WorldWideScience

Sample records for r-2 reactor

  1. Decommissioning of the Nuclear Reactors R2 and R2-0 at Studsvik, Sweden. General Data as called for under Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    This document describes the plans for decommissioning of the nuclear research and material test reactors R2 and R2-0, situated at the Studsvik site close to the city of Nykoeping, Sweden. The purpose of the document is to serve as information for the European Commission, and to fulfil the requirements of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast, about 20 km east of Nykoeping and 80 km southwest of Stockholm. The site comprises the reactors R2 and R2-0 and several facilities for material investigation and radioactive waste treatment and storage. The reactors were used for a number of different purposes from 1960 until June 2005, when they were shut down following a decision by the operator. Decommissioning of the reactor facility is planned to be completed in 2016 after dismantling and conditioning of radioactive parts and demolition of the facility. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the dismantling activities will be treated and stored on-site awaiting final disposal. The waste treatment facilities, which are situated in other buildings at the Studsvik site, are planned to continue operation during and after the decommissioning of the reactor facility. All nuclear fuel has been transferred to a separate storage facility and is being shipped to the US according to existing agreements. The objective of the planned dismantling activities is to achieve clearance of the facility to make it possible to either demolish the buildings or use them for other purposes. The operator has divided the planning for dismantling and demolition of the facility into three phases [1]: Dismantling 1, including primary system decontamination, dismantling of the reactors with systems in the reactor pool, draining, cleaning and temporary covering of the reactor pool. This phase has begun and is due to last till approximately December 2009. Dismantling 2, including dismantling of systems in the reactor facility, removal of equipment, radiological

  2. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  3. ${\\cal R}^2$ Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We formulate $R^2$ pure supergravity as a scale invariant theory built only in terms of superfields describing the geometry of curved superspace. The standard supergravity duals are obtained in both "old" and "new" minimal formulations of auxiliary fields. These theories have massless fields in de Sitter space as they do in their non supersymmetric counterpart. Remarkably, the dual theory of $R^2$ supergravity in the new minimal formulation is an extension of the Freedman model, describing a massless gauge field and a massless chiral multiplet in de Sitter space, with inverse radius proportional to the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. This model can be interpreted as the "de-Higgsed" phase of the dual companion theory of $R+R^2$ supergravity.

  4. R^2 Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R

    2010-01-01

    There is a non-trivial four-derivative extension of the gravitational spectrum that is free of ghosts and phenomenologically viable. It is the so called $R^2$-gravity since it is defined by the only addition of a term proportional to the square of the scalar curvature. Just the presence of this term does not improve the ultraviolet behaviour of Einstein gravity but introduces one additional scalar degree of freedom that can account for the dark matter of our Universe.

  5. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  6. Mastering Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One-of-a-kind guide from Microsoft insiders on Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2!. What better way to learn VMM 2008 R2 than from the high-powered Microsoft program managers themselves? This stellar author team takes you under the hood of VMM 2008 R2, providing intermediate and advanced coverage of all features.: Walks you through Microsoft's new System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008, a unified system for managing all virtual and physical assets; VMM 2008 not only supports Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V, but also VMware ESXas well!; Features a winning author team behind the new VMM; Describes

  7. R/2R DAC Nonlinearity Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulig, Gabriel; Wallin, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The resistor ladder (R/2R) digital-to-analogue converter (DAC) architecture is often used in high performance audio solutions due to its low-noise performance. Even high-end R/2R DACs suffer from static nonlinearity distortions. It was suspected that compensating for these nonlinearities would be possible. It was also suspected that this could improve audio quality in audio systems using R/2R DACs for digital-to-analogue (A/D) conversion. Through the use of models of the resistor ladder archi...

  8. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  9. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  10. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  11. Expanding Lorentzian Wormholes in R2 Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, S. N.; Riazi, N.

    2011-10-01

    We present traversable, Lorentzian wormholes in the framework of R^{2} gravity. These wormholes are obtained by assuming constant Ricci scalar and trace-less equation of state. The metric is asymptotically RW, and locally that of a Lorentzian wormhole. Dynamics of the cosmological background, as well as the expanding wormhole are discussed. Weak energy condition near the wormhole throat is also examined. It is shown that the positive energy density condition can be satisfied all-over a spacelike hypersurface at large enough cosmological times and small enough, positive cosmological constant.

  12. R + R$^{2}$ gravity as R + backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Kung, J H

    1995-01-01

    Quadratic theory of gravity is a complicated constraint system. We investigate some consequences of treating quadratic terms perturbatively (higher derivative version of backreaction effects). This approach is shown to overcome some well known problems associated with higher derivative theories, i.e., the physical gravitational degree of freedom remains unchanged from those of Einstein gravity. Using such an interpretation of R + \\beta R^2 gravity, we investigate a classical and Wheeler DeWitt evolution of R + \\beta R^2 gravity for a particular sign of \\beta, corresponding to non- tachyon case. Matter is described by a phenomenological \\rho \\propto a(t)^{-n}. It is concluded that both the Friedmann potential U(a) ( {\\dot a}^2 + 2U(a) = 0 ) and the Wheeler DeWitt potential W(a) (\\left[-{\\partial^2\\over \\partial a^2} + 2W(a)\\right]\\psi (a) =0 ) develop repulsive barriers near a\\approx 0 for n>4 (i.e., p > {1\\over 3}\\rho ). The interpretations is clear. Repulsive barrier in U(a) implies that a contracting FRW un...

  13. Submicron R2Fe14B particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Koylu-Alkan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemical synthesis of submicron R2Fe14B particles with R = Dy, Nd, Pr has been performed successfully via high energy ball milling of rare-earth oxides, iron oxide and boron oxide in the presence of a reducing agent (Ca and a dispersant material (CaO, followed by annealing at 800 - 900 °C. In the R = Nd system, we were able to fabricate particles embedded in a CaO matrix with coercivity (Hc of 10.3 kOe after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. After washing off the dispersant, the Hc was decreased to below 1 kOe because of hydrogen absorption that leads to the formation of the hydrated R2Fe14BHx phase that has a lower anisotropy. Upon removal of the hydrogen the coercivity was increased to 3.3 kOe. The average size of the Nd2Fe14B particles increases from 100 nm in a sample synthesized at 800 °C to 158 nm at 900 °C. The isotropic Dy2Fe14B particles showed a higher coercivity of 21 kOe in washed samples after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. An average size of 71 nm is measured in samples synthesized at 800 °C and 107 nm at 900 °C. Fitting the high field M(H measurements in Nd2Fe14B to the law of approach to saturation gave values for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for the washed sample 2.23 × 107 erg/cm3 and for the vacuum annealed sample 4.15 × 107 erg/cm3, both of which are lower than the bulk values. This would explain the lower values of Hc observed in the particles.

  14. Multicenter R2* mapping in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Wattjes, Mike P; Langkammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The R2* relaxation rate constant has been suggested as a sensitive measure for iron accumulation. The aim of this multi-center study was to assess the inter-scanner and inter-subject variability of R2* mapping and to investigate the relationship between brain volume and R2* in specific...

  15. Synthesis and Structure of Mixed Distannoxane Dimers [ClR2SnOSnR'2Cl]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mixed distannoxane dimers [ClR2SnOSnR'2Cl]2 were synthesized by the reaction of R2SnO (R = Bu, Pr) and R2SnCl2 (R = Me, Ph, Cy, Oct). The crystal structures of compound 1 and 5 show they are ladder-type dimers that contain a central planar Sn2O2 four-membered ring. Both endo- and exo-Sn atoms are five-coordinate.

  16. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  17. A supersymmetric R2-action in six dimensions and torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Salam, Abdus; Sezgin, E.

    1986-01-01

    The superconformal extension of (Rµνab)2 is given in six dimensions. It is shown that in a superconformal gauge the three-form field Hµν� has a natural torsion interpretation. Also partial results are given on the superconformal extension of the Gauss-Bonnet combination R2µνab - 4R2µa + R2.

  18. Strong energy condition in R + R$^{2}$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kung, J H

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study Raychaudhuri's equation in the background of R + \\beta R^2 gravity with a phenomenological matter (\\rho \\propto a(t)^{-n}). We conclude that even though the Strong Energy Condition (S.E.C.) for Einstein's gravity, which guarantees singularity, is n\\geq 2 for \\rho \\propto a(t)^{-n}, a perturbative analysis of Raychaudhuri's equation in the background of R + \\beta R^2 gravity reveals that the big bang singularity may not be guaranteed for n > 4. We derive the following Strong Energy Conditions for R + \\beta R^2 (\\beta \

  19. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  20. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  1. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  2. Microsoft System Center 2012 R2 Operations Manager cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont (MVP), Steve; Odika, Chiyo; Ryan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    If you are tasked with monitoring the IT infrastructure within your organization, this book demonstrates how System Center 2012 R2 Operations Manager offers a radical and exciting solution to modern administration.

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  4. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  5. EPA Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] and SEMS_CERCLIS Sites NPL [R2] GIS Layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 2 SEMS_CERCLIS Sites All [R2] GIS layer contains unique Superfund Enterprise Management System (SEMS) site records. These records have the following...

  6. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  7. 322-R2U2 Engineering Assessment - August 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abri, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-13

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tank system 322-R2 has been prepared for tank systems that store and neutralizes hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed periodically and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer. Abri Environmental Engineering performed an inspection of the 322-R2 Tank system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA. Mr. William W. Moore, P.E., conducted this inspection on March 16, 2015. Mr. Moore is a California Registered Civil Engineer, with extensive experience in civil engineering, and hazardous waste management.

  8. 在2008 R2中安装Nero9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2010-01-01

    WindowsServer2008 R2.是Windows Server 2008 Release 2即Windows Server 2008的第二个发行版,虽然是Windows Server 2008的第二个发行版本,但相比Windows Server 2008还是有非常大的改动的。Windows Server 2008 R2在2009年10月22日发布.2009年9月14日发售。

  9. Oracle JDeveloper 11gR2 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haralabidis, Nick

    2012-01-01

    "Oracle JDeveloper 11gR2 Cookbook" is a practical cookbook which goes beyond the basics with immediately applicable recipes for building ADF applications at an intermediate-to-advanced level. If you are a JavaEE developer who wants to go beyond the basics of building ADF applications with Oracle JDeveloper 11gR2 and get hands on with practical recipes, this book is for you. You should be comfortable with general Java development principles, the JDeveloper IDE, and ADF basics

  10. R2E – identifying problems, mitigating risks

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1, the R2E project team will be working on a task as painstaking as it is crucial: to achieve a sixfold reduction in the number of electronic malfunctions caused by radiation. On their success depends the ability of the accelerator to function correctly at nominal energy. No mean challenge, considering it comes on top of the tenfold reduction already achieved since 2009.   The graph plots the rate of LHC beam dumps due to single-event effects against beam luminosity. An indication of the challenge that faces the R2E project teams during LS1! The origins of the project known as R2E (Radiation to Electronics) go back to 2007, when the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) experiment was being commissioned. "Right from the outset, some CNGS control systems were causing problems. They would regularly break down in operations with beam," recalls Markus Brugger, head of the R2E project. "Even though the beam intensity was very low, we began to suspect that radiati...

  11. Structures and physical properties of R2TX3 compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhi-Yan; Cao Chong-De; Bai Xiao-Jun; Song Rui-Bo; Zheng Jian-Bang; Duan Li-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth compounds have been an attractive subject based on the unique electronic structures of the rare-earth elements.Novel ternary intermetallic compounds R2TX3 (R =rare-earth element or U,T =transition-metal element,X =Si,Ge,Ga,In) are a significant branch of this research field due to their complex and intriguing physical properties,such as magnetic order at low temperature,spin-glass behavior,Kondo effect,heavy fermion behavior,and so on.The unique physical properties of R2TX3 compounds are related to distinctive electronic structures,crystal structures,microinteraction,and external environment.Most R2TX3 compounds crystallize in AlB2-type or derived AlB2-type structures and exhibit many similar properties.This paper gives a concise review of the structures and physical properties of these compounds.Spin glass,magnetic susceptibility,resistivity,and specific heat of R2TX3 compounds are discussed.

  12. GluR2 ligand-binding core complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, C; Lunn, M-L; Liljefors, T

    2002-01-01

    X-ray structures of the GluR2 ligand-binding core in complex with (S)-Des-Me-AMPA and in the presence and absence of zinc ions have been determined. (S)-Des-Me-AMPA, which is devoid of a substituent in the 5-position of the isoxazolol ring, only has limited interactions with the partly hydrophobic...

  13. Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2012 R2 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hedblom, Robert

    2015-01-01

    If you are a DPM administrator, this book will help you verify your knowledge and provide you with everything you need to know about the 2012 R2 release. No prior knowledge about System Center DPM is required, however some experience of running backups will come in handy.

  14. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  15. R2-Based Multi/Many-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Gregorio; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Tello-Leal, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We propose to couple the R2 performance measure and Particle Swarm Optimization in order to handle multi/many-objective problems. Our proposal shows that through a well-designed interaction process we could maintain the metaheuristic almost inalterable and through the R2 performance measure we did not use neither an external archive nor Pareto dominance to guide the search. The proposed approach is validated using several test problems and performance measures commonly adopted in the specialized literature. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces results that are competitive with respect to those obtained by four well-known MOEAs. Additionally, we validate our proposal in many-objective optimization problems. In these problems, our approach showed its main strength, since it could outperform another well-known indicator-based MOEA. PMID:27656200

  16. Spherical collapse for the Starobinsky $R^2$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Spherical scalar collapse for the Starobinsky $R^2$ model is simulated to explore the black hole and singularity formation scenarios. This model was obtained by considering quantum-gravitational effects and would admit some cases of singularity-free cosmological spacetimes. It is found, however, that in gravitational collapse situations, when the matter field is strong enough, a black hole including central singularity can be formed. The nature of this singularity is examined, and it is seen that near the central singularity gravity dominates the repulsion from the $R^2$ term, so that in some circumstances the Ricci scalar $R$ is pushed to infinity by gravity. Therefore, the semi-classical effects as included here do not avoid the singularity problem in general relativity.

  17. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Paddock. Meals—Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner will be available in the mess tent (See Schedule, Section 2.1). Snacks – Snack foods and bottled water...ROBOTIC RANGE CLEARANCE COMPETITION (R2C2) Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE Air...other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This

  18. System Center 2012 R2 Virtual Machine Manager cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Edvaldo Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step guide packed with recipes that cover architecture design and planning. The book is also full of deployment tips, techniques, and solutions. If you are a solutions architect, technical consultant, administrator, or any other virtualization enthusiast who needs to use Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager in a real-world environment, then this is the book for you. We assume that you have previous experience with Windows 2012 R2 and Hyper-V.

  19. 全面掌控Windows Server 2012 R2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾武雄

    2015-01-01

    想要全面掌控Windows Server 2012 R2核心的IT维运技术,有三项网络服务器内建的强大功能,是所有网络管理员都必须学习的,分别是HyDer-V服务器虚拟化、iSCSI网络储存管理和IPAM网络管理。

  20. Gravitational luminosity of a hot plasma in R^2 gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Niri, B Nadiri; Corda, C

    2016-01-01

    The R^{2}-gravity contribution to energy loss of a hot plasma due to the gravitational bremsstrahlung is calculated in the linearized theory on the basis of classical Coulomb scattering of plasma constituents in small-angle scattering approximation. The explicit dependence of the gravitational luminosity on the plasma temperature is derived and its relevance to the Einstein gravity is demonstrated. The result when applied to the Sun as a hot plasma, shows very good agreement with available data.

  1. Chiral Discrimination of Tryptophan Enantiomers via (1R, 2R-2-Amino-1, 2-Diphenyl Ethanol Modified Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reported that a simple chiral selective interface constructed by (1R, 2R-2-amino-1, 2-diphenyl ethanol had been developed to discriminate tryptophan enantiomers. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS were used for the characteristic analysis of the electrode. The results indicated that the interface showed stable and sensitive property to determine the tryptophan enantiomers. Moreover, it exhibited the better stereoselectivity for L-tryptophan than that for D-tryptophan. The discrimination characteristics of the chiral selective interface for discriminating tryptophan enantiomers, including the response time, the effect of tryptophan enantiomers concentration, and the stability, were investigated in detail. In addition, the chiral selective interface was used to determine the enantiomeric composition of L- and D-tryptophan enantiomer mixtures by measuring the relative change of the peak current as well as in pure enantiomeric solutions. These results suggested that the chiral selective interface has the potential for enantiomeric discrimination of tryptophan enantiomers.

  2. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  3. Foundations of SQL Server 2008 R2 Business Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Fouche, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Foundations of SQL Server 2008 R2 Business Intelligence introduces the entire exciting gamut of business intelligence tools included with SQL Server 2008. Microsoft has designed SQL Server 2008 to be more than just a database. It's a complete business intelligence (BI) platform. The database is at its core, and surrounding the core are tools for data mining, modeling, reporting, analyzing, charting, and integration with other enterprise-level software packages. SQL Server 2008 puts an incredible amount of BI functionality at your disposal. But how do you take advantage of it? That's what this

  4. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Windows Server 2008 R2 Administration Instant Reference provides quick referencing for the day-to-day tasks of administrating Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. This book uses design features such as thumb tabs, secondary and tertiary tables of contents, and special heading treatments to provide quick and easy lookup, as well as quick-reference tables and lists to provide answers on the spot. Covering the essentials of day-to-day tasks Windows Server administrators perform, key topics include: Hyper-V 2.0; DirectAccess; LiveMigration; Automation; Core Active Directory administration

  5. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  6. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  8. Reactor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  9. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  10. $R^2\\log R$ quantum corrections and the inflationary observables

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Torabian, Mahdi; Westphal, Alexander; Zarate, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    We study a model of inflation with terms quadratic and logarithmic in the Ricci scalar, where the gravitational action is $f(R)=R+\\alpha R^2+\\beta R^2 \\ln R$. These terms are expected to arise from one loop corrections involving matter fields in curved space-time. The spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio yield $10^{-4}\\lesssim r\\lesssim0.03$ and $0.94\\lesssim n_s \\lesssim 0.99$. i.e. $r$ is an order of magnitude bigger or smaller than the original Starobinsky model which predicted $r\\sim 10^{-3}$. Further enhancement of $r$ gives a scale invariant $n_s\\sim 1$ or higher. Other inflationary observables are $d n_s/d\\ln k \\gtrsim -5.2 \\times 10^{-4},\\, \\mu \\lesssim 2.1 \\times 10^{-8} ,\\, y \\lesssim 2.6 \\times 10^{-9}$. Despite the enhancement in $r$, if the recent BICEP2 measurement stands, this model is disfavoured.

  11. Deuteration around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Treviño-Morales, S P; Fuente, A; Kramer, C; Roueff, E; González-García, M; Cernicharo, J; Gerin, M; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Ossenkopf, V; Ginard, D; García-Burillo, S; Rizzo, J R; Viti, S

    2014-01-01

    The massive star-forming region Mon R2 hosts the closest ultra-compact HII region that can be spatially resolved with current single-dish telescopes. We used the IRAM-30m telescope to carry out an unbiased spectral survey toward two important positions (namely IF and MP2), in order to studying the chemistry of deuterated molecules toward Mon R2. We found a rich chemistry of deuterated species at both positions, with detections of C2D, DCN, DNC, DCO+, D2CO, HDCO, NH2D, and N2D+ and their corresponding hydrogenated species and isotopologs. Our high spectral resolution observations allowed us to resolve three velocity components: the component at 10 km/s is detected at both positions and seems associated with the layer most exposed to the UV radiation from IRS 1; the component at 12 km/s is found toward the IF position and seems related to the molecular gas; finally, a component at 8.5 km/s is only detected toward the MP2 position, most likely related to a low-UV irradiated PDR. We derived the column density of ...

  12. Inflationary Magnetogenesis in $R^{2}$-Inflation after Planck 2015

    CERN Document Server

    AlMuhammad, Anwar Saleh

    2015-01-01

    We study the primordial magnetic field generated by the simple model $f^2 FF$ in Starobinsky, $R^2$-inflationary, model. The scale invariant PMF is achieved at relatively high power index of the coupling function, $\\left| \\alpha \\right| \\approx 7.44$. This model does not suffer from the backreaction problem as long as, the rate of inflationary expansion, $H$, is in the order of or less than the upper bound reported by Planck ($\\le 3.6 \\times 10^{-5} M_\\rm{Pl}$) in both de Sitter and power law expansion, which show similar results. We calculate the lower limit of the reheating parameter, $R_\\rm{rad} > 6.888$ in $R^2$-inflation. Based on the upper limit obtained from CMB, we find that the upper limits of magnetic field and reheating energy density as, $\\left(\\rho_{B_\\rm{end}} \\right)_\\rm{CMB} < 1.184 \\times 10^{-20} M_\\rm{Pl}^4$ and $\\left(\\rho_\\rm{reh} \\right)_\\rm{CMB} < 8.480 \\times 10^{-22} M_\\rm{Pl}^4$. All of foregoing results are well more than the lower limit derived from WMAP7 for both large and s...

  13. Serum cholesterol and nigrostriatal R2* values in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD is known to be associated both with increased nigrostriatal iron content and with low serum cholesterol and PD, but there has been no study to determine a potential relationship between these two factors. METHODS: High-resolution MRI (T1-, T2, and multiple echo T2*-weighted imaging and fasting lipid levels were obtained from 40 patients with PD and 29 healthy controls. Iron content was estimated from mean R2* values (R2* = 1/T2* calculated for each nigrostriatal structure including substantia nigra, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. This was correlated with serum cholesterol levels after controlling for age, gender, and statin use. RESULTS: In patients with PD, higher serum cholesterol levels were associated with lower iron content in the substantia nigra (R = -0.43, p = 0.011 for total-cholesterol, R = -0.31, p = 0.080 for low-density lipoprotein and globus pallidus (R = -0.38, p = 0.028 for total-cholesterol, R = -0.27, p = 0.127 for low-density lipoprotein, but only a trend toward significant association of higher total-cholesterol with lower iron content in the striatum (R = -0.34, p = 0.052 for caudate; R = -0.32, p = 0.061 for putamen. After adjusting for clinical measures, the cholesterol-iron relationships held or became even stronger in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, but weaker in the caudate and putamen. There was no significant association between serum cholesterol levels and nigrostriatal iron content for controls. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that higher serum total-cholesterol concentration is associated with lower iron content in substantia nigra and globus pallidus in Parkinson's disease patients. Further studies should investigate whether this is mechanistic or epiphenomenological relationship.

  14. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  15. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  16. Dark energy and dimensional transmutation in $R^2$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has shown that non-local modifications of gravity involving terms such as $m^2R\\Box^{-2}R$ (and no cosmological constant) provide a phenomenologically viable alternative to $\\Lambda$CDM. We discuss the possibility that such non-local terms emerge in the far infrared from the running of the coupling constant associated to the $R^2$ term in higher-derivative gravity, which is asymptotically free in the ultraviolet and strongly coupled in the infrared. In this scenario the mass scale $m$ of the non-local model emerges from dimensional transmutation, similarly to $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ for strong interactions, leading to a technically natural value of the scale associated to dark energy. We also argue that the emergence of the non-local term can be understood as a dynamical mass generation for the conformal mode, as a response of the vacuum to the strong infrared fluctuations that are generated by the anomaly-induced effective action.

  17. Dyadic Bivariate Wavelet Multipliers in L2(R2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Yan LI; Xian Liang SHI

    2011-01-01

    The single 2 dilation wavelet multipliers in one-dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and |detA|=2)wavelet multipliers in twodimensional case were completely characterized by Wutam Consortium(1998)and Li Z.,et al.(2010).But there exist no results on multivariate wavelet multipliers corresponding to integer expansive dilation.matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2).In this paper,we choose 2I2=(0202)as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation multivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3}(which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet)multipliers.Here we call a measurable function family f={f1,f2,f3}a dyadic bivariate wavelet multiplier if Ψ1={F-1(f1ψ1),F-1(f2ψ2),F-1(f3ψ3)} is a dyadic bivariate wavelet for any dyadic bivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3},where(f)and,F-1 denote the Fourier transform and the inverse transform of function f respectively.We study dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers,and give some conditions for dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers.We also give concrete forms of linear phases of dyadic MRA bivariate wavelets.

