male with dementia. Motivations derived from 'desperation' and an inability to access support from family or religious community. Experiences of accessing services were mostly negative. Dementia services were ill-informed about how to support persons with young onset dementia, with pre-existing mental health conditions, from an ethnic minority. Education and training to remove barriers to all dementia care services is required for persons with dementia, their families and within dementia services and religious communities.

  1. Rates, risk factors & methods of self harm among minority ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Kwame

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Results 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005, and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p Conclusion This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.

  2. Rates, risk factors & methods of self harm among minority ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; McKenzie, Kwame; Rasul, Farhat

    2007-11-19

    Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005), and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p refugees. This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.

  3. Acculturation and enculturation as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes (HSAs) among racial and ethnic minorities: A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shufang; Hoyt, William T; Brockberg, Dustin; Lam, Jaime; Tiwari, Dhriti

    2016-11-01

    Psychological services are culturally encapsulated for dominant cultural groups, and racial minorities underutilize treatment even though they suffer from more severe psychological distress. Sociocultural factors such as acculturation (one's adaptation into mainstream group) and enculturation (one's adherence to culture of heritage) are hypothesized to affect minorities' attitudes toward seeking psychological services. This meta-analysis examined 3 methods to assess acculturation/enculturation-unidimensional acculturation, bidimensional acculturation, and bidimensional enculturation as predictors of help-seeking attitudes (HSAs)-both positive and negative attitudes-among racial and ethnic minorities in 207 samples drawn from 111 research reports. The omnibus correlations between acculturation/enculturation variables and HSAs were quite small, but in the predicted direction. Moderator analyses suggested a more nuanced understanding of the association between bidimensional enculturation and positive HSAs: This association was significant (r = -.14 95% CI[-.18, -.09]) for Asians and Asian Americans, but very close to zero and nonsignificant for other racial minority groups (African Americans, Latino Americans, and others). In addition, the domain of acculturation/enculturation assessed was predictive of effect size, with enculturation measures containing a higher proportion of cognitive items (e.g., items that assess cultural values and beliefs) showing stronger (more negative) associations with positive HSAs. Post hoc analyses indicated that certain Asian cultural values, including emotional self-control, conformity to social norms, and collectivism, showed especially high negative associations with positive HSAs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Interventions for Ethnic-Minority HIV-Positive Alcohol/Drug Abusers in Resource Limited and Culturally Diverse Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports our intervention work with Alcohol and Other Drug Abusing (AOD People Living With HIV (PLWH. Present research has involved adapting Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM and other strategies to improve quality of life and health outcomes for PLWH. Historically, CBSM has used relaxation and coping skills training to reduce negative mood and improve coping behaviors. The efficacy of CBSM interventions to improve functioning has been demonstrated in many disease groups and, more recently, in ethnic-minority HIV+ samples in the US CBSM HIV risk reduction interventions are similar to other cognitive-behavioral therapies in emphasizing skills training and stress reduction. Among the most precarious and challenging clinical populations are HIV infected individuals with a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Compared to their counterparts with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, not only are they more likely to transmit the virus to others, but they are also at risk for problems in adhering to antiretroviral regimens. A main focus of this article is to report on our intervention work with very resource-limited, ethnic-minority PLWH with substance abuse problems, particularly our NIH funded projects in Miami and Haiti and the opportunities presented by the emerging science of biological vulnerability and genomic factors.

  5. Intergroup structure and identity management among ethnic minority and majority groups : The interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Reijerse, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an examination, in a natural setting, of the interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and group permeability on group identification, stereotypes, and group feelings among Turkish-Dutch and ethnically Dutch participants. The findings strongly support predictions derived

  6. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  7. Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

  8. Tackling Underachievement of Learners from Ethnic Minorities: A Comparison of Recent Policies of School Improvement in Germany, England and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomolla, Mechtild

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, in many western countries with large immigrant populations, inequalities in education relating to ethnic background have increased. Interventions traditionally consist of selective compensatory arrangements that focus on instruction in the second language--especially in early stages of schooling--and the treatment of…

  9. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  10. Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

  11. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  12. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Annie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such

  13. Study on Countermeasures for Increasing Income of Herdsman in Western Ethnic Minority Areas——A Case Study of Evenki Autonomous Banner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking typical western ethnic pastoral area-Evenki Autonomous Banner in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an example,this article analyses the factors restricting income increase of herdsman penetratingly as follows:the growth in revenue of animal husbandry in pastoral area is limited by ecology;the infrastructure construction in pastoral area lags behind,and the development of animal husbandry is still sluggish;the overall level of industrialization operation of agriculture and animal husbandry is not high;the employment structure of herdsman is simple,and the channel of income increase is narrow;the transfer of labor forces in pastoral area shows " pumping-like transfer" ;herdsmen enjoy few national policies of supporting agriculture and benefiting farmers,and the policy support is short.On the basis of the actual situation in western ethnic minority areas,following countermeasures and proposals are put forward for increasing herdsman’s income:transform the mode of production and operation,enhance the organization degree of the majority of herdsmen;improve infrastructure conditions,and promote comprehensive production capacity of agriculture and animal husbandry;quicken pace of industrialization,strengthen the construction of technology support and service system;speed up human capital accumulation rate of herdsman,improve self-development ability of herdsman;propel transformation of production pattern of animal husbandry,innovate ecological protection construction mechanism;increase subsidies for animal husbandry,pastoral area and herdsman in western ethnic minority areas,strengthen policy implementation.

