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Sample records for r3327-h rat prostate

  1. Selenium, but not lycopene or vitamin E, decreases growth of transplantable dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Lindshield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lycopene, selenium, and vitamin E are three micronutrients commonly consumed and supplemented by men diagnosed with prostate cancer. However, it is not clear whether consumption of these compounds, alone or in combination, results in improved outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of dietary lycopene (250 mg/kg diet, selenium (methylselenocysteine, 1 mg/kg diet, and vitamin E (gamma-tocopherol, 200 mg/kg diet alone and in combination on the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-H rat prostate adenocarcinomas in male, Copenhagen rats. AIN-93G diets containing these micronutrients were prefed for 4 to 6 weeks prior to tumor implantation by subcutaneous injection. Tumors were allowed to grow for approximately 18 weeks. Across diet groups, methylselenocysteine consumption decreased final tumor area (P = 0.003, tumor weight (P = 0.003, and the tumor weight/body weight ratio (P = 0.003, but lycopene and gamma-tocopherol consumption intake did not alter any of these measures. There were no significant interactions among nutrient combinations on tumor growth. Methylselenocysteine consumption also led to small, but significant decreases in body weight (P = 0.007, food intake (P = 0.012, and body weight gain/food intake ratio (P = 0.022. However, neither body weight nor gain/food intake ratio was correlated with tumor weight. Methylselenocysteine, lycopene, and gamma-tocopherol consumed alone and in combination did not alter serum testosterone or dihydrotestosterone concentrations; tumor proliferation or apoptosis rates. In addition, the diets also did not alter tumor or prostate androgen receptor, probasin, selenoprotein 15, selenoprotein P, or selenium binding protein 2 mRNA expression. However, using castration and finasteride-treated tissues from a previous study, we found that androgen ablation altered expression of these selenium-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Of the three micronutrients tested, only

  2. Induced Chronic Prostatitis in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, compared with reference group (176.1 ± 12.1 pg/ml), IL-1β level of prostate tissues of high-dose PCS ..... Fig 1: Effect of PCS extract on the histomorphology of prostate tissues in rats. ... involved with cellular recruitment, fever, acute.

  3. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L.; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P.

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity.

  5. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  6. Inhibition of growth of experimental prostate cancer with sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, E; Bokser, L; Comaru-Schally, A M; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1991-02-01

    Inhibitory effects of the sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1, 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2, 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine3, D-citrulline6, D-alanine10]LH-RH (SB-75) on the growth of experimental prostate cancers were investigated. In the first experiment, three doses of a microcapsule preparation releasing 23.8, 47.6, and 71.4 micrograms of antagonist SB-75 per day were compared with microcapsules of agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH liberating 25 micrograms/day in rats bearing Dunning R3327H transplantable prostate carcinoma. During 8 weeks of treatment, tumor growth was decreased by [D-Trp6]LH-RH and all three doses of SB-75 as compared to untreated controls. The highest dose of SB-75 (71.4 micrograms/day) caused a greater inhibition of prostate cancer growth than [D-Trp6]LH-RH as based on measurement of tumor volume and percentage change in tumor volume. Doses of 23.8 and 47.6 micrograms of SB-75 per day induced a partial and submaximal decrease, respectively, in tumor weight and volume. Tumor doubling time was the longest (50 days) with the high dose of SB-75 vs. 15 days for controls. The body weights were unchanged. The weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate were greatly reduced in all three groups that received SB-75, and testosterone levels were decreased to nondetectable values in the case of the two higher doses of SB-75. LH levels were also diminished. Similar results were obtained in the second experiment, in which the animals were treated for a period of 8 weeks with microgranules of SB-75. Therapy with microgranules of SB-75 significantly decreased tumor growth as measured by the final tumor volume, the percentage change from the initial tumor volume, and the reduction in tumor weight. The results indicate that antagonist SB-75, released from sustained delivery systems, can produce a state of chemical castration and effectively

  7. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  8. Flaxseed suppressed prostatic epithelial proliferation in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mahmoud M; Hassan, Nahla S; Schlicht, Michael J; Bosland, Maarten C

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a disease occurring frequently among elderly males, is a slow progressive enlargement of the fibromuscular and epithelial structures of the prostate gland. Dietary factors may influence the prostate and exert an influence on prostatic growth and disease. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of dietary flaxseed supplementation against testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in male rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) untreated control; (2) treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) to induce prostate enlargement; (3) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 5% milled flaxseed; (4) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 10% milled flaxseed; and (5) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 20 ppm finasteride. Treatment with TP significantly increased the absolute and relative weights of different prostatic lobes, serum testosterone (T), and testosterone/estradiol ratio, as well as prostatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, RNA synthesis per cell, and epithelial cell proliferation, detected as Ki67 labeling. Histopathological examination did not reveal marked differences in acinar morphology in ventral prostate, whereas morphometric analysis showed significantly increased epithelial cell height. Co-administration of flaxseed or finasteride with TP significantly reduced prostatic VEFG, epithelial cell proliferation, and RNA/DNA ratio, along with a significant increase in serum T and testosterone/estradiol ratio compared with TP-only-treated rats. Our results indicate that flaxseed, similar to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, blocked TP-induced prostate enlargement in a rat model of BPH, likely through suppression of prostatic VEFG and cellular proliferation.

  9. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl

  10. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  11. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  12. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  13. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  14. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. [Bushen Huoxue Fang promotes the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Qiu-Fen; Tian, Dai-Zhi; Jiang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Xian-De; Qiu, Shun-An; Ren, Xiao-Gang; Li, Yu-Bing

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Bushen Huoxue Fang (BSHX) on the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its possible action mechanism. One hundred 3- month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal number (control, castrated, BPH model, and BSHX). BPH models were made by subcutaneous injection of testosterone following castration; the rats in the BSHX group were treated intragastrically with BSHX at 2.34 g/ml after modeling, while those in the other two groups with equal volume of saline, all for 37 days. On the 38th day, all the rats were sacrificed and their prostates harvested for detection of the distribution of TGF-beta1 and alpha-actin and the count of positive cells in the prostatic ductal system by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis rate of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was determined by TUNEL assay. The expression of TGF-beta1 was significantly increased in the rats of the BSHX group as compared with the BPH models in both the proximal prostatic duct ([15.28 +/- 4.30]% vs [36.42 +/- 8.10]%, P epithelial cells in the proximal prostatic duct ([39.42 +/- 9.20]% vs [3.86 +/- 1.34]%, P epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was significantly higher in the BSHX-treated rats than in the BPH models (P epithelial cells, and thus effectively inhibit benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  16. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  17. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  18. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    the hyperplastic growth phase of the prostate in newborn rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Newborn rats were treated for 8 weeks with EGF (150 microg/kg body weight per day), administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Sections of the prostate tissue were examined by a stereological technique to determine tissue......OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during...... of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p

  19. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies and prostatic tissue distribution of fosfomycin tromethamine in bacterial prostatitis or normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Shang, X; Zhu, J; Ma, B; Zhang, Q

    2018-05-02

    In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in FT-treatment groups compared with the model group, indicating that FT against prostatic infection induced by E. coli showed good antibacterial effects. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics and prostatic distribution of fosfomycin were studied and compared in BP and normal rats. The concentrations of fosfomycin in samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were no differences in plasma pharmacokinetic parameters between two groups. But significantly higher penetration of fosfomycin into prostatic tissues was found in BP rats. We therefore suggested that FT had a good therapeutic effect on BP and it might be used in curing masculine reproductive system diseases. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Expression of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Rat Circumvallate Papillae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishida

    Full Text Available ATP and its metabolites are important for taste signaling in taste buds, and thus a clearance system for them would play critical roles in maintenance of gustatory function. A previous report revealed that mRNAs for ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP were expressed by taste cells of taste buds, and NT5E-immunoreactivity was detected in taste cells. However, there was no information on PAP-immunoreactivity in taste buds. In this study, we examined the expression profile of PAP in rat taste buds. In the isolated rat taste buds, we detected expression of mRNA for PAP, but NT5E was not detected differing from the case of mouse ones (Dando et al., 2012, J Neuroscience. On immunohistochemical analysis, PAP-immunoreactivity was found predominantly in NTPDase2-positive type I and SNAP25-positive type III taste cells, while there were no apparent signals of it in PLC-β2-positive type II, α-gustducin-positive type II, AADC-positive type III and 5HT-positive type III ones. As for NT5E, we could not detect its immunoreactivity in rat taste buds, and co-localization of it with any taste cell markers, although mouse taste buds expressed NT5E as reported previously. These findings suggest that PAP expressed by type I and one of type III taste cells of rats may contribute to metabolic regulation of the extracellular levels of adenine nucleotides in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, and the regulating mechanisms for adenine nucleotides in taste buds might be different between rats and mice.

  1. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine is decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chin; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Tong, Yat-Ching; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Neurotransmitters are known to control prostate contractility. Agmatine is one of them and induces relaxation through imidazoline receptors. The paper shows that the action of agmatine is reduced in hypertensive rats, and that this change is related to the decrease of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the prostate. The findings can increase our understanding of the possible underlying mechanism for the development of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. To compare agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in hypertensive and control rats. To investigate the responsible mechanism(s) and the role of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Prostate strips were isolated from male spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats for measurement of isometric tension. The strips were precontracted with 1 µmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. Dose-dependent relaxation of the prostatic strips was studied by cumulative administration of agmatine, 1 to 100 µmol/L, into the organ bath. Effects of specific antagonists on agmatine-induced relaxation were studied. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the gene expression of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine was markedly reduced in SH rats compared with WKY rats. The relaxation caused by agmatine was abolished by BU224, a selective imidazoline I(2)-receptor antagonist, but was not modified by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block imidazoline I(1)-receptors. The relaxation induced by diazoxide at a concentration sufficient to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels was markedly reduced in the SH rat prostate. Expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channel sulphonylurea receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits were both decreased in the prostate of SH rats. The decrease of agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in SH rats is related to the change in

  2. Effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis caused by pelvic congestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-ting CUI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP in rats and its possible mechanisms. Methods Thirty-two healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham-operated group (SO group, chronic prostatitis model group (CPM group, chronic prostatitis model + prostat treatment group (CPM-P group, and chronic prostatitis model + diosmin treatment group (CPM-D group. Rats in SO group underwent laparotomy only to expose the prostate, and those in other groups received prostatic vein ligation to reproduce pelvic congestion. HE staining was used for the examination of the prostate 35 days after the operation. 80mg/(kg.d of diosmin was given to the rats in CPM-D group, and 60mg/(kg.d of diosmin to the rats in CPM-P group twice a day by gavage for 7 days. Same volume of 5% acacia gum was given to rats in SO and CPM groups. All of the rats were sacrificed 1h after the last administration, and the serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO were determined by ELISA, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue were observed after HE staining and compared between the groups. Results The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were significantly lower in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, the serum level of IL-10 was significantly higher in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, and the serum MDA level was similar between the 3 groups. HE staining showed that chronic inflammatory changes in rats' prostate were reduced more significantly in CPM-P group and CPM-D group than in CPM group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of diosmin on pelvic-congestion-induced chronic prostatitis is similar to that of prostat tablets, and its mechanism may be related to the alleviation of local inflammatory response by reducing the IL-1β, IL-8 and NO levels and increasing the IL-10 content in serum. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.06.04

  3. Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...

  4. Penetration and pharmacokinetics of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rat prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Radhakrishnan, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Rajan

    2018-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) involves inflammation of the prostate and affects the quality of life of men of all ages. It is well reported in clinical studies that the treatment for CP/CPPS using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produced favorable outcomes. However, currently, there are no guidelines on choice of the NSAIDs for the treatment of CP/CPPS. Therefore, in the current research study, we evaluated the prostate tissue penetration of four NSAIDs in rats to provide guidance on choice of NSAIDs for the treatment of CP/CPPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered orally with four NSAIDs viz. celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at 500 mg/kg dose. The animals were then sacrificed at various time points, and their prostate tissues were harvested. The NSAIDs were then extracted from the prostate tissues using liquid extraction technique, and their concentration in prostate tissue was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The prostate tissue penetration and related pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by non-compartmental analysis. The HPLC method for quantifying NSAIDs in prostate tissue resulted in single, sharp peaks without any interference and all validation parameters were within limits. Celecoxib showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) [146.50 ± 2.75 μg/mL*h] of all NSAID's. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with replication indicated an overall statistically significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters for celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen. This study for the first time reported the relative prostate tissue penetration of four NSAIDs. The pharmacokinetic data indicated that celecoxib has the highest penetration and retention in rat prostate tissues. Therefore, celecoxib may be considered as a better choice for the treatment CP/CPPS involving NSAIDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chemoprevention of hormone-dependent prostate cancer in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V

    1999-01-01

    The high incidence and long latent period of prostate cancer make it an ideal target for chemoprevention. We have evaluated a series of agents for chemopreventive efficacy using a model in which hormone-dependent prostate cancers are induced in the Wistar-Unilever (WU) rat by sequential treatment with antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate), androgen (testosterone propionate), and direct-acting chemical carcinogen (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea), followed by chronic androgen stimulation (testosterone). This regimen reproducibly induces prostate cancers in high incidence, with no gross toxicity and a low incidence of neoplasia in the seminal vesicle and other non-target tissues. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) are the most active agents identified to date. DHEA inhibits prostate cancer induction both when chronic administration is begun prior to carcinogen exposure, and when administration is delayed until preneoplastic prostate lesions are present. 9-cis-RA is the most potent inhibitor of prostate carcinogenesis identified; a study to determine the efficacy of delayed administration of 9-cis-RA is in progress. Liarozole fumarate confers modest protection against prostate carcinogenesis, while N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), alpha-difluoromethylornithine, oltipraz, DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), and L-selenomethionine are inactive. Chemoprevention efficacy evaluations in the WU rat will support the identification of agents that merit study for prostate cancer chemoprevention in humans.

  6. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  8. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Nadeem; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G

    2003-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the in vivo effects on androgen-induced prostatic enlargement in rats of two nutraceuticals--the widely recognized Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) and the less well-known Cernitin (defined pollen extract). Non-castrated rats, had a mean prostate weight of 124 mg +/- 8.8 (S.E.M.) compared to the 24.5 mg +/- 1.9 (S.E.M.) of the castrated rat followed under the same regimen (p Saw Palmetto, crushed whole berry derived from Saw Palmetto fruit, a water soluble and fat soluble extract of Cernitin or a combination of the Saw Palmetto extract and Cernitin. All treatments decreased the size of the prostate to roughly the same size as in the non-castrated rats, a size that was significantly smaller than castrated rats treated with testosterone in the same manner (p Saw Palmetto (whole berry and extract) and Cernitin to influence prostatic hyperplasia via effects on androgen metabolism.

  9. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Luo, Fei; Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  10. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Yong [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193 (China); Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Ju, E-mail: zhangju@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  12. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

  13. [Effects of soy bean isoflavone on inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the expressions of NO and NOS of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aiqing; Ren, Guofeng; Tang, Ling; Jiang, Weiwei

    2009-03-01

    To explore the inhibitive effect of soybean isoflavone on the prostatic hyperplasia on the expressions of nitric oxid and nitric oxide synthase in the prostatic hyperplasia rats. Subcutaneously injected testosterone propionate were to induce prostate hyperplasia in rats. The changes of prostate wet weight, prostatic index, liver index, the changes of some biochemical indexes in rat prostate tissue in the control and the treatment, the low, moderate, high dose groups of soybean isoflavone groups were observed. The prostate wet weight and prostatic index in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment and the moderate groups were lowest in all dose group. There were no significant differences in liver index, urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase of each group. Acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment group. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in all dose groups were merely higher than those in the treatment group. Soybean isoflavone could inhibit prostate hyperplasia and increase the expressions of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in rats.

  14. Preventive effects of oligomerized polyphenol on estradiol-induced prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Suk; Lee, Eun Jin; Cho, Kang Su; Yoon, So Jung; Lee, Young Hoon; Hong, Sung Joon

    2009-06-30

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS, NIH category III) accounts for 90-95% of prostatitis cases. However, standard treatment has not yet been established. It is known that polyphenols have an inhibitory effect on inflammation by their antioxidative capacity, and oligonol, a polyphenol derivative, has much higher bioavailability and bioactivity than common polyphenols. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of oligonol in estradiol-induced prostatitis rat models. Prostatitis was induced by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in Wistar male rats (n = 20). Ten rats were placed in the oligonol-treated group and 10 in the E2 + DHT-treated group. The other 10 rats were also included as normal control group. Oligonol (60 mg/kg/day) was administered via gavage tube for 4 weeks. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were quantified, and phosphorylation of IkappaBa and histological changes were also evaluated in prostatic tissue. The SOD and GPx activity showed tendencies to increase in the oligonol-treated group compared to the normal control group. TNF-alpha expression was slightly reduced in the oligonol-treated group. Western blotting demonstrated that phosphorylation of IkappaBa in the oligonol-treated group was significantly lower than in the normal control group. The E2 + DHT-treated group revealed severe atrophy of acinar epithelial cells and infiltration of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the prostate, however, the oligonol-treated group showed overall reduction in inflammatory features. This study demonstrates that oligonol improves estradiol-induced non-bacterial prostatitis by regulating phosphorylation of IkappaBa. These findings suggest that oligonol has a beneficial effect on prevention and treatment of CP/CPPS.

  15. Graminex Pollen: Phenolic Pattern, Colorimetric Analysis and Protective Effects in Immortalized Prostate Cells (PC3) and Rat Prostate Challenged with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Macchione, Nicola; Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Recinella, Lucia; Carradori, Simone; Zengin, Gokhan; Cesa, Stefania; Leporini, Lidia; Leone, Sheila; Brunetti, Luigi; Menghini, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino

    2018-05-11

    Prostatitis, a general term describing prostate inflammation, is a common disease that could be sustained by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. The efficacy of herbal extracts with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects for blunting the burden of inflammation and oxidative stress, with possible improvements in clinical symptoms, is under investigation. Pollen extracts have been previously reported as promising agents in managing clinical symptoms related to prostatitis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of Graminex pollen (Graminex TM , Deshler, OH, USA), a commercially available product based on standardized pollen extracts, in rat prostate specimens, ex vivo. In this context, we studied the putative mechanism of action of pollen on multiple inflammatory pathways, including the reduction of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), and malondialdehyde (MDA), whose activities were significantly increased by inflammatory stimuli. We characterized by means of chromatographic and colorimetric studies the composition of Graminex pollen to better correlate the activity of pollen on immortalized prostate cells (PC3), and in rat prostate specimens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that Graminex pollen was able to reduce radical oxygen species (ROS) production by PC3 cells and MDA, NFκB mRNA, and PGE₂ levels, in rat prostate specimens. According to our experimental evidence, Graminex pollen appears to be a promising natural product for the management of the inflammatory components in the prostate.

  16. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-01-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G 1 -to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: → Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. → Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. → Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. → Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. → It may cause

  17. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO 2 -induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO 2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO 2 -treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and

  18. Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day.

  19. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  20. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Yin Zhi Huang Soup in an Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the Chinese herbal medicine Yin Zhi Huang soup (YZS in an experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP rat model. In total, 48 rats were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=12/group: saline group, pathological model group, Qianlietai group, and YZS group. We determined the average wet weight of the prostate tissue, the ratio of the wet weight of the prostate tissue to body weight, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in the blood serum, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue using light microscopy. YZS reduced the rats’ prostate wet weight, the ratio of the prostate wet weight to body weight, and TNF-α levels in the blood serum and inhibited the expression of iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues (P<0.05. Following YZS treatment, the pathological changes in the rats’ prostates were improved compared with those in the model group (P<0.05. Furthermore, YZS treatment reduced inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue. It also significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and chemokines, such as iNOS, in the rat model of EAP.

  1. Corn silk extract improves benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Ra; Ha, Ae Wha; Choi, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured. Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( P corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.

  2. Null activity of selenium and vitamin e as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Rao, K V N; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of selenium and vitamin E as inhibitors of prostate carcinogenesis, four chemoprevention studies using a common protocol were done in a rat model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. After stimulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate followed by testosterone propionate, male Wistar-Unilever rats received a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) followed by chronic androgen stimulation via subcutaneous implantation of testosterone pellets. At 1 week post-MNU, groups of carcinogen-treated rats (39-44/group) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with l-selenomethionine (3 or 1.5 mg/kg diet; study 1), dl-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 4,000 or 2,000 mg/kg diet; study 2), l-selenomethionine + vitamin E (3 + 2,000 mg/kg diet or 3 + 500 mg/kg diet; study 3), or selenized yeast (target selenium levels of 9 or 3 mg/kg diet; study 4). Each chemoprevention study was terminated at 13 months post-MNU, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathologic evaluation. No statistically significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence were identified in any group receiving dietary supplementation with selenium and/or vitamin E. These data do not support the hypotheses that selenium and vitamin E are potent cancer chemopreventive agents in the prostate, and when considered with the recent clinical data reported in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), show the predictive nature of this animal model for human prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  3. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  4. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed

  5. Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficacy of Prostamol Uno and Samprost on rat model of chronic aseptic prostate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V

    2011-11-01

    Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.

  6. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) causes growth of the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Vinter-Jensen, L; Pedersen, S B

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the rat prostate. In addition, we investigated the effect of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibition with alpha-diflouromethylornitine (DFMO) on the expected growth of the prostate.MA...

  7. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  8. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  9. Bladder function in 17β-estradiol-induced nonbacterial prostatitis model in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Kawai, Yuko; Oka, Michiko; Oyama, Tatsuya; Hashizume, Kazumi; Wada, Naoki; Hori, Jun-ichi; Tamaki, Gaku; Kita, Masafumi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2013-06-01

    To investigate bladder function in a model of nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) induced in castrated rats by 17β-estradiol injection. Ten-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, sham and NBP (both N = 8). NBP was induced by castration followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol for 30 days. On the 31st day after surgery, we investigated (1) voiding behavior, (2) bladder blood flow (BBF), (3) prostate and bladder weight, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and CXCL1) levels and (4) bladder contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol and KCl. (1) Voiding behavior (average micturition volume, total urine volume and number of micturitions) and (2) BBF were not significantly different between the sham and NBP groups. (3) NBP led to a significant decrease in prostatic weight and increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels in the prostate, but NBP did not cause a significant change in bladder weight or proinflammatory cytokine levels in the bladder. (4) Bladder contractile forces in response to EFS, carbachol and KCl were not significantly affected by NBP. In this rat model, NBP did not cause a significant change in the level of proinflammatory cytokines in the bladder and affect bladder function.

  10. Resveratrol Improves Cell Cycle Arrest in Chronic Prostatitis Rats, by C-kit/SCF Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) with complex pathogenesis is difficult for treatment. c-kit has been associated with the control of cell proliferation of prostate cells. This study aims to evaluate the role of resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, in regulating the expression of c-kit in CP and investigate the consequent effects on cell cycle. Rat model of CP was established through subcutaneous injections of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and cell cycle-associated proteins. The model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Gland lumen diameter was also significantly smaller; the activity of c-kit/SCF in the CP rats was increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the cell cycle proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. Dysregulation of cell cycle was involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment by the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  11. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  12. P2X7 receptor mediates activation of microglial cells in prostate of chemically irritated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Evidence shows that adenosine triphosphate (ATP is involved in the transmission of multiple chronic pain via P2X7 receptor. This study was to investigate the P2X7 and microglial cells in the chronic prostatitis pain. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into control group and chronic prostatitis group (n = 24 per group. A chronic prostatitis animal model was established by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to the prostate of rats, and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL was detected on days 0, 4, 12 and 24 (n = 6 at each time point in each group. Animals were sacrificed and the pathological examination of the prostate, detection of mRNA expression of P2X7 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1 and measurement of content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord were performed on days 0, 4, 12 and 24. In addition, the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord was measured after intrathecal injection of inhibitors of microglial cells and/or P2X7 for 5 days. Results The chronic prostatitis was confirmed by pathological examination. The expression of P2X7 and IBA-1 and the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats with chronic prostatitis were significantly higher than those in the control group. On day 4, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines became to increase, reaching a maximal level on day 12 and started to reduce on day 24, but remained higher than that in the control group. Following suppression of microglial cells and P2X7 receptor, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was markedly reduced. Conclusion In chronic prostatitis pain, the microglial cells and P2X7 receptor are activated resulting in the increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the L5-S2 spinal cord, which might attribute to the maintenance and intensification of pain in chronic prostatitis.

  13. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four

  14. [Therapeutic efficacy of compound Xuanju capsule on autoimmune prostatitis in rats: an experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Fu; Wu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Cui; Li, Na; Shang, Xue-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Xu, Hao-Qin; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Compound Xuanju Capsule (CXC) on autoimmune prostatitis in rat models. Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: blank control, low-concentration purified prostate protein (low-conc PPP), low-conc PPP + CXC treatment, high-concentration PPP (hi-con PPP), and hi-conc PPP + CXC treatment. Autoimmune prostatitis models were established by intragastric administration of PPP solution at 15 mg/ml (low concentration) and 80 mg/ml, respectively. At 30 days after modeling, the rats in the blank control and low-conc and hi-conc PPP model groups were treated with normal saline, and those in the other two groups with CXC at a daily dose of 0.068 g/ml. At 30, 45, and 60 days, all the animals were sacrificed for observation of pathological changes in the prostate tissue and determination of the levels of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the serum. Compared with the PPP models, the hi-conc PPP + CXC group showed significantly reduced levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the serum at 45 days ([148.54 +/- 17.23] and [62.14 +/- 5.59] pg/ml vs [100.77 +/- 11.08] and [32.63 +/- 2.91] pg/ml, P microscope. Compound Xuanju Capsule is efficacious on autoimmune prostatis in rats by reducing inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue and improving the expression of inflammatory factors.