  18. Inflation in R2 supergravity with non-minimal superpotentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Diamandis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the cosmological inflation in a class of supergravity models that are generalizations of non-supersymmetric R2 models. Although such models have been extensively studied recently, especially after the launch of the PLANCK and BICEP2 data, the class of models that can be constructed has not been exhausted. In this note, working in a supergravity model that is a generalization of Cecotti's model, we show that the appearance of new superpotential terms, which are quadratic in the superfield Λ that couples to the Ricci supermultiplet, alters substantially the form of the scalar potential. The arising potential has the form of the Starobinsky potential times a factor that is exponential in the inflaton field and dominates for large inflaton values. We show that the well-known Starobinsky inflation scenario is maintained only for unnaturally small fine-tuned values of the coupling describing the Λ2 superpotential terms. A welcome feature is the possible increase of the tensor to scalar ratio r, within the limits set by the new Planck and BICEP2 data.

  19. 再探究x0^x+y0y=r^2与x^2+y^2=r^2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2011-01-01

    贵刊文[1]给出了直线x0^x+y0y=r^2与x^2+y^2=r^2圆的关系:结论1 已知圆O:x^+y^2=r^2,点P(x0,y0).(1)若点P(x0,y0)在圆上,过点P的圆切线方程为x0x+y0y=r^2;(2)若点P(x0,y0)在圆外,过点P向圆引两条切线,两切点A、B两点,过A、B两点的两条切线交点的轨迹方程为x0x+y0y=r^2.

  20. R2* and R2 mapping for quantifying recruitment of superparamagnetic iron oxide-tagged endothelial progenitor cells to injured liver: tracking in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Qingguo Wang, Kangan Li, Qimeng Quan, Guixiang ZhangDepartment of Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, Hongkou District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate clinical 3.0T magnetic resonance for tracking and quantifying superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO–labeled endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in vitro and homing to liver with acute injury in vivo.Methods: The bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and cultured for 4 days and examined in vitro for lineage markers. Then the cultured cells were labeled with a ferumoxides-protamine sulfate complex. Iron uptake was analyzed with an electron microscope and Prussian blue staining. Agarose gel phantoms containing different amounts of EPCs (0–2.5 × 106 cells per milliliter of 1.0% agarose gel were analyzed with 3.0T R2 and R2* relaxometry. For in vivo tracking, liver injury was induced in healthy C57 mice (female, 6 weeks old, weight 19–20 g by administration of carbon tetrachloride by single intraperitoneal injection. The R2* and R2 mapping of injured and normal livers of C57 mice were conducted by using 3.0T magnetic resonance on Days 0, 1, 4, and 8 after intravenous SPIO-tagged cells transplantation.Results: Electron microscope and Perls Prussian blue stain revealed the efficiency of SPIO particles uptake was more than 95% and no structural changes of labeled cells were found compared with control group. R2 and R2* values were linearly correlated with the number of iron-loaded cells in the agarose gel phantoms, and R2* values were significantly greater than R2 (P<0.01. R2* values in all groups were obviously greater than R2 (P<0.01. The R2* values of the injured livers were greater than normal on Days 1 and 4 (P<0.01. No significant difference of R2 values could be found among the three groups.Conclusion: Quantitative R2* mapping provides a useful method for quantifying intravascular administered SPIO-tagged EPCs homing to

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  3. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  4. Crystal field analysis of the magnetization curves of R2Fe17 and R2Fe17H3 (R=Tb,Ho,Er)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Ru-Gui; Yan Yu; Zhang Yan-Xiang; Du Xiao-Bo; Wang Xiang-Qun; Su Feng; Jin Han-Min

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the values of the crystalline-electric-field parameters Anm for R2Fe17 and R2Fe17H3 (R=Tb,Ho,Er)are evaluated by fitting calculations to the magnetization curves measured on the single crystal at several temperatures.The fitted Anm for R2Fe17 are strikingly different from those for the corresponding R2Fe17H3. The energy gaps between the lowest four energy levels for Ho ions in Ho2Fe17 can be reproduced by using the fitted Anm and exchange field 2μBHex, which estimated from the fit of the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization combined with inelastic neutron scattering experiment.

  5. Phosphorylation of RyR2 and shortening of RyR2 cluster spacing in spontaneously hypertensive rat with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Ward, Christopher W; Stark, Wayne; Banyasz, Tamas; Sumandea, Marius P; Balke, C William; Izu, Leighton T; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2007-10-01

    As a critical step toward understanding the role of abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR(2)) during the development of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, this study examines two questions: 1) At what stage, if ever, in the development of hypertrophy and heart failure is RyR(2) hyperphosphorylated at Ser(2808)? 2) Does the spatial distribution of RyR(2) clusters change in failing hearts? Using a newly developed semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method and Western blotting, we measured phosphorylation of RyR(2) at Ser(2808) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) at four distinct disease stages. A major finding is that hyperphosphorylation of RyR(2) at Ser(2808) occurred only at late-stage heart failure in SHR, but not in age-matched controls. Furthermore, the spacing between RyR(2) clusters was shortened in failing hearts, as predicted by quantitative model simulation to increase spontaneous Ca(2+) wave generation and arrhythmias.

  6. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  7. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  8. Structure and Mechanism of Receptoe Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

    2010-06-14

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  9. Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

    2010-07-19

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  10. R2*-relaxometry of the pancreas in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Rauch, S; Zoller, H; Plaikner, M; Jaschke, W; Kremser, C

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate pancreatic iron in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) using R2* relaxometry. 81 patients (58 male, 23 female; median age 49.5, range 10-81 years) with HHC were retrospectively studied. All underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. A fat-saturated multi-gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR=200ms; TE-initial 0.99ms; Delta-TE 1.41ms; 12 echoes; flip-angle: 20°) was used for the R2* quantification of the liver and the pancreas. Parameter maps were analyzed using regions of interest (3 in the liver and 2 in the pancreas) and R2* values were correlated. 59/81 patients had a liver R2*≥70 1/s of which 10/59 patients had a pancreas R2*≥50 1/s. No patient presented with a liver R2*pancreas R2*≥50 1/s. All patients with pancreas R2* values≥50 1/s had liver R2* values≥70 1/s. ROC analysis resulted in a threshold of 209.4 1/s for liver R2* values to identify HFE positive patients with pancreas R2* values≥50 1/s with a median specificity of 78.87% and a median sensitivity of 90%. In patients with HHC R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should be performed when liver iron overload is present and can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preferential occupancy of R2 retroelements on the B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia E Montiel

    Full Text Available R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements.

  12. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  13. Preferential occupancy of R2 retroelements on the B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Cabrero, Josefa; Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Burke, William D; Eickbush, Thomas H; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements.

  14. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D’Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A.; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced...

  15. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 installation and configuration study guide exam 70-410

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    Master Windows Server installation and configuration withhands-on practice and interactive study aids for the MCSA: WindowsServer 2012 R2 exam 70-410 MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Installation and ConfigurationStudy Guide: Exam 70-410 provides complete preparationfor exam 70-410: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012 R2.With comprehensive coverage of all exam topics and plenty ofhands-on practice, this self-paced guide is the ideal resource forthose preparing for the MCSA on Windows Server 2012 R2. Real-worldscenarios demonstrate how the lessons are applied in everydaysettings. Reader

  16. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D'Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R

    2015-05-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a "leaky" RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in β cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and β cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AIJL-1R2CM [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AIJL-1R2CM 1AIJ 1R2C L M -----ALLSFERKYRVPGGTLVGGNLFD----FWVGP--...HHHHHHHHH ----HHHHHHH HHHH 0 1AIJ... L 1AIJL GLU CA 293 ARG CA 285 1AIJ L 1AIJL AANPEKGKEMRTPDH

  18. High nigral iron deposition in LRRK2 and Parkin mutation carriers using R2* relaxometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Sharman, Michael; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    symptomatic and two asymptomatic Parkin subjects, nine symptomatic and five asymptomatic LRRK2 subjects) were compared with 20 patients with idiopathic PD (IPD) and 20 healthy subjects. Images were obtained at 3 teslas, using multi-echo T2 and T2* sequences. R2 and R2* values were calculated in the substantia...

  19. Identification of a New Allergen from Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen, Ama r 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The profilin from the A. retroflexus pollen, Ama r 2, was firstly identified as an allergen. Moreover, rAma r 2 was produced in E. coli as a soluble immunoreactive protein with an IgE-reactivity similar to that of its natural counterpart.

  20. How do uncertainties in NCEP R2 and CFSR surface fluxes impact tropical ocean simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Caihong; Xue, Yan; Kumar, Arun; Behringer, David; Yu, Lisan

    2017-01-01

    NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface fluxes are widely used by the research community to understand surface flux climate variability, and to drive ocean models as surface forcings. However, large discrepancies exist between these two products, including (1) stronger trade winds in CFSR than in R2 over the tropical Pacific prior 2000; (2) excessive net surface heat fluxes into ocean in CFSR than in R2 with an increase in difference after 2000. The goals of this study are to examine the sensitivity of ocean simulations to discrepancies between CFSR and R2 surface fluxes, and to assess the fidelity of the two products. A set of experiments, where an ocean model was driven by a combination of surface flux components from R2 and CFSR, were carried out. The model simulations were contrasted to identify sensitivity to different component of the surface fluxes in R2 and CFSR. The accuracy of the model simulations was validated against the tropical moorings data, altimetry SSH and SST reanalysis products. Sensitivity of ocean simulations showed that temperature bias difference in the upper 100 m is mostly sensitive to the differences in surface heat fluxes, while depth of 20 °C (D20) bias difference is mainly determined by the discrepancies in momentum fluxes. D20 simulations with CFSR winds agree with observation well in the western equatorial Pacific prior 2000, but have large negative bias similar to those with R2 winds after 2000, partly because easterly winds over the central Pacific were underestimated in both CFSR and R2. On the other hand, the observed temperature variability is well reproduced in the tropical Pacific by simulations with both R2 and CFSR fluxes. Relative to the R2 fluxes, the CFSR fluxes improve simulation of interannual variability in all three tropical oceans to a varying degree. The improvement in the tropical Atlantic is most significant and is largely attributed to differences in surface winds.

  1. An ODIP Effort to Map R2R Ocean Data Terms to International Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverseness of terminology used in describing ocean data creates a barrier to efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a U.S. program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed within R2R or are specific to the U.S. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international ones, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO), and R2R chief scientist names to well known professional identifiers such as ORCID, Research Gate, Linkedin, etc. Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. All ports are successfully mapped. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings and R2R has added new terms to EDMO and SeaVoX Device Catalog vocabularies allowing for nearly complete coverage of

  2. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  3. Retrospective comparison of gradient recalled echo R2* and spin-echo R2 magnetic resonance analysis methods for estimating liver iron content in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Quinn, Charles T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Health System Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Serial surveillance of liver iron concentration (LIC) provides guidance for chelation therapy in patients with iron overload. The diagnosis of iron overload traditionally relies on core liver biopsy, which is limited by invasiveness, sampling error, cost and general poor acceptance by pediatric patients and parents. Thus noninvasive diagnostic methods such as MRI are highly attractive for quantification of liver iron concentration. To compare two MRI-based methods for liver iron quantification in children. 64 studies on 48 children and young adults (age range 4-21 years) were examined by gradient recalled echo (GRE) R2* and spin-echo R2 MRI at 1.5T to evaluate liver iron concentration. Scatter plots and Bland-Altman difference plots were generated to display and assess the relationship between the methods. With the protocols used in this investigation, Bland-Altman agreement between the methods is best when LIC is <20 mg/g dry tissue. Scatter plots show that all values with LIC <20 mg/g dry tissue fall within the 95% prediction limits. Liver iron concentration as determined by the R2* and R2 MR methods is statistically comparable, with no statistical difference between these methods for LIC <20 mg/g. (orig.)

  4. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed.

  5. Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Kanae; Kotake, Yaichiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with 1 or 10 µM methoxychlor and fenvalerate for 9 days selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions. Importantly, the decreases in GluR2 protein expression were also observed on the cell surface membrane where AMPA receptors typically function. In addition, both chemicals decreased neuronal viability, which was blocked by pretreatment with 1-naphtylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors, and MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that long-term exposure to methoxychlor and fenvalerate decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal death via overactivation of GluR2-lacking AMPA and NMDA receptors.

  6. Delivery of continuously-varying stimuli using ChR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana eTchumatchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study sensory processing, stimuli are delivered to the sensory organs of animals and evoked neural activity is recorded downstream. However, noise and uncontrolled modulatory input can interfere with repeatable delivery of sensory stimuli to higher brain regions. Here we show how channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 can be used to deliver continuous time-varying currents to neurons at any point along the sensory-motor pathway. To do this, we first deduce the frequency response function of ChR2 using a Markov model of channel kinetics. We confirm ChR2's frequency response characteristics using continuously-varying optical stimulation of neurons that express one of three ChR2 variants. We find that wild-type ChR2 and the E123T/H134R mutant (`CheTA' can pass continuously-varying stimuli with frequencies up to 70 Hz. Additionally, we find that wild-type ChR2 exhibits a strong resonance at 6-10 Hz. Together, these results indicate that ChR2-derived optogenetic tools are useful for delivering highly repeatable artificial stimuli that mimic in-vivo synaptic bombardment.

  7. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  8. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 administration study guide exam 70-411

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    Complete exam coverage, hands-on practice, and interactive studytools for the MCSA: Administering Windows Server 2012 R2 exam70-411 MCSA: Windows Server 2012 R2 Administration Study Guide: Exam70-411 provides comprehensive preparation for exam 70-411:Administering Windows Server 2012 R2. With full coverage of allexam domains, this guide contains everything you need to know to befully prepared on test day. Real-world scenarios illustrate thepractical applications of the lessons, and hands-on exercises allowyou to test yourself against everyday tasks. You get access to aninteractive practice te

  9. Improved dechlorinating performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors by incorporation of Dehalospirillum multivorans into granular sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörber, Christine; Christiansen, Nina; Arvin, Erik

    1998-01-01

    .5 mM acetate and were operated under sterile conditions. In the test reactor, an average of 93% (mole/mole) of the effluent chloroethenes was dichloroethene (DCE), compared to 99% (mole/mole) in the Ri reactor. The R2 reactor, with no inoculation, produced only trichloroethene (TCE), averaging 43......% (mole/mole) of the effluent chloroethenes. No dechlorination of PCE was observed in an abiotic control consisting of sterile granules without inoculum, During continuous operation with stepwise-reduced hydraulic retention times (HRTs), both the test reactor and the R1 reactor showed conversion of PCE...

  10. Attrition reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  11. Secondary structure models of the 3′ untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSCHAK, AMY M.; MATHEWS, DAVID H.; BIBILLO, ARKADIUSZ; SPINELLI, SHERRY L.; CHILDS, JESSICA L.; EICKBUSH, THOMAS H.; TURNER, DOUGLAS H.

    2004-01-01

    The RNA structure of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the R2 retrotransposable element is recognized by the R2-encoded reverse transcriptase in a reaction called target primed reverse transcription (TPRT). To provide insight into structure–function relationships important for TPRT, we have created alignments that reveal the secondary structure for 22 Drosophila and five silkmoth 3′ UTR R2 sequences. In addition, free energy minimization has been used to predict the secondary structure for the 3′ UTR R2 RNA of Forficula auricularia. The predicted structures for Bombyx mori and F. auricularia are consistent with chemical modification data obtained with β-ethoxy-α-ketobutyraldehyde (kethoxal), dimethyl sulfate, and 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate. The structures appear to have common helices that are likely important for function. PMID:15146081

  12. R2R - software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinberg Zasha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. Results We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. Conclusions R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file.

  13. On the limit cycle for the 1/r^2 potential in momentum space

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H. -W.; Swingle, Brian G.

    2005-01-01

    The renormalization of the attractive 1/r^2 potential has recently been studied using a variety of regulators. In particular, it was shown that renormalization with a square well in position space allows multiple solutions for the depth of the square well, including, but not requiring a renormalization group limit cycle. Here, we consider the renormalization of the 1/r^2 potential in momentum space. We regulate the problem with a momentum cutoff and absorb the cutoff dependence using a moment...

  14. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  15. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  16. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  17. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  18. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark A; Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E; Greenstein, Joseph L; Lederer, W J; Winslow, Raimond L

    2015-11-01

    In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2). Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1) of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  19. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2. Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1 of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  20. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  1. Supersymmetric R2 actions, conformal invariance and the Lorentz Chern-Simons term in 6 and 10 dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Salam, Abdus; Sezgin, E.

    1987-01-01

    We consider the superconformal extension of R2 actions in 6 and 10 dimensions. We show that the fields of the conformal multiplet alone admit a one parameter family of R2 actions of the form φ[R2µνab + α(R2µνab - 4R2µa + R2)]. In d=6 we give the supersymmetric action for α = 0, while for α

  2. RyR2 modulates a Ca2+-activated K+ current in mouse cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hui Mu

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs binds to and activates RyR2 channels, resulting in subsequent Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and cardiac contraction. Previous research has documented the molecular coupling of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels to VDCCs in mouse cardiac muscle. Little is known regarding the role of RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release in the SK channels in cardiac muscle. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we observed that a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK,Ca recorded from isolated adult C57B/L mouse atrial myocytes was significantly decreased by ryanodine, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2, or by the co-application of ryanodine and thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. The activation of RyR2 by caffeine increased the IK,Ca in the cardiac cells (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. We further analyzed the effect of RyR2 knockdown on IK,Ca and Ca2+ in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes using a whole-cell patch clamp technique and confocal imaging. RyR2 knockdown in mouse atrial cells transduced with lentivirus-mediated small hairpin interference RNA (shRNA exhibited a significant decrease in IK,Ca (p<0.05 and [Ca2+]i fluorescence intensity (p<0.01. An immunoprecipitated complex of SK2 and RyR2 was identified in native cardiac tissue by co-immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings indicate that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release is responsible for the activation and modulation of SK channels in cardiac myocytes.

  3. TNF-R2 expression in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma Expressão do TNF-R2 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faller Vitale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquired middle ear cholesteatoma is a disease which promotes bone erosion resulting in potentially serious complications. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is present in cholesteatoma and it is related to bone erosion, as shown by different authors. To understand the aggressiveness characteristics of cholesteatoma is necessary, however, to better address the presence and distribution of their receptors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of type 2 TNF-α receptor (TNF-R2 in fragments of cholesteatoma and correlate it to the degree of inflammation present. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational cross-sectional study, which analyzed 33 fragments of cholesteatomas through histological analysis and immunohistochemistry (using as primary antibody to TNF-R2 LabVision® brand. The evaluation was performed by means of a qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement with the observed intensity. For statistical analysis we used the Fisher exact test and Spearman´s correlation coefficient (considered statistically significant when p O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média promove erosão óssea, ocasionando complicações potencialmente graves. O fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α está presente no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média e relaciona-se com a erosão óssea, como demonstraram diferentes autores. Para que se compreenda as características de agressividade do colesteatoma, é necessário que se estude a presença e a distribuição seus receptores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão do receptor tipo dois do TNF-α (TNF-R2 em fragmentos de colesteatoma e relacioná-lo com o grau de inflamação. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal. Foram analisados 33 fragmentos de colesteatomas, submetidos à análise histológica e imunoistoquímica (utilizando o TNF-R2 da marca Labvision®. A avaliação foi realizada de forma qualitativa e semiquantitativa, de acordo com a intensidade observada. Para a análise estat

  4. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  5. Occurrence of exact R 2 inflation in non-local UV-complete gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Alexey S.; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    The R + R 2, shortly named " R 2" ("Starobinsky") inflationary model, represents a fully consistent example of a one-parameter inflationary scenario. This model has a "graceful exit" from inflation and provides a mechanism for subsequent creation and final thermalization of the standard matter. Moreover, it produces a very good fit of the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. In the present paper we show explicitly that the R 2 inflationary spacetime is an exact solution of a range of weakly non-local (quasi-polynomial) gravitational theories, which provide an ultraviolet completion of the R 2 theory. These theories are ghost-free, super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level, and perturbatively unitary. Their spectrum consists of the graviton and the scalaron that is responsible for driving the inflation. Notably, any further extension of the spectrum leads to propagating ghost degrees of freedom. We are aimed at presenting a detailed construction of such theories in the so called Weyl basis. Further, we give a special account to the cosmological implications of this theory by considering perturbations during inflation. The highlight of the non-local model is the prediction of a modified, in comparison to a local R 2 model, value for the ratio of tensor and scalar power spectra r, depending on the parameters of the theory. The relevant parameters are under control to be successfully confronted with existing observational data. Furthermore, the modified r can surely meet future observational constraints.

  6. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  7. Direct interaction between GluR2 and GAPDH regulates AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over-activation of AMPARs (α−amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors is implicated in excitotoxic neuronal death associated with acute brain insults, such as ischemic stroke. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which AMPARs, especially the calcium-impermeable AMPARs, induce neuronal death remains poorly understood. Here we report the identification of a previously unrecognized molecular pathway involving a direct protein-protein interaction that underlies GluR2-containing AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Agonist stimulation of AMPARs promotes GluR2/GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase complex formation and subsequent internalization. Disruption of GluR2/GAPDH interaction by administration of an interfering peptide prevents AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity and protects against damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, an in vitro model of brain ischemia.

  8. Reducing U2R and R2L category false negative rates with support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maček Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KDD Cup '99 is commonly used dataset for training and testing IDS machine learning algorithms. Some of the major downsides of the dataset are the distribution and the proportions of U2R and R2L instances, which represent the most dangerous attack types, as well as the existence of R2L attack instances identical to normal traffic. This enforces minor category detection complexity and causes problems while building a machine learning model capable of detecting these attacks with sufficiently low false negative rate. This paper presents a new support vector machine based intrusion detection system that classifies unknown data instances according both to the feature values and weight factors that represent importance of features towards the classification. Increased detection rate and significantly decreased false negative rate for U2R and R2L categories, that have a very few instances in the training set, have been empirically proven.