  14. Homegardens of the Cao Lan, a Tai-Speaking Ethnic Minority in Vietnam’s Northern Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Cao Lan are a Tai-speaking ethnic group living in the Midlands of Northern Vietnam. Homegardens are an important component of their agroecosystem. The ecological structures of each homegarden of 17 households of the Cao Ngoi village in Tuyen Quang province were described and modal patterns identified. Most homegardens have organically shaped planting areas with indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and contain multiple species within the same bed or planting area. All o...

  15. Examining the English Language Policy for Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese University: A Language Ideology and Language Regime Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yawen; De Costa, Peter I.; Cui, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the learning of English in a Chinese university in Jiangsu and the university's preferential language policy, which allowed Uyghur minority students from Xinjiang to be enrolled despite their lower scores in the entrance examination. Guided by the constructs of language ideologies [Kroskrity, P. V. (2000). "Regimes of language:…

  16. Is All Classroom Conduct Equal?: Teacher Contact with Parents of Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Parental involvement is a key ingredient in the educational success of students and an integral component of involvement is teacher-parent communication. One body of research finds that minority immigrant parents face barriers in interacting with schools, and communicate less with schools than native-born White parents.…

  17. 羌族传统体育非物质文化遗产保护的困境与对策%Dilemma and Breakthrough of Traditional Sports Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection of Qiang Ethnic Minority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定宣; 刘中强; 黄山鹰

    2012-01-01

    非物质文化遗产保护为羌族传统体育文化提出了一个崭新的传承理念,搭建了一个广阔的发展平台。通过非物质文化保护把羌族传统体育文化发展纳入政府部门管理发展,指导羌族民族文化的保护和传承,在新的历史时期对羌族民族传统体育文化所蕴含的广博深远内涵的提炼有着重要的作用。分析了羌族传统文化与非物质文化遗产保护取得的成就及存在的问题,并提出了对策。%The intangible cultural heritage protection has given a new concept for the traditional sports culture of Qiang Ethnic Minority and established a broad platform for development. The intangible cultural heritage protection has put the traditional sports cultural development of Qiang ethnic minority under the management of the government and guide the protection and inheritance of the ethnic culture of Qiang ethnic minority. The paper analyses the achievement of the protection of the traditional culture of Qiang ethnic minority and the its problems.

  18. 解放战争时期中国共产党少数民族文化政策述论%Discussion on the Culture Policy of Ethnic Minority of the CCP for the War of Liberation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源泉

    2012-01-01

    解放战争时期,中国共产党依据形势变化和争取民族解放的需要,采取一系列措施发展少数民族文化、遵从各民族风俗习惯、维护少数民族的信仰自由、保障少数民族语言文字的权利,动员和团结了各族群众反抗国民党的独裁统治,促进了少数民族的思想解放,为新民主主义革命的胜利做出了贡献,也为新中国民族文化工作的开展积累了经验。%During the war of liberation, the Communist Party of China according to the change of domestic and international situation and ethnic liberation need, take effective measures to develop ethnic culture and education, follow the customs of national minority, safeguard the freedom of religious belief of ethnic minorities, protection of minority language rights, mobilize and unite the people of all ethnic groups together to resist the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang, promoted ethnic ideological liberation and national areas of social progress, for the victory of New Democracy revolution has contributed to, but also for the new culture of Chinese minority nationalities work experience.

  19. Reflection on Balanced Allocation of Fundamental Education Teachers in Poverty-Stricken Areas of Ethnic Minorities :Example of a Survey in the Tibetan Autonomous County of Tianzhu in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun

    2006-01-01

    Balanced allocation of fundamental education tcachers is one of the most important ways to achieve the highest quality of compulsory education.It also guarantees an aceelerated achievement of a balanced development of fundamental education.In povertystricken areas of ethnic minorities.unbalanced teacher allocation iS a major factor that restricts the development of fundamental education.The establishment of policy system,investment mechanism,and teachers'training mechanism Can be an effective Wav to promote balanced teacher allocation and to achieve a balanced development of fundamental education in poverty-stricken areas of ethnic minorities.

  20. Financial management and job social skills training components in a summer business institute: a controlled evaluation in high achieving predominantly ethnic minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-07-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.