  15. Gene expression changes in rat prostate after activation or blocking of the androgen and estrogen receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, Majken; Holst, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    responsive genes (complement C3, ER alpha, ER beta, AR, TRPM-2, PBPC3, ODC, and IGF-1 mRNA) was analyzed in rat ventral prostate by real time RT-PCR. Administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) to castrated testosterone-treated rats had no effect on reproductive organ weights or gene expression levels...... reversed by ICI 182780, and affected TRPM-2, PBP C3, ODC, IGF-1, AR, and ERa mRNA levels. AR expression in the prostate seemed to be under regulation of both estrogens and androgens, as ICI 182780 inhibited the testosterone-induced AR expression, and flutamide inhibited the EB-induced AR expression...... administration abolished the effects of EB. First choice of gene expression profiles in the Hershberger assay to study androgenic or anti-androgenic effects would be the traditional, TRPNI-2 and PBP C3, supplemented with the new complement C3....

  16. Radiation protection effect of selenium on the Rat's prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Jung, Do Young; Kim, Jang Oh; Shin, Ji Hye; Kim, Joo Hee; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    High-tech medical equipment has increased the utilization of radiation in the medical field. As a result, research on radiation protection using natural materials has become an important social issue. Selenium is a natural substance that is highly expressed in prostate known that an essential role in prostate cells. Selenium was orally administered to Rat and irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation. Then, the prostate tissue was used as a target organ for 1 day, 7 days and 21 days to investigate the radiation protection effect of selenium through changes of blood components, Superoxide Dismutase and histological changes. As a result, there was a significant protective effect of hematopoietic immune system(hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil, platelet) in the group irradiated with selenium(p<0.05). The observation of tissue changes selenium is an effective component to increase Superoxide Dismutase activity, and it was confirmed that it has an effect of inhibiting the expression of hypertrophy of prostate by irradiation. Therefore, it is considered that selenium can be utilized as a radioprotective agent by inducing prevention of prostate-related diseases.

  17. Protective effect of Acticoa powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on prostate carcinogenesis in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Guardia-Llorens, Maria-Alba; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2008-02-01

    The effects of Acticoa powder on prostate carcinogenesis were investigated using the N-methylnitrosourea and testosterone propionate prostate tumor model. Sixty male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 15 rats: one control group not induced but treated with vehicle (not induced+vehicle) and three chemo-induced groups. Two weeks before prostate tumor induction and then throughout the experiment, chemo-induced rats were orally treated with Acticoa powder at 24 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24) or 48 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48) mg/kg or with vehicle (chemo-induced+vehicle), daily from Monday to Friday. Survival, body weight, food and water consumption were recorded throughout the experiment. Six rats per group were randomly killed 9 months after the prostate tumor induction for histopathological analysis of prostates. A reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated group in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group and no tumors were observed in the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group as in the not induced+vehicle-treated group after 9 months. The nine remaining rats per group were maintained in a long-term survival study. The life span of the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group was significantly increased in comparison with the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48 and the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated groups, close to the one of the not induced+vehicle-treated group. A significant reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was also observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24 and chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated groups in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, Acticoa powder at 24 mg/kg protected rats from prostate carcinogenesis when chronically given before the initiation and promotion phases of induction.

  18. MicroPET assessment of androgenic control of glucose and acetate uptake in the rat prostate and a prostate cancer tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kim, Joonyoung; Jones, Lynne A.; Mercer, Nicole M.; Engelbach, John A.; Sharp, Terry L.; Welch, Michael J. E-mail: welchm@mir.wustl.edu

    2002-11-01

    PET has been used to monitor changes in tumor metabolism in breast cancer following hormonal therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether PET imaging could evaluate early metabolic changes in prostate tumor following androgen ablation therapy. Studies were performed comparing two positron-emitting tracers, {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-acetate, in Sprague-Dawley male rats to monitor metabolic changes in normal prostate tissue. Additional studies were performed in nude mice bearing the CWR22 androgen-dependent human prostate tumor to evaluate metabolic changes in prostate tumor. In rats, for the androgen ablation pretreatment, 1 mg diethylstilbestrol (DES) was injected subcutaneously 3 and 24 hours before tracer injection. For androgen pretreatment, 500 {mu}g dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was injected intraperitoneally 2 and 6 hours before tracer injection. The rats were divided into three groups, Group A (no-DES, no-DHT, n = 18), Group B (DES, no-DHT, n = 18) and Group C (DES, DHT, n = 18). In each group, 10 animals received {sup 18}F-FDG, whereas the remaining eight animals were administered {sup 11}C-acetate. Rats were sacrificed at 120 min post-injection of {sup 18}F-FDG or 30 min post-injection of {sup 11}C-acetate. Pretreatment of the mouse model using DHT (200 {mu}g of DHT in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) or DES (200 {mu}g of DES in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) was conducted every 2 days for one week. Mice were imaged with both tracers in the microPET scanner (Concorde Microsystems Inc.). DES treatment caused a decrease in acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat prostate. Co-treatment with DHT maintained the glucose metabolism levels at baseline values. In the tumor bearing mice, similar effects were seen in {sup 18}F-FDG study, while there was no significant difference in {sup 11}C-acetate uptake. These results indicate that changes in serum testosterone levels influence {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the prostate gland, which is closely tied to glucose

  19. Expression of apoptosis-regulating genes in the rat prostate following botulinum toxin type a injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgal Tiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA injection has been investigated as a novel treatment for benign prostatic enlargement caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. An OnabotA - induced volume reduction caused by sympathetic fibers impairment has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action. Our aim was to investigate the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins in the rat prostate following OnabotA intraprostatic injection. Methods Adult Wistar rats were injected in the ventral lobes of the prostate with 10 U of OnabotA or saline. A set of OnabotA-injected animals was further treated with 0.5 mg/kg of phenylephrine (PHE subcutaneously daily. All animals were sacrificed after 1 week and had their prostates harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for Bax, Bcl-xL and caspase-3 proteins and visualized by the avidin-biotin method. The optical density of the glandular cells was also determined, with measurement of differences between average optical densities for each group. Results Saline-treated animals showed intense epithelial staining for Bcl-xL and a faint labelling for both Bax and Caspase-3. OnabotA-treated rats showed a reduced epithelial staining of Bcl-xL and a consistently increased Bax and Caspase-3 staining when compared with saline-treated animals. PHE-treated animals showed a stronger Bcl-xL staining and reduced staining of both Bax and Caspase-3 when compared to the OnabotA group. Mean signal intensity measurements for each immunoreaction confirmed a significant decrease of the signal intensity for Bcl-xL and a significant increase of the signal intensity for Bax and Caspase 3 in OnabotA-injected animals when compared with the control group. In OnabotA+PHE treated animals mean signal intensity for Bcl-xL, Bax and Caspase 3 immunoreactions was identical to that of the control animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that OnabotA activates apoptotic pathways in the rat prostate through a

  20. Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects on rat prostate contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Eise, Nicole T; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2014-03-14

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was first used medicinally by native American Indians to treat urological disorders. Nowadays, saw palmetto extracts are widely used in Europe and North America to treat the urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia even though its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the bioactive constituents of a lipid extract of saw palmetto that are able to affect contractility of the rat prostate gland. The mechanism of action will also be investigated. A commercially available lipid extract of saw palmetto was subjected to fractionation using normal phase column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activities of these fractions were evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of the crude extract. Saw palmetto extract inhibited contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with smooth muscle relaxant activity. Only the ethyl acetate fraction resulting from chromatography inhibited contractions of isolated rat prostates similarly to the inhibition produced by the crude lipid extract. Comparison with authentic samples and analysis of NMR data revealed that this bioactivity was due to the fatty acid components present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Bioassay using various pharmacological tools identified multiple contractile mechanisms which were affected by the bioactive constituents. A fatty acid component of saw palmetto extract causes inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contractions via a non-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, Rabab H.; Saad, Muhammed A.; El-Sahar, Ayman E.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin level plays a role in suppressing the pathological findings of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, dapoxetine was used to test its ability to ameliorate the pathological changes in the rat prostate. A dose response curve was constructed between the dose of dapoxetine and prostate weight as well as relative prostate weight, then a 5 mg/kg dose was used as a representative dose for dapoxetine administration. Rats were divided into four groups; the control group that received the vehicle; the BPH-induced group received daily s.c injection of 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate dissolved in olive oil for four weeks; BPH-induced group treated with finasteride 5 mg/kg/day p.o and BPH-induced group treated with dapoxetine 5 mg/kg/day p.o. Injection of testosterone increased prostate weight and relative prostate weight which were both returned back to the normal value after treatment with dapoxetine as well as finasteride. Testosterone also upregulated androgen receptor (AR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene expression. Furthermore, testosterone injection elevated cyclooxygenase-II (COX II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) expression and tumor necrosis factor alpha content and reduced caspase-3 activity, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression and Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Dapoxetine and finasteride administration reverted most of the changes made by testosterone injection. In conclusion, the current study provides an evidence for the protective effects of dapoxetine against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to decreasing AR expression, and the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities of dapoxetine in BPH. - Highlights: • Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. • Dapoxetine decreased androgen receptor gene expression in rat prostate. • Dapoxetine possess anti

  2. Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Rabab H., E-mail: rabab.sayed@pharma.cu.edu.eg; Saad, Muhammed A.; El-Sahar, Ayman E.

    2016-11-15

    Serotonin level plays a role in suppressing the pathological findings of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, dapoxetine was used to test its ability to ameliorate the pathological changes in the rat prostate. A dose response curve was constructed between the dose of dapoxetine and prostate weight as well as relative prostate weight, then a 5 mg/kg dose was used as a representative dose for dapoxetine administration. Rats were divided into four groups; the control group that received the vehicle; the BPH-induced group received daily s.c injection of 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate dissolved in olive oil for four weeks; BPH-induced group treated with finasteride 5 mg/kg/day p.o and BPH-induced group treated with dapoxetine 5 mg/kg/day p.o. Injection of testosterone increased prostate weight and relative prostate weight which were both returned back to the normal value after treatment with dapoxetine as well as finasteride. Testosterone also upregulated androgen receptor (AR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene expression. Furthermore, testosterone injection elevated cyclooxygenase-II (COX II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) expression and tumor necrosis factor alpha content and reduced caspase-3 activity, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression and Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Dapoxetine and finasteride administration reverted most of the changes made by testosterone injection. In conclusion, the current study provides an evidence for the protective effects of dapoxetine against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to decreasing AR expression, and the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities of dapoxetine in BPH. - Highlights: • Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. • Dapoxetine decreased androgen receptor gene expression in rat prostate. • Dapoxetine possess anti

  3. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons with the Dunning rat prostate tumor R3327-HI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, F.; Lohr, F.; Peschke, P.; Wolber, G.; Hoever, K.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    Human prostate tumors are known to be good candidates for neutron therapy. The Dunning rat prostate tumor system R3327 was found in many studies to be an excellent model for human prostate tumors. There is still a paucity of studies on the response of the Dunning tumors to fast neutrons. Tumors of the R3327-HI subline are moderately well differentiated and mucin producing. They show one euploid cell population, a bromodeoxyuridine labelling index of 5%, a potential doubling time of 8.9 days, a volume doubling time of about ten days and a cell loss rate of 10%. Tumors were transplanted s.c. in the distal thigh of Copenhagen rats and treated with 60 Co-photons (10, 20, 30, 40 Gy, 45 cGy/min) and 14-MeV-neutrons (8, 10, 12 Gy, 7 to 11 cGy/min). Tumor volumes were measured twice weekly. Growth delay was defined as time in days until the tumors reached twice their treatment volume. Linear regressions on the median growth delays of the different treatment groups were calculated. The ratio of the neutron- and photon-slopes yielded an RBE of 3.1±0.3. Additionally isoeffect-RBE values between 2.3 and 2.6 were graphically estimated. (orig.) [de

  5. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor but not insulin-like growth factor I decreases the involution of the prostate in castrated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Vinter-Jensen, L; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    Wistar rats were treated with growth factors (EGF 35 microg/rat per day; IGF-I 350 microg/rat per day) or testosterone (2 mg/rat per day) for 3 days either immediately after or 10 days after castration. Prostate tissue was examined by stereological and immunohistochemical techniques and by enzyme...

  6. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  7. Identification of secretaglobin Scgb2a1 as a target for developmental reprogramming by BPA in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca Lee Yean; Wang, Quan; Treviño, Lindsey S; Bosland, Maarten C; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Prins, Gail S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Secretoglobins are a superfamily of secreted proteins thought to participate in inflammation, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Secretoglobin family 2A member 1 (Scgb2a1) is a component of prostatein, a major androgen-binding protein secreted by the rat prostate. Using a rat model for developmental reprogramming of susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis, we identified, by RNA-seq, that Scgb2a1 is significantly upregulated (>100-fold) in the prostate of adult rats neonatally exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), with increased gene expression confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation for histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. Bisulfite analysis of both CpG islands located within 10 kb of the Scgb2a1 promoter identified significant hypomethylation of the CpG island upstream of the transcription start site of this gene in the reprogrammed prostate. These data suggest that expression of Scgb2a1 in the adult prostate could be epigenetically reprogrammed by BPA exposure during prostate development, with potential implications for cancer risk and response to chemotherapeutics associated with prostatein binding.

  8. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  9. Impact of maternal and postnatal zinc dietary status on the prostate of pubescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camora, Lucas F; Silva, Ana Priscila G; Santos, Sérgio A A; Justulin, Luis A; Perobelli, Juliana E; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is important for cell physiology and alteration of its levels during development can modulate a series of biological events. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during morphogenesis and early postnatal development could interfere in prostate maturation. Pregnant rats were exposed to a standard diet (NZ:35 mg Zn/kg chow), low-zinc diet (LZ:3 mg of Zn/kg chow) and zinc-supplemented diet (HZ:180 mg/Kg chow) from gestational day 10 (GD10) through postnatal day 21 (PND21). After weaning, male offspring were divided into three groups that were submitted to the same food conditions as their mothers until PND53. The animals were euthanized at PND53 and PND115. The ventral prostate was removed, weighed and its fragments were subjected to histological, western blot and zymography analysis. PND53: body and prostate weight were lower in LZ compared to NZ; the epithelial compartment was reduced while the stromal compartment was increased in LZ compared to NZ; there was an increase in the amount of collagen and reduction in AR and SIRT1 expression in LZ compared to NZ. PND115: body weight was lower in LZ compared to NZ and prostate weight was similar among the groups; peripheral physiological hyperplasia was observed, as well as an increased epithelial proliferation index and reduced PAR4 expression in LZ and HZ compared to NZ. Zinc deficiency during prostate morphogenesis and differentiation is potentially harmful to its morphology, however, by restoring the standard dietary environment, the gland responds to the new microenvironment independent of the previous dietary condition. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Influence of testosterone on the distribution of 65Zn-binding proteins in the prostate and seminal vesicles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.; Foerster, R.; Scherr, F.; Guenther, T.

    1977-01-01

    65 Zn (7.4 MBq; 200 μCi) was injected intravenously into normal, castrated and castrated, testosteronesubstituted rats. After 1,24 and 48 hours, the distribution of 65 Zn-binding proteins in the 100,000 g supernatant of the prostate and seminal vesicles was investigated by separation on Sephadex G 100. The prostate and seminal vesicles from any one rat showed the same distribution pattern of 65 Zn-proteins. In castrated rats, the incorporation of 65 Zn was, however, 5-6 times lower than in the normal or castrated, testosterone-substituted rats. One hour after the injection, the highest activity of 65 Zn was found in proteins in the molecular weight range above 100,000. After 48 hours the greatest proportion of 65 Zn was present in the protein peak corresponding to 28,000 Daltons. (orig.) 891 AJ [de

  11. Investigation of the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on pain and inflammation in chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-J; Song, G-H; Liu, G T

    2016-08-01

    According to traditional Chinese medicine, the symptoms of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CNP/CPPS) may be treated using a cocktail of herbs that stimulate blood circulation ('activating blood circulation formula'). We investigated the effect of three doses of this formula on a rat model of CNP/CPPS. Male Wistar rats were injected with a saline extract of male sex accessory glands on days 0 and 30 to induce prostatitis and then treated daily by gavage between days 32 and 60. Treatment with low, medium and high doses of activating blood circulation formula resulted in an almost total rescue of paw withdrawal threshold at day 60, and treatment with the highest dose also significantly decreased prostate inflammation (assessed histopathologically). We further observed elevated serum prostaglandin E2 levels in the CNP/CPPS model which decreased upon high-dose treatment, and increased Cox-2 expression in the prostate and spinal cord dorsal horn which was rescued in both tissues in the high-dose group and in the prostate in the medium-dose group. These results shed light on a possible mechanism by which activating blood circulation therapy may alleviate pain in a rat model of CNP/CPPS by downregulating Cox-2 expression in the spinal cord, thereby raising the pain threshold. Further research will be needed to fully characterise the mechanism by which activating blood circulation therapy produces this therapeutic effect. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Bisphenol A Modifies the Regulation Exerted by Testosterone on 5α-Reductase Isozymes in Ventral Prostate of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, growth, and function of the prostate gland depend on androgen stimulation. The primary androgen in prostate is 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT which is synthesized from circulating testosterone (T through the action of 5-reductase (5-R. Although 5-R occurs as five isozymes, only 5-R1 and 5-R2 are physiologically involved in steroidogenesis. The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA alters sexual organs, including the prostate. Our previous findings indicated that BPA decreased the expression of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in rat prostate but also circulating T. Thus, it is unclear whether BPA exerts this effect on 5-R isozymes by reducing circulating T or by any other mechanism. In this study, we examine the effects of short-term exposure to BPA at doses below 25 g/Kg/d and above 300 g/Kg/d of the TDI on mRNA levels of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in prostate of adult castrated rats supplemented with T to achieve constant circulating T levels. mRNA levels were measured by absolute quantitative RT-PCR, T levels by RIA, and DHT levels by ELISA. Our results indicated that in castrated rats treated with T BPA at the two doses studied significantly decreased the mRNA levels of both 5-R isozymes in a dose-dependent manner without modifications in circulating T.

  13. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats using a food-based therapy containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (× 10(3)) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio.

  14. Lycopene and ß-carotene protect in vivo iron-induced oxidative stress damage in rat prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Matos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that iron overload may be carcinogenic. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of plasma and prostate carotenoid concentration on oxidative DNA damage in 12-week-old Wistar rats treated with intraperitoneal (ip ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (10 mg Fe/kg. Plasma ß-carotene and lycopene concentrations were measured as a function of time after ip injection of carotenoids (10 mg kg-1 day-1 ß-carotene or lycopene in rats. The highest total plasma concentration was reached 3 and 6 h after ip injection of lycopene or ß-carotene, respectively. After 5 days of carotenoid treatment, lycopene and ß-carotene were present in the 0.10-0.51 nmol/g wet tissue range in the prostate. Using a sensitive method to detected 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo by HPLC/EC, the level of 8-oxodGuo in rat prostate DNA was significantly higher (6.3 ± 0.6 residues/10(6 dGuo 3 h after Fe-NTA injection compared with control rats (1.7 ± 0.3 residues/10(6 dGuo. Rats supplemented with lycopene or ß-carotene for 5 days prior to Fe-NTA treatment showed a reduction of about 70% in 8-oxodGuo levels to almost control levels. Compared with control rats, the prostate of Fe-NTA-treated animals showed a 78% increase in malondialdehyde accumulation. Lycopene or ß-carotene pre-treatment almost completely prevented lipid damage. Epidemiological studies have suggested a lower risk of prostate cancer in men reporting a higher consumption of tomato products. However, before associating this effect with tomato sauce constituents, more information is required. The results described here may contribute to the understanding of the protective effects of carotenoids against iron-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Accumulation of D- vs. L-isomers of alanine and leucine in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Schmall, B.; Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Kleinert, E.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that tumor tissue may accumulate some D-amino acids preferentially over the L-isomers. In order to investigate the potential use of carbon-11 labeled amino acid isomers for in vivo tumor studies with positron emission tomography in patients, the tissue distributions of alanine and leucine, substrates for the A-type and L-type amino acid transport systems, respectively, were studied in Copenhagen rates bearing the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma. The authors have previously reported differences in the accumulation of A-type vs. L-type amino acids in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma and normal tissues. All compounds were labeled with C-14 in the carboxyl position with specific activities of 30.0-56.6 mCi/mmol. Higher levels of C-14 activity (Relative Concentration (RC)=dpm found per gm tissue + dpm inject per gm animal mass) were observed in tumor tissue using D-alanine (0.71) compared to L- (0.21) or DL-alanine (0.27) at 45 min post-injection. While tumor/prostate and tumor/liver ratios were above 2 for all three substrates, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were above one for only the D-isomer. Comparisons made with D-, L-, and DL-leucine also demonstrated a higher level of RC in tumor tissue with the D-isomer (0.84) vs. the L-(0.66) and DL-leucine (0.63). In this case, however, tumor/blood, tumor/prostate, and tumor/muscle ratios were above one for all three substrates, while tumor/liver ratios were below one. These results support the observation of a preferential accumulation of D-amino acids in tumor tissue over the natural L-isomers. Observed differences in the accumulation of the isomers in normal tissues are discussed

  16. Hemodynamic and metabolic characterization of orthotopic rat prostate carcinomas using dynamic MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, F.; Lichy, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Grobholz, R.; Heilmann, M.; Meding, J.; Huber, P.E.; Peschke, P.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was the noninvasive characterization of prostate carcinoma orthotopically implanted in rats using Gd-DTPA-assisted dynamic MRI (dMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). After surgical exposure of the prostate, Dunning R3327 orthotopic prostate carcinoma was induced by injecting cells of the MAT-LyLu subline. Six rats were examined 5 and 14 days after tumor induction with dMRI and 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T. Six tumor-free rats served as controls. Using an open two-compartment model, the parameters A (amplitude) and k ep (exchange rate constants) were calculated from the signal time curves of the dMRI. The relative signal intensities (Cho/Cr) of the resonances of choline (Cho) and the creatine-phosphocreatine complex (Cr) were computed from the MR spectra. Already after 5 days, the tumors in the prostate could be clearly identified based on the decrease in signal intensity to T2w and increase of A and k ep . High Cho/Cr levels and resonances of two lipid fractions (Lip 1 at 0.8-1.5 ppm and Lip 2 at 2.0-2.2 ppm) were observed by MRS in the highly necrotic tumors. The orthotopic rat prostate carcinoma model resembles human prostate carcinoma in regard to MR morphology, dMRI, and 1 H-MRS. The noninvasive characterization of perfusion and metabolism makes a comparative examination of different treatment modalities possible. (orig.) [de

  17. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  18. Procyanidin B2 ameliorates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Renzong; Wang, Jiye

    2017-11-04

    Prostatitis is one of the most prevalent problems in andriatry and urinary surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of procyanidin B2 (PB) on carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats. Results showed that PB significantly decreased the prostatic index and enhanced the body weight inhibited by carrageenan. Biochemical results revealed that PB significantly lowered the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and alleviated oxidative stress in serum. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in prostatic homogenate were also significantly decreased after PB treatment. We also found evidence that PB treatment reversed the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increased the expressions of NQO1 and HO-1 in the prostate glands. In conclusion, treatment with PB attenuates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EVOLUTION OF NEUROENDOCRINE CELL POPULATION AND PEPTIDERGIC INNERVATION, ASSESSED BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS, DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAT PROSTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells and peptidergic nerves (NPY and VIP could have a role in prostate growth and function. In the present study, rats grouped by stages of postnatal development (prepubertal, pubertal, young and aged adults were employed in order to ascertain whether age causes changes in the number of serotoninergic neuroendocrine cells and the length of NPY and VIP fibres. Discriminant analysis was performed in order to ascertain the classificatory power of stereologic variables (absolute and relative measurements of cell number and fibre length on age groups. The following conclusions were drawn: a discriminant analysis confirms the androgen-dependence of both neuroendocrine cells and NPYVIP innervation during the postnatal development of the rat prostate; b periglandular innervation has more relevance than interglandular innervation in classifying the rats in age groups; and c peptidergic nerves from ventral, ampullar and periductal regions were more age-dependent than nerves from the dorso-lateral region.

  20. Down regulation by a low-zinc diet in gene expression of rat prostatic thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassa Shuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc has a wide spectrum of biological activities and its deficiency is related to various abnormalities of cell metabolism. Methods Wistar male rats, at age of 4 weeks, were fed a low-zinc diet for six weeks. The levels of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated into the prostatic DNA and the mRNA expression levels of prostate thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase were examined. Result The low-zinc diet caused a marked reduction in the body growth and organ weights, resulted in a low hematopoiesis, hypo-albuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Although there were few differences in plasma biochemical markers, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were reduced by the low-zinc diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (S-phase cells and mRNA expression levels of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase in the prostate cells were markedly affected by the low-zinc diet. Conclusion A low-zinc diet appears to reduce the body growth and organ weights including prostate, causing low plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and reduction in prostate DNA replication in growing-rats.

  1. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (Pselective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  2. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  3. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, K.; Yoshida, K.; Nakayama, R.