  9. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  10. Statistical mechanics of the $N$-point vortex system with random intensities on $R^2$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Neri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of N -point vortices on $mathbb{R}^2$ is considered under the hypothesis that vortex intensities are independent and identically distributed random variables with respect to a law $P$ supported on $(0,1]$. It is shown that, in the limit as $N$ approaches $infty$, the 1-vortex distribution is a minimizer of the free energy functional and is associated to (some solutions of the following non-linear Poisson Equation:$$ -Delta u(x = C^{-1}int_{(0,1]} rhbox{e}^{-eta ru(x- gamma r|x|^2}P(hbox{d}r, quadforall xin mathbb{R}^2, $$where $displaystyle C = int_{(0,1]}int_{mathbb{R}^2}hbox{e}^{-eta ru(y - gamma r|y|^2}hbox{d} yP(hbox{d}r$

  11. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V Insiders Guide to Microsoft's Hypervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Kelbley, John

    2010-01-01

    Get the inside scoop on Hyper-V for Windows Server 2008 R2. Virtualization is a top priority for thousands of companies all over the world. Written by an author team that is part of the Windows virtualization group at Microsoft, Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V will walk you through Hyper-V essentials so you can get you up to speed and down to business with Hyper-V. Now fully updated for Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, you will find additional content on new features and capabilities such as Live Migration and support for 64 Logical Processors (LP).: Teaches how to manage virtual machines with t

  12. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Automated Magnetic and Gravity Quality Assessment and Data Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J. J.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    With its global capability and diverse array of sensors, the academic research fleet is an integral component of ocean exploration. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program provides a central shore-side gateway for underway data from the U.S. academic research fleet. In addition to ensuring preservation and documentation of routine underway data, R2R is also developing automated quality assessment (QA) tools for a variety of underway data types. Routine post-cruise QA will enable prompt feedback to shipboard operators and to provide the science community with sufficient background information for data analysis. Based on community feedback, R2R will perform data reduction to generate enhanced data products for select data types including gravity and magnetics. In the development of these tools, R2R seeks input from the scientific community, engaging specialists for each data type and requesting feedback from operators and scientists to deliver the most relevant and useful metadata. Development of data acquisition best practices that are being assembled within the community for some data types will also be important components of R2R QA development. Protocols for gravity and magnetics QA will include the development of guidelines for minimal and optimal metadata for each data type that will enable data reduction and optimize data re-use. Metadata including instrument specifications, navigational offsets, and calibration information will be important inputs for both data reduction and QA. Data reduction will include merging these geophysical data types with high-quality R2R-generated navigation data products, cleaning the data and applying instrument corrections. Automated routines that are being developed will then be used to assess data quality, ultimately producing a Quality Assessment Certificate (QAC) that will provide the science community with quality information in an easily accessible and understandable format. We present progress to date and invite

  13. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  14. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  15. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  16. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  17. MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 configuring advanced services study guide exam 70-412

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2015-01-01

    The bestselling MCSA study guide, with expert instruction andhands-on practice MCSA Windows Server 2012 R2 Configuring Advanced ServicesStudy Guide provides focused preparation for exam 70-412 and isfully updated to align with the latest Windows Server 2012 R2objectives. This comprehensive guide covers 100 percent of all examobjective domains, and includes hundreds of practice questions andanswers. You get access to video demonstrations, electronicflashcards, and practice exams, and hands-on exercises based onreal-world scenarios allow you to apply your skills to everydaytasks. Organized by o

  18. Pro EDI in BizTalk Server 2006 R2 electronic document interchange solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beckner, Mark

    2008-01-01

    As business becomes more dependent on working with partners, suppliers, and other organizations in a streamlined way, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is one of the next big waves in connected systems. Microsoft BizTalk Server 2006 R2 offers an efficient, integrated way to deploy EDI solutions, and with the help of this book, readers will see how EDI can be used in their business and how best to get it set up with BizTalk. This book offers insights into the brand-new Biztalk 2006 R2--based EDI functionality, including the far greater flexibility in handling interchange. It gives advice coveri

  19. 三星YP-R2多媒体播放器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    三星YP-R2多媒体播放器提供对MP3HD音乐格式的支持,是全球首款MP3HD播放器,用户还可以通过韩国SK电讯推出的无线音乐服务"MelOn"下载丰富的正版音乐。三星YP-R2外形尺寸为50.9mm×90.9mm×8.6mm,重约52g,提供蓝、

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Fleetwide Standard Underway Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, P. D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project was recently launched with the ambitious goal of documenting “routine underway data” from the US academic research fleet and delivering those data to established national archives. Data distributions will be submitted by 18 operating institutions for 30 vessels, from hundreds of cruises per year. R2R will be responsible for digital data collected with instruments that are part of the ship’s permanent equipment and are routinely operated and recorded by the ship’s technicians. Examples include navigation, multibeam, subbottom, gravimeter, magnetics, ADCP, CTD, meteorology, etc. It is anticipated that most underway data will be promptly and publicly released. However R2R will have the ability to securely embargo any specific datasets identified in advance by the chief scientist, for a proprietary hold period of up to two years as mandated by the NSF 04-004 Division of Ocean Sciences Data and Sample Policy. It is important to note that there are data types that R2R will not address. For example, the chief scientist will continue to be responsible for the documentation and archiving of data from specific instruments brought on board by the scientific party, not part of the ship’s standard equipment. Similarly, data collected with National Facility assets including the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF), Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) and the National Marine Seismic Facility (NMSF) will continue to be submitted to the appropriate archiving facility directly by those facilities, rather than through R2R. Soon after the shipboard data is received by R2R, the entire original distribution will be safely stored in a deep archive for long-term preservation, and a cataloging process will be undertaken to assemble data sets for delivery to National Data Centers, as described more fully in the invited presentation by Robert Arko, “Rolling Deck to Repository: Technical Design - Experiences and

  1. On a nonlinear elliptic problem with critical potential in R2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yaotian; YAO; Yangxin; HEN; Zhihui

    2004-01-01

    Consider the existence of nontrivial solutions of homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a nonlinear elliptic equation with the critical potential in R2. By establishing a weighted inequality with the best constant, determine the critical potential in R2, and study the eigenvalues of Laplace equation with the critical potential. By the Pohozaev identity of a solution with a singular point and the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem, obtain the nonexistence result of solutions with singular points to the nonlinear elliptic equation. Moreover, for the same problem, the existence results of multiple solutions are proved by the mountain pass theorem.

  2. Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 administration beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baransel, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Using real-world examples and hands-on tasks, Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 Administration Beginner's Guide will give you a solid foundation in Oracle Data Guard. It has been designed to teach you everything you need to know to successfully create and operate Data Guard environments with maximum flexibility, compatibility, and effectiveness.If you are an Oracle database administrator who wants to configure and administer Data Guard configurations, then ""Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 Administration Beginner's Guide"" is for you. With a basic understanding of Oracle database administration, you'll be able

  3. Windows Server 2008 R2的活动目录回收站

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Windows Server 2008 R2的活动目录回收站可以让你恢复意外删除的活动目录(AD)对象。而要使用回收站功能,你必须把林功能级别升级到Windows Server 2008 R2而不只是Windows Server 2008,这也就意味着无法在老的域控制器上使用该功能。

  4. A new role for plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors in cell cycle regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleonora Cominelli; Chiara Tonelli

    2009-01-01

    @@ MYB proteins are transcription factors present in all eukaryotes,sharing a common DNA-binding domain that consists of one to three imperfect helix-helix-turn-helix repeats of about 50 amino acids,called RI,R2,and R3 respectively [1].In animals and yeast these proteins represent a small gene family [1].Animal R1R2R3-MYB proteins have been described for their role in cell cycle regulation mainly at the G1/S,but also at the G2/M transition,as firstly demonstrated in Drosophila [2].

  5. Microsoft® Office Communications Server 2007 R2 Resource Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Maximo, Rui; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Kamdar, Nirav

    2009-01-01

    In-depth, comprehensive, and fully revised for R2-this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to deploy, manage, and troubleshoot Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2. Get technical insights, scenarios, and best practices from those who know the technology best-the engineers who designed and developed it-along with 90+ Windows PowerShell™ scripts, bonus references, and other essential resources on CD. Get expert advice on how to: Plan server roles, infrastructure, topology, and securityDesign and manage enterprise instant messaging (IM), presence, and conferencing solutio

  6. Irradiation tests of texture controlled cladding for pressurized water reactor in foreign reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukawa, Kazunori [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Abeta, Sadaaki

    1996-12-01

    PWR electric power companies and makers are promoting a high burn-up program for nuclear fuel aiming at reducing spent fuel. PCI tolerance performance of fuel clad is desirable to promote a high burnup program. It is clear that when we change the direction of a Zircaloy crystal structure by improving a manufacture process (texture control), PCI tolerance performance greatly improved. In this study, an improved clad was burnt in a R2 reactor to 61.5 GWd/t and a power ramp test was carried out in Sweden. Based on irradiation data, power ramp test data and post irradiation examination data, improvement of PCI tolerance performance was confirmed. (author)

  7. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  8. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  9. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  10. The construction of R2 actions in D = 4, N = 1 supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de; Wiedemann, A.; Zijlstra, E.

    1990-01-01

    Actions containing R2 terms in d = 4, N = 1 supergravity are constructed in the on-shell and the new minimal formulation of the theory. The basic feature in both cases is an analogy between supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and supergravity. This analogy is also used to construct supersymmetric Loren

  11. Consideration of R2Fe14B layers as targets with polarized electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, JM; van Klinken, J

    1998-01-01

    Thin layers of R2Fe14B magnets (R = rare earth) can be magnetized perpendicularly to their planes and can be used as targets of polarized electrons with polarization of approximate to 4% to facilitate Moller/Bhabha and Compton polarimetry of electrons/positrons and photons, respectively. (C) 1998 El

  12. A note on Lagrangian cobordisms between Legendrian submanifolds of R^{2n+1}

    CERN Document Server

    Golovko, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation of an embedded Lagrangian cobordism between two closed orientable Legendrian submanifolds of R^{2n+1}. More precisely, we invesigate the behavior of the Thurston-Bennequin number and linearized Legendrian contact homology under this relation. The result about the Thurston-Bennequin number can be considered as a generalization of the result of Chantraine which holds when n=1.

  13. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginard, D.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Pilleri, P.; Gerin, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rizzo, J. R.; Kramer, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berne, O.; Joblin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Ultracompact (UC) HII regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G(0) > 10(5) Habing field and n > 10(6) cm(-3)). The UC HII Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemist

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Máximo; Carrasco, Basilio; Salazar, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factors R2R3MYB family have been associated with the control of secondary metabolites, development of structures, cold tolerance and response to biotic and abiotic stress, among others. In recent years, genomes of Rosaceae botanical family are available. Although this information has been used to study the karyotype evolution of these species from an ancestral genome, there are no studies that treat the evolution and diversity of gene families present in these species or in the botanical family. Here we present the first comparative study of the R2R3MYB subfamily of transcription factors in three species of Rosaceae family (Malus domestica, Prunus persica and Fragaria vesca). We described 186, 98 and 86 non-redundant gene models for apple, peach and strawberry, respectively. In this research, we analyzed the intron-exon structure and genomic distribution of R2R3MYB families mentioned above. The phylogenetic comparisons revealed putative functions of some R2R3MYB transcription factors. This analysis found 44 functional subgroups, seven of which were unique for Rosaceae. In addition, our results showed a highly collinearity among some genes revealing the existence of conserved gene models between the three species studied. Although some gene models in these species have been validated under several approaches, more research in the Rosaceae family is necessary to determine gene expression patterns in specific tissues and development stages to facilitate understanding of the regulatory and biochemical mechanism in this botanical family.

  15. Instant migration from Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2 to 2012 how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Sivarajan, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Presented in a hands-on reference manual style, with real-world scenarios to lead you through each process. This book is intended for Windows server administrators who are performing migrations from their existing Windows Server 2008 / 2008 R2 environment to Windows Server 2012. The reader must be familiar with Windows Server 2008.

  16. Consideration of R2Fe14B layers as targets with polarized electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, JM; van Klinken, J

    1998-01-01

    Thin layers of R2Fe14B magnets (R = rare earth) can be magnetized perpendicularly to their planes and can be used as targets of polarized electrons with polarization of approximate to 4% to facilitate Moller/Bhabha and Compton polarimetry of electrons/positrons and photons, respectively. (C) 1998 El

  17. On Local Smooth Solutions for the Vlasov Equation with the Potential of Interactions {\\pm} r^{-2}

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, P E

    2003-01-01

    For the initial value problem for the Vlasov equation with the potential of interactions {\\pm} r^{-2} we prove the existence and uniqueness of a local solution with values in the Schwartz space S of infinitely differentiable functions rapidly decaying at infinity.

  18. Chiral recognition in electron scattering by S- and R-2-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Field, David

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described involving the low energy scattering of electrons from the two optical enantiomers S- and R- 2-butanol. Using a synchrotron radiation photoionization source on the ASTRID storage ring, scattering spectra are reported between a few meV and 140 meV at an electron energy...

  19. B(A)CKLUND TRANSFORMATION ON SURFACES WITH CONSTANT MEAN CURVATURE IN R2'1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田畴; 周扣华; 田涌波

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,the authors obtain the Backlund transformation on time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature in R2,1.Using this transformation,families of surfaces with constant mean curvature from known ones can be constructed.

  20. Examples of stationary BPS solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with $R^{2}$-interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lópes-Cardoso, G; Käppeli, J; Mohaupt, T

    2001-01-01

    We discuss explicit examples of BPS solutions in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with R^2-interactions. We demonstrate how to construct solutions by iteration. Generically, the presence of higher-curvature interactions leads to non-static spacetime line elements. We comment on the existence of horizons for multi-centered solutions.

  1. Consideration of R2Fe14B layers as targets with polarized electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, JM; van Klinken, J

    Thin layers of R2Fe14B magnets (R = rare earth) can be magnetized perpendicularly to their planes and can be used as targets of polarized electrons with polarization of approximate to 4% to facilitate Moller/Bhabha and Compton polarimetry of electrons/positrons and photons, respectively. (C) 1998

  2. Occurrence of exact $R^2$ inflation in non-local UV-complete gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Koshelev, Alexey S; Rachwal, Leslaw; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    The $R+R^2$, shortly named "$R^2$" ("Starobinsky") inflationary model, represents a fully consistent example of a one-parameter inflationary scenario. This model has a "graceful exit" from inflation and provides a mechanism for subsequent creation and final thermalization of the standard matter. Moreover, it produces a very good fit of the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. In the present paper we show explicitly that the $R^2$ inflationary spacetime is an exact solution of a range of weakly non-local (quasi-polynomial) gravitational theories, which provide an ultraviolet completion of the $R^2$ theory. These theories are ghost-free, super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level, and perturbatively unitary. Their spectrum consists of the graviton and the scalaron that is responsible for driving the inflation. Notably, any further extension of the spectrum leads to propagating ghost degrees of freedom. We are aimed at presenting a detailed construction of such theories in the so called Weyl basis...

  3. Beware of R2: simple, unambiguous assessment of the prediction accuracy of QSAR and QSPR models

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D. L. J.; Tropsha, A; Winkler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical metrics used to characterize the external predictivity of a model, i.e., how well it predicts the properties of an independent test set, have proliferated over the past decade. This paper clarifies some apparent confusion over the use of the coefficient of determination, R2, as a measure of model fit and predictive power in QSAR and QSPR modelling.

  4. Kinematics of the ionized-to-neutral interfaces in Monoceros R2

    CERN Document Server

    Pilleri, P; Gerin, M; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R; Ossenkopf, V; Joblin, C; González-García, M; Treviño-Morales, S P; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Pety, J; Berné, O; Kramer, C

    2013-01-01

    Context. Monoceros R2 (Mon R2), at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultra-compact H ii region (UC H ii) where its associated photon-dominated region (PDR) can be resolved with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims. Our aim is to investigate observationally the kinematical patterns in the interface regions (i.e., the transition from atomic to molecular gas) associated with Mon R2. Methods. We used the HIFI instrument onboard Herschel to observe the line profiles of the reactive ions CH+, OH+ and H2O+ toward different positions in Mon R2. We derive the column density of these molecules and compare them with gas-phase chemistry models. Results. The reactive ion CH+ is detected both in emission (at central and red-shifted velocities) and in absorption (at blue-shifted velocities). OH+ is detected in absorption at both blue- and red-shifted velocities, with similar column densities. H2O+ is not detected at any of the positions, down to a rms of 40 mK toward the molecular peak. At this position, we find that the OH...

  5. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  6. Voltage-dependent modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2 by protamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula L Diaz-Sylvester

    Full Text Available It has been reported that protamine (>10 microg/ml blocks single skeletal RyR1 channels and inhibits RyR1-mediated Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum microsomes. We extended these studies to cardiac RyR2 reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. We found that protamine (0.02-20 microg/ml added to the cytosolic surface of fully activated RyR2 affected channel activity in a voltage-dependent manner. At membrane voltage (V(m; SR lumen-cytosol = 0 mV, protamine induced conductance transitions to several intermediate states (substates as well as full block of RyR2. At V(m>10 mV, the substate with the highest level of conductance was predominant. Increasing V(m from 0 to +80 mV, decreased the number of transitions and residence of the channel in this substate. The drop in current amplitude (full opening to substate had the same magnitude at 0 and +80 mV despite the approximately 3-fold increase in amplitude of the full opening. This is more similar to rectification of channel conductance induced by other polycations than to the action of selective conductance modifiers (ryanoids, imperatoxin. A distinctive effect of protamine (which might be shared with polylysines and histones but not with non-peptidic polycations is the activation of RyR2 in the presence of nanomolar cytosolic Ca2+ and millimolar Mg2+ levels. Our results suggest that RyRs would be subject to dual modulation (activation and block by polycationic domains of neighboring proteins via electrostatic interactions. Understanding these interactions could be important as such anomalies may be associated with the increased RyR2-mediated Ca2+ leak observed in cardiac diseases.

  7. Cytotoxicity of platinum(IV) and platinum(II) complexes containing 1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine as a ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Hirose, J; Noji, M; Saito, R; Tomida, H; Kidani, Y

    1993-10-01

    Several Pt(IV) and Pt(II) complexes containing 1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine (1R,2R-dach) as a carrier ligand were synthesized. The cytotoxicities and the uptake of the platinum complexes by leukemia L1210 cells were compared in order to study the correlation between their structures and cytotoxicities. [Pt(II)Cl2(1R,2R-dach)], [(Pt(II)(oxalato)(1R,2R-dach)], and [Pt(II)(malonato)(1R,2R-dach)], which have excellent anticancer properties, exhibited very high cytotoxicities and were easily taken up by leukemia L1210 cells. [Pt(IV)Cl4(1R,2R-dach)], trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2(oxalato)(1R,2R-dach)], and trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2(malonato)(1R,2R-dach)] also had high cytotoxicities. After a short incubation time, the uptake of [Pt(II)Cl2(1R,2R-dach)], [Pt(II)(oxalato)(1R,2R-dach)], and [Pt(II)(malonato)(1R,2R-dach)] by leukemia L1210 cells were respectively very similar to those of [Pt(IV)Cl4(1R,2R-dach)], trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2(oxalato)(1R,2R-dach)], and trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2(malonato)(1R,2R-dach)]. In addition, trans(OH)-[Pt(IV)(OH)2Y2(1R,2R-dach)] (Y2: oxalato or malonato) did not exhibit cytotoxicity towards leukemia L1210 cells, whereas trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2Y2(1R,2R-dach)] (Y2: oxalato or malonato) were highly cytotoxic. The accumulation of trans(OH)-[Pt(IV)(OH)2Y2(1R,2R-dach)] in leukemia L1210 cells was much lower than that of trans(Cl)-[Pt(IV)Cl2Y2(1R,2R-dach)]. Platinum(IV) complexes, in which leaving groups are replaced by hydroxide groups, have decreased cytotoxic activity, because the hydroxide groups of the platinum(IV) complex reduce the uptake of platinum by the cells. trans(OH),cis(Cl)-[Pt(IV)(OH)2Cl2(1R,2R-dach)], which has hydroxide and chloride groups, was easily incorporated into the cells and exhibited the high cytotoxic activity. This behavior indicates that the chloride group apparently overcomes the ameliorating effect of the hydroxide group.

  8. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  9. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  10. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  11. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  12. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  13. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  14. Effect of tryptone and ammonia on the biogas process in continuously stirred tank reactors treating cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Bjerg; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    . Three days after the pulses a second peak in acetate concentration and a decrease in methane production indicated an ammonia-inhibition of the acetoclastic methanogens. During the pulses of tryptone the performance of R1 was slightly more affected than R2. Pulses of ammonia (0.79 g l(-1) as N) resulted...... in a decrease in methane production of both reactors but no immediate increases in VFA concentrations was observed illustrating that the ammonia inhibition during this experiment was an overall inhibition of the biogas process and not only an inhibition of the methanogens.......Two themophilic continuously stirred tank reactors, R1 and Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors, R1 and R2, were subject to pulses of tryptone and ammonia. R1 was operated at an ammonia-N concentration of 3.0 g l(-1) and R2 was operated at an ammonia-N concentration of 1.7 g l(-1...

  15. The Wide Distribution and Change of Target Specificity of R2 Non-LTR Retrotransposons in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3′ UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms. PMID:27662593

  16. Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields.

  17. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    in Mitochondria and ER membranes! Cell Death ER# Bax! Bax! Bax! Mitochondria ! IFNγR 2! IFNγR1! IFNγ" Jak! STA T! Gene Expression! (IFNγ Response...planned to determine what kind of cell type(s) in prostate cancer tissue expresses IFNγR2 by performing immunohistochemistry. Another important...proposed experiment is to determine whether IFNγR2 expression profile (expression levels and expression type (cytosol or membrane expression, or cell type

  18. 平面停止域族{FTzz R2+} 满足条件F1-- F4%Families of Stopping--fields {FTZZ} R2+ on Plane .1inSatisfy F1--F4 Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新全

    2000-01-01

    This paper first presents families ofstopping --fields on plane and proves that families of stopping--fields FTZZ R2+ satisfy F1--F4 conditions.%本文首次提出平面停止域族FTZ Z R2+,证明了停止域族F2T2 R+2满足F1--F4条件.

  19. Exchange Server2010只能安装在Windows Server2008R2上,这是真的吗?Windows Server2008R2支持Exchange Server2007P~?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Windows Server 2008 SP2 64位版本和Windows Server 2008 R2都支持Exchange Server2010。Windows Server 2008 R2不支持Exchange Server2007和Exchange Server 2007 SP1。Windows Server 2008 R2预计也不会增加对Exchange Server 2007 SP2的支持。

  20. On the limit cycle for the 1/r^2 potential in momentum space

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, H W; Swingle, Brian G.

    2006-01-01

    The renormalization of the attractive 1/r^2 potential has recently been studied using a variety of regulators. In particular, it was shown that renormalization with a square well in position space allows multiple solutions for the depth of the square well, including, but not requiring a renormalization group limit cycle. Here, we consider the renormalization of the 1/r^2 potential in momentum space. We regulate the problem with a momentum cutoff and absorb the cutoff dependence using a momentum-independent counterterm potential. The strength of this counterterm is uniquely determined and runs on a limit cycle. We also calculate the bound state spectrum and scattering observables, emphasizing the manifestation of the limit cycle in these observables.

  1. R2 Correction and Its Implication of Present Cosmic Accelerating Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Jian-Jun

    2004-01-01

    In this work we show an R + αR2 model of the universe in which certain quadratic correction is considered. Our results indicate that the R2 term can act as the present impetus of cosmic acceleration, but there may be a future collapsing universe with this component damped. This model can also tolerate a negative cosmological constant A,although there seems to be no need for a non-vanishing one. In our simplification, this curvature component has a stationary equation of state, which is similar to radiation. Unlike other dark energy models, this "missing" energy has a negative density. Some details and effects on cold dark matter and A-relevant model have been discussed in the frame of curvature-squared gravity theories.

  2. On Supersymmetric Geometric Flows and $\\mathcal{R}^2$ Inflation From Scale Invariant Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Models of geometric flows pertaining to $\\mathcal{R}^2$ scale invariant (super) gravity theories coupled to conformally invariant matter fields are investigated. Related to this work are supersymmetric scalar manifolds that are isomorphic to the K\\"{a}hlerian spaces $\\mathcal{M}_n=SU(1,1+k)/U(1)\\times SU(1+k)$ as generalizations of the non-supersymmetric analogs with $SO(1,1+k)/SO(1+k)$ manifolds. For curved superspaces with geometric evolution of physical objects, a complete supersymmetric theory has to be elaborated on nonholonomic (super) manifolds and bundles determined by non-integrable superdistributions with additional constraints on (super) field dynamics and geometric evolution equations. We also consider generalizations of Perelman's functionals using such nonholonomic variables which result in the decoupling of geometric flow equations and Ricci soliton equations with supergravity modifications of the $R^2$ gravity theory. As such, it is possible to construct exact non-homogeneous and locally aniso...

  3. 浅析Windows Server 2008 R2新增功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢印海

    2012-01-01

    Windows Server 2008R2用于在虚拟化工作负载、支持应用程序和保护网络方面向组织提供最高效的平台。它为开发和可靠地承载Web应用程序和服务提供了一个安全,易于管理的平台。从工作组到数据中心,Windows Server 2008R2都提供了令人兴奋且很有价值的新功能,对基本操作系统做出了重大改进

  4. 4-bit digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder and binary weighted resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosanto, J.; Batac, M. L.; Pereda, K. J.; Caldo, R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of a 4-bit digital-to-analog converter using two methods; Binary Weighted Resistors and R-2R Ladder is designed and presented in this paper. The main components that were used in constructing both circuits were different resistor values, operational amplifier (LM741) and single pole double throw switches. Both circuits were designed using MULTISIM software to be able to test the circuit for its ideal application and FRITZING software for the layout designing and fabrication to the printed circuit board. The implementation of both systems in an actual circuit benefits in determining and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. It was realized that the binary weighted circuit is more efficient DAC, having lower percentage error of 0.267% compared to R-2R ladder circuit which has a minimum of percentage error of 4.16%.

  5. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    inhibitor of Bax. Bax is a key mediator of apoptosis. We found that IFNγR2 is overexpressed in prostate cancer, and we hypothesize that abnormally high...We found that IFNγR2 levels are abnormally elevated in prostate cancer cell lines. Short hairpin (sh) RNA- mediated knockdown of IFNγR2 was able to... enhances Bax activation. (Months 1-24) Task 2: To identify the subtype of prostate cancer that can be effectively treated by IFNγR2-targeting

  7. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  8. Universal correlations in random matrices quantum chaos, the $1\\/r^2$ integrable model, and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, S

    1996-01-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) provides a common mathematical formulation of distinct physical questions in three different areas: quantum chaos, the 1-d integrable model with the $1/r^2$ interaction (the Calogero-Sutherland-Moser system), and 2-d quantum gravity. We review the connection of RMT with these areas. We also discuss the method of loop equations for determining correlation functions in RMT, and smoothed global eigenvalue correlators in the 2-matrix model for gaussian orthogonal, unitary and symplectic ensembles.

  9. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  11. The Renormalization Group Limit Cycle for the 1/r^2 Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, E; Braaten, Eric; Phillips, Demian

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that if an attractive 1/r^2 potential is regularized at short distances by a spherical square-well potential, renormalization allows multiple solutions for the depth of the square well. The depth can be chosen to be a continuous function of the short-distance cutoff R, but it can also be a log-periodic function of R with finite discontinuities, corresponding to a renormalization group (RG) limit cycle. We consider the regularization with a delta-shell potential. In this case, the coupling constant is uniquely determined to be a log-periodic function of R with infinite discontinuities, and an RG limit cycle is unavoidable. In general, a regularization with an RG limit cycle is selected as the correct renormalization of the 1/r^2 potential by the conditions that the cutoff radius R can be made arbitrarily small and that physical observables are reproduced accurately at all energies much less than hbar^2/mR^2.

  12. Antifungal potential of Bacillus vallismortis R2 against different phytopathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, P.K.; Kaur, J.; Saini, H.S.

    2015-07-01

    The cash crops grown in an agro-climatic region are prone to infection by various fungal pathogens. The use of chemical fungicides over the years has resulted in emergence of resistant fungal strains, thereby necessitating the development of effective and environmental friendly alternatives. The natural antagonistic interactions among different microbial populations have been exploited as an eco-friendly approach for controlling fungal pathogens resistant to synthetic chemicals. Morphologically distinct bacterial cultures (150), isolated from rhizospheric soils of wheat, rice, onion and tomato plants were screened for their antifungal potential against seven phytopathogenic fungi prevalent in the State of Punjab (India). The bacterial isolate R2, identified as Bacillus vallismortis, supported more than 50% inhibition of different phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum sp, Helminthosporium sp and Magnaporthe grisea) in dual culture plate assay. The thin layer chromatography based bio-autography of acid-precipitated biomolecules (APB) indicated the presence of more than one type of antifungal molecule, as evidenced from zones of inhibition against the respective fungal pathogen. The initial analytical studies indicated the presence of surfactin, iturin A and fengycin-like compounds in APB. The antifungal activity of whole cells and APB of isolate R2 was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The wheat grains treated with APB and exposed to spores of A. alternata showed resistance to the development of black point disease, thereby indicating the potential application of R2 and its biomolecules at field scale level. (Author)

  13. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  14. R2MLwiN: A Package to Run MLwiN from within R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available R2MLwiN is a new package designed to run the multilevel modeling software program MLwiN from within the R environment. It allows for a large range of models to be specified which take account of a multilevel structure, including continuous, binary, proportion, count, ordinal and nominal responses for data structures which are nested, cross-classified and/or exhibit multiple membership. Estimation is available via iterative generalized least squares (IGLS, which yields maximum likelihood estimates, and also via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC estimation for Bayesian inference. As well as employing MLwiN's own MCMC engine, users can request that MLwiN write BUGS model, data and initial values statements for use with WinBUGS or OpenBUGS (which R2MLwiN automatically calls via rbugs, employing IGLS starting values from MLwiN. Users can also take advantage of MLwiN's graphical user interface: for example to specify models and inspect plots via its interactive equations and graphics windows. R2MLwiN is supported by a large number of examples, reproducing all the analyses conducted in MLwiN's IGLS and MCMC manuals.

  15. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  16. Antifungal potential of Bacillus vallismortis R2 against different phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet K. Kaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cash crops grown in an agro-climatic region are prone to infection by various fungal pathogens. The use of chemical fungicides over the years has resulted in emergence of resistant fungal strains, thereby necessitating the development of effective and environmental friendly alternatives. The natural antagonistic interactions among different microbial populations have been exploited as an eco-friendly approach for controlling fungal pathogens resistant to synthetic chemicals. Morphologically distinct bacterial cultures (150, isolated from rhizospheric soils of wheat, rice, onion and tomato plants were screened for their antifungal potential against seven phytopathogenic fungi prevalent in the State of Punjab (India. The bacterial isolate R2, identified as Bacillus vallismortis, supported more than 50% inhibition of different phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum sp, Helminthosporium sp and Magnaporthe griseain dual culture plate assay. The thin layer chromatography based bio-autography of acid-precipitated biomolecules (APB indicated the presence of more than one type of antifungal molecule, as evidenced from zones of inhibition against the respective fungal pathogen. The initial analytical studies indicated the presence of surfactin, iturin A and fengycin-like compounds in APB. The antifungal activity of whole cells and APB of isolate R2 was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The wheat grains treated with APB and exposed to spores of A. alternata showed resistance to the development of black point disease, thereby indicating the potential application of R2 and its biomolecules at field scale level.

  17. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  18. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  19. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building the Data Pipeline - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Rioux, M. A.; McGovern, T. M.; Deering, T. W.; Hagg, R. K.; Payne, A. A.; Fischman, D. E.; Ferrini, V.

    2009-12-01

    The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project is working with U.S. academic research vessel operators to ensure the documentation and preservation of data from routine “underway” (meteorological, geophysical, and oceanographic) sensor systems. A standard pipeline is being developed in which data are submitted by vessel operators directly to a central repository; inventoried in an integrated fleet-wide catalog; organized into discrete data sets with persistent unique identifiers; associated with essential cruise-level metadata; and delivered to the National Data Centers for archiving and dissemination. Several vessels including Atlantis, Healy, Hugh R. Sharp, Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa, Kilo Moana, Knorr, Marcus G. Langseth, Melville, Oceanus, Roger Revelle, and Thomas G. Thompson began submitting data and documentation to R2R during the project’s pilot phase, and a repository infrastructure has been established. Cruise metadata, track maps, and data inventories are published at the R2R Web portal, with controlled vocabularies drawn from community standards (e.g. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) ship codes). A direct connection has been established to the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Ship Time Request and Scheduling System (STRS) via Web services to synchronize port codes and cruise schedules. A secure portal is being developed where operators may login to upload sailing orders, review data inventories, and create vessel profiles. R2R has established a standard procedure for submission of data to the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) that incorporates persistent unique identifiers for cruises, data sets, and individual files, using multibeam data as a test bed. Once proprietary holds are cleared and a data set is delivered to NGDC, the R2R catalog record is updated with the URL for direct download and it becomes immediately available to integration and synthesis projects such as the NSF

  1. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  2. Synaptic AMPA receptor subunit trafficking is independent of the C terminus in the GluR2-lacking mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Sandip; Brown, Keith; Nicoll, Roger A

    2008-01-22

    Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) type glutamate receptors mediate most fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors are tetrameric assemblies composed from four possible subunits (GluR1-4). In hippocampal pyramidal cells, AMPA receptors are heteromeric receptors containing the GluR2 subunit and either GluR1 or GluR3. It is generally accepted that the trafficking of GluR1/GluR2 receptors to synapses requires activity, whereas GluR2/GluR3 receptors traffic constitutively. It has been suggested that the trafficking is governed by the cytoplasmic C termini of the subunits. Because the basis for this theory relied on the introduction of unnatural, homomeric, calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, we have used the GluR2(-/-) knock out mouse to determine whether the expression of mutated forms of GluR2 can rescue WT synaptic responses. We find that GluR2, lacking its entire C terminus, or a GluR2 chimera containing the C terminus of GluR1, is capable of trafficking to the synapse in the absence of activity. These findings suggest that the GluR2 C terminus is not required for GluR2 synaptic insertion.

  3. Development of a simple measurement method for GluR2 protein expression as an index of neuronal vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Sugiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro estimating strategies for potential neurotoxicity are required to screen multiple substances. In a previous study, we showed that exposure to low-concentrations of some chemicals, such as organotin, decreased the expression of GluR2 protein, which is a subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA-type glutamate receptors, and led to neuronal vulnerability. This result suggested that GluR2 decreases as an index of neuronal cell sensitivity and vulnerability to various toxic insults. Accordingly, we developed a versatile method that is a large scale determination of GluR2 protein expression in the presence of environmental chemicals by means of AlphaLISA technology. Various analytical conditions were optimized, and then GluR2 protein amount was measured by the method using AlphaLISA. The GluR2 amounts were strongly correlated with that of measured by western blotting, which is currently used to determine GluR2 expression. An ideal standard curve could be written with the authentic GluR2 protein from 0 ng to 100 ng. Subsequently, twenty environmental chemicals were screened and nitenpyram was identified as a chemical which lead to decrease in GluR2 protein expression. This assay may provide a tool for detecting neurotoxic chemicals according to decreases in GluR2 protein expression.

  4. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  5. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  6. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  7. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  8. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  9. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  10. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  11. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  12. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Villarino; Alicia Doval

    2011-01-01

    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper ...

  13. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  14. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  15. E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report and E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers; International Council for Harmonisation; Guidances for Industry; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of guidances for industry entitled ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation'' (E2C(R2) guidance) and ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers'' (E2C(R2) Q&A guidance). These guidances were prepared under the auspices of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation. The E2C(R2) draft guidance, issued April 11, 2012, updated and combined two ICH guidances, ``E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (E2C guidance) and ``Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (addendum to the E2C guidance). The E2C(R2) guidance is intended to describe the format, content, and timing of a Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report (PBRER) for an approved drug or biologic, and it finalizes the draft guidance. The E2C(R2) Q&A guidance is a supplementary guidance that is intended to clarify key issues in the E2C(R2) guidance.

  16. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene is alternatively spliced during drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Ma, Jingjing; Chen, Yun; Su, Yachun; Lin, Qingliang; Gao, Shiwu; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2017-01-01

    MYB transcription factors of the R2R3-MYB family have been shown to play important roles in many plant processes. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB gene (ScMYB2) and its two alternative forms of transcript (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2) were identified in this study. The deduced protein of ScMYB2S1 is a typical plant R2R3-MYB protein, while ScMYB2S2 encodes a truncated protein. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that ScMYB2S1 is suppressed under PEG-simulated drought stress in sugarcane, while ScMYB2S2 is induced at later treatment stage. A senescence symptom was observed when ScMYB2S1 was injected into tobacco leaves mediated by Agrobacterium, but no symptom for ScMYB2S2. Further investigation showed that the expression levels of 4 senescence-associated genes, NtPR-1a, NtNYC1, NtCAT3 and NtABRE, were markedly induced in tobacco leaves after ScMYB2S1-injection, while they were not sensitive to ScMYB2S2-injection. Moreover, MDA and proline were also investigated after injection. Similarly, MDA and proline levels were induced by ABA and ScMYB2S1, while inhibited by ScMYB2S2. We propose that ScMYB2, by alternatively splicing two transcripts (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2), is involved in an ABA-mediated leaf senescence signaling pathway and play positive role in respond to drought-induced senescence in sugarcane. The results of this study provide information for further research in sugarcane stress processes. PMID:28167824

  17. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  18. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  19. Quantum gravity corrections to the standard model Higgs in Einstein and $R^2$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Yugo; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate quantum gravity corrections to the standard model Higgs potential $V(\\phi)$ a la Coleman-Weinberg and examine the stability question of $V(\\phi)$ at scales of Planck mass $M_{\\rm Pl}$. We compute the gravity one-loop corrections by using the momentum cut-off in Einstein gravity. The gravity corrections affect the potential in a significant manner for the value of $\\Lambda= (1 - 3)M_{\\rm Pl}.$ In view of reducing the UV cut-off dependence we also make a similar study in the $R^2$ gravity.

  20. Accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in $\\mathcal{R}^2$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Staykov, Kalin V; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S

    2016-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic spectrum of accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in $\\mathcal{R}^2$ gravity. Both static and rapidly rotating models are investigated. The results are compared with the General Relativistic results. We found difference between the results in both theories of about 50\\% for the electromagnetic flux and about 20\\% in the luminosity for models with equal mass and angular velocity in both theories. The observed differences are much lower for models rotating with Kelperian velocity and with equal masses.

  1. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Big Data and Standard Services for the Fleet Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program curates underway environmental sensor data from the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet, ensuring data sets are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. Currently 25 in-service vessels contribute 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a full suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. To accommodate this large volume and variety of data, R2R has developed highly efficient stewardship procedures. These include scripted "break out" of cruise data packages from each vessel based on standard filename and directory patterns; automated harvest of cruise metadata from the UNOLS Office via Web Services and from OpenXML-based forms submitted by vessel operators; scripted quality assessment routines that calculate statistical summaries and standard ratings for selected data types; adoption of community-standard controlled vocabularies for vessel codes, instrument types, etc, provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server, in lieu of maintaining custom local term lists; and a standard package structure based on the IETF BagIt format for delivering data to long-term archives. Documentation and standard post-field products, including quality-controlled shiptrack navigation data for every cruise, are published in multiple services and formats to satisfy a diverse range of clients. These include Catalog Service for Web (CSW), GeoRSS, and OAI-PMH discovery services via a GeoNetwork portal; OGC Web Map and Feature Services for GIS clients; a citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each dataset; ISO 19115-2 standard geospatial metadata records suitable for submission to long-term archives as well as the POGO global catalog; and Linked Open Data resources with a SPARQL query endpoint for Semantic Web clients. R2R participates in initiatives such as the Ocean Data

  2. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass...... produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard...

  3. Optimum Kinematic Design of the 4R 2-DOF Parallel Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fugui; LIU Xinjun; WANG Liping; WANG Jinsong

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the kinematic optimization design of the 4R 2-DOF parallel mechanism taking into account the force transmissibility. Three indices are introduced to reflect the force transmissibility. Based on these indices and their performance charts, the optimization design process with respect to the work-space is presented in detail. The results show that the designed mechanism is not only far from every sin-gularity but also has good force transmissibility in its workspace. These kinematic optimization indices can be extended to other parallel mechanisms.

  4. Recursion Formulae for Obtaining Surfaces with Constant Mean Curvature in R2,1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong-Bo; NAN Zhi-Jie; TIAN Chou

    2007-01-01

    Though the B(a)cklund transformation on time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature surfaces in R2,1 has been obtained,it is not easy to obtain corresponding surfaces because the procedure of solving the related integrable system cannot be avoided when the B(a)cklund transformation is used.For sake of this,in this article,some special work is done to reform the B(a)cklund transformation to a recursion formula,by which we can construct time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature form known ones just by quadrature procedure.

  5. The cumulative influence of hyperoxia and hypercapnia on blood oxygenation and R2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraco, Carlos C; Strother, Megan K; Siero, Jeroen CW; Arteaga, Daniel F; Scott, Allison O; Jordan, Lori C; Donahue, Manus J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood-oxygenation-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) experiments are frequently used in conjunction with hyperoxia. Owing to complex interactions between hyperoxia and hypercapnia, quantitative effects of these gas mixtures on BOLD responses, blood and tissue R2*, and blood oxygenation are incompletely understood. Here we performed BOLD imaging (3 T; TE/TR=35/2,000 ms; spatial resolution=3 × 3 × 3.5 mm3) in healthy volunteers (n=12; age=29±4.1 years) breathing (i) room air (RA), (ii) normocapnic–hyperoxia (95% O2/5% N2, HO), (iii) hypercapnic–normoxia (5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2, HC-NO), and (iv) hypercapnic–hyperoxia (5% CO2/95% O2, HC-HO). For HC-HO, experiments were performed with separate RA and HO baselines to control for changes in O2. T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI was used to calculate basal venous oxygenation. Signal changes were quantified and established hemodynamic models were applied to quantify vasoactive blood oxygenation, blood–water R2*, and tissue–water R2*. In the cortex, fractional BOLD changes (stimulus/baseline) were HO/RA=0.011±0.007; HC-NO/RA=0.014±0.004; HC-HO/HO=0.020±0.008; and HC-HO/RA=0.035±0.010; for the measured basal venous oxygenation level of 0.632, this led to venous blood oxygenation levels of 0.660 (HO), 0.665 (HC-NO), and 0.712 (HC-HO). Interleaving a HC-HO stimulus with HO baseline provided a smaller but significantly elevated BOLD response compared with a HC-NO stimulus. Results provide an outline for how blood oxygenation differs for several gas stimuli and provides quantitative information on how hypercapnic BOLD CVR and R2* are altered during hyperoxia. PMID:26174329

  6. R2R-koneen rainanohjausjärjestelmän kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin Oulun Ammattikorkeakoulu Oy:n Prinlab-osaston painettavan elektroniikan R2R-painokoneen rainanohjausjärjestelmää. Painokoneessa esiintyi materiaalirainan sivuttaissuuntaista siirtymää ja vääntymää, jotka vaikuttivat rainan kelauksen laatuun. Työn tavoitteena oli tuottaa rainanohjausmenetelmistä esiselvitykset ja niiden kustannusarviointi, joita työn tilaaja voi käyttää tulevien projektien arvioinnin tukena. Ongelmaa ratkaistiin haastattelemalla ensin...

  7. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  8. Lagrangian Submanifolds Foliated by (n-1)-spheres in R2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henri ANCIAUX; Ildefonso CASTRO; Pascal ROMON

    2006-01-01

    We study Lagrangian submanifolds foliated by (n-1)-spheres in R2n for n≥3. We give a general parametrization for such submanifolds, and refine that description when the submanifold is special Lagrangian, self-similar, Hamiltonian stationary or has mean curvature vector of constant length. In all these cases, the submanifold is centered, i.e. invariant under the action of SO(n). It suffices then to solve a simple ODE in two variables to describe the geometry of the solutions.

  9. Synthesis of Quinolone Analogues:7-[(2S, 4R)-2-Aminomethyl-4- hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl] Quinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu Yu LIU; Hui Yuan GUO

    2004-01-01

    New quinolone derivatives of 7-[(2S, 4R)-2-aminomethyl-4-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl] quinolone-3-carboxylic acids were synthesized by condensation of 7-halo substituted quinolone-3-carboxylic acids with (2S, 4R)-2-aminomethyl-4-hydroxypyrrolidine. These compounds were characterized by FAB-MS and 1H NMR.

  10. Evaluation of Role 2 (R2) Medical Resources in the Afghanistan Combat Theater: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    doctrine 39 describes R2 (E) MTFs as: small field hospital providing basic secondary health care, built around primary surgery, ICU and nursed beds. It... nurses , other licensed professionals, medics) deployed to the R2 environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...10 Special Reporting Requirements

  11. Practical evaluation of organic polymer thermoelectrics by large-area R2R processing on flexible substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a process based on roll-to-roll (R2R) technology which allows for very fast processing of polymer thermoelectric (TE) devices and we furthermore demonstrate a simplified but more efficient way of serially connecting these devices by means of R2R thin-film processing. The new device...

  12. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2: e0124030

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaewon Shim; Hee Jin Son; Yiseul Kim; Ki Hwa Kim; Jung Tae Kim; Hana Moon; Min Jung Kim; Takumi Misaka; Mee-Ra Rhyu

    2015-01-01

    ...), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides...

  13. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  14. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  15. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  16. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors operated under high salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S B; de La Parra, C J; Temmink, H; van Lier, J B

    2010-03-01

    Considering the importance of stable and well-functioning granular sludge in anaerobic high-rate reactors, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the production and composition of EPS in high sodium concentration wastewaters pertaining to anaerobic granule properties. The UASB reactors were fed with either fully acidified substrate (FAS) consisting of an acetate medium (reactor R1) or partly acidified substrate (PAS) consisting of acetate, gelatine and starch medium (reactors R2, R3, and R4). For EPS extraction, the cation exchange resin (CER) method was used. Strength and particle size distribution were determined by assessing the formation of fines sludge under conditions of high shear rate and by laser diffraction, respectively. Batch tests were performed in 0.25L bottles to study Ca(2+) leaching from anaerobic granular sludge when incubated in 20g Na(+)/L in the absence of feeding for 30 days. Results show a steady increase in the bulk liquid Ca(2+) concentration during the incubation period. UASB reactor results show that the amounts of extracted proteins were higher from reactors R2 and R3, fed with PAS compared to the sludge samples from reactor R1, fed with FAS. Strikingly, the amount of extracted proteins also increased for all reactor sludges, irrespective of the Na(+) concentration applied in the feed, i.e. 10 or 20gNa(+)/L. PAS grown granular sludges showed an important increase in particle size during the operation of the UASB reactors. Results also show that, addition of 1gCa(2+)/L to the high salinity wastewater increases the granules' strength. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  18. Feasibility of noninvasive quantitative measurements of intrarenal R(2) ' in humans using an asymmetric spin echo echo planar imaging sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yudong; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; An, Hongyu; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an asymmetric spin echo (ASE) single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence for the noninvasive quantitative measurement of intrarenal R(2) ' in humans within 20 s. The reproducibility of R(2) ' measurements with the ASE-EPI sequence was assessed in nine healthy young subjects in repeated studies conducted over three consecutive days. Moreover, we also evaluated whether the ASE-EPI sequence-measured R(2) ' reflected the intrarenal oxygenation changes induced by furosemide in another group of normal human subjects (n = 10). Different flow attenuation gradients (b = 0, 40 and 80 s/mm(2) ) were utilized to examine the impact of the intravascular signal contribution on the estimation of intrarenal R(2) '. In the absence of flow dephasing gradients (b = 0 s/mm(2) ), the computed coefficient of variation (CV) of R(2) ' was 21.31 ± 4.52%, and the estimated R(2) ' value decreased slightly, but not statistically significantly (p > 0.05), after the administration of furosemide in the medullary region. However, CV of R(2) ' was much smaller in the presence of flow dephasing gradients (9.68 ± 3.58% with b = 40 s/mm(2) and 10.50 ± 3.62% with b = 80 s/mm(2) ). Moreover, a significant reduction in R(2) ' in the renal medulla was obtained (p R(2) ' measurements did not differ between the b = 40 s/mm(2) and b = 80 s/mm(2) scans, suggesting that small diffusion gradients were sufficient to minimize the intravascular signal contribution. In summary, we have demonstrated that renal R(2) ' can be obtained rapidly using an ASE-EPI sequence. The measurement was highly reproducible and reflected the expected intrarenal oxygenation changes induced by furosemide.

  19. Structural Synthesis of a Class of 2R2T Hybrid Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Chunxu; FANG Yuefa; GUO Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Conventional overconstrained parallel manipulators have been widely studied both in industry and academia, however the structural synthesis of hybrid mechanisms with additional constraints is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) hybrid mechanisms. In order to develop a manipulator with additional constraints, a class of important spatial mechanisms with coupling chains(CCs) whose motion type is two rotations and two translations(2R2T) is presented. Based on screw theory, the combination of different types of limbs which are used to construct parallel mechanisms and coupling chains is proposed. The basic types of the general parallel mechanisms and geometric conditions of the kinematic chains are given using constraint synthesis method. Moreover, the 2R2T motion pattern hybrid mechanisms which are derived by adding coupling chains between different serial kinematic chains(SKCs) of the corresponding parallel mechanisms are presented. According to the constraint analysis of the mechanisms, the movement relationship of the moving platform and the kinematic chains is derived by disassembling the coupling chains. At last, fourteen novel hybrid mechanisms with two or three serial kinematic chains are presented. The proposed novel hybrid mechanisms and construction method enrich the family of the spatial mechanisms and provide an instruction to design more complex hybrid mechanisms.

  20. Dark matter and inflation in R + ζR2 supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2017-03-01

    As is well known, the gravitational degrees of freedom contained in R + ζR2 (super)gravity lead to Starobinsky's potential, in a one-field setting for inflationary Cosmology that appears favored by Planck data. In this letter we discuss another interesting aspect of this model, related to gravitino production, with emphasis on the corresponding mass spectrum. Assuming that supersymmetry is broken at a very high scale, Super Heavy Gravitino Dark Matter (SHGDM) and Starobinsky's inflation can be coherently unified in a R + ζR2 supergravity. Gravitinos are assumed to be the Lightest Supersymmetric Particles (LSP) and are non-thermally produced during inflation, in turn originated by a scalar with a Starobinsky's potential. Gravitino mass runs with the inflaton field, so that a continuous spectrum of superheavy gravitinos emerges. The theory is implemented with a U(1)R gauge symmetry. However, in a string UV completion, U(1)R-symmetry can be broken by non-perturbative string instantons, while for consistency of our scenario U(1)R gauge symmetry breaking must be broken in order to generate a soft mass terms for the gravitino and gauginos. R-parity violating operators can be generated at non-perturbative level. Gravitinos can decay into very energetic neutrinos and photons in cosmological time scale, with intriguing implications for high energy cosmic rays experiments.

  1. Crystallographic superstructure in R2PdSi3 compounds (R=heavy rare earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Frontzek, Matthias; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Leisegang, Tilmann; Zschornak, Matthias; Mietrach, Robert; Hoffmann, Jens-Uwe; Löser, Wolfgang; Gemming, Sibylle; Meyer, Dirk C.; Loewenhaupt, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The R2PdSi3 intermetallic compounds have been reported to crystallize in a hexagonal AlB2-derived structure, with the rare earth atoms on the Al sites and Pd and Si atoms randomly distributed on the B sites. However, the intricate magnetic properties observed in the series of compounds have always suggested complications to the assumed structure. To clarify the situation, x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements were performed on the heavy rare earth compounds with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, which revealed the existence of a crystallographic superstructure. The superstructure features a doubled unit cell in the hexagonal basal plane and an octuplication along the perpendicular c direction with respect to the primitive cell. No structural transition was observed between 300 and 1.5 K. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations were utilized to investigate the local environments of the respective atoms. In this paper the various experimental results will be presented and it will be shown that the superstructure is mainly due to the Pd-Si order on the B sites. A structure model will be proposed to fully describe the superstructure of Pd-Si order in R2PdSi3. The connection between the crystallographic superstructure and the magnetic properties will be discussed in the framework of the presented model.