    1982-01-01

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10 -9 M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [ 3 H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [ 3 H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [ 3 H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [ 3 H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [ 3 H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  4. Changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-J; Xia, L-L; Xu, T-Y; Zhang, X-H; Zhu, Z-W; Zhang, M-G; Liu, Y; Xu, C; Zhong, S; Shen, Z-J

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED); however, most of the reports are based on questionnaires which cannot distinguish between organic and functional ED. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact relationship between CP/CPPS and ED, and to investigate the changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of CP/CPPS. We established a rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), which is a valid model for CP/CPPS. Erectile function in EAP and normal rats was comparable after cavernous nerve electrostimulation. The serum testosterone and oestradiol levels, ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the two groups were similar; however, there was a decrease in smooth muscle-to-collagen ratio and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and an increase in transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression was observed in EAP rats. Thus, organic ED may not exist in EAP rats. We speculate that ED complained by patients with CP/CPPS may be psychological, which could be caused by impairment in the quality of life; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential mechanisms underlying the penile fibrosis in EAP rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Profile of cell proliferation and apoptosis activated by the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the prostate of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Amanda C R; Campolina-Silva, Gabriel H; Werneck-Gomes, Hipácia; Moura-Cordeiro, Júnia D; Santos, Letícia C; Mahecha, Germán A B; Morais-Santos, Mônica; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2017-06-01

    Estrogens acting through the receptors ERα and ERβ participate in prostate normal growth and cancer. ERβ is highly expressed in the prostate epithelium, playing pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and pro-differentiation roles. Apoptosis is activated by the intrinsic pathway after castration and by the extrinsic pathway after ERβ agonist treatment. This differential activation of apoptotic pathways is important since a major problem in the treatment of prostate cancer is the recurrence of tumors after androgen withdrawal. However, a comprehensive study about the pattern of apoptosis in the aging prostate is lacking, a knowledge gap that we aimed to address herein. Cellular age-related proliferative and apoptotic profiles of prostate tissue obtained from aging Wistar rats were evaluated. Cell death (caspase-3, -8, -9, TNFα) was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and TUNEL. Cell proliferation (MCM7) and cell survival factors (ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, and NF-κB) were determined by immunohistochemistry. As the rats aged, the number of proliferating cells gradually reduced in the normal epithelium of all prostate lobes, while increasing in focal areas of intraepithelial proliferation. Interestingly, in areas of intraepithelial proliferation, we observed a reduction in the number of cells positive for caspase-3, -8, and -9. Regardless the animal's age, few prostate epithelial cells were positive for caspase-3, caspase-9, and TUNEL. In contrast, a progressive increase was seen in the positivity for caspase-8, especially in the atrophic epithelium of ventral prostate, which coincided with a reduction in TNFα immunoreaction. However, morphology of most caspase-8 positive cells suggests that they were not apoptotic. We also found reduced ERβ expression in the same areas. Possibly, low levels of the pro-apoptotic inductors TNFα and ERβ direct caspase-8 activity to an alternative pro-survival role in the atrophic epithelium. This hypothesis is

  6. Flaxseed reduces epithelial proliferation but does not affect basal cells in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim Ribeiro, Ilma Cely; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Silva, Vivian Alves Pereira; Côrrea, Lanna Beatriz Neves Silva; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Chagas, Mauricio Alves

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the effects of a flaxseed-based diet on the histoarchitecture of the prostate of normal Wistar rats and of rats with induced BPH. The study included four experimental groups of ten animals each: casein control group (CCG), who were fed a casein-based diet; flaxseed control group (FCG), who were fed a flaxseed-based diet; hyperplasia-induced casein group (HICG), who were fed a casein-based diet; and hyperplasia-induced flaxseed group (HIFG), who were fed a flaxseed-based diet. Hyperplasia was induced by the subcutaneous implantation of silicone pellets containing testosterone propionate. After 20 weeks, the rats were euthanized and their prostate fixed in buffered formalin. Tissue sections were stained with HE, picrosirius red and immunostained for nuclear antigen p63. Histomorphometric analysis evaluated the epithelial thickness, epithelial area, individual luminal area, and total area of prostatic alveoli. The mean epithelial thickness obtained for HIFG and HICG was 16.52 ± 1.65 and 20.58 ± 2.86 µm, respectively. The mean epithelial thickness in HICG was greater than that in the other groups tested. HIFG had a smaller epithelial thickness and lower percentage of papillary projections in the prostatic alveoli. No significant difference was observed between CCG and FCG. The total area and mean alveolar area showed no significant differences between the groups. The number of cells immunostained for p63 was not significantly different between the groups evaluated. These results suggest that flaxseed has a protective effect on the prostate epithelium in BPH-induced animals.

  7. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Response of rat prostate and lung tumors to ionizing radiation combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor AMCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kal, H.B. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Medical Centre Haaglanden, Westeinde Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Voest, E.E. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Aim: to determine whether radiation combined with Trans-4-AminoMethyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA, or tranexamic acid, Cyklokapron registered) results in a better tumor response than radiation alone. Materials and methods: we evaluated the responses of the L44 lung tumor in BN rats and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) prostate tumor in Copenhagen rats, to single and fractionated X-ray doses with and without AMCA (1.5 g/kg). Tumors were grown subcutaneously in the flank of the animal. AMCA was administered subcutaneously twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated according to excess growth delay and specific growth delay. Results: L44 and MLL tumors treated with AMCA only experienced a non-significant growth delay. L44 tumors treated with 4 daily dose fractions of 2.5 Gy had a significant excess and specific growth delay when treated with AMCA, the enhancement ratio was 1.6-1.7. The enhancement ratio based on the calculated excess biologically effective dose of the linear-quadratic concept was 1.4-1.5. MLL tumors treated with a single dose of 20 Gy and AMCA had no significant excess growth delay. Conclusion: the enhancement ratio of 1.4-1.7 for the L44 tumor, but not for the MLL tumor, due to AMCA treatment, indicates that AMCA may potentiate the anti-tumor effect of ionizing radiation in distinct tumor types. (orig.)

  9. Response of rat prostate and lung tumors to ionizing radiation combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor AMCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Struikmans, H.; Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Voest, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: to determine whether radiation combined with Trans-4-AminoMethyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA, or tranexamic acid, Cyklokapron registered) results in a better tumor response than radiation alone. Materials and methods: we evaluated the responses of the L44 lung tumor in BN rats and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) prostate tumor in Copenhagen rats, to single and fractionated X-ray doses with and without AMCA (1.5 g/kg). Tumors were grown subcutaneously in the flank of the animal. AMCA was administered subcutaneously twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated according to excess growth delay and specific growth delay. Results: L44 and MLL tumors treated with AMCA only experienced a non-significant growth delay. L44 tumors treated with 4 daily dose fractions of 2.5 Gy had a significant excess and specific growth delay when treated with AMCA, the enhancement ratio was 1.6-1.7. The enhancement ratio based on the calculated excess biologically effective dose of the linear-quadratic concept was 1.4-1.5. MLL tumors treated with a single dose of 20 Gy and AMCA had no significant excess growth delay. Conclusion: the enhancement ratio of 1.4-1.7 for the L44 tumor, but not for the MLL tumor, due to AMCA treatment, indicates that AMCA may potentiate the anti-tumor effect of ionizing radiation in distinct tumor types. (orig.)

  10. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott G

    2007-08-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-28330835 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-28330835 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by a mean of 30% at 10 mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor body composition, it prevented half of the loss of lean body mass associated with orchidectomy, and restored about 30% of lost lean mass to aged orchidectomized rats. It had agonist effects on markers of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity, suggesting that it reduces bone turnover. In a model of sexual behavior, JNJ-28330835 enhanced the preference of ovariectomized female rats for sexually intact male rats over nonsexual orchidectomized males. JNJ-28330835 is a prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinically beneficial effects in muscle-wasting diseases and sexual function disorders.

  11. Comparison of prostate gene expression and tissue weight changes as monitors of antiandrogen activity in GNRH-inhibited rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lefevre, P. A.; Ashby, J.

    2003-01-01

    and Pharmacology 34:188-203, 2001], and concomitantly described changes in expression of the androgen-dependent prostatic genes PBP C3, TRPM-2, and ODC as a possible complement to gravimetric analysis of the sex accessory tissues (SAT) [Nellemann C, Vinggaard AM, Dalgaard M, Hossaini A, Larsen J-J. Toxicology 163......:29-38, 2001]. METHODS: The present study describes the results of combining these two modifications into a single assay. During the course of these experiments it was shown that SD rats gave similar results to AP rats and that the higher stimulatory dose of testosterone propionate (TP) used in our experiments...

  12. The anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist, against estradiol-induced nonbacterial inflammation in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mahmoud M; Bosland, Maarten C

    2017-02-01

    There is no standard treatment of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in humans. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1, against estrogen-induced, nonbacterial lateral lobe-specific prostate inflammation in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups of six rats, including sham controls (group 1) and castrated rats (group 2), whereas nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) was induced in groups 3-5 by castration followed by a daily subcutaneous injection of estradiol (0.25 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. The rats were left otherwise untreated (group 3) or received a daily oral administration of montelukast (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for groups 4 and 5, respectively) from the 17th day after castration for two consecutive weeks. Compared with sham controls, induction of NBP led to a significant increase in serum leukotriene B 4 (LTB4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, along with a significant upregulation in the transcript level of proinflammatory molecules (nuclear factor kappa beta [NF-κβ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and eotaxin), and E-selectin in the lateral prostate. Histological examination revealed intense inflammation in the prostate with leukocyte infiltration and acinar degeneration following estradiol treatment of castrated rats. Montelukast significantly suppressed the increase in serum and prostate proinflammatory mediators/chemokines expression and abolished the histologically inflammatory changes in the lateral prostate. These findings indicate that montelukast inhibits estradiol-induced NBP in a rat model through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting its future beneficial effect for the treatment of clinical chronic NBP.

  13. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p testosterone...

  14. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  15. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  16. Differential effects of 2-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on the testosterone-induced growth of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Käpyaho, K; Kallio, A; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-ad...

  17. The anti-hyperplasia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Qing Ye Dan and swertiamarin in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinying; Gu, Ye; Li, Lun

    2017-01-04

    Qing Ye Dan (QYD) is the whole plant of Swertia mileensis and used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and so on. This study was to investigate the effects of QYD and its main component swertiamarin on BPH induced by testosterone in rats. The prostatic expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (βFGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. Prostatic levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related factors were also analyzed. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, B-cell CLL/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated factors were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. It showed that QYD and swertiamarin ameliorated the testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia and collagen deposition, attenuated the over-expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, EGF, βFGF, PCNA, AR and ER-α, reduced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, enhanced the expression of ER-β, inhibited the oxidative stress and local inflammation, as well as relieved prostatic EMT. It suggested that QYD and swertiamarin had prostatic protective potential against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term effects of developmental exposure to di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP) on rat prostate: Proliferative and inflammatory disorders and a possible role of androgens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Toledo, Fabiola Choqueta de; Guerra, Marina Trevizan; Campos, Silvana Gisele Pegorin de; Junior, Luis Antonio Justulin; Felisbino, Sergio Luis; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A.; Taboga, Sebastiao Roberto; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the toxic effects on the male adult rat prostate of DBP exposure during fetal and lactational periods, because although many studies have addressed the influence of phthalates on the male reproductive system, only a few have discussed their possible effects on prostate development. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: Control (C) and Treated (T). The females of the T group received DBP (100 mg/kg, by gavage) from gestation day 12 to postnatal day 21, while C rats received the vehicle (corn oil). In adulthood (90 days old), the animals were euthanized. The serum and testicular testosterone levels were measured. Ventral prostate was removed and weighed. Distal segment fragments of the ventral prostate were fixed and processed for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Ki67 antigens. Protein extraction from ventral prostate fragments was performed for AR immunoblotting and Gelatin zymography for MMP-2 and MMP-9 (MMP, metalloproteinase). Stereological and histopathological analyses were also performed. Serum and testicular testosterone levels and prostate weight were comparable between groups. In the T group the relative proportions (%) of epithelial (C = 32.86; T = 42.04*) and stromal (C = 21.61; T = 27.88*) compartments were increased, while the luminal compartment was decreased (C = 45.54; T = 30.08*), *p < 0.05. In T, disseminated inflammatory infiltrate in the stroma, associated or not with epithelial dysplasia and PIN (Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia), was observed. Increases in AR expression, proliferation index and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity were noted in T animals. In some T animals, collagen fibrils accumulated adjacent to the epithelium. As far as we are aware, this is the first report in the literature showing that phthalates could play a role in proliferative and inflammatory disorders of the rat prostate.

  19. Antioxidant supplementation decreases the cell death rate in the prostatic stromal tissue of long-term castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fartes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of castration on cell death rate of the adult rat prostates and to evaluate the benefic action of alpha tocopherol supplementation to avoid apoptosis post-orchiectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into three groups: group I - they were subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and sacrificed eight weeks after the procedure; group II - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure; and group III - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards. At the end of the experiment, the prostatectomy was performed in all rats. The presence of oxidative stress was determined by assaying the blood level of 8-isoprostane and the occurrence of apoptosis was evaluated by identification of active caspase-3 through immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: The statistic analysis of active caspase-3 showed that in the long-term castrated group the detection was higher than in groups were the alpha-tocopherol was supplemented (p=0.007. Analysis of 8-isoprostane levels showed higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species in group I compared to other groups (p<0.05. Groups II and III presented active caspase-3 lower than in group I (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our exploratory analyses demonstrate a method to study the aging process and its influence on oxidative stress of prostatic tissue and cells death rate. Based on our results we can suggest that alpha tocopherol supplementation can decrease the apoptotic process as well as the oxidative stress levels induced by androgen deprivation of the prostate gland.

  20. Establishment of a rat model of chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) induced by immunization with a novel peptide T2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Farhan Ullah; Nawaz, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Yang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    The exact etiological mechanism of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is still unclear however autoimmunity is the most valid theory. We developed a rat model of Chronic Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome by using a novel peptide (T2) isolated from TRPM8. This model might be beneficial in elucidating mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS). 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 180-220g were equally distributed into five groups. The normal control group was injected with normal saline (.9% NACL), the CFA group with CFA, AL(OH)3 group was given AL(OH)3 injection, T2 group using a novel peptide T2 and T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group was injected with T2+AL(OH)3+CFA. Dosing to all rat groups were injected subcutaneously. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Immunohistochemistry were used to investigate inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-1β in the prostate tissue respectively. ELISA technique was used to measure the serum level of CRP and TNF-α. T-test was used to analyze the results. Maximum infiltration of inflammatory cells and the highest level of IL-1β in the prostate tissue was observed in T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group as revealed by histopathology and Immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, T2+AL(OH)3+CFA group attained the peak value of serum TNF-α and CRP as determined by ELISA technique. Our results demonstrated that T2 in combination with AL(OH)3 and CFA induced severe Prostatitis in rats. We believe that our present model will be highly beneficial for investigation of the pathophysiology of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential effects of 2-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on the testosterone-induced growth of ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpyaho, K; Kallio, A; Jänne, J

    1984-05-01

    2-Difluoromethylornithine totally prevented any increases in putrescine and spermidine concentrations in the ventral prostate of castrated rats during a 6-day testosterone treatment. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by 80%, whereas S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was stimulated by more than 9-fold. In seminal vesicle, the inhibition of putrescine and spermidine accumulation, as well as of ornithine decarboxylase activity, was only minimal, and no stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was observed. Administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to castrated androgen-treated rats resulted in a marked increase in concentrations of all prostatic polyamines. Prostatic ornithine decarboxylase activity was nearly 2 times and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity 9 times higher than that of the testosterone-treated animals. In contrast with ventral prostate, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment inhibited moderately the accumulation of spermidine and spermine in seminal vesicle, although both ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities were stimulated. Difluoromethylornithine inhibited significantly the weight gain of ventral prostate, but methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) produced a substantial increase in prostatic weight. These changes were largely due to the fact that the volume of prostatic secretion was greatly decreased by difluoromethylornithine, whereas methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) increased the amount of secretion. Treatment with difluoromethylornithine strikingly increased the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) content of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, but even under these conditions the drug concentration remained low in comparison with other tissues. The results indicate that a combined use of these two polyamine anti-metabolites does not necessarily result in a synergistic growth inhibition of the androgen-induced growth of male accessory sexual glands.

  2. Vanillic acid attenuates testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats and inhibits proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Lim, Seona; Jeong, Mi-Young; Sethi, Gautam; Park, Sung-Joo; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2017-10-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in the male population, especially in elderly men. Vanillic acid (VA), a dihydroxybenzoic derivative used as a flavoring agent, is reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, there are no reports of its effects on BPH to date. BPH was induced with a pre-4-week treatment of daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), and the normal control group received injections of ethanol with corn oil instead. Six weeks of further injections were done with (a) ethanol with corn oil, (b) TP only, (c) TP + finasteride, and (d) TP + VA. Finasteride was used as a positive control group. VA had protective effects on the TP-induced BPH. In the VA treatment group, the prostate weight was reduced, and the histological changes including the epithelial thickness and lumen area were restored like in the normal control group. Furthermore, in the VA treatment group, two proliferation related factors, high molecular weight cytokeratin 34βE12 and α smooth muscle actin, were significantly down-regulated compared to the TP-induced BPH group. The expressions of dihydrotestosterone and 5α-reductase, the most crucial factors in BPH development, were suppressed by VA treatment. Expressions of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were also significantly inhibited by VA compared to the TP-induced BPH group. In addition, we established an in vitro model for BPH by treating a normal human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 with TP. VA successfully inhibited proliferation and BPH-related factors in a concentration-dependent manner in this newly established model. These results suggest a new and potential pharmaceutical therapy of VA in the treatment of BPH.

  3. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera) on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) is a pseudoneoplastic lesion that can mimic prostate adenocarcinoma because of its cytologic and architectural features. Suspension of date palm pollen (DPP) is an herbal mixture that is widely used in folk medicine for male infertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DPP suspension and extract on APH-induced rats. Methods APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100mg/kg), DPP suspension (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg), and lyophilized DPP extract (150,300 and 600 mg/kg) were given orally daily for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. Results The histopathological feature in APH-induced prostate rats showed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1 and clusterin were increased, while the expression of TGF-β1 was decreased that correlates with presence of inflammation. Moreover, histopathological examination revealed increased cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis in ventral prostate. Both saw palmetto and DPP treatment has ameliorated these histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in APH-induced rats. These improvements were not associated with reduction in the prostatic weight that may be attributed to the persistence of edema. Conclusion DPP may have a potential protective effect in APH-induced Wistar rats through modulation of cytokine expression and/or upregulation of their autocrine/paracrine receptors. PMID:22195697

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats

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    Elberry Ahmed A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH is a pseudoneoplastic lesion that can mimic prostate adenocarcinoma because of its cytologic and architectural features. Suspension of date palm pollen (DPP is an herbal mixture that is widely used in folk medicine for male infertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DPP suspension and extract on APH-induced rats. Methods APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100mg/kg, DPP suspension (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, and lyophilized DPP extract (150,300 and 600 mg/kg were given orally daily for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. Results The histopathological feature in APH-induced prostate rats showed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1 and clusterin were increased, while the expression of TGF-β1 was decreased that correlates with presence of inflammation. Moreover, histopathological examination revealed increased cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis in ventral prostate. Both saw palmetto and DPP treatment has ameliorated these histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in APH-induced rats. These improvements were not associated with reduction in the prostatic weight that may be attributed to the persistence of edema. Conclusion DPP may have a potential protective effect in APH-induced Wistar rats through modulation of cytokine expression and/or upregulation of their autocrine/paracrine receptors.

  6. L-selenomethionine does not protect against testosterone plus 17β-estradiol-induced oxidative stress and preneoplastic lesions in the prostate of NBL rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Nur; Schlicht, Michael; Diamond, Alan M; Bosland, Maarten C

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal studies examining dietary selenium effects on prostatic carcinogenesis did not show preventive benefit, including 1 study in a rat model involving testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)-induced prostatic oxidative stress. Here, we examined modulation of T + E2-induced prostatic oxidative stress, dysplasia, and inflammation by L-selenomethionine at 1.5 or 3.0 mg selenium/kg in NIH-07 diet in Noble (Nbl)/Crl rats treated with T + E2 for 16 wk. Hormone treatment increased immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the prostatic sites of T + E2-induced preneoplasia (P < 0.05), but selenomethionine did not attenuate 8-OHdG staining and dysplasia in the lateral prostate. Glutathione-peroxidase activity (P < 0.05) and mRNA expression were induced by T + E2 (P < 0.0001) but not changed by selenomethionine. Selenomethionine did not cause significant responses in expression and activity of glutathione-peroxidase and MnSOD, except for a reduction of MnSOD protein expression in the lateral prostate (P < 0.01). The absence of reduction of oxidative stress and dysplasia and the minimal effects on antioxidant enzymes caused by selenomethionine are consistent with the null effects observed in selenium supplementation animal studies and clinical trials. Significant (P < 0.01) opposite apoptosis/cell proliferation balance responses to selenomethionine and to T + E2 occurred in the lateral and dorsal prostate, explaining why T + E2 induces lesions selectively in the lateral lobe of NBL rats.

  7. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  8. Histomorphological changes in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult male rats treated with aqueous ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii

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    Godwin Mbaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Secamone afzelii (S. afzelii used locally to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to treat exogenously induced BPH in adult male Wister rats. Male rats weighing 200 ± 10 g kg−1 had exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol in staggered doses (three times weekly for three weeks. The induced animals were in five groups (6 rats per group. Groups 1 and 2 received extract at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight (bwt by gavages for thirty days; group 3, finasteride (0.1 mg kg−1; group 4, untreated for thirty days; group 5, negative control, which was sacrificed twenty-one days after induction. Group 6 received extract (400 mg kg−1 and steroid hormones simultaneously; group 7, normal control. The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of BPH induced rats with the photomicrograph of the prostate showing extensive shrinkage of glandular tissue whereas glandular hyperplasia occurred in the negative control. Prostate specific antigen (PSA level significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control. Treatment with the extract/finasteride caused significant decrease in testosterone to a level comparable to normal. The BPH induced rats treated with S. afzelii/finasteride recorded marked increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes compared to the negative control. S. afzelii effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia exogenously induced by causing extensive shrinkage of glands and stroma. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and showed to be a good prophylaxis.

  9. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the rat prostate: Receptors, chloride channels, the effects of cAMP and calcium ions and implications on fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of adrenomedullin on chloride and fluid secretion in the rat prostate. The presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) in rat prostate was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with an enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on fluid secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole mount preparation of the prostate in an Ussing chamber. The results indicated that the ADM level was higher in the ventral than the dorso-lateral prostate and the major molecular species was the active peptide. ADM increased the short-circuit current through both the cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels in the ventral lobe, but only through the calcium-activated channels in the dorso-lateral lobe. These stimulatory effects were blocked by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. We conclude that ADM may regulate prostatic fluid secretion through the chloride channels, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the spermatozoa and hence fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Decreased expression of caspase3 in penis and prostate tissues of rat after the treatment with buceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk & Euricoma longifolia Jack

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    Taufiqurrachman Taufiqurrachman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buceng {combination of pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack and purwoceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk} has been proven to increase testosterone (Te level and decrease apoptosis. Unfortunately, there is no evidence whether these effects are mediated by the declining of caspase3. Objective of this study was to evaluate whether buceng could decrease the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate cells in Sprague Dawley male rats.Methods: Twenty four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 300 g (90 days old were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 6 male rats. Group A, rats were castrated and received buceng 50 mg. Group B, rats were not castrated, sacrifices as positive control. Group C, rats were castrated and given 2 mL aquadest as negative control. Group D, rats were castrated and got of 6.75 mg mesterolone, dissolved in 2 mL water. MANOVA statistical analysis was adopted to examine the difference expression of caspase3 in all groups. The comparison of caspase3 expression between two groups exhibiting difference values were evaluated by Post Hoc test.Results: MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate tissues among the four groups. Post Hoct test also indicated that expression of caspase3 in group A (buceng (33.56; 35.83 was significantly lower compared to group C (negative control (54.33; 60.07 and group D (mesterolone (51.91;56.21, p = 0.000, and higher compared than group B or normal rats (29.40; 27.72, but statistically not significant (p = 0.826.Conclusion: The treatment of 50 mg buceng/day for 30 consecutive days could decrease caspase3 expression in penis and prostate cells. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:2-8Keywords: Apoptosis, buceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk – Eurycoma longifolia Jack, caspase3 

  11. Testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rat and dog as facile models to assess drugs targeting lower urinary tract symptoms.

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    Jing Li

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is an age-related disease, affecting a majority of elderly men worldwide. Medical management of BPH is an alternative to surgical treatment of this disease. Currently, α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR antagonists are among the first line drugs to treat BPH by reducing the tension of urinary track and thus the obstructive symptoms in voiding. In drug development, old male dogs with spontaneous BPH are considered the golden standard of the animal models. However, old dogs (>6 years are expensive and not all old dogs develop BPH. So it is necessary to develop more accessible animal models for drug efficacy evaluation. Here we describe the development of testosterone-induced BPH models in both rats and young adult dogs and their applications in the in vivo evaluation of α1-AR antagonist. The BPH rats and dogs induced by chronic testosterone treatment have significantly increased micturition frequency and reduced mean voided volume, very similar to the clinical symptoms of BPH patients. Silodosin, an α1-AR antagonist, significantly reduces the urinary frequency and increases the voided volume in BPH model animals in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that testosterone-induced BPH rat and dog models might provide a more efficient way to evaluate micturition behavior in anti-BPH drug studies.