  2. ARCADE-R2 experiment on board BEXUS 17 stratospheric balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, Marco; Boesso, Alessandro; Branz, Francesco; Carron, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Prendin, Jacopo; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sansone, Francesco; Savioli, Livia; Spinello, Fabio; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ARCADE-R2 experiment, a technology demonstrator that aimed to prove the feasibility of small-scale satellite and/or aircraft systems with automatic (a) attitude determination, (b) control and (c) docking capabilities. The experiment embodies a simplified scenario in which an unmanned vehicle mock-up performs rendezvous and docking operations with a fixed complementary unit. The experiment is composed by a supporting structure, which holds a small vehicle with one translational and one rotational degree of freedom, and its fixed target. The dual system features three main custom subsystems: a relative infrared navigation sensor, an attitude control system based on a reaction wheel and a small-scale docking mechanism. The experiment bus is equipped with pressure and temperature sensors, and wind probes to monitor the external environmental conditions. The experiment flew on board the BEXUS 17 stratospheric balloon on October 10, 2013, where several navigation-control-docking sequences were executed and data on the external pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction were collected, characterizing the atmospheric loads applied to the vehicle. This paper describes the critical components of ARCADE-R2 as well as the main results obtained from the balloon flight.

  3. Structural synthesis of a class of 2R2T hybrid mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunxu; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Conventional overconstrained parallel manipulators have been widely studied both in industry and academia, however the structural synthesis of hybrid mechanisms with additional constraints is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) hybrid mechanisms. In order to develop a manipulator with additional constraints, a class of important spatial mechanisms with coupling chains(CCs) whose motion type is two rotations and two translations(2R2T) is presented. Based on screw theory, the combination of different types of limbs which are used to construct parallel mechanisms and coupling chains is proposed. The basic types of the general parallel mechanisms and geometric conditions of the kinematic chains are given using constraint synthesis method. Moreover, the 2R2T motion pattern hybrid mechanisms which are derived by adding coupling chains between different serial kinematic chains(SKCs) of the corresponding parallel mechanisms are presented. According to the constraint analysis of the mechanisms, the movement relationship of the moving platform and the kinematic chains is derived by disassembling the coupling chains. At last, fourteen novel hybrid mechanisms with two or three serial kinematic chains are presented. The proposed novel hybrid mechanisms and construction method enrich the family of the spatial mechanisms and provide an instruction to design more complex hybrid mechanisms.

  4. The star forming region Monoceros R2 as a gamma-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Josep; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J; Sánchez-Ayaso, Estrella; Munar-Adrover, Pere; Sánchez-Sutil, Juan R; Romero, Gustavo E; Paredes, Josep M; Combi, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Context. After the release of the gamma-ray source catalog produced by the Fermi satellite during its first two years of operation, a significant fraction of sources still remain unassociated at lower energies. In addition to well-known high-energy emitters (pulsars, blazars, supernova remnants, etc.) theoretical expectations predict new classes of gamma-ray sources. In particular, gamma-ray emission could be associated with some of the early phases of stellar evolution, but this interesting possibility is still poorly understood. Aims. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibility of the Fermi gamma-ray source 2FGL J0607.5-0618c being associated with the massive star forming region Monoceros R2. Methods. A multi-wavelength analysis of the Monoceros R2 region is carried out using archival data at radio, infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. The resulting observational properties are used to estimate the physical parameters needed to test the different physical scenarios. Results. We confirm the 2FG...

  5. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  6. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Ginard, D; Fuente, A; Cernicharo, J; Alonso-Albi, T; Pilleri, P; Gerin, M; García-Burillo, S; Ossenkopf, V; Rizzo, J R; Kramer, C; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Joblin, C

    2012-01-01

    Ultracompact (UC) HII regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (Go>10^5 Habing field and n>10^6 cm^-3). The UC HII Mon R2 is the closest one and therefore an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. We carried out a 3mm and 1mm spectral survey using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0",0"); two peaks in the molecular cloud (ii) MP1 at the offset (+15",-15") and (iii) MP2 at the farther offset (0",40"). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. We detected more than thirty different species. We detected SO+ and C4H suggesting that UV radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. We detected the typical PDR molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemis...

  7. The Reactivation of Main-Belt Comet 324P/La Sagra (P/2010 R2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    We present observations using the Baade Magellan and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes showing that main-belt comet 324P/La Sagra, formerly known as P/2010 R2, has become active again for the first time since originally observed to be active in 2010-2011. The object appears point-source-like in March and April 2015 as it approached perihelion (true anomaly of ~300 deg), but was ~1 mag brighter than expected if inactive, suggesting the presence of unresolved dust emission. Activity was confirmed by observations of a cometary dust tail in May and June 2015. We find an apparent net dust production rate of <0.1 kg/s during these observations. 324P is now the fourth main-belt comet confirmed to be recurrently active, a strong indication that its activity is driven by sublimation. It now has the largest confirmed active range of all likely main-belt comets, and also the most distant confirmed inbound activation point at R~2.8 AU. Further observations during the current active period will allow direct comparisons o...

  8. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  9. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  10. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma) Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Accomplished experiments 10 NFkB inhibitor ( Parthenolide ) suppressed IFNγR2 expression To develop technologies targeting IFNγR2, we proposed...inhibitor. Parthenolide is a plant-derived compound which is known to inhibit NFkB activity[9, 10]. In our preliminary study, we found that parthenolide ...line (Fig.12. We found that IFNγR2 expression was suppressed by parthenolide (from 5 uM) within 1 day after the treatment (Fig. 12 shows the result of

  11. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  12. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  13. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  14. Expanding the Chemistry of Actinide Metallocene Bromides. Synthesis, Properties and Molecular Structures of the Tetravalent and Trivalent Uranium Bromide Complexes: (C5Me4R2UBr2, (C5Me4R2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3(Br, and [K(THF][(C5Me4R2UBr2] (R = Me, Et

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G. Lichtscheidl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The organometallic uranium species (C5Me4R2UBr2 (R = Me, Et were obtained by treating their chloride analogues (C5Me4R2UCl2 (R = Me, Et with Me3SiBr. Treatment of (C5Me4R2UCl2 and (C5Me4R2UBr2 (R = Me, Et with K(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3 afforded the halide aryloxide mixed-ligand complexes (C5Me4R2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3(X (R = Me, Et; X = Cl, Br. Complexes (C5Me4R2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3(Br (R = Me, Et can also be synthesized by treating (C5Me4R2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3(Cl (R = Me, Et with Me3SiBr, respectively. Reduction of (C5Me4R2UCl2 and (C5Me4R2UBr2 (R = Me, Et with KC8 led to isolation of uranium(III “ate” species [K(THF][(C5Me52UX2] (X = Cl, Br and [K(THF0.5][(C5Me4Et2UX2] (X = Cl, Br, which can be converted to the neutral complexes (C5Me4R2U[N(SiMe32] (R = Me, Et. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis are also presented.

  15. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  16. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  17. Abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis, atrial arrhythmogenesis and sinus node dysfunction in murine hearts modelling RyR2 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin eZhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RyR2 mutations are implicated in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia thought to result from altered myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis reflecting inappropriate ‘leakiness’ of RyR2-Ca2+ release channels arising from increases in their basal activity, alterations in their phosphorylation, or defective interactions with other molecules or ions. The latter include calstabin, calsequestrin-2, Mg2+, and extraluminal or intraluminal Ca2+. Recent clinical studies additionally associate RyR2 abnormalities with atrial arrhythmias including atrial tachycardia, fibrillation and standstill, and sinus node dysfunction. Some RyR2 mutations associated with CPVT in mouse models also show such arrhythmias that similarly correlate with altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Some examples show evidence for increased Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of RyR2. A homozygotic RyR2-P2328S variant demonstrates potential arrhythmic substrate resulting from reduced conduction velocity in addition to delayed afterdepolarizations and ectopic action potential firing. Finally, one model with an increased RyR2 activity in the sino-atrial node shows decreased automaticity in the presence of Ca2+-dependent decreases in ICa,L and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ depletion.

  18. Facilitating Semantic Interoperability Among Ocean Data Systems: ODIP-R2R Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, K. I.; Chen, Y.; Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Dockery, N.; Elya, J. L.; Smith, S. R.; Ferreira, R.; Fu, L.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    With informatics providing an increasingly important set of tools for geoscientists, it is critical to train the next generation of scientists in information and data techniques. The NSF-supported Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program works with the academic fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. research vessels. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is an EU-US-Australian collaboration fostering interoperability among regional e-infrastructures through workshops and joint prototype development. The need to align terminology between systems is a common challenge across all of the ODIP prototypes. Five R2R students were supported to address aspects of semantic interoperability within ODIP. Developing a vocabulary matching service that links terms from different vocabularies with similar concept. The service implements Google Refine reconciliation service interface such that users can leverage Google Refine application as a friendly user interface while linking different vocabulary terms. Developing Resource Description Framework (RDF) resources that map Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies. Each SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described as an RDF resource page. These RDF resources allow for enhanced discoverability and retrieval of SAMOS data by enabling data searches based on parameter. Improving data retrieval and interoperability by exposing data and mapped vocabularies using Semantic Web technologies. We have collaborated with ODIP participating organizations in order to build a generalized data model that will be used to populate a SPARQL endpoint in order to provide expressive querying over our data files. Mapping local and regional vocabularies used by R2R to those used by ODIP partners. This work is described more fully in a companion poster. Making published Linked Data

  19. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  20. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  1. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  2. Identification of R2TP complex of Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum using genome wide in-silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Moaz; Afrin, Farhat; Tuteja, Renu

    2013-11-01

    Recently discovered R2TP complex is an important multiprotein complex involved in multiple cellular process like snoRNP biogenesis, PIKK signaling, RNA polymerase II assembly and apoptosis. Within R2TP complex, Pih1 tightly interacts with Rvb1/Rvb2 and with Tah1 to form R2TP macromolecular complex. R2TP complex further interacts with Hsp90 to form R2TP-Hsp90 complex, which has been found critical in many cellular process. The genome wide screening of Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum led to the identification of RuvB like1, RuvB like 2, Pih1, and Tah1. Therefore, we speculate that this complex is also important for these parasites as in the yeast. The detailed analysis of crucial components of R2TP complex, Ld-RuvB like 1, and Ld-RuvB like 2, revealed the presence of characteristic motifs like DNA binding motif and ATPase motifs. Hsp90 is also reported from Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum suggesting that the R2TP complex further interacts with Hsp90 to form R2TP-Hsp90 complex. Recently it has been discovered that RuvB like proteins are overexpressed in many cancers and their ATPase activity is crucial for cancer cell proliferation and the human RuvBs have been proposed as suitable drug target for cancer. Similarly one of the Plasmodium falciparum RuvB like protein (PfRuvB3) has been found to be specific to the stage where nuclear division led multiplication of parasite take place. Considering all these it seems that the R2TP complex may be playing some critical role both in the cancer cell proliferation in human and rapid multiplication of the parasites Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum.

  3. The essential role of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit RNA editing in the normal and diseased brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lorraine Wright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AMPA receptors are comprised of different combinations of GluR1-GluR4 (also known as GluA1-GluA4 and GluR-A to GluR-D subunits. The GluR2 subunit is subject to Q/R site RNA editing by the ADAR2 enzyme, which converts a codon for glutamine (Q, present in the GluR2 gene, to a codon for arginine (R found in the mRNA. AMPA receptors are calcium (Ca2+-permeable if they contain the unedited GluR2(Q subunit or if they lack the GluR2 subunit. While most AMPA receptors in the brain contain the edited GluR2(R subunit and are therefore Ca2+-impermeable, recent evidence suggests that Ca2+-permeable GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors are important in synaptic plasticity and learning. However, the presence of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors containing unedited GluR2 leads to excitotoxic cell loss. Recent studies have indicated that RNA editing of GluR2 is deregulated in diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, as well in acute neurodegenerative conditions, such as ischemia. More recently, studies have investigated the regulation of RNA editing and possible causes for its deregulation during disease. In this review, we will explore the role of GluR2 RNA editing in the healthy and diseased brain and outline new insights into the mechanisms that control this process.

  4. Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

    2015-05-01

    (3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

  5. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  6. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Crystalline structure of N-(S)-2-heptyl (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexanecarboxamide that differs from its preferred conformation in the solvent used for crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Kazuaki; Ohtaki, Takashi; Kabuto, Chizuko; Kitahara, Takeshi; Ohrui, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    The crystalline structure of N-(S)-2-heptyl (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexamide (1), which was crystallized from methanol, was determined by an X-ray analysis and had a different conformation from its preferred one in CD3OD by a 1H-NMR analysis. Inter- and intra-molecular CH-pi interaction in a crystal plays a very important role in crystal packing. The preferred conformation of the amide derivative in a solution allows us to exploit (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexanecarbonyl chloride as a conversion reagent to determine the absolute configuration of chiral amines by 1H-NMR.

  8. 一套仿ProAc R2.5的Hi-End级DIY音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈耀明

    2005-01-01

    近20年来,最成功的英国音箱莫过于B&W和ProAc等少数几个品牌的产品,尤其是ProAc(中文译为“贵族”)。它的中档Tablette系列历久不衰,受到许多发烧友追捧,是ProAc最畅销的产品,但代表ProAc最高水平的却是Response系列音箱。该系列音箱面世以来反应热烈,最成功的设计要算Response 2.5(以下简称“R2.5”)中小型落地箱。

  9. The ICH S5(R2) guideline for the testing of medicinal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L David

    2013-01-01

    Relying on previous regulatory guidelines from multiple countries, the ICH S5(R2) guideline outlines the preclinical safety studies needed for registration of new medicinal products in the member countries (European Union, Japan, and the United States). The primary purpose of the guideline is to provide a testing strategy to detect and reveal toxicity to the reproductive system including development of the embryo. There are basically three study designs outlined by the guidance, assessment of fertility in adults, pre- and postnatal development of exposed offspring, and morphological evaluation following exposure during major organogenesis. This chapter discusses the major points addressed in the guidance for each study type, and points to additional references that discuss the practical details for conducting such studies.

  10. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginard, D.; González-García, M.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Pilleri, P.; Gerin, M.; García-Burillo, S.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rizzo, J. R.; Kramer, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berné, O.; Joblin, C.

    2012-07-01

    Context. Ultracompact (UC) Hii regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G0 > 105 Habing field and n > 106 cm-3). The UC Hii Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the chemistry of the molecular gas around UC Hii Mon R2 and the variations caused by the different local physical conditions. Methods: We carried out 3 mm and 1 mm spectral surveys using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0″, 0″), and two peaks in the molecular cloud; (ii) molecular Peak 1 (hereafter MP1) at the offset (+15″, -15″); and (iii) molecular Peak 2 (hereafter MP2) at the farther offset (0″, 40″). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. Results: We detected more than 30 different species (including isotopologues and deuterated compounds). In particular, we detected SO+ and C4H confirming that ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. In agreement with this interpretation, we detected the typical photo-dissociation region (PDR) molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. There are chemical differences between the observed positions. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemistry similar to that found in high UV field and dense PDRs such as the Orion Bar, the MP2 is similar to lower UV/density PDRs such as the Horsehead nebula. Our chemical modeling supports this interpretation. In addition to the PDR-like species, we detected complex molecules such as CH3CN, H2CO, HC3N, CH3OH, and CH3C2H that are not usually found in PDRs. The sulfur compounds CS, HCS+, C2S, H2CS, SO, and SO2 and the deuterated species DCN and C2D were also identified. The origin of these complex species

  11. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David

    2004-12-01

    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  12. Geometric Flows and Perelman's Thermodynamics for Black Ellipsoids in $R^2$ and Einstein Gravity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghiu, Tamara; Vacaru, Olivia; Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2016-01-01

    We study geometric relativistic flow and Ricci soliton equations which (for respective nonholonomic constraints and self-similarity conditions) are equivalent to the gravitational field equations of $R^2$ gravity and/or to the Einstein equations with scalar field in general relativity, GR. Perelman's functionals are generalized for modified gravity theories, MGTs, which allows to formulate an analogous statistical thermodynamics for geometric flows and Ricci solitons. There are constructed and analyzed generic off-diagonal black ellipsoid, black hole and solitonic exact solutions in MGTs and GR encoding geometric flow evolution scenarios and nonlinear parametric interactions. Such new classes of solutions in MGTs can be with polarized and/or running constants, nonholonomically deformed horizons and/or imbedded self-consistently into solitonic backgrounds. They exist also in GR as generic off-diagonal vacuum configurations with effective cosmological constant and/or mimicking effective scalar field interaction...

  13. Enzymatic Enantioselective Synthesis of (R)-2-Trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl-propionitrile by Defatted Apple Seed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Ning; ZONG,Min-Hua; WANG, Ju-Fang; LIU, Chen; WU, Hong

    2003-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of (R)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl-propionitrile by ( R )-oxynitrilase contained in defatted apple seed meal in a biphasic system was successfully performed. The influences of some factors on the reaction were investigated systematically. Diisopropyl ether was found to be the best for this reaction among all the organic solvents examined. The optimal concentration of defatted apple seed meal, aqueous phase content, concentrations of acetyltrimethylsilane and acetone cyanohydrin, buffer pH, reaction temperature were 4% (W/V),23% (V/V), 20 mmol.L-1, 40 mmol.L-1, pH=5.0 and 40 ℃, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, substrate conversion and product enantiomeric excess were 9.4mmol.L-1·h-1, 99% and > 99%, respectively.

  14. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  15. Orbital and epicyclic frequencies around neutron and strange stars in $R^2$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Staykov, Kalin V; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S

    2015-01-01

    According to various models, orbital and epicyclic frequencies or some of them are related to the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some pulsars. It is expected that they origin from the inner edge of the accretion discs, deep into the gravitational field of the compact objects. Considering the planed new generation X-ray timing observatories with large collective areas, the quasi-periodic oscillations might be excellent instrument for testing gravity in strong field regime and respectively alternative gravitational theories. We examined these frequencies for a particle on a circular orbit around neutron or strange stars in $R^2$ gravity. The case of slow rotation is considered too. All results are compared to the General Relativistic case and the deviations are commented, as well as the deviations due to the rotations in both theories.

  16. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  17. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  18. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  19. On supersymmetric geometric flows and R2 inflation from scale invariant supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpoot, Subhash; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2017-09-01

    Models of geometric flows pertaining to R2 scale invariant (super) gravity theories coupled to conformally invariant matter fields are investigated. Related to this work are supersymmetric scalar manifolds that are isomorphic to the Kählerian spaces Mn = SU(1 , 1 + k) / U(1) × SU(1 + k) as generalizations of the non-supersymmetric analogs with SO(1 , 1 + k) / SO(1 + k) manifolds. For curved superspaces with geometric evolution of physical objects, a complete supersymmetric theory has to be elaborated on nonholonomic (super) manifolds and bundles determined by non-integrable superdistributions with additional constraints on (super) field dynamics and geometric evolution equations. We also consider generalizations of Perelman's functionals using such nonholonomic variables which result in the decoupling of geometric flow equations and Ricci soliton equations with supergravity modifications of the R2 gravity theory. As such, it is possible to construct exact non-homogeneous and locally anisotropic cosmological solutions for various types of (super) gravity theories modeled as modified Ricci soliton configurations. Such solutions are defined by employing the general ansatz encompassing coefficients of generic off-diagonal metrics and generalized connections that depend generically on all spacetime coordinates. We consider nonholonomic constraints resulting in diagonal homogeneous configurations encoding contributions from possible nonlinear parametric geometric evolution scenarios, off-diagonal interactions and anisotropic polarization/modification of physical constants. In particular, we analyze small parametric deformations when the underlying scale symmetry is preserved and the nontrivial anisotropic vacuum corresponds to generalized de Sitter spaces. Such configurations may mimic quantum effects whenever transitions to flat space are possible. Our approach allows us to generate solutions with scale violating terms induced by geometric flows, off

  20. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Capsaicinoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Rodríguez, Magda L; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2017-07-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CaMYB31, was isolated and characterized in Capsicum annuum 'Tampiqueño 74'. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CaMYB31 could be involved in secondary metabolism, stress and plant hormone responses, and development. CaMYB31 expression analysis from placental tissue of pungent and nonpungent chili pepper fruits showed a positive correlation with the structural genes Ca4H, Comt, Kas, pAmt, and AT3 expression and also with the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsacin during fruit development. However, CaMYB31 also was expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves, roots, and stems). Moreover, CaMYB31 silencing significantly reduced the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes and the capsaicinoid content. Additionally, CaMYB31 expression was affected by the plant hormones indoleacetic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid or by wounding, temperature, and light, factors known to affect the production of capsaicinoids. These findings indicate that CaMYB31 is indeed involved in the regulation of structural genes of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Capsaicinoid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Rodríguez, Magda L.

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CaMYB31, was isolated and characterized in Capsicum annuum ‘Tampiqueño 74’. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CaMYB31 could be involved in secondary metabolism, stress and plant hormone responses, and development. CaMYB31 expression analysis from placental tissue of pungent and nonpungent chili pepper fruits showed a positive correlation with the structural genes Ca4H, Comt, Kas, pAmt, and AT3 expression and also with the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsacin during fruit development. However, CaMYB31 also was expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves, roots, and stems). Moreover, CaMYB31 silencing significantly reduced the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes and the capsaicinoid content. Additionally, CaMYB31 expression was affected by the plant hormones indoleacetic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid or by wounding, temperature, and light, factors known to affect the production of capsaicinoids. These findings indicate that CaMYB31 is indeed involved in the regulation of structural genes of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:28483879

  2. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  3. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0331 TITLE: Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand...DATE August 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Aug2014 - 31Jul2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon ...Introduction In our preliminary study, we identified interferon γ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) as a Bax suppressor using yeast-based functional screening of Bax

  4. Comparative performance of fixed-film biological filters: Application of reactor theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification is classified as a two-step consecutive reaction where R1 represents the rate of formation of the intermediate product NO2-N and R2 represents the rate of formation of the final product NO3-N. The relative rates of R1 and R2 are influenced by reactor type characterized hydraulically as plug-flow, plug-flow with dispersion and mixed-flow. We develop substrate conversion models for fixed-film biofilters operating in the first-order kinetic regime based on application of chemical reactor theory. Reactor type, inlet conditions and the biofilm kinetic constants Ki (h-1) are used to predict changes in NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and BOD5. The inhibiting effects of the latter on R1 and R2 were established based on the ?? relation, e.g.:{A formula is presented}where BOD5,max is the concentration that causes nitrification to cease and N is a variable relating Ki to increasing BOD5. Conversion models were incorporated in spreadsheet programs that provided steady-state concentrations of nitrogen and BOD5 at several points in a recirculating aquaculture system operating with input values for fish feed rate, reactor volume, microscreen performance, make-up and recirculating flow rates. When rate constants are standardized, spreadsheet use demonstrates plug-flow reactors provide higher rates of R1 and R2 than mixed-flow reactors thereby reducing volume requirements for target concentrations of NH4-N and NO2-N. The benefit provided by the plug-flow reactor varies with hydraulic residence time t as well as the effective vessel dispersion number, D/??L. Both reactor types are capable of providing net increases in NO2-N during treatment but the rate of decrease in the mixed-flow case falls well behind that predicted for plug-flow operation. We show the potential for a positive net change in NO2-N increases with decreases in the dimensionless ratios K2, (R2 )/K1,( R1 ) and [NO2-N]/[NH4-N] and when the product K1, (R1) t provides low to moderate NH4-N conversions. Maintaining

  5. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  6. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  7. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  8. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  9. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  10. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  11. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  12. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  13. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  14. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  15. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  16. Histone H3R2 Symmetric Dimethylation and Histone H3K4 Trimethylation Are Tightly Correlated in Eukaryotic Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Chi Yuan; Adam G.W. Matthews; Yi Jin; Chang Feng Chen; Brad A. Chapman; Toshiro K. Ohsumi; Karen C. Glass; Tatiana G. Kutateladze; Mark L. Borowsky; Kevin Struhl; Marjorie A. Oettinger

    2012-01-01

    The preferential in vitro interaction of the PHD finger of RAG2, a subunit of the V(D)J recombinase, with histone H3 tails simultaneously trimethylated at lysine 4 and symmetrically dimethylated at arginine 2 (H3R2me2sK4me3) predicted the existence of the previously unknown histone modification H3R2me2s. Here, we report the in vivo identification of H3R2me2s . Consistent with the binding specificity of the RAG2 PHD finger, high levels of H3R2me2sK4me3 are found at antigen receptor gene segmen...