  12. Protective effects of seahorse extracts in a rat castration and testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia model and mouse oligospermatism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Hui; Wang, Li-Hong; Mei, Xue-Ting; Li, Bing-Ji; Lv, Jun-Li; Xu, Shi-Bo

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of seahorse (Hippocampus spp.) extracts in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and mouse model of oligospermatism. Compared to the sham operated group, castration and testosterone induced BPH, indicated by increased penile erection latency; decreased penis nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity; reduced serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity; increased prostate index; and epithelial thickening, increased glandular perimeter, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the prostate. Seahorse extracts significantly ameliorated the histopathological changes associated with BPH, reduced the latency of penile erection and increased penile NOS activity. Administration of seahorse extracts also reversed epididymal sperm viability and motility in mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Seahorse extracts have potential as a candidate marine drug for treating BPH without inducing the side effects of erectile dysfunction (ED) or oligospermatism associated with the BPH drug finasteride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. IL-6 signaling by STAT3 participates in the change from hyperplasia to neoplasia in NRP-152 and NRP-154 rat prostatic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Beverly E; Murphy, Thomas F; Adem, Patricia; Watson, Richard A; Irwin, Robert J; Huang, Hosea F

    2001-01-01

    STAT3 phosphorylation is associated with the neoplastic state in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. We investigated the role of IL-6 signaling and phosphorylation of STAT3 in 2 rat prostatic epithelial lines. NRP-152 and NRP-154 cells were derived from the same rat prostate, yet the NRP-152 cells are not tumorigenic while the NRP-154 cells are tumorigenic. These lines are believed to represent 2 of the stages in the development of prostate cancer, hyperplasia and neoplasia. Differences in signaling pathways should play a role in the 2 phenotypes, hyperplastic and neoplastic. We looked at the phosphorylation state of STAT3 by intracellular flow cytometry, using phospho-specific antibodies to STAT3. We used the same method to examine IL-6 production by the cell lines. We also measured apoptosis by binding of fluorescent annexin V to the cells. Although both cells lines made IL-6 constitutively, phosphorylated-STAT3 was present in untreated NRP-154 cells, but not in NRP-152 cells. Treatment with dexamethasone inhibited the IL-6 production of NRP-152 cells, but enhanced that of NRP-154 cells. Treatment with the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 induced apoptosis in NRP-152, but not NRP-154 cells. We conclude from these experiments that STAT3 activity plays a role in the phenotype of NRP-154 cell, but not NRP-152 cells. The significance of alternative IL-6 signaling pathways in the different phenotypes of the 2 cell lines is discussed

  14. Effect of sleep deprivation on the epithelial height of the prostatic acini in rats and the protective effects of omega 3 fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, N.; Butt, S.A.; Hamid, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective role of omega 3 fatty acids (omg 3 FAs) on the histomorphological changes in the height of the prostatic epithelium in rats induced by sleep deprivation. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Anatomy Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Rawalpindi for duration of one year, from Nov 2014 to Nov 2015. Material and Methods: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months of age with average weights of 200-300 grams (gm) were divided in three groups each having 10 rats. Group A served as control with standard lab diet and regular sleep -wake cycle. Group B was subjected to sleep deprivation of 16 hours followed by a sleep window of 8 hrs daily for 2 months and group C was administrated with omg 3 fatty acids (FAs) and was sleep deprived as group B for 2 months. At the end of the experimental period rats were anesthetized and their blood sample was drawn for hormonal assay. They were dissected and the prostate gland was removed and fixed in 10 percent formalin. Five micrometer (mu m) sections were obtained after tissue processing and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for histological study. Results: Microscopic examination revealed that the epithelium of glandular acini was columnar in group A. Marked decrease in the height of cells was observed in group B whereas the epithelium was nearly cuboidal in group C. Conclusion: It was concluded that sleep deprivation had deleterious effects on the epithelium of the prostatic acini and that Omega 3 fatty acids had a protective effect on the epithelium of the prostatic acini. (author)

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  16. Effects of saw palmetto extracts on prostate gland function in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with many urinary symptoms that can severely diminish quality of life and can lead to complications including urinary tract infections and obstructive nephropathy. The cause behind BPH is not well understood. Extracts of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) are amongst the most widely used medicinal herbal preparations, used almost exclusively to alleviate urinary symptoms related to BPH. Given that little is known about the beneficial physiological role of...

  17. Rice Hull Extract Suppresses Benign Prostate Hyperplasia by Decreasing Inflammation and Regulating Cell Proliferation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Youn-Bum; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Even though rice hull has various physiological functions with high antioxidant potential, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of rice hull on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of rice hull water extract (RHE) against BPH, which is a common disorder in elderly men and involves inflammation that induces an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. In this study, RHE-treated mice exhibited lower prostate weights and ratios of prostate weight to body weight compared to those for the BPH-induced group. In addition, RHE-treated mice had lower serum levels of dihydrotestosterone, mRNA expression of 5α-reductase2, and protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Furthermore, RHE treatment significantly decreased cell proliferation by regulating the expression levels of inflammatory-related proteins (iNOS and COX-2) and apoptosis-associated proteins (Fas, FADD, procaspase-8, -3, and Bcl-2 family proteins). These results suggest that RHE could protect against the development of BPH through its anti-inflammatory and apoptotic properties and has good potential as a treatment for BPH.

  18. Effect of gold and silver nanoparticles on the morpho-functional state of the epididymis and prostate gland in rats

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    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    decreased. Administration of nanosilver to adult animals also downregulated the morpho-functional state of both organs, although no histological changes were found. We showed that both nanogold and nanosilver can cause adverse effects on the functional activity of the epididymis and prostate of rats. It is worth mentioning that silver nanoparticles were generally more toxic than the gold ones, which correlates with their known mechanism of cellular action. Although the exact mechanisms of gold and silver action require further study, our results are useful for practical usage of nanomaterials in biomedical and clinical practice.

  19. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  20. In vivo assay for conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by rat prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase and comparison of two inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomey, R.E.; Goode, R.L.; Petrow, V.; Neubauer, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo assay for steroid 5 alpha-reductase in rat ventral prostate has been developed and used to compare the inhibitory activity of N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-carboxamide (4-MA) and 6-methylene-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (LY207320). Immature rats (70-80 g) received test compounds 30 min prior to s.c. injection of [3H]-T. The rats were sacrificed 30 min later and the ventral prostates were analyzed for [3H]-T metabolites. Intraprostatic [3H]-T and [3H]-DHT reached peak levels within 5 min after injection of [3H]-T and declined to about 25% of peak levels after 2 hr. 4-MA was a very potent inhibitor of [3H]-DHT formation with an estimated IC50 of 0.2 mg/kg. LY207320, an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase in vitro, was weakly active in vivo and did not achieve greater than 45% inhibition at high doses (greater than 200 mg/kg, s.c.). Tissue uptake of [3H]-T was also inhibited by LY207320, which may contribute to its inhibitory activity on accessory sex organ growth in the rat

  1. Expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and relation with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride in the rat ventral prostate.

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    Riánsares Arriazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a phospholipid growth factor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, cancer invasion, and survival. This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of LPA-1, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers in preneoplastic lesions induced with cadmium chloride in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd in drinking water during 24 months: percentages of cells immunoreactive to LPA-1 (LILPA1, PCNA (LIPCNA, MCM7 (LIMCM7, ubiquitin (LIUBI, apoptotic cells (LIAPO, and p53 (LIp53; volume fraction of Bcl-2 (VFBcl-2; and length of microvessels per unit of volume (LVMV/mm3. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The LILPA1 in dysplastic lesions and normal epithelium of Cd-treated rats was significantly higher than those in the control group. Markers of proliferation were significantly increased in dysplastic lesions, whereas some apoptotic markers were significantly decreased. No significant differences between groups were found in VFBcl-2. Dysplastic lesions showed a significant increase of LIp53. The length of microvessels per unit of volume was elevated in dysplastic acini. Statistically significant correlations were found only between LILPA1 and LIUBI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPA-1 might be implicated in dysplastic lesions induced by cadmium chloride development. More studies are needed to confirm its potential contribution to the disease.

  2. Influence of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, testosterone, and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide on prostate cancer induction in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V; Dooley, L; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; Bosland, M C

    1998-08-01

    The influence of chemical carcinogen, hormonal stimulation, and chronic dietary administration of the synthetic retinoid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide (4-HPR), on the induction of prostate cancer in male Wistar-Unilever rats was determined. Three different tumor induction regimens were used: (a) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) per kg body weight, followed by chronic androgen stimulation via s.c. implantation of two silastic capsules containing 40 mg testosterone each; (b) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of MNU per kg body weight (no testosterone treatment); and (c) chronic androgen stimulation with implanted testosterone capsules (no MNU treatment). In a fourth series of animals, the incidence of spontaneous prostate tumors was determined in groups of rats receiving neither carcinogen nor hormone stimulation. Within each series, parallel groups of animals were fed a control (vehicle-supplemented) diet or control diet supplemented with 4-HPR beginning 1 day after carcinogen administration; retinoid administration was continuous until termination of the study at 450 days. The incidence of accessory sex gland cancer in rats treated sequentially with MNU + testosterone was >60%, in comparison with cancer incidences of Unilever rats.

  3. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  4. Biodistribution and excretion of radioactivity after the administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) into the prostate of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Kyoo; Ryu, Jei Man; Bae, Eun Jeong; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Shigematsu, Akiyo; Hatori, Yasuhiko; Nishigaki, Junko; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Kyong Bae

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the 166 Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats by examining its absorption, distribution and excretion after administration into the prostate. About 100 μCi of DW-166HC [containing 0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and 0.25 mg of chitosan] was administered intraprostatically. The level of radioactivity in blood, urinary and faecal excretion, and radioactivity distribution were examined. To determine the effect of chitosan in DW-166HC, 166 Ho nitrate alone [0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O] was administered into the prostate of male rats, and radioactivity distribution was examined using whole-body autoradiography. After administration of DW-166HC into the prostate, cumulative urinary and faecal excretion over the period 0-72 h was 0.35% and 0.11%, respectively. The radioactivity at the administration site was extremely high at all time points up to 144 h (>98% of injected dose). The small amount of radioactivity which did transfer from the administration site distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone. Compared with the DW-166HC group, the group that received 166 Ho nitrate alone displayed three- to fourfold higher levels of radioactivity in the main tissues, including liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone, at 24 h after administration (P<0.05). (orig.)

  5. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  6. On the biophysics of cathodal galvanotaxis in rat prostate cancer cells: Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, Przemysław

    2012-06-01

    Rat prostate cancer cells have been previously investigated using two cell lines: a highly metastatic one (Mat-Ly-Lu) and a nonmetastatic one (AT-2). It turns out that the highly metastatic Mat-Ly-Lu cells exhibit a phenomenon of cathodal galvanotaxis in an electric field which can be blocked by interrupting the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) activity. The VGSC activity is postulated to be characteristic for metastatic cells and seems to be a reasonable driving force for motile behavior. However, the classical theory of cellular motion depends on calcium ions rather than sodium ions. The current research provides a theoretical connection between cellular sodium inflow and cathodal galvanotaxis of Mat-Ly-Lu cells. Electrical repulsion of intracellular calcium ions by entering sodium ions is proposed after depolarization starting from the cathodal side. The disturbance in the calcium distribution may then drive actin polymerization and myosin contraction. The presented modeling is done within a continuous one-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation framework.

  7. MR-CBCT image-guided system for radiotherapy of orthotopic rat prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tsuicheng D; Arai, Tatsuya J; Campbell Iii, James; Jiang, Steve B; Mason, Ralph P; Stojadinovic, Strahinja

    2018-01-01

    Multi-modality image-guided radiotherapy is the standard of care in contemporary cancer management; however, it is not common in preclinical settings due to both hardware and software limitations. Soft tissue lesions, such as orthotopic prostate tumors, are difficult to identify using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging alone. In this study, we characterized a research magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for preclinical studies and created a protocol for combined MR-CBCT image-guided small animal radiotherapy. Two in-house dual-modality, MR and CBCT compatible, phantoms were designed and manufactured using 3D printing technology. The phantoms were used for quality assurance tests and to facilitate end-to-end testing for combined preclinical MR and CBCT based treatment planning. MR and CBCT images of the phantoms were acquired utilizing a Varian 4.7 T scanner and XRad-225Cx irradiator, respectively. The geometry distortion was assessed by comparing MR images to phantom blueprints and CBCT. The corrected MR scans were co-registered with CBCT and subsequently used for treatment planning. The fidelity of 3D printed phantoms compared to the blueprint design yielded favorable agreement as verified with the CBCT measurements. The geometric distortion, which varied between -5% and 11% throughout the scanning volume, was substantially reduced to within 0.4% after correction. The distortion free MR images were co-registered with the corresponding CBCT images and imported into a commercial treatment planning software SmART Plan. The planning target volume (PTV) was on average 19% smaller when contoured on the corrected MR-CBCT images relative to raw images without distortion correction. An MR-CBCT based preclinical workflow was successfully designed and implemented for small animal radiotherapy. Combined MR-CBCT image-guided radiotherapy for preclinical research potentially delivers enhanced relevance to human radiotherapy for various disease sites. This novel protocol

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat liver and prostate microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.; Cheung, A.H.; Reynolds, G.F.; Rasmusson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    21-Diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (Diazo-MAPD) inhibits steroid 5 alpha-reductase in liver microsomes of female rats with a K/sub i/ value of 8.7 +/- 1.7 nM, and the inhibition is competitive with testosterone. It also inhibits the binding of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, [ 3 H] 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([ 3 H]4-MA), to the enzyme in liver microsomes. The inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity and of inhibitor binding activity by diazo-MAPD becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. [1,2- 3 H]Diazo-MAPD binds to a single high affinity site in liver microsomes of female rats, and this binding requires NADPH. Without UV irradiation, this binding is reversible, and it becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. Both the initial reversible binding and the subsequent irreversible conjugation after UV irradiation are inhibited by inhibitors (diazo-MAPD and 4-MA) and substrates (progesterone and testosterone) of 5 alpha-reductase, but they are not inhibited by 5 alpha-reduced steroids. Photoaffinity labeled liver microsomes of female rats were solubilized and fractionated by high performance gel filtration. The radioactive conjugate eluted in one major peak at Mr 50,000

  9. MR-CBCT image-guided system for radiotherapy of orthotopic rat prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuicheng D Chiu

    Full Text Available Multi-modality image-guided radiotherapy is the standard of care in contemporary cancer management; however, it is not common in preclinical settings due to both hardware and software limitations. Soft tissue lesions, such as orthotopic prostate tumors, are difficult to identify using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging alone. In this study, we characterized a research magnetic resonance (MR scanner for preclinical studies and created a protocol for combined MR-CBCT image-guided small animal radiotherapy. Two in-house dual-modality, MR and CBCT compatible, phantoms were designed and manufactured using 3D printing technology. The phantoms were used for quality assurance tests and to facilitate end-to-end testing for combined preclinical MR and CBCT based treatment planning. MR and CBCT images of the phantoms were acquired utilizing a Varian 4.7 T scanner and XRad-225Cx irradiator, respectively. The geometry distortion was assessed by comparing MR images to phantom blueprints and CBCT. The corrected MR scans were co-registered with CBCT and subsequently used for treatment planning. The fidelity of 3D printed phantoms compared to the blueprint design yielded favorable agreement as verified with the CBCT measurements. The geometric distortion, which varied between -5% and 11% throughout the scanning volume, was substantially reduced to within 0.4% after correction. The distortion free MR images were co-registered with the corresponding CBCT images and imported into a commercial treatment planning software SmART Plan. The planning target volume (PTV was on average 19% smaller when contoured on the corrected MR-CBCT images relative to raw images without distortion correction. An MR-CBCT based preclinical workflow was successfully designed and implemented for small animal radiotherapy. Combined MR-CBCT image-guided radiotherapy for preclinical research potentially delivers enhanced relevance to human radiotherapy for various disease sites. This

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  12. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) causes growth of the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Vinter-Jensen, L; Pedersen, S B

    1997-01-01

    -I after 3 days of treatment, and administration of IGF-I concomitantly with DFMO significantly inhibited ODC activity and the weight increase of the prostate. Stereological examination of the prostate in the IGF-I-treated animals showed growth of the epithelial component of the gland. Systemic treatment...

  13. Effect of PUFAs from Pteleopsis suberosa stem bark on androgenic enzymes, cellular ATP and prostatic acid phosphatase in mercury chloride – Exposed rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Akintunde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury causes varieties of adverse reproductive disorders in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the unsaturated fatty acids of Pteleopsis suberosa stem bark extract (PTSSBE, evaluate its antioxidant properties and examine its biochemical targets on sub-acute mercury-induced testicular dysfunctions. Rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals each. Group I was given distilled water; group II, III, IV and V was orally administered with mercury at a dose of 3.75 mg/kg body weight. Group III, IV and V were co-treated with PTSSBE of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 10 days. Rats exposed to mercury significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, while the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased. There was also a marked significant decrease (p < 0.05 in testicular activities of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δ5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Moreover, the activities of prostatic acid phosphatase, total acid phosphatase and prostatic alkaline phosphatase, were significantly (p < 0.05 elevated in mercury treated rats. These effects were prevented by co-treatment with PTSSBE in mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Aphrosidiac effects of Pteleopsis suberosa, may find clinical application in reproductive abnormalities. Isolation and translation of individual active ingredient would help to find new drugs to cure and/or prevent male infertility among mercury exposed workers.

  14. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs erectile function through increased endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and corporal fibrosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Niu, X; Wang, G; Huang, J; Liu, M; Peng, B

    2016-11-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). But the molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between CP/CPPS and ED are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CP/CPPS on erectile function in a rat model and the possible mechanisms. A rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was established to mimic human CP⁄CPPS. Then twenty 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into EAP group and control group. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during cavernous nerve electrostimulation, the ratio of max ICP/MAP was calculated. Blood was collected to measure the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and testosterone, respectively. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in corpus cavernosum were detected. We also evaluated the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and apoptotic index (AI). The ratio of max ICP/MAP in EAP group were significantly lower than that in control group. The levels of serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in EAP group were all significantly higher than these in control group. The expression of eNOS and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, decreased SOD activity and smooth muscle/collagen ratio, increased MDA levels and AI were found in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats. In conclusion, CP/CPPS impaired penile erectile function in a rat model. The declines of eNOS expression and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum may be an important mechanism of CP/CPPS-induced ED. CP/CPPS also increased oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio in corpus cavernosum of rats, which were

  15. Resveratrol improves urinary dysfunction in rats with chronic prostatitis and suppresses the activity of the stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Jiang; He, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chen; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common urological disorder, with bladder voiding dysfunction being the primary clinical manifestation. Resveratrol is polyphenolic compound isolated from numerous plants, with widely‑reported anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to investigate whether resveratrol may improve overactive bladder in rats with CP and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, the potential pharmacological synergy between resveratrol and solifenacin was also investigated as a potential treatment for CP. Following the successful establishment of a rat model of CP by subcutaneously injecting DPT vaccine, rats were treated with resveratrol or a combination of resveratrol + solifenacin. Bladder pressure and volume tests were performed to investigate the effect of resveratrol and solifenacin on urinary dysfunction in rats with chronic prostatitis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the expression of c‑Kit receptor, stem cell factor (SCF), AKT and phosphorylated‑AKT (p‑AKT) in the bladder tissue. The results of the bladder pressure and volume test indicated that the maximum capacity of the bladder, residual urine volume and maximum voiding pressure in the control group were 0.57 ml, 0.17 ml and 29.62 cm H2O, respectively. These values were increased by 71, 27 and 206% in rats in the CP group compared with the control group. Following treatment with resveratrol, the results in the resveratrol group were reduced by 25.77, 44.23 and 13.32% compared with the CP group. The results of western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence labeling demonstrate that the protein expression of SCF, c‑Kit and p‑AKT in the bladder of rats in the CP group was 4.32, 6.13 and 6.31 times higher compared with the control group, respectively. Following treatment with resveratrol, protein expression was significantly reduced. However, no significant differences

  16. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu

    2017-01-25

    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  17. Tissue expression and enzymologic characterization of human prostate specific membrane antigen and its rat and pig orthologs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovenská, Miroslava; Hlouchová, Klára; Šácha, Pavel; Mlčochová, Petra; Horák, Vratislav; Zámečník, J.; Bařinka, C.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2008), s. 171-182 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GA524/04/0102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : prostate specific membrane antigen * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * animal orthologs * prostate cancer * animal model Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.069, year: 2008

  18. The Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  19. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  20. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  3. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantscheff, Peter; Esser, Norbert; Geipel, Andreas; Woias, Peter; Ziroli, Vittorio; Goldschmidtboing, Frank; Massing, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented

  4. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantscheff, Peter, E-mail: jantscheff@tumorbio.uni-freiburg.de [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Esser, Norbert [ProQinase GmbH, Breisacher Str. 117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Geipel, Andreas; Woias, Peter [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ziroli, Vittorio [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Goldschmidtboing, Frank [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Massing, Ulrich [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-17

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  5. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT‑Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Woias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24, spleen (3/24, kidney (4/24, liver (5/24, and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively. Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes. Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4, lung (3/6 or lumbar spine (0/2, as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  6. Interaction Between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Marzo, Angelo M

    2007-01-01

    We are investigating whether inflammation can enhance prostate carcinogenesis in a rat model of dietary charred meat carcinogen induced cancers, and, whether antioxidant and other chemopreventative...

  7. Interactions between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeMarzo, Angelo M

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating whether inflammation can enhance prostate carcinogenesis in a rat model of dietary charred meat carcinogen induced cancers, and, whether antioxidant and other chemopreventative...

  8. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  9. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  10. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  11. Add-on Therapy With the α-Blockers Tamsulosin and Naftopidil Improves Voiding Function by Enhancing Neuronal Activity in Prostatic Hyperplasia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Han, Jin Hee; Jeon, Jung Won; Cho, Sung Tae

    2018-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) impacts quality of life in men by causing lower urinary tract symptoms. α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) blockers improve lower urinary tract symptoms. We investigated the efficacy of add-on therapy with α1-AR blockers on BPH rats. Rats in the drug-treated groups were orally administered each drug once a day for 30 days after orchiectomy. To induce BPH, rats were castrated and testosterone (20 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously once per day for 30 days. Cystometry was conducted to measure voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time, immunohistochemistry was performed to measure c-Fos and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the neuronal voiding centers, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry was used to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression. Orchiectomy and testosterone injection decreased voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time, suggesting BPH symptoms. Voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time were greater in the group that received the combination treatment (tamsulosin with naftopidil) than in the tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy groups. c-Fos, NGF, and NOS expression in the neuronal voiding centers was enhanced by BPH induction. c-Fos, NGF, and NOS expression was suppressed by the combination treatment (tamsulosin with naftopidil) to a greater extent than was the case for tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy. Combination therapy of tamsulosin and naftopidil showed greater efficacy for the treatment of BPH than tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy; therefore, combination therapy can be considered as a novel therapeutic method for BPH.

  12. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  13. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63 g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05. Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all. Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats.

  14. Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Renuka V.; Engelhardt, Edward L.; Stobbe, Corinne C.; Schneider, Richard F.; Chapman, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In the search for a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive technique for quantifying human tumor hypoxia, our laboratory has synthesized several potential radiodiagnostic agents. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the hypoxic marking properties of both radioiodinated and Tc-99m labeled markers in appropriate test systems which can predict for in vivo activity. Materials and Methods: Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity employed three laboratory assays with tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Radiolabeled marker uptake and/or binding to whole EMT-6 tumor cells under extremely hypoxic and aerobic conditions was measured and their ratio defined hypoxia-specific factor (HSF). Marker specificity to hypoxic tumor tissue was estimated from its selective avidity to two rodent tumors in vivo, whose radiobiologic hypoxic fractions (HF) had been measured. The ratios of % injected dose/gram (%ID/g) of marker at various times in EMT-6 tumor tissue relative to that in the blood and muscle of scid mice were used to quantify hypoxia-specific activity. This tumor in this host exhibited an average radiobiologic HF of ∼35%. As well, nuclear medicine images were acquired from R3327-AT (HF ≅15%) and R3327-H (no measurable HF) prostate carcinomas growing in rats to distinguish between marker avidity due to hypoxia versus perfusion. Results: The HSF for FC-103 and other iodinated markers were higher (5-40) than those for FC-306 and other Tc-99m labeled markers. The latter did not show hypoxia-specific uptake into cells in vitro. Qualitative differences were observed in the biodistribution and clearance kinetics of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides relative to the technetium chelates. The largest tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios were observed for compounds of the azomycin nucleoside class in EMT-6 tumor-bearing scid mice. These markers also showed a 3-4 x higher uptake into R3327-AT tumors relative to the well

  15. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBP; Prostatodynia; Pelvic pain syndrome; CPPS; Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis; Chronic genitourinary pain ... Possible causes of nonbacterial prostatitis include: A past ... common types of bacteria Irritation caused by a backup of urine ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  18. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  19. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...