  17. Synthesis of protected (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-methyldecanoic acid, a proposed component of culicinins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Tian Tian Sun; Duo Mei; Jun Fei Wang; Ying Xia Li

    2008-01-01

    The protected (2S,4R)-2-amino-4-methyldecanoic acid, a proposed component of culicinins has been synthesized over 10 steps and in total 28% yields using Wittig reaction and Schollkopf amino acid synthesis as key steps.

  18. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  19. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  20. Exploring the GluR2 ligand-binding core in complex with the bicyclical AMPA analogue (S)-4-AHCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina B; Pickering, Darryl S; Greenwood, Jeremy R;

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the ionotropic GluR2 ligand-binding core (GluR2-S1S2J) in complex with the bicyclical AMPA analogue (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [(S)-4-AHCP] has been determined, as well as the binding pharmacology of this construct...

  1. Mycobacterium simiae infection in two unrelated patients with different forms of inherited IFN-γR2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Megged, Orli; Stepensky, Polina; Casimir, Pierre; Moncada-Velez, Marcela; Averbuch, Diana; Assous, Marc Victor; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Pedergnana, Vincent; Deswarte, Caroline; Migaud, Mélanie; Rose-John, Stefan; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Belkadi, Aziz; Conti, Francesca; Abel, Laurent; Vogt, Guillaume; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2014-11-01

    Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of 5 years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M. simiae infection to be described.

  2. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  3. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  4. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  5. Life beyond MSE and R2 — improving validation of predictive models with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas; Nussbaum, Madlene

    2017-04-01

    Machine learning and statistical predictive methods are evaluated by the closeness of predictions to observations of a test dataset. Common criteria for rating predictive methods are bias and mean square error (MSE), characterizing systematic and random prediction errors. Many studies also report R2-values, but their meaning is not always clear (correlation between observations and predictions or MSE skill score; Wilks, 2011). The same criteria are also used for choosing tuning parameters of predictive procedures by cross-validation and bagging (e.g. Hastie et al., 2009). For evident reasons, atmospheric sciences have developed a rich box of tools for forecast verification. Specific criteria have been proposed for evaluating deterministic and probabilistic predictions of binary, multinomial, ordinal and continuous responses (see reviews by Wilks, 2011, Jollie and Stephenson, 2012 and Gneiting et al., 2007). It appears that these techniques are not very well-known in the geosciences community interested in machine learning. In our presentation we review techniques that offer more insight into proximity of data and predictions than bias, MSE and R2 alone. We mention here only examples: (i) Graphing observations vs. predictions is usually more appropriate than the reverse (Piñeiro et al., 2008). (ii) The decomposition of the Brier score score (= MSE for probabilistic predictions of binary yes/no data) into reliability and resolution reveals (conditional) bias and capability of discriminating yes/no observations by the predictions. We illustrate the approaches by applications from digital soil mapping studies. Gneiting, T., Balabdaoui, F., and Raftery, A. E. (2007). Probabilistic forecasts, calibration and sharpness. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, 69, 243-268. Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., and Friedman, J. (2009). The Elements of Statistical Learning; Data Mining, Inference and Prediction. Springer, New York, second edition. Jolliffe, I. T. and

  6. mGluR2/3 mechanisms in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Evidence for both presynaptic and postsynaptic actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu E.; Wang, Min; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Yang, Yang; Galvin, Veronica C.; Lightbourne, Taber C.; Ottenheimer, David; Zhong, Qiaonan; Stein, Josh; Raja, Anusha; Paspalas, Constantinos D.; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in psychiatric and age-related disorders generally involve dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but there are few treatments for these debilitating symptoms. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3), which couple to Gi/Go, have been a focus of therapeutics based on rodent research, where mGluR2/3 have been shown to reduce axonal glutamate release and increase glial glutamate uptake. However, this strategy has had mixed results in patients, and understanding mGluR2/3 mechanisms in primates will help guide therapeutic interventions. The current study examined mGluR2/3 localization and actions in the primate dlPFC layer III circuits underlying working memory, where the persistent firing of “Delay cells” is mediated by NMDA receptors and weakened by cAMP-PKA-potassium channel signaling in dendritic spines. Immunoelectron microscopy identified postsynaptic mGluR2/3 in the spines, in addition to the traditional presynaptic and astrocytic locations. In vivo iontophoretic application of the mGluR2/3 agonists (2R, 4R)-APDC or LY379268 onto dlPFC Delay cells produced an inverted-U effect on working memory representation, with enhanced neuronal firing following low doses of mGluR2/3 agonists. The enhancing effects were reversed by an mGluR2/3 antagonist or by activating cAMP signaling, consistent with mGluR2/3 inhibiting postsynaptic cAMP signaling in spines. Systemic administration of these agonists to monkeys performing a working memory task also produced an inverted-U dose-response, where low doses improved performance but higher doses, similar to clinical trials, had mixed effects. Our data suggest that low dose mGluR2/3 stimulation may have therapeutic effects through unexpected postsynaptic actions in dlPFC, strengthening synaptic connections and improving cognitive function. PMID:27502475

  7. Microstructural Analysis of Peripheral Lung Tissue through CPMG Inter-Echo Time R2 Dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix T Kurz

    Full Text Available Since changes in lung microstructure are important indicators for (early stage lung pathology, there is a need for quantifiable information of diagnostically challenging cases in a clinical setting, e.g. to evaluate early emphysematous changes in peripheral lung tissue. Considering alveoli as spherical air-spaces surrounded by a thin film of lung tissue allows deriving an expression for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill transverse relaxation rates R2 with a dependence on inter-echo time, local air-tissue volume fraction, diffusion coefficient and alveolar diameter, within a weak field approximation. The model relaxation rate exhibits the same hyperbolic tangent dependency as seen in the Luz-Meiboom model and limiting cases agree with Brooks et al. and Jensen et al. In addition, the model is tested against experimental data for passively deflated rat lungs: the resulting mean alveolar radius of RA = 31.46 ± 13.15 μm is very close to the literature value (∼34 μm. Also, modeled radii obtained from relaxometer measurements of ageing hydrogel foam (that mimics peripheral lung tissue are in good agreement with those obtained from μCT images of the same foam (mean relative error: 0.06 ± 0.01. The model's ability to determine the alveolar radius and/or air volume fraction will be useful in quantifying peripheral lung microstructure.

  8. Electric hyperscaling violating solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with R^2 corrections

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2013-01-01

    In the context of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with curvature squared corrections. This theory has three couplings eta_i for the three R^2 invariants and two theory functions: a dilaton potential V(phi) and a dilaton-dependent gauge coupling f(phi). We find hyperscaling violating solutions of this theory, parametrized by dynamical critical exponent z and HSV parameter theta. We obtain restrictions on the form of the theory functions required to support HSV-type solutions using three physical inputs: the null energy condition, causality z $\\leq$ 1, and d_eff = d - theta lying in the range 0 < d_eff $\\leq$ d. The NEC constraints are linear in the eta_i and (quartic) polynomial in d,z,theta. The allowed ranges of z,theta change depending on the signs of eta_i. For the case of Einstein-Weyl gravity, we further narrow down the theory functions and solution parameters required for crossover solutions interpolating between HSV, AdS_d+2 near the boundary,...

  9. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Dyadic Bivariate Fourier Multipliers for Multi-Wavelets in L2(R2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyan Li∗; Xiaodi Xu

    2015-01-01

    The single 2 dilation orthogonal wavelet multipliers in one dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and|detA|=2) wavelet multipliers in high dimensional case were completely characterized by the Wutam Consortium (1998) and Z. Y. Li, et al. (2010). But there exist no more results on orthogonal multivariate wavelet matrix multipliers corresponding integer expansive dilation matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2). In this paper, we choose as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation orthogonal multivariate wavelet Y={y1,y2,y3}, (which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet) multipliers. We call the 3×3 matrix-valued function A(s)=[ fi,j(s)]3×3, where fi,j are measurable functions, a dyadic bivariate matrix Fourier wavelet multiplier if the inverse Fourier transform of A(s)(cy1(s),cy2(s),cy3(s))⊤ = ( b g1(s), b g2(s), b g3(s))⊤ is a dyadic bivariate wavelet whenever (y1,y2,y3) is any dyadic bivariate wavelet. We give some conditions for dyadic matrix bivariate wavelet multipliers. The results extended that of Z. Y. Li and X. L. Shi (2011). As an application, we construct some useful dyadic bivariate wavelets by using dyadic Fourier matrix wavelet multipliers and use them to image denoising.

  11. Observational and Dynamical Characterization of Main-Belt Comet P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H; Haghighipour, Nader; Novakovic, Bojan; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J; Denneau, Larry; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen, Wen-Ping; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Ip, Wing; Kaluna, Heather M; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Kleyna, Jan; Knight, Matthew M; Lacerda, Pedro; Lisse, Carey M; Maclennan, Eric; Meech, Karen J; Micheli, Marco; Milani, Andrea; Pittichova, Jana; Schunova, Eva; Tholen, David J; Wasserman, Lawrence H; Burgett, William S; Chambers, K C; Heasley, Jim N; Kaiser, N; Magnier, Eugene A; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Price, Paul A; Jorgensen, Uffe G; Dominik, Martin; Hinse, Tobias; Sahu, Kailash; Snodgrass, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS 1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MINDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from August 2010 through February 2011, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from December 2010 through August 2011. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between August 2010 and December 2010, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approxi...

  12. Cloning and characterisation of genes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M C; Jenkins, J M; Smith, A G; Howe, C J

    1994-02-01

    The genes for 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), two enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway for tetrapyrroles, were independently isolated from a plasmid-based genomic library of Anacystis nidulans R2 (also called Synechococcus sp. PCC7942), by their ability to complement Escherichia coli strains carrying mutations in the equivalent genes (hemB and hemD respectively). The identity of the genes was confirmed by comparing the appropriate enzyme activities in complemented and mutant strains. Subclones of the original plasmids that were also capable of complementing the mutants were sequenced. The inferred amino acid sequence of the cyanobacterial HemB protein indicates a significant difference in the metal cofactor requirement from the higher-plant enzymes, which was confirmed by overexpression and biochemical analysis. The organisation of the cyanobacterial hemD locus differs markedly from other prokaryotes. Two open reading frames were found immediately upstream of hemD. The product of one shows considerable similarity to published sequences from other organisms for uroporphyrinogen III methylase (UROM), an enzyme involved in the production of sirohaem and cobalamins (including vitamin B-12). The product of the other shows motifs which are similar to those found in proteins responsible for metabolic regulation in yeast and indicates that this family of transcription control proteins, which has previously been reported only from eukaryotes, is also represented in prokaryotes.

  13. On the Jeans Theorem and the “Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff Equation” in R2 Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corda, Mosquera Cuesta, and Lorduy Gòmez have shown that spherically symmetric stationary states can be used as a model for galaxies in the framework of the linearized R2 gravity. Those states could represent a partial solution to the Dark Matter Problem. Here, we discuss an improvement of this work. In fact, as the star density is a functional of the invariants of the associated Vlasov equation, we show that any of these invariants is in its turn a functional of the local energy and the angular momentum. As a consequence, the star density depends only on these two integrals of the Vlasov system. This result is known as the “Jeans theorem.” In addition, we find an analogy of the historical Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff equation for the system considered in this paper. For the sake of completeness, in the final section of the paper, we consider two additional models which argue that Dark Matter could not be an essential element.

  14. Characterization and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Geetha, S J; Desai, Anjana J

    2015-09-01

    The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2 was characterized and studied for enhancing the heavy crude oil recovery at 80 °C in coreflood experiments. The strain was found to be nonpathogenic and produced biosurfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium from 70 to 28 mN/m with 1.1 g/l yield. The biosurfactant was quite stable during exposure to elevated temperatures (85 °C for 90 days), high salinity (10 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH (5-12) for 10 days. It was characterized as lipopeptide similar to lichenysin-A, with a critical micelle concentration of about 19.4 mg/l. The efficiency of crude biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery by core flood studies revealed it to recovering additional 37.1 % oil from Berea sandstone cores at 80 °C. The results are indicative of the potential for the development of lipopeptide biosurfactant-based ex situ microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery from depleting oil fields with extreme temperatures.

  15. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  16. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  17. Integrated Microfluidic Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-12-01

    Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system.

  18. Effect of High-level Copper Diet on Expression of TrxR2 mRNA and Reduction Activity of TrxR2 of Liver in Broiler%高铜日粮对肉鸡肝脏TrxR2基因mRNA表达和还原活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘好朋; 唐兆新; 苏荣胜; 胡京京; 韩前彪; 胡锴; 刘传敦; 万婷

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of high dietary copper on expression of TrxR2 mRNA in liver,and the reduction activity of TrxR2, the experiment was conducted with two hundred healthy 1 day-old Cobb broilers which were randomly divided into four groups based on diets as follows: control group (Cu 11 mg · kg-1 as the group Ⅰ ) and high copper groups (Cu content 110, 330, 550 mg · kg-1 , named group Ⅱ 、Ⅲ and Ⅳ ). The liver was taken from broiler in each group at the lOth , 30th and 50th days, respectively, reduction activity of the liver TrxR2 was detefmined by the method of DTNB, and the testing material was liver mitochondria which has been extraction from the liver, and the expression of the liver TrxR2 was determined by the method of semi-quantification and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the reduction activity of liver TrxR2 decreased (P<0. 05) and the expression of TrxR2 mRNA was reduced (P<0. 05)at 50 d of Group Ⅳ , the reduction activity of liver TrxR2 was mcreased(P<0. 05) at 30 d and reduced (P>0. 05)at 50 d of Group Ⅲ , The experiental results indicated that fed high copper diets (330-550 mg · kg-1) could decrease TrxR2 mRNA expression in the liver and increase the reduction activity of TrxR2 first, and decrease it on 50 days.%本文旨在了解高铜日粮对肉鸡肝脏TrxR2基因mRNA表达和还原活性的影响.200羽1日龄Cobb商品代肉鸡随机分为4组,各组日粮中铜含量分别为:对照组(Ⅰ组)11 mg·kg-1、试验Ⅱ组110 mg·kg1、试验Ⅲ组330mg·kg-1和试验Ⅳ组550 mg·kg-1.饲养至10、30、50 d时每组各取5只鸡用于采集肝脏样品,提取肝脏线粒体用DTNB法测定肝脏TrxR2的还原活性,提取肝脏总RNA用RT-PCR法测定TrxR2 mRNA在肝脏中的表达量.结果显示,饲喂铜含量为550 mg·kg-1日粮50 d时还原活性降低(P<0.05)、TrxR2基因mRNA的表达量降低(P<0.05),饲喂铜含量为330 mg·kg-1日粮30 d时TrxR2

  19. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  20. BOLD-MRI of breast invasive ductal carcinoma: correlation of R2* value and the expression of HIF-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Min; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shuangkun [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing (China); Jin, Mulan; Wang, Ying [Capital Medical University Beijing, Department of Pathology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jie; Liu, Jun [Capital Medical University Beijing, Department of Breast Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-15

    To explore the reliability and feasibility of blood oxygenation level-dependent-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) to depict hypoxia in breast invasive ductal carcinoma. A total of 103 women with 104 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast BOLD-fMRI at 3.0 T. Histological specimens were analysed for tumour size, grade, axillary lymph nodes and expression of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, Ki-67 and hypoxia inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}). The distribution and reliability of R2* were analysed. Correlations of the R2* value with the prognostic factors and HIF-1{alpha} were respectively analysed. The R2* map of IDC demonstrated a relatively heterogeneous signal. The mean R2* value was (53.4 {+-} 18.2) Hz. The Shapiro-Wilk test (W = 0.971, P = 0.020) suggested that the sample did not follow a normal distribution. The inter-rater and intrarater correlation coefficient was 0.967 and 0.959, respectively. The R2* values of IDCs were significantly lower in patients without axillary lymph nodes metastasis. The R2* value had a weak correlation with Ki67 expression (r = 0.208, P = 0.038). The mean R2* value correlated moderately with the level of HIF-1{alpha} (r = 0.516, P = 0.000). BOLD-fMRI is a simple and non-invasive technique that yields hypoxia information on breast invasive ductal carcinomas. (orig.)

  1. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  2. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  3. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  4. The OPAL reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.; Irwin, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Ordonez, J.P. [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    The project to provide a replacement for Australia's HIFAR reactor began with governmental approval in September 1997 and reached its latest milestone with the achievement of the first full power operation of the OPAL reactor in November 2006. OPAL is a pool-type reactor with a thermal power of 20 MW and a fuel enrichment maximum of 20 per cent. This has been a successful project for both ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and the contractor INVAP SE. This project was characterised by extensive interaction with the project's stake-holders during project definition and the use of a performance-based turnkey contract which gave the contractor the maximum opportunity to optimise the design to achieve performance and cost effectiveness. The contactor provided significant in-house resources as well as capacity to manage an international team of suppliers and sub-contractors. A key contributor to the project's successful outcomes has been the development and maintenance of an excellent working relationship between ANSTO and INVAP project teams. Commissioning was undertaken in accordance with the IAEA recommended stages. This paper presents the approaches used to define the project requirements, to choose the supplier and to deliver the project. The main results of hot commissioning are reviewed and the problems encountered examined. Operational experience since hot commissioning is also reviewed.

  5. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  6. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  7. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Products and Services for the U.S. Research Fleet Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.

    2016-02-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 TB/year of data to R2R from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R ensures these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R has recently expanded to include the vessels Sikuliaq, operated by the University of Alaska; Falkor, operated by the Schmidt Ocean Institute; and Ronald H. Brown and Okeanos Explorer, operated by NOAA. R2R maintains a master catalog of U.S. research cruises, currently holding over 4,670 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. Standard post-field cruise products are published including shiptrack navigation, near-real-time MET/TSG data, underway geophysical profiles, and CTD profiles. Software tools available to users include the R2R Event Logger and the R2R Nav Manager. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for each cruise, original field sensor dataset, standard post-field product, and document (e.g. cruise report) submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers such as ORCIDs where available. Using standard identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. R2R collaborates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) to strengthen links among regional and national data systems, populates U.S. cruises in the POGO global catalog, and is working toward membership in the DataONE alliance. It is a lead partner in the EarthCube GeoLink project, developing Semantic Web

  8. Characterization of Fe17R2 phases (R=Pr and Sm) oxidized at 200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, S.; Ribeiro, C. A.; Cabral, F. A. O.; Colucci, C. C.; de Morais, E.; Sanjurjo, N. L.; Campos, C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Persiano, A. I. C.

    1996-04-01

    The results of oxygen absorption in temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C are reported for the phases Fe17R2, R=Pr and Sm. It was observed that the oxygen saturation limit is temperature dependent, being of 3 at/fu at 200 °C, 12.8 at/fu at 300 °C, 20.3 at/fu at 400 °C, and 28.5 at/fu at 500 °C. This implies that above 200 °C the phase is deeply altered by oxygen absorption. Samples with absorption at 200 °C were studied as prepared and heat treated at 500 °C/40 h. The results show that the heat-treated samples consist of Fe17R2, Fe, and R2O3. Metallographic examination, susceptibility, and Mössbauer spectroscopy data support the hypothesis that the as-prepared samples consist of a mixture of Fe17R2 and ordered interstitial Fe17R2Ox.

  9. Decreased Adiponectin-Mediated Signaling Through the AdipoR2 Pathway Is Associated With Carotid Plaque Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrino, Karina; Zheng, Huaien; Hafiane, Anouar; Veinot, John P; Lai, Chi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2017-04-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundantly secreted anti-inflammatory adipokine, protects against all stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation by acting on its receptors, AdipoR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) and AdipoR2 (adiponectin receptor 2). Through binding of AdipoR1, adiponectin leads to the activation of the AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) pathway, whereas stimulation of PPAR-α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) is attributed to the binding of AdipoR2. However, the role of adiponectin and its receptors in plaque instability remains to be characterized. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether the adiponectin-AdipoR pathway is associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque instability. The instability of plaque specimens obtained from patients who underwent a carotid endarterectomy (n=143) was assessed using gold standard histological classifications. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that adiponectin and AdipoR1/AdipoR2 are expressed in human carotid plaques and that their expression was localized most abundantly in areas of macrophage and foam cell accumulation. Unstable plaques expressed more adiponectin protein (Western blot, Padiponectin with a decrease in AdipoR2 expression and activity was observed in unstable plaques, suggesting that reduced signaling through the AdipoR2 pathway, and not through AdipoR1, may contribute to plaque instability. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita M. Golubovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53−/− cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05 in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53−/− cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  11. The role of miR-2∼13∼71 cluster in resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Zou, Feifei; Liu, Bingqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Ye, Wenyun; Guo, Juxin; Sun, Xueli; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-05-01

    Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure expression levels of miR-2∼13∼71 clusters. MiR-2∼13∼71 cluster was down regulated in adult female mosquitoes from the DR strain and played important roles in deltamethrin resistance through regulating target genes, CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3. Knocking down CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3 resulted in decreased mortality of DR mosquitoes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNA clusters are associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Moreover, we investigated the regulatory networks formed between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster and its target genes, which provide a better understanding of the mechanism involved in deltamethrin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  13. Production, extraction and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the native Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinalva M. Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Leuconostoc belongs to a group of lactic acid bacteria usually isolated from fermented vegetables, which includes species involved in the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS. These biopolymers possess considerable commercial potential. Because of the wide variety of industrial applications of EPS, this study aimed to produce and characterize the native exopolysaccharide strain Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2, which was isolated from cabbage collected in a semi-arid region of Bahia. We employed the following conditions for the production of EPS: 10.7% sucrose, pH 8.2, without agitation and incubation at 28ºC for 30 hours. The fermentation broth was treated with ethanol and generated two types of polysaccharide substances (EPS I and EPS II. The identification of EPS I and EPS II was conducted using FT-IR, ¹H, 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectra. The two substances were identified as linear dextran α polysaccharides (1 → 6 which indicated different characteristics with respect to thermal analysis and density of free packaging, viscosity and time of solubilization. Both dextrans are of low density, possess high thermal stability and exhibited the behavior characteristic of pseudoplastic polymers.O gênero Leuconostoc pertence a um grupo de bactérias lácticas normalmente isoladas de vegetais fermentados, que inclui espécies envolvidas na produção de exopolissacarídeos (EPS. Esses biopolímeros possuem potencial comercial considerável. Devido à grande variedade de aplicações industriais, de EPS, o presente estudo teve como objetivo produzir e caracterizar o nativo exopolissacarídeo cepa Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides R2, que foi isolado de repolho coletado em uma região semi-árida da Bahia. Utilizamos as seguintes condições para a produção de EPS: 10,7% de sacarose, pH 8,2, sem agitação e incubação a 28º C por 30 horas. O caldo fermentado foi tratado com etanol, gerando dois tipos de substâncias de polissacar

  14. Isolation and characterization of a fipronil-degrading strain R-2 and its degrading characteristics%锐劲特降解菌株R-2的分离、鉴定及降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑶; 李荣; 王融; 张曼曼; 杨洪杏; 李顺鹏; 蒋建东

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial strain R-2, capable of degrading fipronil, was isolated from a long-term fipronil-polluted activated sludge in a fipronil manufacture factory. Strain R-2 was preliminarily identified as Paracoccus sp. based on its physiological and biochemical properties, as well as the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain R-2 could utilize fipronil as the sole carbon source for growth, and degrade 85% of 50 mg/L fipronil within 3 d in mineral salts medium. The optimal pH value and temperature for fipronil degradation by strain R-2 were 6.0-7.0 and 30 ℃, respectively. The degrading rate showed a negative correlation with the initial concentration of fipronil. The addition of 0.1 mmol/L Zn2+or Fe3+ to the culture medium could significantly increase the degradation of fipronil. In both sterile and non-sterile soils, strain could remove 63.4%-71.2% of 100 μg/g fipronil within 10 d.%从长期受锐劲特污染的农药厂活性污泥中分离到一株锐劲特降解菌株R-2,根据其生理生化特征和16S rRNA基因序列同源性分析.将该菌株鉴定为Paracoccus sp..菌株R-2能以锐劲特为唯一碳源生长,在含有50 mg/L的锐劲特的基础盐培养基中,3 d的降解率达到85%.菌株R-2降解锐劲特的最适温度为30℃,最适pH值为6.0-7.0,其降解锐劲特的效率与锐劲特初始浓度呈负相关.添加0.1 mmol/L的Zn或Fe能够显著促进菌株对锐劲特的降解.灭菌与非灭菌土壤降解试验表明,菌株R-2均可以在10 d内降解63.4%-71.2%的100 μg/g的锐劲特.