  4. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  6. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  7. Role Of Shark Cartilage In Reducing Changes In Gene Expression Of Some Enzymes Induced By N-Nitroso-N-Methyl Urea In Prostate Of Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELMAGHRABY, T.; YACOUB, S.; IBRAHIM, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence to indicate that free radicals cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids and are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Therefore, antioxidants, which can neutralize free radicals, may be of central importance in the prevention of these diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the role of shark cartilage in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage and mutagenesis. Reactive oxygen species and other free radicals are known to be the mediators of phenotypic and genotypic changes that lead from mutation to neoplasia. There are some primary antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST-π) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), which protects against cellular and molecular damage caused by the reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs).In this study, the effect of shark cartilage against the N-nitroso-N-methyl urea + testosterone and/or gamma radiation-induced mutagens and carcinogens in rat prostate were investigated.The data showed significant decrease in gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GSHPx1) , enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and non-significant increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST-π) in N-nitroso-N-methyl urea + testosterone, N-nitroso-N-methyl urea + testosterone + gamma radiation groups as compared to control group.The results revealed that shark cartilage administration afford a significant protective effect against N-nitroso-N-methyl urea + testosterone and/or gamma radiation- induced oxidative injury.

  8. Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawen; Constantinescu, Anca; Hahn, Eric W.; Mason, Ralph P.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Since hypoxia may influence tumor response to therapy and prognosis, we have compared oxygenation of tumors known to exhibit differential growth rate and tissue differentiation. Methods and Materials: Regional tumor oxygen tension was measured using 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance echo planar imaging relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene, which provided dynamic maps with respect to respiratory intervention. Investigations used two Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines: the fast growing, highly metastatic MAT-Lu and the moderately well-differentiated, slower growing HI. Results: Both sublines showed significantly higher oxygen tension in smaller tumors ( 3 ) than in larger tumors (>3.5 cm 3 ). Pooled data showed that MAT-Lu tumors exhibited greater hypoxia compared with the size-matched HI tumors (p 2 for tumors of both sublines (p 2 , while those in the MAT-Lu tumors showed little response to respiratory intervention. Conclusions: These results concur with hypotheses that hypoxia is related to tumor growth rate and degree of differentiation. Under baseline conditions, the differences were subtle. However, response to respiratory intervention revealed highly significant differences, which, if held valid in the clinic, could have prognostic value

  9. Effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn extract on chronic prostatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2017; 16 (5): 1091-1095 ... After treatment, prostate index (PI) and prostate-specific antigen. (PSA) of all the rats were ..... pathway in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

  10. Evaluation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) combined with external radiation in an orthotopic rat model of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, M.; Thiesen, B.; Taymoorian, K.; Gneveckow, U.; Waldoefner, N.; Koch, M.; Scholz, R.; Lein, M.; Jung, K.; Loening, S.A.; Jordan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a new concept of cancer treatment based on AC magnetic field-induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Preliminary studies of MFH using nanoscaled aminosilan-coated magnetites have demonstrated the feasibility of minimally invasive MFH in the Dunning tumor model. Here we evaluated the effect of two sequential MFH treatments, combined with external radiation, in an orthotopic Dunning R3327-MatLyLu prostate cancer model. MFH led to a significant growth inhibition in this orthotopic model of the aggressive MatLyLu tumor variant. Furthermore, combined MFH and radiation with 20 Gy equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth as radiation with 60 Gy, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Intratumoral deposition of magnetic fluids was found to be stable, allowing for serial MFH treatments without repeated injection. The optimal treatment schedules of this combination regarding temperatures, sequencing and fractionation need to be defined in further experimental studies. (author)

  11. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  12. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  13. Microautoradiographic studies on distribution of 5α-dihydrotestosterone, cyproterone acetate and oestradiol-17β in human prostatic hyperplasia tissue transplanted to juvenile rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberg, I.; Neumann, F.; Senge, Th.

    1982-01-01

    While maintaining the actual conditions prevailing in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP) in man, transplantation of BPH tissue to newborn rats proved a suitable model for examining the distribution of sexual hormones in different tissue compartments of BPH. In combination with the microautoradiographic method, it was possible to demonstrate the residence of the radioactive androgen 5α-=dihydrotestosterone (5α- DHT), the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CA) and the oestrogen oestradiol-17β(E 2 ) in the epithelium and/or stroma of human BPH tissue. Quantitative evaluation in the form of a point per area count on photographic pictures yielded a silver grain distribution ratio in epithelium and stroma of 1.3:1 and 1.5:1 for epithelium to stroma after administration of [ 3 H]5α-DHT and [ 3 H]CA administration respectively and 0.5:1 after [ 3 H]E 2 . The high tracer recovery rate throughout the stroma following E 2 administration supports the current view that the stromal proliferation is attributable mainly to oestrogen influences. The relatively high silver particle proportion throughout the stroma following 5α-DHT administration corroborates recent findings which suggest that the exclusive androgen dependency of the glandular epithelium can only be considered in conjunction with an active metabolization of androgens in the stroma. The correspondence in the distribution of the radioactive tracer after [ 3 H]5α-DHT and [ 3 H]CA administration both in the epithelium and stroma suggests that an antagonism may also exist in the stroma. (author)

  14. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  16. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE (25 mg/0.1 mL intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  17. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Diego; Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Guajardo-Correa, Emanuel; Orihuela, Pedro A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ER β , but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ER α . In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ER β without affecting androgen receptors and ER α . This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  18. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca. PMID:29375645

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an example of a transrectal transducer (probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for ... of the prostate gland. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  20. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  1. Bioenergetics of Stromal Cells as a Predictor of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    complex tissue preparations (human prostate and prostatic adenoma) and rat ventral prostate cells it was reported to exhibit high aerobic glycolysis [19...pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase), 2DG (inhibitor of hexokinase), or metformin (inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I) [41] as a therapeutic approach to... cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone; GAPDH, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GlyST, Glycolytic stress test; HPV, human papilloma virus

  2. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  3. AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROTACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROLACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS. RW Luebke, CB Copeland, and LR Bishop. US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NCStoker et al. reported inflammation of the lateral prostate (LP) lobes in 120 day old Wistar rats after manipulation of prolac...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectum. The images are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  7. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...

  8. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  16. Prostatitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this exam, ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe sends and receives sound waves through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland which ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  7. Prostate carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  8. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  9. Differentiation of prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue in an animal model: conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemeinhardt, O.; Prochnow, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Abramjuk, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to differentiate orthotopically implanted prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the rat model. Material and methods: tumors were induced in 15 rats by orthotopic implantation of G subline Dunning rat prostatic tumor cells. MRI was performed 56 to 60 days after tumor cell implantation using T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted turbo SE sequences, and a 2D FLASH sequence for the contrast medium based dynamic study. The interstitial leakage volume, normalized permeability and the permeability surface area product of tumor and healthy prostate were determined quantitatively using a pharmacokinetic model. The results were confirmed by histologic examination. Results: axial T2-weighted TSE images depicted low-intensity areas suspicious for tumor in all 15 animals. The mean tumor volume was 46.5 mm3. In the dynamic study, the suspicious areas in all animals displayed faster and more pronounced signal enhancement than surrounding prostate tissue. The interstitial volume and the permeability surface area product of the tumors increased significantly by 420% (p<0.001) and 424% (p<0.001), respectively, compared to normal prostate tissue, while no significant difference was seen for normalized permeability alone. Conclusion: the results of the present study demonstrate that quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI data enables differentiation of small, slowly growing orthotopic prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue in the rat model. (orig.)

  10. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  11. A completely calcified prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic calcification and prostatic calculus formation is commonly seen in adult population with chronic prostatitis, however, gross prostatic calcification which involves more than 3 cm2 of the gland is quite rare. We are presenting here one such case in which almost whole glandular prostate was converted into stone which is never reported so far.

  12. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  13. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  16. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  18. The effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on mRNA expression of p53/PTEN tumor suppressing genes in prostate glands of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent training with and without taking vitamin E on expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes in the prostate gland of male rats. For this purpose, 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: [1] control (CON, n = 10, [2] sham (S, n = 10, [3] intense intermittent training (IIT, n = 10, [4] intense intermittent training + vitamin E (IIT + VE, n = 10, [5] vitamin E (VE, n = 10. Protocol of this study was implemented for 6 days per week for 6 weeks, with observing the overload principle on the motorized treadmill. After implementing training protocol, expression rate of p53 and PTEN genes reduced significantly (p<0.000, p<0.031, respectively. Taking vitamin E with intermittent training caused significant reduction in p53 expression (p<0.013, while it caused significant increase in expression of PTEN (p<0.035. These results showed that intense intermittent training reduces expression of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressing genes and taking supplementation vitamin E along with this type of training could cause different effects in expression of these tumor suppressor genes.

  19. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... Do you have a personal ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  5. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  6. Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in three sublines of a rat prostate carcinoma using dynamic 18F-FMISO-Pet-Ct and quantitative histology

    OpenAIRE

    Mena-Romano, Pamela; Cheng, Caixia; Glowa, Christin; Peschke, Peter; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Karger, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important resistance factor in radiotherapy and measuring its spatial distribution in tumors non-invasively is therefore of major importance. This study characterizes the hypoxic conditions of three tumor sublines (AT1, HI and H) of the Dunning R3327 prostate tumor model, which differ in histology, differentiation degree, volume doubling time and androgenic sensitivity, using dynamic Fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO)-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and his...

  7. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  8. Differential effect of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on the in vivo uptake of 14C-labeled polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) by a rat prostate-derived tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heston, W.D.; Kadmon, D.; Covey, D.F.; Fair, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of exogenously administered radiolabeled polyamines by a rat prostate-derived tumor line, the Dunning R3327 MAT-Lu, and various normal tissues was studied. Pretreatment of tumor cells in vitro with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a polyamine synthesis inhibitor, resulted in a markedly enhanced uptake of both [ 14 C]putrescine and [14 C]spermidine. The in vitro uptake of [ 14 C]putrescine by these cells was effectively inhibited by unlabeled spermine, spermidine, 1,8-diaminooctane, 1,7-diaminoheptane, 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,4-diaminopentane, and 1,4-diaminobutane, but less effectively by 1,4-diamino-2,3-butene and 1,4-diamino-2,3-butyne. The diamines, 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,2-diaminoethane, were ineffective in inhibiting [ 14 C]putrescine uptake in vitro into the R3327 MAT-Lu cell line. When tumor-bearing animals were pretreated with DFMO or with DFMO and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate, the tumor and prostate uptake of [ 14 C]putrescine and [ 14 C]-cadaverine was enhanced but not substantially increased in other tissues. In contrast to the in vitro results, spermidine and spermine were not enhanced substantially by DFMO pretreatment into any tissue, and their uptake into the tumor actually decreased. Ethylenediamine, which does not utilize the polyamine transport system, did not have its uptake increased into any tissue following DFMO pretreatment. The chemotherapeutic agent, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which utilizes the polyamine transport system for uptake into cells, exhibited uptake behavior different from that of the polyamines

  9. Differential effect of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on the in vivo uptake of 14C-labeled polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) by a rat prostate-derived tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heston, W.D.; Kadmon, D.; Covey, D.F.; Fair, W.R.

    1984-03-01

    The uptake of exogenously administered radiolabeled polyamines by a rat prostate-derived tumor line, the Dunning R3327 MAT-Lu, and various normal tissues was studied. Pretreatment of tumor cells in vitro with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a polyamine synthesis inhibitor, resulted in a markedly enhanced uptake of both (/sup 14/C)putrescine and (14 C)spermidine. The in vitro uptake of (/sup 14/C)putrescine by these cells was effectively inhibited by unlabeled spermine, spermidine, 1,8-diaminooctane, 1,7-diaminoheptane, 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,4-diaminopentane, and 1,4-diaminobutane, but less effectively by 1,4-diamino-2,3-butene and 1,4-diamino-2,3-butyne. The diamines, 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,2-diaminoethane, were ineffective in inhibiting (/sup 14/C)putrescine uptake in vitro into the R3327 MAT-Lu cell line. When tumor-bearing animals were pretreated with DFMO or with DFMO and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate, the tumor and prostate uptake of (/sup 14/C)putrescine and (/sup 14/C)-cadaverine was enhanced but not substantially increased in other tissues. In contrast to the in vitro results, spermidine and spermine were not enhanced substantially by DFMO pretreatment into any tissue, and their uptake into the tumor actually decreased. Ethylenediamine, which does not utilize the polyamine transport system, did not have its uptake increased into any tissue following DFMO pretreatment. The chemotherapeutic agent, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which utilizes the polyamine transport system for uptake into cells, exhibited uptake behavior different from that of the polyamines.

  10. Inflammasomes are important mediators of prostatic inflammation associated with BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Mahendra; Pore, Subrata; Wang, Zhou; Gingrich, Jeffrey; Yoshimura, Naoki; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to support the role of inflammation in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and a recent study reported expression of inflammasome derived cytokine IL-18 in prostate biopsy of BPH patients. Here we examined the expression of inflammasome-derived cytokines and activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor with pyrin domain protein 1 (NLRP) 1 inflammasome in a rat model of prostatic inflammation relevant to BPH. Prostatic inflammation was experimentally induced in three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraprostatic injection (50 μL) of either 5 % formalin or saline (sham) into the ventral lobes of prostate. 7 days later, prostate and bladder tissue was harvested for analysis of inflammasome by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and downstream cytokine production by Milliplex. Expression of interleukins, CXC and CC chemokines were elevated 2-15 fold in formalin injected prostate relative to sham. Significant expression of NLRP1 inflammasome components and caspase-1 in prostate were associated with significant elevation of pro and cleaved forms of IL-1β (25.50 ± 1.16 vs 3.05 ± 0.65 pg/mg of protein) and IL-18 (1646.15 ± 182.61 vs 304.67 ± 103.95 pg/mg of protein). Relative to prostate tissue, the cytokine expression in bladder tissue was much lower and did not involve inflammasome activation. Significant upregulation of NLRP1, caspase-1 and downstream cytokines (IL-18 and IL-1β) suggests that a NLRP1 inflammasome is assembled and activated in prostate tissue of this rat model . Recapitulation of findings from human BPH specimens suggests that the inflammasome may perpetuate the inflammatory state associated with BPH. Further clarification of these pathways may offer innovative therapeutic targets for BPH-related inflammation.

  11. A host defense mechanism involving CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion in bacterial prostatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis is associated with a characteristic increase in prostatic fluid pH; however, the underlying mechanism and its physiological significance have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study a primary culture of rat prostatic epithelial cells and a rat prostatitis model were used. Here we reported the involvement of CFTR, a cAMP-activated anion channel conducting both Cl(- and HCO(3(-, in mediating prostate HCO(3(- secretion and its possible role in bacterial killing. Upon Escherichia coli (E. coli-LPS challenge, the expression of CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II, along with several pro-inflammatory cytokines was up-regulated in the primary culture of rat prostate epithelial cells. Inhibiting CFTR function in vitro or in vivo resulted in reduced bacterial killing by prostate epithelial cells or the prostate. High HCO(3(- content (>50 mM, rather than alkaline pH, was found to be responsible for bacterial killing. The direct action of HCO(3(- on bacterial killing was confirmed by its ability to increase cAMP production and suppress bacterial initiation factors in E. coli. The relevance of the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- secretion in humans was demonstrated by the upregulated expression of CFTR and CAII in human prostatitis tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CFTR and its mediated HCO(3(- secretion may be up-regulated in prostatitis as a host defense mechanism.

  12. Significance of prostatic weight in prostatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P

    1983-01-01

    In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome....... Resected prostatic weight correlated with estimated weight at cystoscopy and with obstructive symptoms, but not with urodynamic variables of infravesical obstruction. Patients with small prostates improved symptomatologically to the same degree as patients with larger glands, although they did not improve...... to the same degree urodynamically. Prostatic weight, therefore, could not be used to predict the outcome of transurethral surgery....

  13. [Ultrasound physiotherapy treatment of prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talberg, P I; Andryukhin, M I; Mazina, S E; Nikolaev, A L

    2016-12-01

    Develop a method of treatment of prostatitis based on the use of a standard antibiotic, immunomodulatory therapy, and transrectal ultrasound physiotherapy. The dynamics of the accumulation of the antibiotic was investigated in male rats. Sonication was performed immediately before the administration of the antibiotic and its accumulation in the process at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min after dosing. The clinical study included 138 patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients of the experimental group, in addition to standard therapy, 10 sessions of transrectal ultrasound physical therapy was performed. The efficacy of treatment was assessed after 14 and 28 days after initiation. and its discussion. Experiments on laboratory animals have shown that the highest concentration and the residence time of antibiotic in the prostate tissue is noted ultrasonic treatment in the period of maximum blood concentration of the test drug. The data obtained allow to determine that the ultrasonic treatment must be performed considering the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic. In conducting clinical trials on day 14 of treatment and clinical manifestations of prostatitis bacterial microflora in prostatic secretions were no patients in both groups. In 15% of patients of the experimental group the number of leukocytes decreased to the normal range. After 28 days the amount of leukocytes was normal in 51% of patients in the control and 85% in the experimental group. In animal experiments defined the optimal time interval separating the moment of injection of the antibiotic from the beginning of sonication. Clinical studies have shown that the transrectal ultrasound exposure during the period of maximum concentration of the antibiotic in the blood, improves patient outcomes by 33.8%.

  14. Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Transfer for Imaging and Ablation of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhiang, Sissy M

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific aims of this project are to: (1) confirm metastatic progression to distant lymph nodes and lungs following subcutaneous inoculation of rats with MATLyLu prostatic adenocarcinoma cells expressing hNIS; (2...

  15. Granulomatous prostatitis - an infrequent diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RPS Punia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare disorder of pros-tate. We encountered 10 cases of′grmudomatous prosta-titis consisting of 5 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 2 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, I case of tuberculous prostatitis, I case of malakoplakia prostate and I case of granulomatous prostatitis associ-ated with adenocarcinoma prostate. The diagnosis was made by histopathologic examination of trucut biopsy, TURP chips or retropubic prostatectomy specimen. In all the cases, granulomatous prostatitis was an incidental find-ing.

  16. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  18. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  19. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  20. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  1. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  2. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thermotherapy; TUMT; Urolift; BPH - resection; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy) - resection; Prostate - enlarged - resection ... passing an instrument through the opening in your penis (meatus). You will be given general anesthesia (asleep ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  4. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  6. 9-AAA inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human melanoma A375 and rat prostate adenocarcinoma AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines but does not affect the growth and viability of normal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korohoda, Włodzimierz; Hapek, Anna; Pietrzak, Monika; Ryszawy, Damian; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2016-11-01

    The present study found that, similarly to 5-fluorouracil, low concentrations (1-10 µM) of 9-aminoacridine (9-AAA) inhibited the growth of the two rat prostate cancer AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines and the human melanoma A375 cell line. However, at the same concentrations, 9-AAA had no effect on the growth and apoptosis of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). The differences between the cellular responses of the AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines, which differ in malignancy, were found to be relatively small compared with the differences between normal HSFs and the cancer cell lines. Visible effects on the cell growth and survival of tumor cell lines were observed after 24-48 h of treatment with 9-AAA, and increased over time. The inhibition of cancer cell growth was found to be due to the gradually increasing number of cells dying by apoptosis, which was observed using two methods, direct counting and FlowSight analysis. Simultaneously, cell motile activity decreased to the same degree in cancer and normal cells within the first 8 h of incubation in the presence of 9-AAA. The results presented in the current study suggest that short-lasting tests for potential anticancer substances can be insufficient; which may result in cell type-dependent differences in the responses of cells to tested compounds that act with a delay being overlooked. The observed differences in responses between normal human fibroblasts and cancer cells to 9-AAA show the requirement for additional studies to be performed simultaneously on differently reacting cancer and normal cells, to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences.

  7. Receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries after treatment with a sustained delivery system of LHRH antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Radulovic, S; Korkut, E; Schally, A V

    1990-12-01

    Membrane receptors for LHRH were evaluated in Dunning R3327 prostate cancers and rat anterior pituitaries. The receptors were characterized both in untreated animals and after in vivo treatment with microcapsules of the agonist D-Trp6-LHRH and a sustained delivery system releasing different doses (23.8, 47.6, 71.4 micrograms/day) of LHRH antagonist [Ac-D-Nal(2)1-D-Phe(4Cl)2-D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6, D-Ala10]-LHRH (SB-75). The therapy, which lasted 8 weeks, strongly inhibited tumor growth. A group of normal Sprague-Dawley male rats was also treated for 6 weeks with microcapsules of SB-75 releasing 25 micrograms/day. In the Dunning tumors from the control group, ligand [125I, D-Trp6]-LHRH was bound to two classes of binding sites [dissociation constant, class a (Kda) = 1.01 +/- 0.30 x 10(-9) M; Kdb = 1.71 +/- 0.41 x 10(-6) M; maximal binding capacity of receptors, class a (Bmaxa) = 48.66 +/- 22.13 fmol/mg of protein; Bmaxb = 92.10 +/- 29.40 pmol/mg of protein] in both kinetic and equilibrium studies. Treatment with D-Trp6-LHRH produced down-regulation of membrane receptors for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Microcapsules of SB-75 resulted in dose-dependent up-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in Dunning tumors. Analysis of the binding data showed that interaction of labeled D-Trp6-LHRH with binding sites in anterior pituitaries was consistent with the presence of a single class of noncooperative receptors (Kd = 43.75 x 10(-9) M; Bmax = 5.25 pmol/mg membrane proteins). Prolonged treatment with microcapsules of D-Trp6-LHRH reduced both Bmax and Kd. Lower doses of SB-75 (23.8 and 47.6 micrograms/day) produced up-regulation, whereas the highest dose (71.4 micrograms/day) resulted in down-regulation of binding sites for LHRH in rat pituitaries. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, treatment with microcapsules of SB-75 (25 micrograms/day) for 6 weeks produced a slight increase in the number of available binding sites (Bmax = 2.35 +/- 0.82 pmol/mg membrane protein) and a moderate decrease in

  8. Transgenerational effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on the prostate transcriptome and adult onset disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2008-04-01

    The ability of an endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination to promote a transgenerational prostate disease phenotype was investigated in the current study. Exposure of an F0 gestating female rat to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during F1 embryo gonadal sex determination promoted a transgenerational adult onset prostate disease phenotype. The prostate disease phenotype and physiological parameters were determined for males from F1 to F4 generations and the prostate transcriptome was assessed in the F3 generation. Although the prostate in prepubertal animals develops normally, abnormalities involving epithelial cell atrophy, glandular dysgenesis, prostatitis, and hyperplasia of the ventral prostate develop in older animals. The ventral prostate phenotype was transmitted for four generations (F1-F4). Analysis of the ventral prostate transcriptome demonstrated 954 genes had significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Analysis of isolated ventral prostate epithelial cells identified 259 genes with significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Characterization of regulated genes demonstrated several cellular pathways were influenced, including calcium and WNT. A number of genes identified have been shown to be associated with prostate disease and cancer, including beta-microseminoprotein (Msp) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 6 (Fadd). The ability of an endocrine disruptor to promote transgenerational prostate abnormalities appears to involve an epigenetic transgenerational alteration in the prostate transcriptome and male germ-line. Potential epigenetic transgenerational alteration of prostate gene expression by environmental compounds may be important to consider in the etiology of adult onset prostate disease.

  9. Nonbacterial prostatitis: a comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The term 'prostatitis' denotes a condition of inflammation of the prostate. Prostatitis is usually employed to describe any unexplained symptom or condition that might possibly emanate from a disorder of the prostate gland. The diagnosis of nonbacterial prostatitis is reserved for those patients

  10. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  11. urethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate on prostate- specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce blood flow in BPH, thereby preventing bleeding [6,7]. Thus ... urethra, prostate and surrounding tissue ... The peripheral blood and prostatic fluid of the patients ... Coronary heart ..... Length Density of Prostate Vessels, Intraoperative,.

  12. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  13. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  14. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  15. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  16. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  17. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  18. Strain-specific induction of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher M; Flies, Dallas B; Mosse, Claudio A; Parwani, Anil; Hipkiss, Edward L; Drake, Charles G

    2013-05-01

    Prostatitis, a clinical syndrome characterized by pelvic pain and inflammation, is common in adult males. Although several induced and spontaneous murine models of prostatitis have been explored, the role of genetic background on induction has not been well-defined. Using a standard methodology for the induction of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), we investigated both acute and chronic inflammation on several murine genetic backgrounds. In our colony, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice evinced spontaneous prostatitis that was not augmented by immunization with rat prostate extract (RPE). In contrast, the standard laboratory strain Balb/c developed chronic inflammation in response to RPE immunization. Development of EAP in other strains was variable. These data suggest that Balb/c mice injected with RPE may provide a useful model for chronic prostatic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. TRP Channels in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Haute

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.

  20. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  1. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  2. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of substances that promote prostate cell growth. Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that ... physical exam medical tests Personal and Family Medical History Taking a personal and family medical history is ...

  3. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  4. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  5. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  6. Prostate imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Teichgraeber, U.; Asbach, P.; Hamm, B.; Foller, S.

    2015-01-01

    New technical and clinical developments of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging include improved detection, localization and staging as well as active surveillance of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI can best answer these typical clinical questions. However, ultrasound elastography seems to be suitable for the detection of significant prostate cancer as well. The structured reporting system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate according to PI-RADS Version 1 led to improved and reproducible diagnosis of prostate cancer. The new PI-RADS Version 2 aims to minimize the limitations of Version 1 and make PI-RADS standardization more globally acceptable.

  7. Targeting GPR30 in Abiraterone and MDV3100 Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for...neutrophils (NIMP-R14), and macrophages ( F4 /80) are presented in Table S2. Sections of mouse spleen, mouse prostate, and human prostate were included in...1:50 Anti-rat No Abcam NIMP-R14 1:100 Anti-rat No Abcam F4 /80 1:100 Anti-rat Sodium citrate Abcam The primary antibodies were diluted in 10

  8. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host's immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S14-S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Our data show that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  10. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  11. Appearance and methods of prostatic arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gang; Yang Zhigang; Meng Fanzhe; Zhang Yingguang; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of prostatic arteriography and evaluate the arteriographic appearance of prostatic blood supply. Methods: Selective and super-selective prostatic arteriographies were performed in 62 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Results: The prostatic blood supply originated mainly from inferior vesical artery or internal pudendal artery or prostatic artery (80%). Prostatic arteriography could be performed successfully with skillful catheterization and high resolution DSA. Conclusions: Prostatic arteriography is helpful for evaluating the origin and quantity of prostate vasculature and important to differentiate benign prostatic hyperplasia from prostatic cancer

  12. Imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The main role of imaging in prostatic diseases is for prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging tools used for the diagnosis of the diseases of the prostate gland. The main indications for TRUS is the evaluation for prostate cancer and guidance for prostate biopsy. On TRUS, the transition zone with a hypoechoic appearance can be differentiated from the peripheral zone, which appears relatively echogenic and homogenous in echotexture. Prostate cancer mainly involves the peripheral zone, though one fifth of the disease can be detected in the transition zone, which is the major site for hyperplastic changes in older men. Color Doppler ultrasound may be helpful for the differentiation of low-risk, hypovascular tumors from high-risk, hypervascular tumors, as the latter group is associated with higher Gleason tumor grades consistent with higher risk for extraprostatic spread. Nevertheless, targeted prostate biopsy solely based on high-frequency color or power Doppler imaging is not recommended, as the technique has inherent risk of missing a significant number of cancers. Although power Doppler ultrasound can enable the operator to perform more accurate sampling of the prostate by determining sites of focal hypervascularity, it has not been found to be superior to color Doppler ultrasound. It has been reported to be useful only for targeted biopsies with limited number of biopsy cores. Microbubble contrast agents may enable better visualization of prostatic microvasculature and cancerous prostate tissue. By means of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), the number of cores may be decreased by performing targeted biopsies. Importantly, the detection of the signals reflected by the microbubbles can be enhanced by the phase inversion (pulse-inversion) technology. Prostate cancer appears as a dark zone on elastography representing limited elasticity or compressibility. By means of the

  13. The Prostate Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  14. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  15. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  16. Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy in Prostate Glands 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayadev, Jyoti; Merrick, Gregory S.; Reed, Joshua R.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry, treatment-related morbidity, and biochemical outcomes for brachytherapy in patients with prostate glands 3 . Methods and Materials: From November 1996 to October 2006, 104 patients with prostate glands 3 underwent brachytherapy. Multiple prostate, urethral, and rectal dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Treatment-related urinary and rectal morbidity were assessed from patient questionnaires. Cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival were recorded. Results: The median patient age, follow up, and pre-treatment ultrasound volume was 64 years, 5.0 years and 17.6cm 3 , respectively. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 98.5%, D90 126.1% and R100 <0.5% of prescription dose. The mean urethral and maximum urethral doses were 119.6% and 133.8% of prescription. The median time to International Prostate Symptom Score resolution was 4 months. There were no RTOG grade III or IV rectal complications. The cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 92.5%, and 77.8% at 9 years. For biochemically disease-free patients, the median most recent postbrachytherapy PSA value was 0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that brachytherapy for small prostate glands is highly effective, with an acceptable morbidity profile, excellent postimplant dosimetry, acceptable treatment-related morbidity, and favorable biochemical outcomes.

  17. Prostate Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancers are often adenocarcinomas. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is often present in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on prostate cancer including treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  18. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with nonbacterial prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Karthaus, H. F.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    The potential value of prostatic imaging in the diagnosis of inflammatory disorders of the prostate is largely unexplored. In several studies, specific ultrasonographic characteristics in patients with prostatitis have been described. Also nonspecific echogenic qualities in prostatitis have been

  19. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  20. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  1. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  2. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  3. Resveratrol improves prostate fibrosis during progression of urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Hui-Zhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Shu; Duan, Xingping; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Gong, Feng-Tao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether prostate fibrosis was associated with urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis (CP) and whether resveratrol improved urinary dysfunction and the underlying molecular mechanism. Rat model of CP was established via subcutaneous injections of DPT vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Bladder pressure and volume tests investigated the effect of resveratrol on urinary dysfunction in CP rats. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin. Compared to the control group, the maximum capacity of the bladder, residual urine volume and maximum voiding pressure, the activity of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathways were increased significantly in the CP group. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors. CP induced significantly prostate fibrosis, which exhibits a close relationship with urinary dysfunction. Resveratrol improved fibrosis, which may be associated with the suppression of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role for DNA topoisomerase II in prostatic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.G. V.

    1987-01-01

    In the studies presented the role of the mammalian type II topoisomerase in the proliferation of normal and neoplastic rat prostate cells in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. First, the utility of mammalian type II topoisomerase inhibitors for the study of the biologic functions of the enzyme was assessed. Novobiocin inhibited rat topoisomerase II, but also interacted directly with chromatin in rat ventral prostate nuclei as well. Teniposide and amsacrine both trapped topoisomerase II in a covalent enzyme-DNA reaction intermediate that could be recovered using a K-SDS precipitation assay. The specific trapping of covalent topoisomerase II-DNA complexes by teniposide was exploited to implicate topoisomerase II in DNA replication in cultured Dunning R3327-G rat prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. In 3 H-thymidine pulse and pulse-chase labelling experiments, newly replicated DNA was found to be enriched among DNA linked topoisomerase II following teniposide treatment. Additional experiments demonstrated that topoisomerase II formed covalent complexes in the presence of teniposide directly with nascent DNA chains. On the basis of this data, a model for topoisomerase II function in untangling intertwined daughter DNA strands during replication by acting in the wake of the DNA replication fork near the site of DNA synthesis was proposed

  5. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from royal palm (Roystonea regia fruits, on phenylephrine-induced contractions of isolated rat prostate Efecto de D-004, un extracto lipídico extraído de las frutas de la palma real (Roystonea regia sobre las contracciones provocadas por la Fenilefrina sobre la próstata aislada de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Arruzazabala Valmaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available D-004, un extracto lipídico de las frutas de Roystonea regia, inhibe la contracción provocada por la norepinefrina en el vas deferens de las ratas. No obstante, el efecto de D-004 sobre las respuestas contráctiles adrenérgicas a1 en las preparaciones aisladas de la próstata no ha sido estudiado. Por lo tanto, este estudio investigó los efectos de D-004 sobre las contracciones provocadas por la fenilefrina en las extracciones aisladas de la próstata de la rata. D-004 (125-500 mg/mL fue adicionado a las preparaciones a partir de la próstata en la que las contracciones fueron provocadas por la fenilefrina (10-6-10-4 M o por CIK (50 mM. D-004 (250-500 mg/mL en forma significativa y la dosis en forma dependiente inhibieron las contracciones provocadas por la fenilefrina mediante un mecanismo no competetitivo, reduciendo así (12-60 % la contracción máxima por la fenilefrina con respecto a las preparaciones controles. D-004 a 500 µg/mL inhibieron de la misma forma tanto CIK como las respuestas contráctiles-fenilefrina. Tamsulosin (0,01 mg/mL eliminó la acción de la fenilefrina (100 % de inhibición, pero no afectó las contracciones provocadas por CIK.D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits, inhibits norepinephrine-elicited contraction in rat vas deferens. Nevertheless, the effect of D-004 on a1-adrenergic contractile responses in isolated prostate preparations had not been studied. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of D-004 on phenylephrine-induced contractions in isolated rat prostate strips. D-004 (125-500 mg/mL was added to prostate preparations in which contractions were induced with phenylephrine (10-6-10-4 M or with ClK (50 mM. D-004 (250-500 mg/mL significantly (p < 0,01.and dose-dependently inhibited the phenylephrine-induced contractions through a non-competitive mechanism, since it reduced (12-60 % the maximal contraction to phenyle phrine with respect to control preparations. D-004 at 500 mg/mL inhibited

  6. Parental High-Fat Diet Promotes Inflammatory and Senescence-Related Changes in Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbhushan Tikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and dietary habits are associated with increased incidences of aging-related prostatic diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate transgenerational effects of chronic high-fat diet (HFD feeding on inflammation and senescence-related changes in prostate. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on either normal or HFD one. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal activity, inflammation, and cellular proliferation were determined in the prostate. Results. Increased SA β-gal activity, expression of p53, and cell proliferation marker PCNA were observed in ventral prostate of HFD-fed rats. Immunostaining for p53 and PCNA revealed that the p53 immunopositive cells were primarily in stroma while PCNA immunopositive cells were epithelial cells. An increase in expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB was observed in prostate of weaning pups HFD-fed parents. However, in adult pups, irrespective of dietary habit, a significant increase in the expression of COX-2, PCNA, phosphorylation of NF-kB, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and SA β-gal activity was observed. Conclusions. Present investigation reports that HFD feeding promotes accumulation of p53 expressing cells, proliferation of epithelial cells, and senescence-related changes in prostate. Further, parental HFD-feeding upholds inflammatory, proliferative, and senescence-related changes in prostate of pups.

  7. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  8. Estudio del D-004 sobre la defensa antioxidante endógena en ratas con hiperplasia prostática inducida por inyección de testosterona Study of D-004 on the endogenous antioxidant defence in rats presenting with prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2010-06-01

    prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in rodents and to produce in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects nut its effects on endogenous antioxidant4e system enzymes haven't been studied. Present paper researched the effects of D-004 oral treatment over 14 days on dismutase and catalase superoxide enzymes in rats with prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone. Animals were randomized distributed into 4 groups: a negative control ant three-testosterone injected: one treated with the vehicle (positive control and two with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The plasma total antioxidant ability was determined as well as the activity of catalase and dismutase superoxide enzymes in lysed erythrocyte and plasma, respectively. D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg oral treatment markedly and significantly prevented the prostate enlargement induced with testosterone in rats and increased very much the plasma antioxidant activity and of catalase, without modify the superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that D-004 antioxidant activity is partially related to stimulation of some enzymes of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  9. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  10. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  11. Prostatitis - eine endlose Geschichte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedl CR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aktuelle epidemiologische Daten aus den USA zeigen, daß der urogenitale Symptomenkomplex, der langläufig als "Prostatitis" bezeichnet wird, ein nicht unbeträchtliches volksgesundheitliches und volkswirtschaftliches Problem darstellt: dieses Krankheitsbild ist jährlich für 2 Millionen Arztbesuche und für 8% aller urologischen Konsulationen in den USA verantwortlich. Umgekehrt sieht jeder Urologe im Jahr zwischen 150 und 250 Patienten mit "Prostatitis".

  12. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequ...

  13. Paraganglioma of Prostatic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Padilla-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Paragangliomas are usually benign tumors arising from chromaffin cells located outside the adrenal gland. Prostatic paraganglioma is an unusual entity in adult patients, with only 10 cases reported in the medical literature. Case Report A 34-year-old male with a history of chronic prostatitis consulted for perineal pain. On digital rectal examination the prostate was enlarged and firm, without nodules. The PSA level was 0.8 ng/mL and the catecholamines in the urine were elevated. On ultrasound a retrovesical 9 cm mass of undetermined origin measuring was present. A PET-CT scan showed a pelvic lesion measuring 9 cm with moderate increase in glucidic metabolism localized in the area of the prostate. A biopsy of the prostate revealed a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly a prostatic paraganglioma. A body scintigraphy with MIBG I-123 ruled out the presence of metastases or multifocal tumor. A radical prostatectomy with excision of the pelvic mass was performed under adrenergic blockade. One year after surgery the patient is asymptomatic and disease free. Discussion/Conclusions Prostatic paraganglioma is a rare, usually benign tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prostate tumors in young males. Its diagnosis is based on the determination of catecholamine in blood and 24-hour urine and in imaging studies principally scintigraphy with MIBG I-123. Diagnostic confirmation is by histopathological study. The treatment consists of radical resection under adrenergic blockade and volume expansion. Given the limited number of cases reported, it is difficult to establish prognostic factors. Malignancy is defined by clinical criteria, and requires life long follow-up.

  14. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Design and synthesis of prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors as anti-prostate cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Syuhei; Mabuchi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ueda, Masahiro; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Shigi, Naoko; Ohshio, Ikumi; Jinguji, Kentaro; Ueda, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Aoki, Shunji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Tanaka, Akito

    2014-02-15

    A series of 1-aryl-3,4-substituted-1H-pyrazol-5-ol derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors to obtain a novel anti-prostate cancer drug. After modifying 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (1), a hit compound found during random screening using a recombinant PCA-1/ALKBH3, 1-(1H-5-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-4-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (35, HUHS015), was obtained as a potent PCA-1/ALKBH3 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. The bioavailability (BA) of 35 was 7.2% in rats after oral administration. As expected, continuously administering 35 significantly suppressed the growth of DU145 cells, which are human hormone-independent prostate cancer cells, in a mouse xenograft model without untoward effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostatitis: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, J C

    1998-03-01

    To explore the myths surrounding the enigmatic syndrome that the urologic community has labeled as prostatitis and to determine the actual realities associated with this disease. A critical evaluation of the syndrome of prostatitis based on examination of the recent world literature, undisputed scientific facts, solid hypotheses, common sense, and the author's personal opinion. The most common myths surrounding the importance, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and treatment of prostatitis are in fact merely myths. Recent research has led to a new awareness of the importance of prostatitis, new insights into its pathogenesis, improved disease classification and symptom assessment, and will ultimately lead to more rational diagnostic and treatment strategies. The introduction of a new more rational classification system, the development and validation of reliable symptom assessment instruments, new funding initiatives by granting agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, and an awakening appeal for intellectual examination of this common prostate disease by academic urologists guarantees that prostatitis will find an important place on the urologic agenda as we enter the next millennium.

  17. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  18. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbach, P.; Haas, M.; Hamm, B.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Germany; however, there is a distinct difference between incidence and mortality. The detection of prostate cancer is based on clinical and laboratory testing using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and transrectal ultrasound with randomized biopsy. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate can provide valuable diagnostic information for detection of prostate cancer, especially after negative results of a biopsy prior to repeat biopsy. In addition the use of MR ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy has gained in diagnostic importance and has increased the prostate cancer detection rate. The prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) classification has standardized the reporting of prostate MRI which has positively influenced the acceptance by urologists. (orig.) [de

  20. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  1. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment in Prostate Pathology . San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2016:chap 2. Han M, Partin ... eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 106. Kaplan SA. Benign prostatic hyperplasia ...

  2. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  3. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  4. Prostate Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men’s health. Start here to find information on prostate cancer treatment, research, causes and prevention, screening, and statistics.

  5. Therapeutic targeting of angiotensin II receptor type 1 to regulate androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Uemura, Hiroji; Seeni, Azman; Tang, Mingxi; Komiya, Masami; Long, Ne; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-10-01

    With the limited strategies for curative treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), public interest has focused on the potential prevention of prostate cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) has the potential to decrease serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and improve performance status in CRPC patients. These facts prompted us to investigate the direct effects of ARBs on prostate cancer growth and progression. Transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model established in our laboratory was used. TRAP rats of 3 weeks of age received ARB (telmisartan or candesartan) at the concentration of 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 12 weeks. In vitro analyses for cell growth, ubiquitylation or reporter gene assay were performed using LNCaP cells. We found that both telmisartan and candesartan attenuated prostate carcinogenesis in TRAP rats by augmentation of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspases, inactivation of p38 MAPK and down-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR). Further, microarray analysis demonstrated up-regulation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) by ARB treatment. In both parental and androgen-independent LNCaP cells, ARB inhibited both cell growth and AR-mediated transcriptional activity. ARB also exerted a mild additional effect on AR-mediated transcriptional activation by the ERβ up-regulation. An intervention study revealed that PSA progression was prolonged in prostate cancer patients given an ARB compared with placebo control. These data provide a new concept that ARBs are promising potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  7. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  8. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  9. Granulomatous prostatitis: a pitfall in MR imaging of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevenois, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Stallenberg, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Sintzoff, S.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Salmon, I. [Dept. of Pathology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Regemorter, G. van [Dept. of Urology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Struyven, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium)

    1992-08-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis is an uncommon disease that can mimic prostatic carcinoma on both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate had a histological diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis; three of them had recent urinary tract infections. The other patient had an associated midline prostatic cyst and a focus of malignancy. T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in all cases. Peripheral zone lesions of decreased signal intensity, suggestive of carcinoma, were found in all four patients on T2-weighted images. Granulomatous prostatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low signal intensity areas with prostatic magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  10. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  11. Testicular Metastases From Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of prostate carcinoma to the testis is seldom reported. The tumour may spread from the prostatic urethra by retrograde venous extension, arterial embolism or through direct invasion into the lymphatics and lumen of the vas deferens. Clinical manifestations of secondary testicular tumours from the prostate are most often unsuspected clinically and are instead detected incidentally during orchidectomy. Less frequently, a palpable mass is detected, which may be confused with a primary testicular neoplasm. We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a left testicular tumour that was diagnosed as metastases from prostate carcinoma after radical orchidectomy.

  12. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific...... antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. RESULTS: Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  13. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  14. Nonspecific Presentation of a Multiloculated Prostatic Abscess After Transurethral Prostatic Biopsy for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Level

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Nilay M.; Lin, Joseph; Schaeffer, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Prostate postbiopsy infectious complications typically present in the form of prostatitis and uncommonly urosepsis. Prostatic abscesses are generally found after multiple bouts of prostatitis and are associated with a clinically septic picture requiring intensive care unit admission and resuscitation. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with prostatic abscess in the setting of nonspecific urinary symptoms after transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostate biopsy. At 4-month f...

  15. Prostatitis-bacterial - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000395.htm Prostatitis - bacterial - self-care To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis . This is an infection of the prostate gland. ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  17. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  18. Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Scott, Hamish S.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-κB activat...

  19. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  20. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...

  1. MRI of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be present in your body due to prior accidents. Foreign bodies near and especially lodged in the ... hyperplasia and infection. MR spectroscopy can examine the chemical makeup of the prostate ... charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  2. PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN A Clue for the Prostatic Origin of Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    MANABE, Toshiaki; TSUKAYAMA, Chotatsu; YAMAGUCHI, Masae; YAMASHITA, Koshi

    1983-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen is a recently purified glycoprotein which is present only in the prostatic gland. In order to confirm the usefulness of this protein in isolating prostatic carcinomas from socalled metastatic carcinomas of unknown primary site, we immunohistochemically studied 19 non-neoplastic prostatic tissue, 18 primary carcinomas of the prostate, and 32 non-prostatic adenocarcinomas. From our study, we concluded that PSA is highly specific for the prostatic carcinomas. The ab...

  3. Resveratrol Improved the Progression of Chronic Prostatitis via the Downregulation of c-kit/SCF by Activating Sirt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Duan, Xingping; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-07-19

    The regulation mechanism of inflammation inducing prostate carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of the c-kit/SCF pathway, which has been associated with the control of prostate carcinogenesis, in chronic prostatitis (CP) rats and evaluated the anti-prostatitis effect of resveratrol. We performed hemolysin and eosin staining to evaluate the histopathological changes in prostates. Multiple approaches evaluated the expression levels of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and carcinogenesis-associated proteins. The CP group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation. Meanwhile, the prostate cells appeared atypia; the activity of c-kit/SCF was upregulated, and carcinogenesis-associated proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. In summary, CP could further cause prostate carcinogenesis, which may be associated with activated c-kit/SCF signaling. Resveratrol treatment could improve the progression of CP via the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  4. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  5. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  6. Prostate ultrasound: back in business!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Nicolae; Andras, Iulia; Radu, Corina; Andras, David; Coman, Radu-Tudor; Tucan, Paul; Pisla, Doina; Crisan, Dana; Coman, Ioan

    2017-11-29

    The use of grey scale prostate ultrasound decreased after the implementation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of prostate cancer. The new developments, such as multiparametric ultrasound and MRI-ultrasound fusion technology, renewed the interest for this imaging method in the assessment of prostate cancer. The purpose of this paper was to review the current role of prostate ultrasound in the setting of these new applications. A thorough reevaluation of the selection criteria of the patients is required to assess which patients would benefit from multiparametric ultrasound, who wouldbenefit from multiparametric MRI or the combination of both to assist prostate biopsy in order to ensure the balance between overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer.

  7. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...

  8. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and prostatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F H

    1994-08-01

    5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors are a new class of substances with very specific effects on type I and type II 5 alpha R which may be of use in the treatment of skin disease, such as male pattern baldness, male acne and hirsutism, as well as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. At least two types of 5 alpha R inhibitors with a different pH optimum have been described. cDNA encoding for both the type I and the type II enzyme has been cloned. Most of the orally effective 5 alpha R inhibitors belong to the class of 4-azasteroids. The radical substituted in the 17 position of the steroid ring seems to be related to species specific variations and to the types of 5 alpha R enzymes in different species and organ systems. 5 alpha R inhibitors lead to a decrease of plasma DHT by about 65% while there is a slight rise in plasma testosterone. The decrease of tissue DHT in the ventral prostate of the intact rat, the dog and in humans is more pronounced and amounts to about 85%. There is a reciprocal rise of tissue T in these systems. The application of an inhibitor of 5 alpha R type II leads to a shrinkage of BPH in men by about 30%. In the rat a similar shrinkage accompanied by a significant decrease of total organ DNA occurs. This decrease, however, is not as pronounced as can be achieved with castration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Targeting Th17-IL-17 Pathway in Prevention of Micro-Invasive Prostate Cancer in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Cunningham, David M; Huang, Feng; Ma, Lin; Burris, Thomas P; You, Zongbing

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development and progression of human cancers including prostate cancer. The exact role of the inflammatory Th17-IL-17 pathway in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the importance of Th17 cells and IL-17 in a Pten-null prostate cancer mouse model. The Pten-null mice were treated by Th17 inhibitor SR1001 or anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody from 6 weeks of age up to 12 weeks of age. For SR1001 treatment, the mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice a day with vehicle or SR1001, which was dissolved in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution. All mice were euthanized for necropsy at 12 weeks of age. For IL-17 antibody treatment, the mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) once every two weeks with control IgG or rat anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody, which was dissolved in PBS. The injection time points were at 6, 8, and 10 weeks old. All mice were analyzed for the prostate phenotypes at 12 weeks of age. We found that either SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treatment decreased the formation of micro-invasive prostate cancer in Pten-null mice. The SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated mouse prostates had reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, as well as reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. By assessing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, we found that SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated prostate tissues had weaker EMT phenotype compared to the control treated prostates. These results demonstrated that Th17-IL-17 pathway plays a key role in prostate cancer progression in Pten-null mice. Targeting Th17-IL-17 pathway could prevent micro-invasive prostate cancer formation in mice. Prostate 77:888-899, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  11. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify key metabolic intermediates involved in...lipid as measured by 1H MRSI, and prostate tumor aggressiveness; and 3) quantify the association between key metabolic intermediates involved in lipid

  12. Prostatic urethral lift vs transurethral resection of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratzke, Christian; Barber, Neil; Speakman, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare prostatic urethral lift (PUL) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with regard to symptoms, recovery experience, sexual function, continence, safety, quality of life, sleep and overall patient perception. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients with lower...

  13. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    ), prostate specific antigen. (PSA) and age in a cohort of Saudi men from the Urology Department, King Abdul Aziz University. Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Medical records of 447 Saudi men aged 20-89 years with benign prostatic ...

  14. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  15. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, J A; Allen, M A; Keane, T; Duffy, J J

    1987-05-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM/sup R/) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable.

  16. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  17. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and estrogen receptor α mediated epithelial dedifferentiation mark the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Shi, Jiandang; Liu, Haitao; Shi, Xiaoyu; Du, Xiaoling; Klocker, Helmut; Lee, Chung; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Ju

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders and associated with stemness characteristics. Recent studies demonstrated that human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development involves accumulation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from the prostatic epithelium. However, the inductive factors of EMT in the adult prostate and the cause-and-effect relationship between EMT and stemness characteristics are not yet resolved. EMT expression patterns were immunohistochemically identified in the human epithelia of normal/BPH prostate tissue and in a rat BPH model induced by estrogen/androgen (E2/T, ratio 1:100) alone or in the presence of the ER antagonist raloxifene. Gene expression profiles were analyzed in micro-dissected prostatic epithelia of rat stimulated by E2/T for 3 days. Two main morphological features both accompanied with EMT were observed in the epithelia of human BPH. Luminal cells undergoing EMT dedifferentiated from a cytokeratin (CK) CK18(+) /CK8(+) /CK19(+) to a CK18(-) /CK8(+) /CK19(-) phenotype and CK14 expression increased in basal epithelial cells. ERα expression was closely related to these dedifferentiated cells and the expression of EMT markers. A similar pattern of EMT events was observed in the E2/T induced rat model of BPH in comparison to the prostates of untreated rats, which could be prevented by raloxifene. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype switching is an important mechanism in the etiology of BPH. ERα mediated enhanced estrogenic effect is a crucial inductive factor of epithelial dedifferentiation giving rise to activation of an EMT program in prostate epithelium. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  19. Clinicopathological Overview of Granulomatous Prostatitis: An Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Nandkumar; Nikumbh, Dhiraj; Patil, Ashish; Nagappa, Karibasappa Gundabaktha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the prostate. Granulomatous prostatitis is important because, it mimics prostatic carcinoma clinically and hence the diagnosis can be made only by histopathological examination. Aim To study the histomorphological features and to know the prevalence of granulomatous prostatitis. Materials and Methods Histopathological records of 1,203 prostatic specimens received in the Department of the Pathology over a period of five years (June 2009 – June 2014). Seventeen cases of histopathologically, diagnosed granulomatous prostatitis were retrieved and reterospective data was collected from the patient’s records. Results Out of 17 cases of granulomatous prostatitis, we encountered 9 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 5 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis and 3 cases of specific tubercular prostatitis. The common age ranged from 51-75 years (mean 63 years) with mean PSA level of 15.8ng/ml. Six patients showed focal hypoechoic areas on TRUS and 11 cases revealed hard and fixed nodule on DRE. Conclusion Non-specific granulomatous prostatitis is the most common type of granulomatous prostatitis. There is no specific pattern of clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings that allows the diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis or differentiates it from prostatic carcinoma. Hence, histomorphological diagnosis is the gold standard in differentiating various prostatic lesions. PMID:27014642

  20. Prostate specific antigen in a community-based sample of men without prostate cancer: Correlations with prostate volume, age, body mass index, and symptoms of prostatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); C.H. Bangma (Chris); W.J. Kirkels (Wim); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe correlation between both prostate specific antigen levels (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) and age, prostate volume parameters, body mass index, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were studied in a community‐based population. A sample of 502 men

  1. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  2. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  3. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  4. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  5. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Matičič, Mojca; Jeverica, Samo; Smrkolj, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Prostate inflammation is a common syndrome, especially in men under 50. It usually presents with voiding symptoms and pain in the genitourinary area, and sometimes as sexual dysfunction. Based on clinical and laboratory characteristics, prostatitis is classified as acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Bacterial prostatitis is most often caused by infection with uropathogens, mainly Gram-negative bacilli, but Gram-positive and atypical microorganisms have also been identified as causative organisms of chronic prostatitis. According to reports by several authors, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis are some of the most common pathogens, making chronic prostatitis a sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in particular can be challenging.