  15. 基于螺旋理论的2R2T四自由度并联机器人机构综合%Type Synthesis of 2R2T 4-DOF Parallel Manipulators Based on Screw Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 刘辉

    2006-01-01

    基于螺旋理论,提出了2R2T四自由度并联机器人对称结构的一种设计方法;通过给定动平台的约束系统,采用螺旋理论和零空间方法,得到支链上所提供的基螺旋系;再经基螺旋系的组合,2R2T四自由度的一种新型的对称结构;分析了该机构的运动学性质.

  16. New reactors for laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1978-02-01

    Recent developments in design of laboratory and bench-scale reactors reflect mostly the developments in reaction engineering; that is the improved understanding of physical and chemical rate limiting processes, their interactions, and their effects on commercial-scale reactor performance. Whether a laboratory reactor is used to study the fundamentals of a commercial process or for pure scientific interest, it is important to know what physical or chemical process is limiting or influencing the rate and selectivity. To clarify this, a definition is required of the regime where physical influences exist, and study the intrinsic kinetics at conditions where physical processes do not affect the rate. Reactors are illustrated whose design was influenced by the above considerations. These reactors produce results which are independent of the reactors in which they were measured, and which can be scaled up with up-to-date reaction engineering techniques.

  17. Computer Measuring and Controlling System for Temperature Field at R1/R2 Test Section in ESPRESSO Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Fei; WU; Chun-liang; SHEN; Feng-yang; GU; Chun-xing

    2012-01-01

    <正>ESPRESSO loop was the one of the sodium loops imported from Italy by the Fast Reactor of the China Institute of Atomic Energy, which would do necessary sodium experiments for developing core (include fuel rod assemblies, control rod assemblies) or for testing before domestic and foreign components into the reactor, i.e., the high temperature durability test, and the thermal shock test to test the

  18. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  19. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  20. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  1. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  2. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  3. Detection of reactive ions in the ultracompact HII regions Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Rodríguez-Franco, A; García-Burillo, S

    2003-01-01

    We report the first detection of the reactive ions CO+ and HOC+ towards ultracompact (UC) HII regions, particularly in Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02. We have observed two positions in Mon R2, namely the peak of the UC HII region and a position in the high density molecular cloud which bounds it. CO+ and HOC+ were detected at the UC HII region but not at the molecular cloud, as expected if the CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ emissions arise in the PDR surrounding the \\uch. The measured CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ column densities are of the order of 10$^{11}$ cm$^{-2}$ in both sources, which yields a strikingly low [HCO$^+$]/[HOC$^+$] abundance ratio of 460 in Mon R2. These values are similar to those found in some other well-known PDRs, like NGC 7023 and the Orion Bar. We briefly discuss the chemical implications of these results.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Ralf; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schneider, Jessica; Pucker, Boas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-09-25

    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, metabolite accumulation and defense responses. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, the R2R3-MYB genes in Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) as the first sequenced member of the order Caryophyllales, have not been analysed heretofore. We present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) which is the first species of the order Caryophyllales with a sequenced genome. A total of 70 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Also, organ specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-seq data. The R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised which led to the identification of a sugar beet-specific clade with an atypical amino acid composition in the R3 domain, putatively encoding betalain regulators. The functional classification was verified by experimental confirmation of the prediction that the R2R3-MYB gene Bv_iogq encodes a flavonol regulator. This study provides the first step towards cloning and functional dissection of the role of MYB transcription factor genes in the nutritionally and evolutionarily interesting species B. vulgaris. In addition, it describes the flavonol regulator BvMYB12, being the first sugar beet R2R3-MYB with an experimentally proven function.

  5. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena, E-mail: vladena.bauerova@savba.sk; Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj [Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 21, 845 51 Bratislava (Slovakia); Beck, Konrad [Cardiff University School of Dentistry, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XY Wales (United Kingdom); Lai, F. Anthony [Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff CF14 4XN Wales (United Kingdom); Zahradníková, Alexandra, E-mail: vladena.bauerova@savba.sk [Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 21, 845 51 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Molecular Physiology and Genetics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 5, 833 34 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ševčík, Jozef, E-mail: vladena.bauerova@savba.sk [Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 21, 845 51 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminus is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  7. p53R2 overexpression in cervical cancer promotes AKT signaling and EMT, and is correlated with tumor progression, metastasis and poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Xu, Rui; Li, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Yan-Yan; Liang, Wen-Qian; Zeng, Ju-Deng; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Wang, Hui-Yun; Zheng, X F Steven

    2017-08-25

    p53R2 is a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase subunit involved in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis and DNA repair. Although p53R2 has been linked to human cancer, its role in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of p53R2 in early-stage cervical cancer. p53R2 expression is significantly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in cervical cancer cells and tissues, compared with that in matched normal cervical cells and tissues, respectively. p53R2 overexpression is associated with increased risk of pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM, p = 0.001) and cancer relapse (p = 0.009). Patients with high p53R2 expression have a shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). p53R2 is an independent factor for predicting OS and DFS of cervical cancer patients. We further show that p53R2 is important for oncogenic growth, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells. Mechanistically, p53R2 promotes Akt signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that p53R2 protein is overexpressed in early-stage cervical cancer and unravels some unconventional oncogenic functions of p53R2. p53R2 may be a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  8. The Microsoft Data Warehouse Toolkit With SQL Server 2008 R2 and the Microsoft Business Intelligence Toolset

    CERN Document Server

    Mundy, Joy; Kimball, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Best practices and invaluable advice from world-renowned data warehouse expertsIn this book, leading data warehouse experts from the Kimball Group share best practices for using the upcoming "Business Intelligence release" of SQL Server, referred to as SQL Server 2008 R2. In this new edition, the authors explain how SQL Server 2008 R2 provides a collection of powerful new tools that extend the power of its BI toolset to Excel and SharePoint users and they show how to use SQL Server to build a successful data warehouse that supports the business intelligence requirements that are common to most

  9. Synthesis, conformational preferences and antimicrobial evaluation of N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akila, A.; Jeganathan, P.; Ponnuswamy, S.

    2016-09-01

    Five new N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 have been synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H, 13C, DEPT & 2D NMR and mass spectral studies. The NMR spectral data indicate that the N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 prefer to exist in an equilibrium between B1 and B2 conformations. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifungal studies were carried out. The results show that the piperazinoacetyl piperidin-4-ones 11-15 exhibit good activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of the iron and manganese reconstituted tyrosyl radical in Bacillus cereus ribonucleotide reductase R2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane B Tomter

    Full Text Available Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the rate limiting step in DNA synthesis where ribonucleotides are reduced to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Class Ib RNRs consist of two homodimeric subunits: R1E, which houses the active site; and R2F, which contains a metallo cofactor and a tyrosyl radical that initiates the ribonucleotide reduction reaction. We studied the R2F subunit of B. cereus reconstituted with iron or alternatively with manganese ions, then subsequently reacted with molecular oxygen to generate two tyrosyl-radicals. The two similar X-band EPR spectra did not change significantly over 4 to 50 K. From the 285 GHz EPR spectrum of the iron form, a g(1-value of 2.0090 for the tyrosyl radical was extracted. This g(1-value is similar to that observed in class Ia E. coli R2 and class Ib R2Fs with iron-oxygen cluster, suggesting the absence of hydrogen bond to the phenoxyl group. This was confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy, where the stretching vibration associated to the radical (C-O, ν(7a = 1500 cm(-1 was found to be insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange. Additionally, the (18O-sensitive Fe-O-Fe symmetric stretching (483 cm(-1 of the metallo-cofactor was also insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange indicating no hydrogen bonding to the di-iron-oxygen cluster, and thus, different from mouse R2 with a hydrogen bonded cluster. The HF-EPR spectrum of the manganese reconstituted RNR R2F gave a g(1-value of ∼2.0094. The tyrosyl radical microwave power saturation behavior of the iron-oxygen cluster form was as observed in class Ia R2, with diamagnetic di-ferric cluster ground state, while the properties of the manganese reconstituted form indicated a magnetic ground state of the manganese-cluster. The recent activity measurements (Crona et al., (2011 J Biol Chem 286: 33053-33060 indicates that both the manganese and iron reconstituted RNR R2F could be functional. The manganese form might be very important, as it has 8

  11. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity.

  12. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of anaerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuentes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs. The bioreactors are modeled as dynamic three-phase systems. Biochemical transformations are assumed to occur only in the fluidized bed zone. The biofilm process model is coupled to the system hydrodynamic model through the biofilm detachment rate; which is assumed to be a first-order function of the energy dissipation parameter and a second order function of biofilm thickness. Non-active biomass is considered to be particulate material subject to hydrolysis. The model includes the anaerobic conversion for complex substrate degradation and kinetic parameters selected from the literature. The experimental set-up consisted of two mesophilic (36±1ºC lab-scale AFBRs (R1 and R2 loaded with sand as inert support for biofilm development. The reactor start-up policy was based on gradual increments in the organic loading rate (OLR, over a four month period. Step-type disturbances were applied on the inlet (glucose and acetic acid substrate concentration (chemical oxygen demand (COD from 0.85 to 2.66 g L-1 and on the feed flow rate (from 3.2 up to 6.0 L d-1 considering the maximum efficiency as the reactor loading rate switching. The predicted and measured responses of the total and soluble COD, volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations, biogas production rate and pH were investigated. Regarding hydrodynamic and fluidization aspects, variations of the bed expansion due to disturbances in the inlet flow rate and the biofilm growth were measured. As rate coefficients for the biofilm detachment model, empirical values of 3.73⋅10(4 and 0.75⋅10(4 s² kg-1 m-1 for R1 and R2, respectively, were estimated.

  14. Molecular cloning and evolutionary analysis of hog badger bitter taste receptor T2R2 gene%猪獾苦味受体T2R2基因的分子克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐怀亮; 姚永芳; 朱庆

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of natural bitter toxins through taste is one of the most effective mechanisms of self-safety. An approximate 1 169 bp sequence of the bitter taste receptor T2R2 gene was obtained by PCR and cloning technique from hog badger genomic DNA(GenBank accession number: FJ812727). This sequence contains a complete single exon (without intron) 915 bp in size, which encodes 304 amino acid residues. The isoelectric point (pi) of the protein is 9.76 and its mo-lecular weight is 34.74 kDa. Topology prediction showed that the T2R2 protein contained one N-glycosylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and two potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. Additionally, the whole peptide chain was comprised of seven transmembrane helix regions, four extracellular regions, and four intracellular regions. The T2R2 is a hydrophobic protein with a few hydrophilic components. Homology analysis of the T2R2 gene sequences by Clustal Windicated that the cDNA sequence homology of T2R2 gene in hog badger with dog, cat, cattle, horse, chimpanzee, and mouse is 91.4%, 90.6%, 84.4%, 85.4%, 83.8%and 72.1%, respectively, and the homology of amino acid sequence is 85.5%, 85.8%, 74.0%, 77.6%, 75.3% and 61.5%, respectively. The results of nucleotide acid substitution computation and selective test showed that strong purifying selection (functional constraint) occurred between hog badger and the six species, respec-tively, which mainly existed in the transmembrane regions of T2R2. In addition, the Neighbour-Joining tree of T2R2 gene exons from these seven species is consistent with their species tree, indicating that the T2R2 gene is suitable for constructing molecular phylogenetic tree among different species likewise.%苦味的感知是机体有效的自我保护机制之一,文章采用PCR和克隆测序方法首次从猪獾基因组中获得一全长为1 169 bp的苦味受体T2R2基因DNA序列(GenBank登录号:FJ812727).该序列含有完整的1个外

  15. NMR studies of the R2 repeat and related peptide fragments of the DNA binding domain of c-Myb. New light on the structure and folding of R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségalas, I.; Desjardins, S.; Oulyadi, H.; Prigent, Y.; Tribouillard, S.; Bernardi, E.; Schoofs, A. R.; Davoust1, D.; Toma, F.

    1999-10-01

    The solution structure of the R2 repeat of the DNA binding domain of the protooncogene c-Myb contains a N-terminal structural motif comprising two antiparallel helices. The motif is stabilized by interactions involving conserved residues. The recognition region in C-terminal position is flexible. This structure differs from that of R2 of another c-Myb protein. La structure en solution de la répétition R2 du domaine de liaison à l'ADN du protooncogène c-Myb possède un motif à deux hélices antiparallèles dans la moitié N-terminale, stabilisé par des interactions entre résidus conservés. La région de reconnaissance à l'ADN en position C-terminale est flexible. Cette structure diffère de celle montrée pour la répétition R2 d'une autre protéine c-Myb.

  16. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  17. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  18. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  19. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  20. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  1. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in fluidized bed reactor by microbial consortia in different support materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lorena Lima; Costa, Rachel Biancalana; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Vich, Daniele Vital; Duarte, Iolanda Cristina Silveira; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2010-07-01

    Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors filled with activated carbon (R1), expanded clay (R2), glass beads (R3) and sand (R4) were tested for anaerobic degradation of LAS. All reactors were inoculated with sludge from a UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and were fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with approximately 20 mg l(-1) of LAS, on average. To 560 mg l(-1) COD influent, the maximum COD and LAS removal efficiencies were mean values of 97+/-2% and 99+/-2%, respectively, to all reactors demonstrating the potential applicability of this reactor configuration for treating LAS. The reactors were kept at 30 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h. The use of glass beads and sand appear attractive because they favor the development of biofilms capable of supporting LAS degradation. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from reactors R3 and R4 revealed that these reactors gave rise to broad microbial diversity, with microorganisms belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, indicating the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS.

  3. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, SAR218645, improves memory and attention deficits in translational models of cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Griebel; Philippe Pichat; Denis Boulay; Vanessa Naimoli; Lisa Potestio; Robert Featherstone; Sukhveen Sahni; Henry Defex; Christophe Desvignes; Franck Slowinski; Xavier Vigé; Bergis, Olivier E.; Rosy Sher; Raymond Kosley; Sathapana Kongsamut

    2016-01-01

    Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ35S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated respons...

  4. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  5. Synthesis of Novel Nucleoside Analog (3R)-2,3-Dideoxy-3- (N-hydroxy-N-methylamino)-L-arabinofuranosyl Uracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Cheng CHU; Hong Sheng GUO; Jun Biao CHANG; Kang ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of novel nucleoside analog (3R)-2,3-dideoxy-3-(N-hydroxy-N- methylamino)-L-arabinofuranosyl uracil was studied. A twelve-step synthetic route, started from L-ascorbic acid, was designed, and the final product was obtained in 20.8% yield.

  6. Improving the specificity of R2' to the deoxyhaemoglobin content of brain tissue: Prospective correction of macroscopic magnetic field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockley, Nicholas P; Stone, Alan J

    2016-07-15

    The reversible transverse relaxation rate, R2', is sensitive to the deoxyhaemoglobin content of brain tissue, enabling information about the oxygen extraction fraction to be obtained. However, R2' is also sensitive to macroscopic magnetic field gradients, particularly at air-tissue interfaces where a large susceptibility difference is present. It is important that this latter effect is minimised in order to produce meaningful estimates of blood oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a technique to prospectively correct for the effect of susceptibility induced magnetic field gradients on R2' weighted data. This was achieved by combining the Gradient-Echo Slice Excitation Profile Imaging (GESEPI) technique with an Asymmetric Spin Echo (ASE) pulse sequence. The main advantages of this approach are (i) shorter acquisition times, since a separately acquired magnetic field map is not required and (ii) simpler analysis, since retrospective correction for the effects of magnetic field gradients in postprocessing is not required. In these experiments we show that with this newly developed technique it is possible to correct the majority of grey matter voxels for the expected distribution of through-slice magnetic field gradients to produce maps of R2' in a short scan duration.

  7. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang (MSKCC); (Constellation); (Fudan); (Tsinghua)

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  8. R2P’s “Ulterior Motive Exemption” and the Failure to Protect in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bachman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass atrocity prevention has been controversial, both when members of the international community have taken action as well as when they have failed to do so. In 1999, then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan challenged the international community to reconcile the need to respect state sovereignty with the need to protect populations from egregious human rights violations. R2P’s emergence offered an opportunity to move past the discourse and practice associated with its predecessor—“humanitarian intervention.” However, while R2P has succeeded in changing the discourse, it has failed to make a change in practice. A source of this failure is R2P’s “ulterior motive exemption.” Using the R2P intervention in Libya as a case study, this article concludes that because ulterior motives existed: (1 NATO’s primary intent of civilian protection quickly evolved into the intent to overthrow Muammar Qaddafi; (2 in exceeding its mandate, NATO committed an act of aggression; (3 NATO continued to militarily support the rebels while they were committing war crimes and severe human rights violations; (4 NATO’s actions resulted in civilian casualties, which NATO has refused to investigate; and (5 NATO abdicated its responsibility to protect Libyans from the human suffering that continued subsequent to Qaddafi’s execution.

  9. Stability of R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain tissue in a large scale multi-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpin; Xie, Guangyou; Zhai, Maoxiong; Zhang, Zhongping; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Hong, Nan; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Baohong; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-01-01

    Multi-center studies are advantageous for enrolling participants of varying pathological and demographical conditions, and especially in neurological studies. Hence stability of the obtained quantitative R2* and susceptibility in multicenter studies is a key issue for their widespread applications. In this work, the stabilities of simultaneously obtained R2* and susceptibility are investigated and compared across 10 sites that are equipped with the same scanner and receiver coil, the same post-processing process was used to achieve consistent experiment setup. Two healthy adult volunteers (one male and female) participated in this study. High intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained for both susceptibility (0.94) and R2* (0.96). The coefficients of variance for all measurements obtained were smaller than 0.1, the largest variations of measurements in all the chosen ROIs fall within ±20% from the median value. Higher level of stability was obtained in R2* as compared to susceptibility at 1 mm resolution (P < 0.05) and at 1.5 mm (P < 0.01). PMID:28349957

  10. An R2R3 MYB transcription factor associated with regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Rosaceae (on linr)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kui-Lin; Bolitho, Karen; Grafton, Karryn; Kortstee, A.J.; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; McGhie, T.K.; Espley, R.V.; Hellens, R.P.; Allan, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The control of plant anthocyanin accumulation is via transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes. A key activator appears to be an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. In apple fruit, skin anthocyanin levels are controlled by a gene called MYBA or MYB1, while the

  11. Phosphorylation-Dependent PIH1D1 Interactions Define Substrate Specificity of the R2TP Cochaperone Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hořejší

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The R2TP cochaperone complex plays a critical role in the assembly of multisubunit machines, including small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs, RNA polymerase II, and the mTORC1 and SMG1 kinase complexes, but the molecular basis of substrate recognition remains unclear. Here, we describe a phosphopeptide binding domain (PIH-N in the PIH1D1 subunit of the R2TP complex that preferentially binds to highly acidic phosphorylated proteins. A cocrystal structure of a PIH-N domain/TEL2 phosphopeptide complex reveals a highly specific phosphopeptide recognition mechanism in which Lys57 and 64 in PIH1D1, along with a conserved DpSDD phosphopeptide motif within TEL2, are essential and sufficient for binding. Proteomic analysis of PIH1D1 interactors identified R2TP complex substrates that are recruited by the PIH-N domain in a sequence-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner suggestive of a common mechanism of substrate recognition. We propose that protein complexes assembled by the R2TP complex are defined by phosphorylation of a specific motif and recognition by the PIH1D1 subunit.

  12. R2P’s “Ulterior Motive Exemption” and the Failure to Protect in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bachman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass atrocity prevention has been controversial, both when members of the international community have taken action as well as when they have failed to do so. In 1999, then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan challenged the international community to reconcile the need to respect state sovereignty with the need to protect populations from egregious human rights violations. R2P’s emergence offered an opportunity to move past the discourse and practice associated with its predecessor—“humanitarian intervention.” However, while R2P has succeeded in changing the discourse, it has failed to make a change in practice. A source of this failure is R2P’s “ulterior motive exemption.” Using the R2P intervention in Libya as a case study, this article concludes that because ulterior motives existed: (1 NATO’s primary intent of civilian protection quickly evolved into the intent to overthrow Muammar Qaddafi; (2 in exceeding its mandate, NATO committed an act of aggression; (3 NATO continued to militarily support the rebels while they were committing war crimes and severe human rights violations; (4 NATO’s actions resulted in civilian casualties, which NATO has refused to investigate; and (5 NATO abdicated its responsibility to protect Libyans from the human suffering that continued subsequent to Qaddafi’s execution.

  13. Cloning of a third nitrate reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 using a shuttle cosmid library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlemeier, C.J.; Teeuwsen, V.J.P.; Janssen, M.J.T.; Arkel, G.A. van

    1984-01-01

    A strategy for gene cloning in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 was developed which made use of a gene library constructed in a shuttle cosmid vector. The method involved phenotypic complementation of mutants with pooled cosmid DNA. The development of the procedure and its application to the

  14. Model Development and Simulation of Nitrification in SHARON Reactor in Moderate Temperature by Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Abbas Al-Samawi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the nitrogen compounds in WWTP effluent according to legislations, nitrogen of reject water is removed in separate unit by applying innovative cost effective process named SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite process which is feasible to apply in moderate weather and more cost effective process due to elimination the heat exchanger required to keep the reject water of high temperature. In addition to the save in oxygen requirement to oxide ammonium by preventing nitrite oxidation and the saving in external COD addition for denitrification. Also, there is no need for large reactor volume because HRT equal to SRT. Significant mathematical model of nitrification process in SHARON reactor was developed based on substances and organisms mass balance as well as organisms kinetics. A relatively favorable consistency was obtained between the experimental and the predicted results of model. A high correlation of (R2=0.946 between model predictions and experimental data sets.

  15. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  16. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  17. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor.

  18. Studies on a membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, K.; Govind, R.

    1988-10-01

    Simulation is used to evaluate the performance of a catalytic reactor with permeable wall (membrane reactor) in shifting the equilibrium of three reversible reactions (cyclohexane dehydrogenation, hydrogen iodide decomposition, and propylene disproportionation). It is found that the preferred choice of cocurrernt or countercurrent operation is dependent on the physical properties and operating conditions. Methods of enhancing conversion are suggested and temperature effects are discussed.