  7. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  8. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  9. Osteogenic sarcoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Terunuma, Masahiro [Koseiren Nagaoka Chuo General Hospital, Niigata (Japan); Ikarashi, Toshihiko; Ishizaki, Satoshi

    2001-04-01

    A 76-year-old man was treated with bilateral orchiectomy, estramustine phosphate and pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer. Osteogenic sarcoma of the prostate developed 18 months after the treatment. Postmortem examination revealed that the tumor was 8 cm in diameter and had infiltrated into the bladder and rectal walls and had resulted in peritoneal dissemination. There was no distant metastasis. Macroscopically, the tumor was ashen, firm and relatively homogenous and diffusely spread. Histologically, it was composed of spindle and pleomorphic cells, which were making osteoid with calcification. There was no ordinary tubular formation as shown in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. No positive immunostaining for prostate-specific antigen, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin (AE-1, AE-3) were confirmed. Positive immunostaining for nonepithelial marker vimentin was confirmed. The ultimate diagnosis was osteogenic sarcoma of the prostate. (author)

  10. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  11. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  12. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  13. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  14. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  15. Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Halin Bergström

    Full Text Available Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1. To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate cancer tissue samples from primary tumors and bone metastases. In rat prostate tumor samples, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the main site of HO-1 synthesis was HO-1+ macrophages that accumulated in the tumor-bearing organ, and at the tumor-invasive front. Small metastatic tumors were considerably more effective in attracting HO-1+ macrophages than larger non-metastatic ones. In clinical samples, accumulation of HO-1+ macrophages was seen at the tumor invasive front, almost exclusively in high-grade tumors, and it correlated with the presence of bone metastases. HO-1+ macrophages, located at the tumor invasive front, were more abundant in bone metastases than in primary tumors. HO-1 expression in bone metastases was variable, and positively correlated with the expression of macrophage markers but negatively correlated with androgen receptor expression, suggesting that elevated HO-1 could be a marker for a subgroup of bone metastases. Together with another recent observation showing that selective knockout of HO-1 in macrophages reduced prostate tumor growth and metastatic capacity in animals, the results of this study suggest that extratumoral HO-1+ macrophages may have an important role in prostate cancer.

  16. Inhibitory effect of amiloride on the urokinase plasminogen activators in prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P; Bhatti, R; Gadarowski, J; Bell, N; Nasruddin, S

    1998-01-01

    The diuretic drug amiloride (AMLD), which competitively inhibits the catalytic activity of urokinase plasminogen activators (UPA), was used to study its effects on the proteolytic enzymes implicated in the invasiveness and metastases in a prostatic tumor model carrying two different sublines of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Our data showed that UPA activity was significantly higher, both in the cytosol and pellet of R3327-AT3, a fast-growing highly metastatic and androgen-insensitive tumor, as compared to the G3327-G subline, a slow-growing nonmetastatic tumor of the prostate. The UPA activity in AT3 tumor dropped when the rats were treated with AMLD for 3 weeks. The UPA activity in the sera and tumor effusions from rats with AT3 tumor was significantly higher as compared to those with G subline tumor. The number of pulmonary metastatic foci was the same in untreated rats as compared to those treated with AMLD. The lymph node inspection after 3 weeks revealed no secondary tumor in the AMLD-treated group. The role of UPA in the metastases of prostate cancer is discussed.

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture, and Quantum Light Therapy in Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, İlhan; Akdere, Hakan; Can, Nuray; Aktoz, Tevfik; Arda, Ersan; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to compare anti-inflammatory effects of oligonol, acupuncture, and quantum light therapy in rat models of estrogen-induced prostatitis. Adult male Wistar albino rats were grouped as follows: Group I, control (n = 10); Group II, chronic prostatitis (n = 10); Group III, oligonol (n = 10); Group IV, acupuncture (n = 10); Group V, quantum (n = 10); Group VI, oligonol plus quantum (n = 10); Group VII, acupuncture plus oligonol (n = 10); Group VIII, quantum plus acupuncture (n = 10); and Group IX, acupuncture plus quantum plus oligonol (n = 10). Chronic prostatitis (CP) was induced by the administration of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Oligonol was given for 6 weeks at a dose of 60 mg/day. Acupuncture needles were inserted at CV 3/4 and bilaterally B 32/35 points with 1-hour manual stimulation. Quantum therapy was administered in 5-minute sessions three times weekly for 6 weeks. Lateral lobes of prostates were dissected for histopathologic evaluation. Although all of the treatment modalities tested in this study showed anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of CP in male rats, a synergistic effect was observed for oligonol plus quantum light combination. Monotherapy with oligonol showed a superior anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to quantum light and acupuncture monotherapies.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Oligonol, Acupuncture, and Quantum Light Therapy in Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Öztekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare anti-inflammatory effects of oligonol, acupuncture, and quantum light therapy in rat models of estrogen-induced prostatitis. Adult male Wistar albino rats were grouped as follows: Group I, control (n = 10; Group II, chronic prostatitis (n = 10; Group III, oligonol (n = 10; Group IV, acupuncture (n = 10; Group V, quantum (n = 10; Group VI, oligonol plus quantum (n = 10; Group VII, acupuncture plus oligonol (n = 10; Group VIII, quantum plus acupuncture (n = 10; and Group IX, acupuncture plus quantum plus oligonol (n = 10. Chronic prostatitis (CP was induced by the administration of 17-beta-estradiol (E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Oligonol was given for 6 weeks at a dose of 60 mg/day. Acupuncture needles were inserted at CV 3/4 and bilaterally B 32/35 points with 1-hour manual stimulation. Quantum therapy was administered in 5-minute sessions three times weekly for 6 weeks. Lateral lobes of prostates were dissected for histopathologic evaluation. Although all of the treatment modalities tested in this study showed anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of CP in male rats, a synergistic effect was observed for oligonol plus quantum light combination. Monotherapy with oligonol showed a superior anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to quantum light and acupuncture monotherapies.

  19. Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Mass for Predicting the Prostate Volume of Korean Men With Biopsy-Proven Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Yong; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Moon, Du Geon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been reported that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) correlates with prostate volume. Recently, some studies have reported that PSA mass (PSA adjusted for plasma volume) is more accurate than PSA at predicting prostate volume. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of PSA and the related parameters of PSA mass, free PSA (fPSA), and fPSA mass in predicting prostate volume. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 658 patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2006 t...

  20. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  1. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  2. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Autoimmune Prostatitis: Evaluation in Animal Model

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    Carlos Pérez-Alvarado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract (DLE in a murine model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. Methods. Histopathological characterization, prostatein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and immunohistochemical analysis for CD45, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-4 molecules were done in prostatic Wistar rats treated with DLE, placebo, or Dexamethasone. Results. Histopathological analysis of animals induced to prostatitis showed inflammatory infiltrate, mainly constituted by leucocytes and mast cells as well as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Serum prostatein concentrations were 14 times higher than those displayed by healthy animals. After DLE and Dexamethasone treatments, the inflammatory infiltrate decreased; the tissue morphology was similar to that of a normal prostate, and the prostatein decreased to the basal levels of healthy animals. DLE treatment produced a decreased expression of the cell surface marker CD45 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17. On the other hand, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 increased in both the Dexamethasone and DLE groups. Conclusion. DLE is able to modulate the inflammatory response in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

  4. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  7. N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Liang; Huang, Yu-Hua; Yan, Chun-Yin; Wei, Xue-Dong; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis was the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress was reported to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, protein expressions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes were examined by Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed in RWPE-1 cells transfected miR-141 mimic or inhibitor and the plasmid carrying 3'-UTR of Keap1. The value of eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, and Evans blue were significantly decreased in group C, as well as the expression of COX2, when comparing to that of group B. These results indicated that NAC relieved the carrageenan-induced CNP. Further, we found that NAC increased the expression of miR-141 and activated the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-141 mimic could suppress the activity of Keap1 and stimulate the downstream target genes of Nrf2. In addition, miR-141 inhibitor could reduce the effect of NAC on prostatitis. NAC ameliorates the carrageenan-induced prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain through miR-141 regulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling.

  8. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  9. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  10. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  11. Hypoxia and Prx1 in Malignant Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    promoter composition of human prx1 gene and identified EpRE elements and Nrf2 as critical regulatory component of its up- regulation in prostate cancer...nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm in the rat kidney (42). The presence of Prx1 in the nucleolus of hepatic parenchymal cells has also been shown in the...Gpx; KO, knock-out; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase. THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY VOL. 282, NO. 30, pp. 22011–22022, July 27, 2007 © 2007 by The

  12. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  13. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen velocity is not better than total prostate-specific antigen in predicting prostate biopsy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorday, William; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; de Koning, Lawrence; Naugler, Christopher T

    2015-12-01

    1.) Identify whether prostate-specific antigen velocity improves the ability to predict prostate biopsy diagnosis. 2.) Test whether there is an increase in the predictive capability of models when Gleason 7 prostate cancers are separated into a 3+4 and a 4+3 group. Calgary Laboratory Services' Clinical Laboratory Information System was searched for prostate biopsies reported between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Total prostate-specific antigen tests were recorded for each patient from January 1, 2007 to the most recent test before their recorded prostate biopsy. The data set was divided into the following three groups for comparison; benign, all prostate cancer and Gleason 7-10. The Gleason grade 7-10 group was further divided into 4+3 and 3+4 Gleason 7 prostate cancers. Prostate-specific antigen velocity was calculated using four different methods found in the literature. Receiver operator curves were used to assess operational characteristics of the tests. 4622 men between the ages of 40-89 with a prostate biopsy were included for analysis. Combining prostate-specific antigen velocity with total prostate-specific antigen (AUC=0.570-0.712) resulted in small non-statistically significant changes to the area under the curve compared to the area under the curve of total prostate-specific antigen alone (AUC=0.572-0.699). There were marked increases in the area under curves when 3+4 and 4+3 Gleason 7 cancers were separated. Prostate-specific antigen velocity does not add predictive value for prostate biopsy diagnosis. The clinical significance of the prostate specific antigen test can be improved by separating Gleason 7 prostate cancers into a 3+4 and 4+3 group. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostate resonance imaging: morphology and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, Jorge A.; Pietrani, Marcelo A.; Paganini, Lisandro

    2007-01-01

    The cancer of prostate is the most frequent neoplasms and the third cause of death in men, although the average of survival of patients it improved, the cancer of prostate is an important problem in health. The majority of these tumors are of slow growth and the early detection allows high probabilities of definitive treatment. The neoplasms of prostate detected at present are smaller than the detected ones 20 years ago behind, nevertheless exist big differences in the aggressiveness of these tumors. The images are very important in the management of prostate cancer, and the magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate is a new tool in the evaluation of prostate cancer [es

  17. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  18. [Hormonal and metabolic effects of drinking mineral water and phytoaeronisation in experimental prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Agaev, A A; Shchelkunov, A V; Eseneev, S M

    2004-01-01

    Prostatitis modelled in 53 Wistar male rats (300-350 body mass) 7 days after its induction was treated with mineral water "Essentuki N 17" (MW) which was taken in a dose 1.5-2 ml per 100 g body mass for 23-24 days. In addition, some animals received phytoaeroionisation (PAI) with solution of essential oils of mint, sage and lavender. Prostatitis is associated with disorders in prostatic tissue, levels of sex hormones (testosterone, prolactin, FSH, LH), a rise in total cholesterol, glucose. Watering of animals with MW and PAI raised blood insulin, hydrocortisone and testosterone, normalized blood glucose and cholesterol. There was a correlation between blood levels of hydrocortisone and testosterone.

  19. Prostatic carcinosarcoma with lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Stefanie R; Kang, David J; Armas, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the prostate is an uncommon malignancy with poor long-term prognosis. The cancer is typically discovered at an advanced stage, and with less than 100 reported cases, there is limited literature concerning treatment options. Our patient presented with a history of benign prostatic hypertrophy, erectile dysfunction, and nocturia. Biopsy of his prostate indicated that the patient had prostatic adenocarcinoma, but histopathology after prostatectomy revealed carcinosarcoma. It has been over six years since this patient's diagnosis of carcinosarcoma. Over this span of time, he has received a radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and androgen ablative therapy. The patient also developed multiple lung metastases that have been treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery and stereotactic body radiosurgery. Overall, he has remained unimpaired and in good condition despite his aggressive form of cancer.

  20. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  1. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  2. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  3. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  4. ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barentsz, Jelle O; Richenberg, Jonathan; Clements, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop clinical guidelines for multi-parametric MRI of the prostate by a group of prostate MRI experts from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. True evidence-based guidelines could not be formulated......, but a compromise, reflected by "minimal" and "optimal" requirements has been made. The scope of these ESUR guidelines is to promulgate high quality MRI in acquisition and evaluation with the correct indications for prostate cancer across the whole of Europe and eventually outside Europe. The guidelines...... provides guidelines for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer. Clinical indications, and minimal and optimal imaging acquisition protocols are provided. A structured reporting system (PI-RADS) is described....

  5. [The magnetotherapy of chronic prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhort, V A; Voshchula, V I

    1998-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic field generated by the unit ProSPOK was found more efficient than that of the unit Polyus-1 in physiotherapy of chronic prostatitis. The ProSPOK magnetotherapy stimulates ganglia, improves regeneration and circulation.

  6. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  7. Prostate cancer and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  8. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  9. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K.; Moroz, Andrei; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn 2+ ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd 2+ intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl 2 diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl 2 intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd 2+ treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl 2 , respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl 2 within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given

  10. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  11. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  12. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  13. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  14. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  15. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  16. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  17. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.

  18. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results

  19. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  1. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risbridger, Gail

    2008-01-01

    .... In order to test the concept that Vinclozolin alters human prostate development and induces disease, we used our model system to study human prostate development and maturation over 8-12 weeks...

  2. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  3. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  4. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  5. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  6. Association between asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV and prostatic calcification in patients with obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul F; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Herman; Riedl, Claus R; Lusuardi, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of prostatic calcification and prostatitis NIH category IV in patients with obstructive BPH. Ninety-six patients with obstructive BPH who had undergone transurethral electroresection of the prostate gland were evaluated. In accordance with a preoperative transrectal ultrasound examination, patients were divided into one group with prostatic calcification (N.=31) and one without (N.=65). Prostatitis NIH category IV was classified according to the grading system by Irani. Correlations between the incidence of prostatic calcification, histological prostatitis, PSA, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, IPSS, IIEF-25, and NIC-CPSI were analyzed. A stone analysis of prostatic calcification was performed using X-ray powder diffraction. Sixty-nine (71.9%) patients had NIH category IV prostatitis, accounting for 83.9% of those with prostatic calcification versus 66.1% of those without (Pprostatic calcification and the severity of inflammation (Pprostatic calcifications were elevated levels of uric acid. Such patients were 1.4times more likely of having calcifications in the prostate gland (OR=1.4, Pprostatic calcification. These were significantly more common in patients with NIH category IV prostatitis.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen as an estimator of prostate volume in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochtar, CA; Kiemeney, LALM; van Riemsdijk, MM; Barnett, GS; Laguna, MP; Debruyne, FMJ; de la Rosette, JJMCH

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the ability of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) to estimate prostate volume (PV) to aid in the management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: From 1989 to 2002, data were collected from 2264 patients complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms

  8. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  9. Prostate-specific antigen lowering effect of metabolic syndrome is influenced by prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Heo, Nam Ju; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen levels by considering prostate volume and plasma volume. We retrospectively analyzed 4111 men who underwent routine check-ups including prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Prostate-specific antigen mass density (prostate-specific antigen × plasma volume / prostate volume) was calculated for adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. We compared prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen mass density levels of participants with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome group, n = 1242) and without metabolic syndrome (non-prostate-specific antigen metabolic syndrome group, n = 2869). To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen, linear regression analysis for the natural logarithm of prostate-specific antigen was used. Patients in the metabolic syndrome group had significantly older age (P prostate volume (P prostate-specific antigen (non-metabolic syndrome group vs metabolic syndrome group; 1.22 ± 0.91 vs 1.15 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Prostate-specific antigen mass density in the metabolic syndrome group was still significantly lower than that in the metabolic syndrome group (0.124 ± 0.084 vs 0.115 ± 0.071 μg/mL, P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, prostate volume and plasma volume using linear regression model, the presence of metabolic syndrome was a significant independent factor for lower prostate-specific antigen (prostate-specific antigen decrease by 4.1%, P = 0.046). Prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with metabolic syndrome seem to be lower, and this finding might be affected by the prostate volume. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Clinical hyperthermia of prostate cancer using magnetic nanoparticles - preliminary experience with a new interstitial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, M.; Gneveckow, U.; Eckelt, L.; Feussner, A.; Waldoefner, N.; Scholz, R.; Deger, S.; Wust, P.; Loening, S.A.; Jordan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Thermotherapy using biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles, also referred to as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer growth in the Dunning rat model. Here we present the first clinical application of interstitial hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles in locally recurrent prostate cancer. Treatment planning was carried out using computerized tomography (CT) of the prostate. Based on the individual anatomy of the prostate and the estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic fluids in prostatic tissue, the number and position of magnetic fluid depots required for sufficient heat deposition was calculated using the AMIRA software and a newly developed prostate module. Nanoparticle suspensions (MagForce MFL AS, MagForce Nanotechnologies GmbH, Berlin, Germany) were injected transperineally into the prostate under transrectal ultrasound and flouroscopy guidance. Treatments were delivered in the first magnetic field applicator for use in humans (MFH300F, MagForce Nanotechnologies GmbH, Berlin), using an alternating magnetic field with a frequency of 100 kHz and variable field strength (0-18 kA/m). Invasive thermometry of the prostate was carried out in the first and last of 6 weekly hyperthermia sessions of 60 min duration. CT-scans of the prostate were repeated following the first and last hyperthermia treatment to document magnetic nanoparticle distribution and the position of the thermometry probes in the prostate. Nanoparticles were retained in the prostate during the treatment interval of 6 weeks, as documented by CT. Treatment was well tolerated. During the first treatment, maximum intra-prostatic temperatures measured by 4 thermometry probes at a magnetic field strength of 4.0-5.0 kA/m were 48.5, 43.0, 43.7 and 43.6 o C, whereas minimal temperatures were 41.2, 40.3, 40.0 and 41.1 o C, respectively. During the sixth and last treatment of the same patient, maximum intraprostatic temperatures were 42

  11. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...... of antiandrogen (flutamide, Anandron, or cyproterone acetate) added to castration. This paper reviews the different types of heterogeneity that might exist among trials that are involved in the overview: study design, randomization procedure, treatment evaluation, statistical evaluation, and data maturity....... In order to overcome these various types of heterogeneity and to compare like with like, the treatment comparison should be stratified a posteriori by question (i.e., type of castration or type of anti-androgen studied) and by study. In this way, one may draw valid conclusions. Of course, those trials...

  12. Acute bacterial prostatitis and abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Sup; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Sun Wook; Bae, Sang Rak; Yoon, Byung Il; Lee, Seung-Ju

    2016-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for abscess formation in acute bacterial prostatitis, and to compare treatment outcomes between abscess group and non-abscess group. This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study. All patients suspected of having an acute prostatic infection underwent computed tomography or transrectal ultrasonography to discriminate acute prostatic abscesses from acute prostatitis without abscess formation. A total of 31 prostate abscesses were reviewed among 142 patients with acute prostatitis. Univariate analysis revealed that symptom duration, diabetes mellitus and voiding disturbance were predisposing factors for abscess formation in acute prostatitis. However, diabetes mellitus was not related to prostate abscess in multivariate analysis. Patients with abscesses 20 mm who underwent transurethral resection had a shorter duration of antibiotic treatment than did those who did not have surgery. Regardless of surgical treatment, both the length of hospital stay and antibiotic treatment were longer in patients with prostatic abscesses than they were in those without abscesses. However, the incidence of septic shock was not different between the two groups. A wide spectrum of microorganisms was responsible for prostate abscesses. In contrast, Escherichia coli was the predominant organism responsible for acute prostatitis without abscess. Imaging studies should be considered when patients with acute prostatitis have delayed treatment and signs of voiding disturbance. Early diagnosis is beneficial because prostatic abscesses require prolonged treatment protocols, or even require surgical drainage. Surgical drainage procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate were not necessary in all patients with prostate abscesses. However, surgical intervention may have potential merits that reduce the antibiotic exposure period and enhance voiding function in patients with prostatic abscess.

  13. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  14. Infective endocarditis with spondylodiscitis after prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pivatto Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy is the ideal method to obtain prostate specimens for histological analysis and is therefore frequently used in clinical practice. In the majority of the studies, prostate biopsy is considered a safe procedure with few major complications. In the present report, we describe a case of endocarditis with spondylodiscitis, two very rare complications of prostate biopsy.

  15. Tissue concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, T G; Pretlow, T P; Yang, B; Kaetzel, C S; Delmoro, C M; Kamis, S M; Bodner, D R; Kursh, E; Resnick, M I; Bradley, E L

    1991-11-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as measured in peripheral blood, is currently the most widely used marker for the assessment of tumor burden in the longitudinal study of patients with carcinoma of the prostate (PCA). Studies from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that a given volume of PCA causes a much higher level of PSA in the peripheral circulation of patients than a similar volume of prostate without carcinoma. We have evaluated PSA in the resected tissues immunohistochemically and in extracts of PCA and of prostates resected because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical results were less quantitative than but consistent with the results of the ELISA of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemically, there was considerable heterogeneity in the expression of PSA by both PCA and BPH both within and among prostatic tissues from different patients. While the levels of expression of PSA in these tissues overlap broadly, PSA is expressed at a lower level in PCA than in BPH when PSA is expressed as a function of wet weight of tissue (p = 0.0095), wet weight of tissue/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001), protein extracted from the tissue (p = 0.0039), or protein extracted/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001).

  16. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Plumbagin improves the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer: A pre-clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedinpour, Parisa; Baron, Véronique T; Chrastina, Adrian; Rondeau, Gaelle; Pelayo, Jennifer; Welsh, John; Borgström, Per

    2017-12-01

    Plumbagin is a candidate drug for the treatment of prostate cancer. Previous observations indicated that it may improve the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This study evaluates the effectiveness of treatment with combinations of plumbagin and alternative strategies for ADT in mouse models of prostate cancer to support its clinical use. Plumbagin was administered per oral in a new sesame oil formulation. Standard toxicology studies were performed in rats. For tumor growth studies, mouse prostate cancer cell spheroids were placed on top of grafted prostate tissue in a dorsal chamber and allowed to form tumors. Mice were separated in various treatment groups and tumor size was measured over time by intra-vital microscopy. Survival studies were done in mice after injection of prostate cancer cells in the prostate of male animals. Androgen receptor (AR) levels were analyzed by Western blot from prostate cancer cells treated with plumbagin. Plumbagin caused a decrease in AR levels in vitro. In mice, plumbagin at 1 mg/kg in sesame oil displayed low toxicity and caused a 50% tumor regression when combined with castration. The combination of plumbagin with various forms of chemical ADT including treatment with a GnRH receptor agonist, a GnRH receptor antagonist, or CYP17A1 inhibitors, outperformed ADT alone, increasing mouse survival compared to the standard regimen of castration alone. In contrast, the combination of plumbagin with AR antagonists, such as bicalutamide and enzalutamide, showed no improvement over AR antagonists alone. Thus, plumbagin is effective in combination with drugs that prevent the synthesis of testosterone or its conversion to dihydrotestosterone, but not with drugs that bind to AR. Plumbagin significantly improves the effect of ADT drugs currently used in the clinic, with few side effects in mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in investigation of the prostate gland. Current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  19. BCG induced granulomatous prostatitis ; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Seong, Chang Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis was relatively uncommon until the introduction of intravesical BCG for the treament of bladder cancer. Since that time, there has been an increase in the number of cases of granulomatous prostatitis, but the domestic literature contains no report. We recently encountered a classic case of BCG induced granulomatous prostatitis and describe this case, including its radiologic findings. (author)=20.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in the investigation of the prostate. The current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be of value in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  1. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  2. Practical aspects of MRI of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Cuzino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main aspects of sectional anatomy, lymph nodes and adjacent structures as well as MRI examination standard protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis. Using MRI multiparametric examination we succeed in classifying efficiently the malignant prostatic tumors using PI- RADS system. Also, using MRI multiparametric examination we can evaluate the effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  4. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  5. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of  3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prostate cell membrane chromatography-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for screening of active constituents from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianyu; Han, Shengli; Yang, Fangfang; Zhou, Nan; Wang, Sicen

    2013-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat hypertension and convulsive disorders such as epilepsy. Rat prostate cell membrane chromatography combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify active constituents from U. rhynchophylla extracts. Four compounds (corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine and rhynchophylline) were discovered. Competitive binding assay results indicated that the four compounds were in direct competition at a single common binding site and interacted with α1A adrenergic receptors (α1A-AR) in a manner similar to tamsulosin. Affinity constant values of the four compounds binding with α1A-AR were also measured using rat prostate cell membrane chromatography (CMC). Finally, their pharmacodynamic effects were tested on rat caudal arteries. This CMC combined LC-MS system offers a means of drug discovery by screening natural medicinal herbs for new pharmacologically active molecules targeting specific receptors.

  7. DETERMINATION OF TAMSULOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE RELEASE PHARMACOKINETICS IN PROSTATE GLAND BY A RADIOTRACER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Grytsenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: recently in Ukraine prostate diseases have taken one of the leading places among male urological pathologies. Prostate gland hyperplasia is one of the most common ones. Causes of hyperplasia have not been reliably established so far, however, it has been proved that the poor state of androgen production in men is an integral condition for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. One of the urgent tasks of modern pharmaceutical science is to create new high-performance drugs in such dosage forms that provide optimal therapeutic effect with minimal adverse complications. Among a large number of drugs for the treatment of prostate diseases a prominent place is occupied by alpha-adrenoblockers – drugs of the first-line treatments that affect the α1А-adrenergic receptors, reduce or completely eliminate the muscle tone of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck. Tamsulosin hydrochloride is a selective and competitive blocker of postsynaptic α1А-adrenergic receptors. The selectivity of tamsulosin to α1А-adrenergic receptors, which are located in the bladder, is 20 times greater than its ability to interact with α1В-adrenoceptors that are located in vascular smooth muscles. Objective: to study the pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin hydrochloride release into prostate gland after oral and rectal administration by a radioactive-tracer technique. Materials and methods of research: tamsulosin hydrochloride substance and suppositories with this substance labeled by 14С with a specific activity of 3.7× 107Bq/mg. Pharmacokinetic studies of tamsulosin hydrochloride in the prostate were performed after oral and rectal administration. The experiments were carried out on white mature male rats of Wistar line weighing 210 ± 10 g. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed using a radioactive-tracer technique (tracers after oral and rectal administration of tamsulosin. Results and their discussion: after rectal administration the release of

  8. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, A; Lopez-Beltran, A; Egan, A J; Bostwick, D G

    1998-05-01

    A wide variety of architectural patterns of adenocarcinoma may be seen in the prostate. We have recently encountered a hitherto-undescribed pattern of growth characterized by intraluminal ball-like clusters of cancer cells reminiscent of renal glomeruli, which we refer to as prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features. To define the architectural features, frequency, and distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features, we reviewed 202 totally embedded radical prostatectomy specimens obtained between October 1992 and April 1994 from the files of the Mayo Clinic. This series was supplemented by 100 consecutive needle biopsies with prostatic cancer from January to February 1996. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features was characterized by round to oval epithelial tufts growing within malignant acini, often supported by a fibrovascular core. The epithelial cells were sometimes arranged in semicircular concentric rows separated by clefted spaces. In the radical prostatectomy specimens, nine cases (4.5%) had glomeruloid features. The glomeruloid pattern constituted 5% to 20% of each cancer (mean, 8.33%) and was usually located at the apex or in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Seven cases were associated with a high Gleason score (7 or 8), one with a score of 6, and one with a score of 5. All cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and extensive perineural invasion. Pathological stages included T2c (three cases), T3b (four cases), and T3c (two cases); one of the T3b cases had lymph node metastases (N1). Three (3%) of 100 consecutive routine needle biopsy specimens with cancer showed glomeruloid features, and this pattern constituted 5% to 10% of each cancer (mean, 6.7%). The Gleason score was 6 for two cases and 8 for one case. Two cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and one case had perineural invasion. Glomeruloid features were not observed in any benign or

  9. Effects of different natural extracts in an experimental model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Irene; Campolo, Michela; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Filippone, Antonio; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2018-04-20

    To characterize the impact of inflammatory process and oxidative stress in the degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition in which chronic inflammation plays a crucial role, we investigated the effect of different plant extract preparations in an in vivo model of BPH as new therapeutic target. BPH was made in rats with daily administration of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) for 14 days. Rats were randomized into different groups to receive oral administration of plant extract preparations: Serenoa repens with selenium (SeR 28.5 mg/kg associated with Se 0.005 mg/kg), Teoside (2 mg/kg), and Puryprost (14 mg/kg containing Teoside 50% 2 mg/kg and Epilobium 12 mg/kg). After 14 days, rats were killed and histological changes, prostate weight and apoptotic pathways were assayed. The results obtained demonstrated that the association of treatments reduced prostate weight and hyperplasia, while treatment with Puryprost demonstrated a greater trend of protection compared to the other treatments. Thus, our results indicate that plant extract could be considered as new useful therapy in the treatment of BPH with particular attention on Puryprost that represents a rational approach to reduce BPH through modulation of inflammatory process and anti-oxidant process.

  10. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  11. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  12. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  13. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  14. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  15. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  16. [Correlation of IL-8 and IL-6 in prostatic fluid with serum prostate-specific antigen level in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated by prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xingfei; Wu, Chunlei; Yu, Qinnan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 in the prostatic fluid with serum levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complicated by prostatitis. A series of 211 patients undergoing surgery of BPH were divided into BPH group (n=75) and BPH with prostatitis group (n=136) according to the white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups, and stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the association of IL-8 and IL-6 with serum PSA level. No significant differences were found in age, BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, IPSS score, PSA-Ratio, or prostate volume between the two groups (Pprostatitis had significantly increased serum PSA and prostate fluid IL-8 and IL-6 levels compared with those without prostatitis (Pprostatic fluid were all positively correlated with serum PSA level. Prostatitis is an important risk factor for elevated serum PSA level in patients with BPH, and both IL-8 and IL-6 levels in the prostatic fluid are correlated with serum PSA level.

  17. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  18. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  19. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  20. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrea E; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2003-03-15

    Saw palmetto is an herbal product used in the treatment of symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active component is found in the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of saw palmetto in reducing symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Saw palmetto appears to have efficacy similar to that of medications like finasteride, but it is better tolerated and less expensive. There are no known drug interactions with saw palmetto, and reported side effects are minor and rare. No data on its long-term usage are available. The herbal product also has been used to treat chronic prostatitis, but currently there is no evidence of its efficacy.

  1. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  2. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  3. Clinical Usefulness of the Histoculture Drug Response Assay for Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) has been adapted to determine androgen sensitivity in Gelfoam histoculture of human benign prostatic tissue as well as prostate cancer. Gelfoam histoculture was used to measure androgen-independent and androgen-dependent growth of benign and malignant prostate tissue. The androgen-sensitivity index was significantly higher in 23 paired specimens of prostate cancer compared to benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Genistein decreased the androgen-sensitivity index of BPH and prostate cancer in Gelfoam ® histoculture in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. Urinary prostate-specific antigen: predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Tomislav P; Tulic, Cane Dz; Lalic, Natasa V; Glisic, Biljana D; Ignjatovic, Svetlana D; Markovic, Biljana B; Hadzi-Djokic, Jovan B

    2013-04-01

    Urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) can be used as additional parameter of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. From January 2001 to December 2011, uPSA was determined in 265 patients with benign prostate. Based on total prostate volume (TPV), the patients with benign prostate were divided in two groups: TPV specificity of 0.83 and sensitivity of 0.67. The level of uPSA reflects prostatic hormonal activity and correlates with TPV, PSA and age. UPSA level ≥ 150 ng/mL can be used as additional predictive parameter of BPH progression.

  5. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proton MR spectroscopy of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Standorte Grosshadern und Innenstadt, Ziemssenstrasse 1, D-80336 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: ullrich.mueller-lisse@med.uni-muenchen.de; Scherr, Michael K. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Standorte Grosshadern und Innenstadt, Ziemssenstrasse 1, D-80336 Munich (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Purpose: To summarize current technical and biochemical aspects and clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the human prostate in vivo. Material and methods: Pertinent radiological and biochemical literature was searched and retrieved via electronic media (medline, pubmed). Basic concepts of MRS of the prostate and its clinical applications were extracted. Results: Clinical MRS is usually based on point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or spin echo (SE) sequences, along with outer volume suppression of signals from outside of the prostate. MRS of the prostate detects indicator lines of citrate, choline, and creatine. While healthy prostate tissue demonstrates high levels of citrate and low levels of choline that marks cell wall turnover, prostate cancer utilizes citrate for energy metabolism and shows high levels of choline. The ratio of (choline + creatine)/citrate distinguishes between healthy tissue and prostate cancer. Particularly when combined with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, three-dimensional MRS imaging (3D-CSI, or 3D-MRSI) detects and localizes prostate cancer in the entire prostate with high sensitivity and specificity. Combined MR imaging and 3D-MRSI exceed the sensitivity and specificity of sextant biopsy of the prostate. When MRS and MR imaging agree on prostate cancer presence, the positive predictive value is about 80-90%. Distinction between healthy tissue and prostate cancer principally is maintained after various therapeutic treatments, including hormone ablation therapy, radiation therapy, and cryotherapy of the prostate. Conclusions: Since it is non-invasive, reliable, radiation-free, and essentially repeatable, combined MR imaging and 3D-MRSI of the prostate lends itself to the planning of biopsy and therapy, and to post-therapeutic follow-up. For broad clinical acceptance, it will be necessary to facilitate MRS examinations and their evaluation and make MRS available to a wider range of institutions.

  7. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group......Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  8. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  9. Inoculation of Sphingobacterium multivorum in the prostate by prostate biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Nielsen, Torben; Pinholt, Mette; Nørgaard, Nis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This report describes three cases of infection with Sphingobacterium multivorum after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The pathogen is ubiquitous in water and soil but has been described fewer than 10 times causing infections in humans. An infection hygiene evaluation...

  10. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Loeb (Stacy); M.G. Sanda (Martin G.); D.L. Broyles (Dennis L.); S.S. Shin (Sanghyuk S.); C.H. Bangma (Chris); J.T. Wei (John T.); A.W. Partin (Alan W.); G.G. Klee (George); K.M. Slawin (Kevin M.); L.S. Marks (Leonard S.); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); D.W. Chan (Daniel); L. Sokoll (Lori); A.B. Cruz (Amabelle B.); I.A. Mizrahi (Isaac A.); W.J. Catalona (William)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting

  11. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  12. Learning Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: A Comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... benign prostate enlargement (BPE) are of limited use in the resource‑poor ... trans‑urethral resection of the prostate, resected weight, retropubic prostatectomy ..... digital rectal examination and total prostate specific antigen.

  13. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  14. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy.

  15. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  16. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  17. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  18. Diagnosis of prostate cancer using a radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, O.A.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for the determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum as a useful aid in the detection of prostatic cancer. (Auth.)

  19. Comparison of prostate cancer gene 3 score, prostate health index and percentage free prostate-specific antigen for differentiating histological inflammation from prostate cancer and other non-neoplastic alterations of the prostate at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Bollito, Enrico; Manfredi, Matteo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Sottile, Antonino; Randone, Donato Franco; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To determine if prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Health Index (PHI), and percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA and negative digital rectal examination (DRE). in the present prospective study, 274 patients, undergoing PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA assessments before initial biopsy, were enrolled. Three multivariate logistic regression models were used to test PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the 'gray zone' of PSA (4-10 ng/ml) cohort (188 individuals). The determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.97, 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). Unit increase of PHI was the only risk factor for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=1.06), and unit increase of PCA3 score for HG-PIN vs. prostatitis (OR=0.98). In the 'gray zone' PSA cohort, the determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (OR=0.96, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), PCA3 score and PHI for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=0.96 and 1.08, respectively), and PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN (OR=0.97). The clinical benefit of using PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable; even %fPSA had good diagnostic performance, being a faster and cheaper marker. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, while PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keefe, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) appears to be an ideal prostate cancer marker and potential therapeutic target, however there have been reports of PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues, including brain, kidney and liver...

  1. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  2. Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Dan; Ngala, Robert A; Abutiate, Harry; Doku, Derek; Mahmood, Seidu A; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata L. has been reported to possess antitumor and antiproliferative properties. Not much work has been done on its effect on BPH-1 cell lines, and no in vivo studies targeting the prostate organ exist. The study determined the effect of A muricata on human BPH-1 cells and prostate organ. The MTT assay was performed on BPH-1 cells using the aqueous leaf extract of A muricata. Cells (1 × 10(5) per well) were challenged with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL extract for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and morphology were examined microscopically. BPH-1 cells (1 × 10(4) per well) were seeded into 6-well plates and incubated for 48 hours with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL A muricata extract. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using mRNA extracted from the cells. Possible target genes, Bax and Bcl-2, were examined. Twenty F344 male rats (≈200 g) were gavaged 30 mg/mL (10 rats) and 300 mg/mL (10 rats) and fed ad libitum alongside 10 control rats. Rats were sacrificed after 60 days. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and testes were harvested for histological examination. Annona muricata demonstrated antiproliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL. Best results were obtained after 48 hours, with near cell extinction at 72 hours. Bax gene was upregulated, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. Normal histological architecture was observed for all testes. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups (P BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The value of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density in the diagnosis ad treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guoying; Yu Mingqi; Feng Xinli

    2001-01-01

    To study the clinical value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), the PSA levels of pre-and post-treatment were measured in 28 cases with prostate cancer (Pca) and 80 patients with being Prostate hyperplasia (BPH). PASD was measured in 18 cases Pca and 50 cases BPH of them. The results suggest that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for Pca were 85.7%, 80.0% and 81.4%, respectively. The false positive rate was 20%. PSAD is superior to PSA in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. The false positive rate was only 6%. But in the clinical application, the authors should combine PASD with other materials. The regular observation of post therapeutic PSA is of great value to the earlier discovery of local recurrence and metastasis as well as the judgement of curative effect and prognosis

  4. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure . In this 2nd year of operation the University of Washington...REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298...informatics infrastructure . Keywords Biorepository, prostate cancer, patient derived xenografts, rapid autopsy, biomarkers. Accomplishments The

  7. History of the term prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef Marx, Franz; Karenberg, Axel

    2009-02-01

    We comprehensively review the history of the word "prostate" and related terms from 600 BC to the present. Both medical and non-medical ancient texts were searched to clarify the term's etymology and use. Anatomy textbooks of the 16th through the 18th century were analyzed to identify descriptions, illustrations and various expressions used by contemporary authors to designate the prostate. In ancient Greek the masculine term "prostatēs" meant "president" and was exclusively used in a non-medical sense. It was not until the Renaissance that anatomists discovered the organ naming it "glandulous body." In 1600 the French physician du Laurens introduced the metaphoric denomination "prostatae." However he and his contemporaries misinterpreted the history of the organ and the term, choose the wrong gender when translating it into Latin, and believed that it designated a double organ. Only in the 1800s was this anatomical error corrected while the grammatical one lived on. The history of the term "prostate" is a prime example of the difficulties with which the development of a precise urologic terminology had to struggle. At the same time this retrospective view provides a stimulus to avoid linguistic ambiguity in the future.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  9. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  10. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  11. Erectile function after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Anderson, Richard L.; Kurko, Brian S.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate erectile function after permanent prostate brachytherapy using a validated patient-administered questionnaire and to determine the effect of multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters on penile erectile function. Methods and materials: A total of 226 patients with preimplant erectile function determined by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy in two prospective randomized trials between February 2001 and January 2003 for clinical Stage T1c-T2c (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. Of the 226 patients, 132 were potent before treatment and, of those, 128 (97%) completed and returned the IIEF questionnaire after brachytherapy. The median follow-up was 29.1 months. Potency was defined as an IIEF score of ≥13. The clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated included patient age; preimplant IIEF score; clinical T stage; pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level; Gleason score; elapsed time after implantation; preimplant nocturnal erections; body mass index; presence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus; tobacco consumption; the volume of the prostate gland receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose (V 100/150/200 ); the dose delivered to 90% of the prostate gland (D 90 ); androgen deprivation therapy; supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT); isotope; prostate volume; planning volume; and radiation dose to the proximal penis. Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of potency preservation was 50.5%. For patients who maintained adequate posttreatment erectile function, the preimplant IIEF score was 29, and in patients with brachytherapy-related ED, the preimplant IIEF score was 25. The median time to the onset of ED was 5.4 months. After brachytherapy, the median IIEF score was 20 in potent patients and 3 in impotent patients. On univariate analysis, the preimplant IIEF score, patient age, presence of nocturnal

  12. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  14. Role of CT in patients with prostatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizako, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kaji, Yasushi; Moriyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Tetsuya

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CT in patients with and without prostatic disease. CT and MR findings were reviewed in 25 patients without known prostatic disease, 11 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 11 patients with prostatic cancer. Differential attenuation allowed for distinction of the peripheral zone and inner gland of the prostate by CT in 72% of normal patients. The distinction rate of prostatic zonal anatomy by CT decreased to 30% in the diseased group. When zonal anatomy of the prostate is not visualized on pelvic enhanced CT, the presence of prostatic disease might be considered. (author)

  15. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  16. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  17. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  18. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  19. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  20. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  1. [Bacterial prostatitis and prostatic fibrosis: modern view on the treatment and prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A V; Pushkar, D Yu; Khodyreva, L A; Dudareva, A A

    2016-08-01

    Treatments of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CP) remain difficult problem. Bacterial prostatitis is a disease entity diagnosed clinically and by evidence of inflammation and infection localized to the prostate. Risk factors for UTI in men include urological interventions, such as transrectal prostate biopsy. Ensuing infections after prostate biopsy, such as UTI and bacterial prostatitis, are increasing due to increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance. The increasing global antibiotic resistance also significantly affects management of UTI in men, and therefore calls for alternative strategies. Prostatic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) by inducing fibrosis. Several studies have shown that prostatic fibrosis is strongly associated with impaired urethral function and LUTS severity. Fibrosis resulting from excessive deposition of collagen is traditionally recognized as a progressive irreversible condition and an end stage of inflammatory diseases; however, there is compelling evidence in both animal and human studies to support that the development of fibrosis could potentially be a reversible process. Prostate inflammation may induce fibrotic changes in periurethral prostatic tissues, promote urethral stiffness and LUTS. Patients experiencing CP and prostate-related LUTS could benefit from anti-inflammatory therapies, especially used in combination with the currently prescribed enzyme treatment with Longidase. Treatment results showed that longidase is highly effective in bacterial and abacterial CP. Longidase addition to standard therapeutic methods significantly reduced the disease symptoms and regression of inflammatory-proliferative alterations in the prostate.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in prostatitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermassen, Tijl; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Decaestecker, Karel; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie; Delanghe, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Although prostatitis is a common male urinary tract infection, clinical diagnosis of prostatitis is difficult. The developmental mechanism of prostatitis is not yet unraveled which led to the elaboration of various biomarkers. As changes in asparagine-linked-(N-)-glycosylation were observed between healthy volunteers (HV), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients, a difference could exist in biochemical parameters and urinary N-glycosylation between HV and prostatitis patients. We therefore investigated if prostatic protein glycosylation could improve the diagnosis of prostatitis. Differences in serum and urine biochemical markers and in total urine N-glycosylation profile of prostatic proteins were determined between HV (N=66) and prostatitis patients (N=36). Additionally, diagnostic accuracy of significant biochemical markers and changes in N-glycosylation was assessed. Urinary white blood cell (WBC) count enabled discrimination of HV from prostatitis patients (Pprostatitis patients from HV (Pprostatitis patients compared to HV (Pprostatitis. Further research is required to unravel the developmental course of prostatic inflammation.

  3. A rare prostatic diagnosis of an old man: a pure prostatic leiomyoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulden-Bleumink, W.M. van; Dom, P.G.; Ramakers, B.P.C.; Adrichem, N.P. van

    2013-01-01

    A pure leiomyoma of the prostate is a rare benign tumor. An 82-year-old man was referred to our urology department with gross hematuria and complete urinary retention. Examination revealed a benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transrectal ultrasound showed a prostate of 125 mL. Serum PSA was 1.9 microg/L.

  4. Fear of prostate biopsy: a limitation in the management of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in the country and now constitutes 11% of allmale cancers. For diagnosis of prostate cancer, a histological diagnosis is necessary and this requires that a prostate biopsy be performed but patientsmay not readily accept this invasive procedure. A 2-year retrospective study was ...

  5. Sequential evaluation of prostate edema after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy using CT-MRI fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taussky, Daniel; Austen, Lyn; Toi, Ants; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the extent and time course of prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients scheduled for permanent seed 125 I prostate brachytherapy agreed to a prospective study on postimplant edema. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasonography. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) fusion on the day of the implant (Day 1) and Days 8 and 30. The prostate was contoured on MRI, and the seeds were located on CT. Factors investigated for an influence on edema were the number of seeds and needles, preimplant prostate volume, transitional zone index (transition zone volume divided by prostate volume), age, and prostate-specific antigen level. Prostate dosimetry was evaluated by the percentage of the prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V 100 ) and percentage of prescribed dose received by 90% of the prostate volume (D 90 ). Results: Prostate edema was maximal on Day 1, with the median prostate volume 31% greater than preimplant transrectal ultrasound volume (range, 0.93-1.72; p 100 on Day 1 was 93.6% (range, 86.0-98.2%) and was 96.3% (range, 85.7-99.5%) on Day 30 (p = 0.079). Patients with a Day 1 V 100 >93% were less affected by edema resolution, showing a median increase in V 100 of 0.67% on Day 30 compared with 2.77% for patients with a V 100 100 >93%)

  6. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  7. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  8. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  10. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  11. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  12. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyandra Parikesit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa.

  13. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  14. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  15. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm (ρ < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy

  17. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  18. Can Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics before Prostate Biopsy Predict the Malignant Potential of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Yoo, Dae Seon; Park, Jinsung; Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho; Lee, Sang Hyub; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Tchun Yong; Park, Sung Yul

    2015-11-01

    To predict the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) according to prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV), PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA), and digital rectal examination (DRE). From January 2009 to December 2012, 548 adult male patients were diagnosed with PCa by prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 155 adult male patients with an initial PSA level≤10 ng/mL and whose PSA levels had been checked more than two times at least 6 months before they had been diagnosed with PCa, with test intervals of more than 3 months. Patients with a urinary tract infection, and patients who had previously undergone cystoscopy or surgery of the prostate were excluded. We separated patients into two groups according to Gleason sum [Gleason sum≤7 (n=134) or Gleason sum≥8 (n=21)] and the presence of extracapsular invasion [organ confined (n=129) or extracapsular invasion (n=26)]. Differences between the groups were compared. The group with a Gleason sum≥8 or extracapsular invasion of PCa showed high PSAV and significantly lower %fPSA. There were no significant differences in PSAD and the presence of an abnormality on DRE between two groups. In PCa patients treated with other therapies besides prostatectomy, a high PSA velocity and a low %fPSA may predict high grade PCa with a Gleason sum≥8 or the presence of extracapsular invasion.

  19. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis in autopsy prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikov, Dorian; Bachurska, Svitlana; Staikov, Dimitri; Sarafian, Victoria

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of the number, normal and pathologic ratios between lymphocytes and epithelial cells (ECs), and the significance of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in normal prostatic epithelium, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis (histologic prostatitis: HP) was studied in autopsy prostate. IELs were analysed in 59 autopsy prostates, which was routinely embedded in paraffin and immunohistochemically stained for CD3. An average of 300-500 ECs were counted per case. The number of IELs was calculated as the mean/100 ECs. Category IV prostatitis was evaluated using NIH consensus grading system in terms of anatomical localization and grade. In healthy individuals the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 0.61 ± 0.34% or ≤1 lymphocyte/100 ECs, which is considered as the normal basal level of prostate IELs. In category IV prostatitis, the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 8.53 ± 3.25% or 5-11 lymphocytes/100 ECs. The number of IELs in both around and inside inflammation areas correlated to the grade and location of HP (P prostatic inflammation (P prostatic IELs in normal prostate and in relation to category IV prostatitis. The detected normal upper limit of CD3+ IELs is 1 lymphocyte/100 ECs in the normal prostate epithelium. This is considered as an organ specific characteristic of the prostate-associated lymphoid tissue (PALT). Values >5 IELs/100 ECs indicate the presence of category IV prostatitis. The severity of inflammation correlates to the number of IELs. There is an intimate link between the quantity of the IELs, the degree of the severity and the localization of category IV prostatitis. HP is a chronic and dynamic inflammatory process affecting the whole prostate gland. The increased number of IELs suggests the immune or autoimmune character of category IV prostatitis, BPH and inflammatory preneoplastic (PIN) lesions in the prostatic tumor

  20. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.