  19. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  20. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  1. Mutation E169K in junctophilin-2 causes atrial fibrillation due to impaired RyR2 stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Niels; Garbino, Alejandro; Dixit, Sayali S.; Landstrom, Andrew P.; Li, Na; Wang, Qiongling; Olivotto, Iacopo; Dobrev, Dobromir; Ackerman, Michael J.; Wehrens, Xander H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study the role of junctophilin 2 (JPH2) in atrial fibrillation (AF). Background JPH2 is believed to have an important role in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ handling and modulation of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channels (RyR2). Whereas defective RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to the pathogenesis of AF, nothing is known about the potential role of JPH2 in atrial arrhythmias. Methods Screening 203 unrelated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients uncovered a novel JPH2 missense mutation (E169K) in 2 patients with juvenile-onset paroxysmal AF (pAF). Pseudo-knockin (PKI) mouse models were generated to determine the molecular defects underlying the development of AF caused by this JPH2 mutation. Results PKI mice expressing E169K mutant JPH2 exhibited a higher incidence of inducible AF compared with wildtype (WT)-PKI mice, while A399S-PKI mice expressing a HCM-linked JPH2 mutation not associated with atrial arrhythmias were not significantly different from WT-PKI. E169K-PKI but not A399A-PKI atrial cardiomyocytes showed an increased incidence of abnormal SR Ca2+ release events. These changes were attributed to reduced binding of E169KJPH2 to RyR2. Atrial JPH2 levels in WT-JPH2 transgenic, nontransgenic, and JPH2 knockdown mice correlated negatively with the incidence of pacing-induced AF. Ca2+ spark frequency in atrial myocytes and the open probability of single RyR2 channels from JPH2 knockdown mice was significantly reduced by a small JPH2-mimicking oligopeptide. Moreover, patients with pAF had reduced atrial JPH2 levels per RyR2 channel compared to sinus rhythm patients, and an increased frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ release events. Conclusions Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which reduced JPH2-mediated stabilization of RyR2 due to loss-of-function mutation or reduced JPH2:RyR2 ratios can promote SR Ca2+ leak and atrial arrhythmias, representing a potential novel therapeutic target for AF. PMID:23973696

  2. OBSERVATIONAL AND DYNAMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kleyna, Jan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Novakovic, Bojan [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Abe, Shinsuke; Chen Wenping; Ip, Wing; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Rd, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Fitzsimmons, Alan; Lacerda, Pedro [Astronomy Research Centre, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Granvik, Mikael [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Grav, Tommy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Knight, Matthew M. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Maclennan, Eric, E-mail: hsieh@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, 602 South Humphreys Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MiNDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from 2010 August through 2011 February, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from 2010 December through 2011 August. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between 2010 August and December, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approximate absolute magnitude for the nucleus of H{sub R} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of {approx}0.7 km, assuming an albedo of p = 0.05. Comparing the observed scattering surface areas of the dust coma to that of the nucleus when P/La Sagra was active, we find dust-to-nucleus area ratios of A{sub d} /A{sub N} = 30-60, comparable to those computed for fellow main-belt comets 238P/Read and P/2008 R1 (Garradd), and one to two orders of magnitude larger than for two other main-belt comets (133P/Elst-Pizarro and 176P/LINEAR). Using optical spectroscopy to search for CN emission, we do not detect any conclusive evidence of sublimation products (i.e., gas emission), finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q{sub CN} < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} mol s{sup -1}, from which we infer an H{sub 2}O production rate of Q{sub H{sub 2O}} < 10{sup 26} mol s{sup -1}. Numerical simulations indicate that P/La Sagra is dynamically stable for >100 Myr

  3. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  4. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  5. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  6. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  7. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  8. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubovskaya, Vita M., E-mail: Vita.Golubovskaya@roswellpark.org; Ho, Baotran [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Conroy, Jeffrey [Genomics Shared Resource, Center for Personalized Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Liu, Song; Wang, Dan [Bioinformatics Core Facility, Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Cance, William G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup −/−} cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53{sup +/+} cells but not in p53{sup −/−} cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53{sup +/+} cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53{sup +/+} colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  9. Bone quantitative susceptibility mapping using a chemical species-specific R2* signal model with ultrashort and conventional echo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Alexey V; Liu, Zhe; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin R; Du, Jiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-05

    To develop quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of bone using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) gradient echo (GRE) sequence for signal acquisition and a bone-specific effective transverse relaxation rate ( R2*) to model water-fat MR signals for field mapping. Three-dimensional radial UTE data (echo times ≥ 40 μs) was acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner and fitted with a bone-specific signal model to map the chemical species and susceptibility field. Experiments were performed ex vivo on a porcine hoof and in vivo on healthy human subjects (n = 7). For water-fat separation, a bone-specific model assigning R2* decay mostly to water was compared with the standard models that assigned the same decay for both fat and water. In the ex vivo experiment, bone QSM was correlated with CT. Compared with standard models, the bone-specific R2* method significantly reduced errors in the fat fraction within the cortical bone in all tested data sets, leading to reduced artifacts in QSM. Good correlation was found between bone CT and QSM values in the porcine hoof (R(2)  = 0.77). Bone QSM was successfully generated in all subjects. The QSM of bone is feasible using UTE with a conventional echo time GRE acquisition and a bone-specific R2* signal model. Magn Reson Med 000:000-000, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Structure of human cytomegalovirus UL141 binding to TRAIL-R2 reveals novel, non-canonical death receptor interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Nemčovičová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand death receptors (DRs of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF can promote apoptosis and regulate antiviral immunity by maintaining immune homeostasis during infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV expresses immunomodulatory proteins that down-regulate cell surface expression of TNFRSF members as well as poliovirus receptor-related proteins in an effort to inhibit host immune effector pathways that would lead to viral clearance. The UL141 glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus inhibits host defenses by blocking cell surface expression of TRAIL DRs (by retention in ER and poliovirus receptor CD155, a nectin-like Ig-fold molecule. Here we show that the immunomodulatory function of HCMV UL141 is associated with its ability to bind diverse proteins, while utilizing at least two distinct binding sites to selectively engage TRAIL DRs or CD155. Binding studies revealed high affinity interaction of UL141 with both TRAIL-R2 and CD155 and low affinity binding to TRAIL-R1. We determined the crystal structure of UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 at 2.1 Å resolution, which revealed that UL141 forms a homodimer that engages two TRAIL-R2 monomers 90° apart to form a heterotetrameric complex. Our structural and biochemical data reveal that UL141 utilizes its Ig-domain to facilitate non-canonical death receptor interactions while UL141 partially mimics the binding site of TRAIL on TRAIL-R2, which we found to be distinct from that of CD155. Moreover, UL141 also binds to an additional surface patch on TRAIL-R2 that is distinct from the TRAIL binding site. Therefore, the breadth of UL141-mediated effects indicates that HCMV has evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the immune system by modulating multiple effector pathways.

  12. Structure of human cytomegalovirus UL141 binding to TRAIL-R2 reveals novel, non-canonical death receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemčovičová, Ivana; Benedict, Chris A; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2013-03-01

    The TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) death receptors (DRs) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) can promote apoptosis and regulate antiviral immunity by maintaining immune homeostasis during infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses immunomodulatory proteins that down-regulate cell surface expression of TNFRSF members as well as poliovirus receptor-related proteins in an effort to inhibit host immune effector pathways that would lead to viral clearance. The UL141 glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus inhibits host defenses by blocking cell surface expression of TRAIL DRs (by retention in ER) and poliovirus receptor CD155, a nectin-like Ig-fold molecule. Here we show that the immunomodulatory function of HCMV UL141 is associated with its ability to bind diverse proteins, while utilizing at least two distinct binding sites to selectively engage TRAIL DRs or CD155. Binding studies revealed high affinity interaction of UL141 with both TRAIL-R2 and CD155 and low affinity binding to TRAIL-R1. We determined the crystal structure of UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 at 2.1 Å resolution, which revealed that UL141 forms a homodimer that engages two TRAIL-R2 monomers 90° apart to form a heterotetrameric complex. Our structural and biochemical data reveal that UL141 utilizes its Ig-domain to facilitate non-canonical death receptor interactions while UL141 partially mimics the binding site of TRAIL on TRAIL-R2, which we found to be distinct from that of CD155. Moreover, UL141 also binds to an additional surface patch on TRAIL-R2 that is distinct from the TRAIL binding site. Therefore, the breadth of UL141-mediated effects indicates that HCMV has evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the immune system by modulating multiple effector pathways.

  13. Carbofuran removal in continuous-photocatalytic reactor: Reactor optimization, rate-constant determination and carbofuran degradation pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnuganth, M A; Remya, Neelancherry; Kumar, Mathava; Selvaraju, N

    2017-02-22

    Carbofuran (CBF) removal in a continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor with granular activated carbon supported titanium dioxide (GAC-TiO2) catalyst was investigated. The effects of feed flow rate, TiO2 concentration and addition of supplementary oxidants on CBF removal were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiments and to estimate the effects of feed flow rate and TiO2 concentration on CBF removal. The outcome of CCD experiments demonstrated that reactor performance was influenced mainly by feed flow rate compared to TiO2 concentration. A second-order polynomial model developed based on CCD experiments fitted the experimental data with good correlation (R(2) ∼ 0.964). The addition of 1 mL min(-1) hydrogen peroxide has shown complete CBF degradation and 76% chemical oxygen demand removal under the following operating conditions of CBF ∼50 mg L(-1), TiO2 ∼5 mg L(-1) and feed flow rate ∼82.5 mL min(-1). Rate constant of the photodegradation process was also calculated by applying the kinetic data in pseudo-first-order kinetics. Four major degradation intermediates of CBF were identified using GC-MS analysis. As a whole, the reactor system and GAC-TiO2 catalyst used could be constructive in cost-effective CBF removal with no impact to receiving environment through getaway of photocatalyst.

  14. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  15. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  16. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  17. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Supporting Global Data Access Through the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Miller, S. P.; Maffei, A. R.; Glaves, H. M.; Carbotte, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation supports a fleet of academic research vessels operating throughout the world's oceans. In addition to supporting the mission-specific goals of each expedition, these vessels routinely deploy a suite of underway environmental sensors, operating like mobile observatories. Recognizing that the data from these instruments have value beyond each cruise, NSF funded R2R in 2009 to ensure that these data are routinely captured, cataloged and described, and submitted to the appropriate national repository for long-term public access. In 2013, R2R joined the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP; http://odip.org/). The goal of ODIP is to remove barriers to the effective sharing of data across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional systems. To advance this goal, ODIP organizes international workshops to foster the development of common standards and develop prototypes to evaluate and test potential standards and interoperability solutions. ODIP includes major organizations engaged in ocean data stewardship in the EU, US, and Australia, supported by the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). Within the broad scope of ODIP, R2R focuses on contributions in 4 key areas: ● Implement a 'Linked Open Data' approach to disseminate data and documentation, using existing World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications and machine-readable formats. Exposing content as Linked Open Data will provide a simple mechanism for ODIP collaborators to browse and compare data sets among repositories. ● Map key vocabularies used by R2R to their European and Australian counterparts. The existing heterogeneity among terms inhibits data discoverability, as a user searching on the term with which s/he is familiar may not find all data of interest. Mapping key terms across the different ODIP partners, relying on the backbone thesaurus provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server

  19. 圈4C 的(r1,r2,r3,r4)−冠的优美性%The gracefulness of the (r1, r2, r3, r4)−corona of the cycle 4C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃生

    2012-01-01

      讨论了圈4C 的( r r 21,,, r r 43)−冠的优美性,用构造性的方法给出了圈4C 的( r r 21,,, r r 43)−冠的优美标号。证明了圈4C 的( r r 21,,, r r 43)−冠都是交错图。%  Discussed the gracefulness of the( r r 2 1 , , , r r 4 3 )−corona of the cycle 4C .The graceful labeling was given.Proved that the( r r 2 1 , , , r r 4 3 )−corona of the cycle 4C are graceful graph.

  20. Identificación de Genes R1 y R2 que confieren resistencia a Phytophthora infestans en genotipos colombianos de papa Identification of R1 and R2 Genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Colombian potato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Víctor M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, actualmente existen genotipos de papa con excelente calidad industrial pero muy susceptibles a P. infestans. La mejor manera de combatir este problema es mediante resistencia genética, puesto que la inversión para controlar esta enfermedad por medios químicos es muy costosa, sin olvidar la contaminación ambiental que producen. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de genes R1 y R2 en los diferenciales de papa respectivos (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum mediante evaluación de resistencia a P. infestans y la detección molecular por medio de PCR (alelo R1 y AFLP (alelo R2. Para la detección del alelo R1 fueron empleados los primers GP179, GP21, 76-2SF2/76-2SR, SPUD237 y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R. Los primers GP179, GP21 y SPUD237 fueron inespecíficos para Rl, ya que se generó un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2, así como también en Solanum phureja. Los primers 76-2SF2/76-2SR, y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R generaron un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2; por el contrario, el fragmento estuvo ausente en el material susceptible. Para la detección del alelo R2, fueron implementados cinco marca­dores AFLP, de los cuales sólo dos fueron reconocidos visualmente en el diferencial 2. Los resultados mostra­ron una evidente correspondencia fenotípica y genotípica con respecto a la presencia de los genes Rl y R2. La identificación molecular de genes de resistencia a P. infestans permitirá desarrollar programas de mejoramiento genético que beneficien directamente los rendimientos de los cultivos de papa, sobre todo los de mayor interés industrial para nuestro país.Excellent industrial quality potato genotypes are currently available in Colombia; however, they are very sus­ceptible to P. infestans. The best way of fighting this problem is by genetic resistance, given that the expense of controlling this disease through chemicals is high, plus the environmental

  1. The Construction and Optimization of Moodle Platform on Windows Server 2012 R2 and Wamp Server%基于Windows Server 2012 R2、WampServer环境的Moodle平台搭建及优化扩展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东宇

    2014-01-01

    研究了以WampServer集成环境为Web服务器,在Windows Server 2012 R2系统下搭建Moodle平台的过程,经比较试验得出了基于 Windows 8界面操作系统的平台架设环境,并从功能扩展和性能优化等方面给出了解决方案。%A process of Moodle platform construction is researched,using WampServer integrating environment as Web server under a system of Windows Server 2012 R2.After comparable experiments,a platform construction environment on Windows 8 surface operating system is got.And a solution is given from functional expansion,performance optimization and other aspects.

  2. A Classification of Quadratic Harmonic Morphisms Between Semi-Euclidean Spaces R3r→R2s%二次调和同态φ:R3r→R2s的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢卫君; 方丽菁

    2005-01-01

    在给出半定欧氏空间之间二次调和同态的结构方程之后,通过对结构方程的系数矩阵的分析及特殊坐标系的运用,推广Ou-Wood关于欧氏空间之间二次调和同态的结果,获得二次调和同态R3r→R2s的分类.%In this paper,we study quadratic harmonic morphisms between semi-Euclidean spaces.We give a structure equation of such morphisms using their coefficient matrices analysis and special coordinates generalizing the results of Ou-Wood on quadratic harmonic morphisms between Euclidean spaces.As an application,we obtain a classification of quadratic harmonic morphisms R3r→R2s.

  3. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  4. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  5. Muscle-specific overexpression of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 gives rise to common and discrete local effects whilst AdipoR2 promotes additional systemic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Sahar; Henstridge, Darren C.; Ng, Choaping; Febbraio, Mark A.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia and adiponectin resistance are implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, hence represent a potential therapeutic axis. Here we characterised the effects of in vivo electrotransfer-mediated overexpression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, into tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) of lean or obese mice. In lean mice, TAM-specific overexpression of AdipoR1 (TAMR1) or AdipoR2 (TAMR2) increased phosphorylation of AMPK, AKT and ERK and expression of the insulin responsive glucose transporter glut4. In contrast, only TAMR2 increased pparα and a target gene acox1. These effects were decreased in obese mice despite no reduction in circulating adiponectin levels. TAMR2 also increased expression of adipoQ in TAM of lean and obese mice. Furthermore, in obese mice TAMR2 promoted systemic effects including; decreased weight gain; reduced epididymal fat mass and inflammation; increased epididymal adipoQ expression; increased circulating adiponectin. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 exhibit overlapping and distinct effects in skeletal muscle consistent with enhanced adiponectin sensitivity but these appear insufficient to ameliorate established obesity-induced adiponectin resistance. We also identify systemic effects upon TAMR2 in obese mice and postulate these are mediated by altered myokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate this possibility which may reveal novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28145500

  6. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  7. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  8. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  9. Reactor neutrons in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Glorius, Jan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Jentschel, Michael; Jurado, Beatriz; Käppeler, Franz; Köster, Ulli; Langer, Christoph; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Weigand, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The huge neutron fluxes offer the possibility to use research reactors to produce isotopes of interest, which can be investigated afterwards. An example is the half-lives of long-lived isotopes like 129I. A direct usage of reactor neutrons in the astrophysical energy regime is only possible, if the corresponding ions are not at rest in the laboratory frame. The combination of an ion storage ring with a reactor and a neutron guide could open the path to direct measurements of neutron-induced cross sections on short-lived radioactive isotopes in the astrophysically interesting energy regime.

  10. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  11. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  12. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  13. Web-based health care agents; the case of reminders and todos, too (R2Do2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, B G; Andonyadis, C; Morales, A

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop and field an agent-based, healthcare middleware framework that securely connects practice rule sets to patient records to anticipate health todo items and to remind and alert users about these items over the web. Reminders and todos, too (R2Do2) is an example of merging data- and document-centric architectures, and of integrating agents into patient-provider collaboration environments. A test of this capability verifies that R2Do2 is progressing toward its two goals: (1) an open standards framework for middleware in the healthcare field; and (2) an implementation of the 'principle of optimality' to derive the best possible health plans for each user. This paper concludes with lessons learned to date.

  14. 2MASS wide field extinction maps: IV. The Orion, Mon R2, Rosette, and Canis Major star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Marco; lada, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present a near-infrared extinction map of a large region (approximately 2200 deg^2) covering the Orion, the Monoceros R2, the Rosette, and the Canis Major molecular clouds. We used robust and optimal methods to map the dust column density in the near-infrared (NICER and NICEST) towards ~19 million stars of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) point source catalog. Over the relevant regions of the field, we reached a 1-sigma error of 0.03 mag in the K-band extinction with a resolution of 3 arcmin. We measured the cloud distances by comparing the observed density of foreground stars with the prediction of galactic models, thus obtaining d_{Orion A} = (371 +/- 10) pc, d_{Orion B} = (398 +/- 12) pc, $d_{Mon R2} = (905 +/- 37) pc, $d_{Rosette} = (1330 +/- 48) pc, and $d_{CMa} = (1150 +/- 64) pc, values that compare very well with independent estimates.

  15. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Organizing Datasets from Heterogeneous Shipboard Data into an Integrated Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. D.; Arko, R. A.; Sweeney, A.; Fischman, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; rvdata.us) program is to develop and implement a fleet-wide information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. One of the program’s primary challenges is to develop a workflow for routinely gathering data from a fleet with heterogeneous instrumentation and file systems, breaking out the data into discrete data sets, and transferring the data to the appropriate National Data Center. Because R2R expects to receive 300-400 cruises per year from a wide range of vessel classes and at least two dozen major device types, this workflow must be highly automated. R2R has developed and implemented a workflow for processing underway data: - Collection: data are provided at the end of a cruise as a cruise distribution using the mechanism preferred by the vessel operator. - Inventory: a complete inventory of each cruise distribution is created, listing the filename, date, size, and checksum. This inventory is published online by R2R. - Raw Archive: the entire original cruise distribution is transmitted securely to the National Geophysical Data Center for deep archive. - Data Breakout: data from each device are extracted from the cruise distribution according to a vessel profile yielding a discrete data set. Once a data set is broken out and any proprietary holds are cleared, it is delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for archiving and dissemination. It may also be processed further for quality assessment/quality control and/or publication of standard products. Data sets sent to a National Data Center will have unique and persistent R2R identifiers, which link to parent cruise information on the R2R site. The site will include the URL link to each data set at the National Data Center, allowing a user browsing the R2R cruise catalog to download it. Because each vessel operator typically has a customized system for naming and organizing

  16. Role of GluR2 expression in AMPA-induced toxicity in cultured murine cerebral cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Bisgaard; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Timmermann, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R)-mediated neurotoxicity was studied in relation to subunit expression and the presence of Ca(2+)-permeable receptor channels. AMPA-mediated toxicity had two components: 1) a direct AMPA-R-mediated component, which was not due...... of the Mg(2+) block of the NMDA receptor on AMPA-R stimulation. The involvement of Ca(2+) influx through AMPA-R was also examined. The number of neurons possessing Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA-R increased during culture development, concurrently with an increasing susceptibility for AMPA-induced toxicity during...... development. GluR2(R) levels also increased during development, and channel blockers of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA-R lacking the GluR2(R) subunit (spermine and philanthotoxin) failed to prevent neurotoxicity or increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Thus, the direct AMPA-R-mediated toxicity may be explained by initiation...

  17. Ab initio study of metastable layered perovskites R2Ti2O7 (R = Sm and Gd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayede, Adlane; Bruyer, Emilie; Springborg, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The structural, electronic, and ferroelectric properties of metastable R2Ti2O7(R= Sm and Gd) layered perovskites materials are investigated by first-principles density functional theory calculations. The computed structural parameters are found to be in good agreement with experimental findings. The calculated spontaneous polarizations of the studied titanates are found to be larger than the spontaneous polarization of the usual R2Ti2O7 layered perovskites materials. GGA+U electronic structures predict a good photocatalytic activity for the studied compounds, in particular for Gd2Ti2O7, which lacks electron-carriers trapping in the conduction band. From the results of the total energy and the polarization as functions of structure we estimate the responses of the materials to external electrostatic fields.

  18. Comparing consistency of R2* and T2*-weighted BOLD analysis of resting state fetal fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I.; Gatenby, Christopher; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Understanding when and how resting state brain functional activity begins in the human brain is an increasing area of interest in both basic neuroscience and in the clinical evaluation of the brain during pregnancy and after premature birth. Although fMRI studies have been carried out on pregnant women since the 1990's, reliable mapping of brain function in utero is an extremely challenging problem due to the unconstrained fetal head motion. Recent studies have employed scrubbing to exclude parts of the time series and whole subjects from studies in order to control the confounds of motion. Fundamentally, even after correction of the location of signals due to motion, signal intensity variations are a fundamental limitation, due to coil sensitivity and spin history effects. An alternative technique is to use a more parametric MRI signal derived from multiple echoes that provides a level of independence from basic MRI signal variation. Here we examine the use of R2* mapping combined with slice based multi echo geometric distortion correction for in-utero studies. The challenges for R2* mapping arise from the relatively low signal strength of in-utero data. In this paper we focus on comparing activation detection in-utero using T2W and R2* approaches. We make use a subset of studies with relatively limited motion to compare the activation patterns without the additional confound of significant motion. Results at different gestational ages indicate comparable agreement in many activation patterns when limited motion is present, and the detection of some additional networks in the R2* data, not seen in the T2W results.

  19. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  20. Magnetic phase diagrams of R2RhIn8 (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermák, P; Kratochvílová, M; Pajskr, K; Javorský, P

    2012-05-23

    We have grown and characterized single crystals of R(2)RhIn(8) (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) compounds crystallizing in the tetragonal Ho(2)CoGa(8)-type crystal structure. Their magnetic properties were studied by specific heat and magnetization measurements. All the investigated compounds order antiferromagnetically with Néel temperatures of 43.6, 25.1, 10.9, 3.8 and 4.1 K, respectively. Magnetic phase diagrams were constructed.

  1. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  2. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  3. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  4. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  5. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  6. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  7. Nuclear research reactors activities in INVAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Juan Pablo [INVAP, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the different activities in the research reactor field that are being carried out by INVAP. INVAP is presently involved in the design of three new research reactors in three different countries. The RA-10 is a multipurpose reactor, in Argentina, planned as a replacement for the RA-3 reactor. INVAP was contracted by CNEA for carrying out the preliminary engineering for this reactor, and has recently been contracted by CNEA for the detailed engineering. CNEA groups are strongly involved in the design of this reactor. The RMB is a multipurpose reactor, planned by CNEN from Brazil. CNEN, through REDETEC, has contracted INVAP to carry out the preliminary engineering for this reactor. As the user requirements for RA-10 and RMB are very similar, an agreement was signed between Argentina and Brasil governments to cooperate in these two projects. The agreement included that both reactors would use the OPAL reactor in Australia, design and built by INVAP, as a reference reactor. INVAP has also designed the LPRR reactor for KACST in Saudi Arabia. The LPRR is a 30 kw reactor for educational purposes. KACST initially contracted INVAP for the engineering for this reactor and has recently signed the contract with INVAP for building the reactor. General details of these three reactors will be presented.

  8. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  9. R2E-related MD: slow controlled losses for RadMon/BLM cross-checks

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Spiezia, G; Sapinski, M; Priebe, A; Nordt, A; Pojer, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dedicated R2E MD has been to evaluate the R factor (i.e. the ratio between the thermal neutron fluence and the high energy hadron fluence (>20MeV) for various tunnel locations, to measure the HEH radiation level gradient along the MBC dipole and on the MQ, to check the ratio the BLM measured dose and RadMon SEU counts and to study the dose gradient between the standard BLM beam axis location and at the level of the equipment location. Within the R2E Mitigation Project, these accurate measurement and cross-check of the mentioned parameters are of great importance for the evaluation and interpretation of the R2E-related radiation levels, as well as for the evaluation of the failure cross-section of specific equipment (i.e. QPS ISO150). In addition, a short part of the MD has been devoted to the comparison of BLM signals generated by loss directed inwards and outwards with respect to the LHC ring.

  10. Using the Nonverbal Test SON-R2 ½ - 7 [a] to Assess Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of cognitive assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorders is due to the association between cognitive deficits and severity of symptoms, adaptive functioning, prognosis and planning of more effective interventions.Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the non-verbal test of intelligence SON-R 2 ½ - 7 [a] adequacy in ASD group of children. The participants were 18 boys aged 4 and 7 years old, diagnosed based on the DSM-IV-TR and scored on screening instruments. The nonverbal intelligence test SON-R 2 ½ - 7 [a], the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC, the Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS were used. The results showed that 55.6% of the group had IQs below average, and there was significant difference between the performance of TEA group and normative sample in the four subtests that compose the instrument. Intra-group analysis showed statistically significant differences between subtests, although these showed significant positive correlations with each other. Negative and significant correlations were observed between IQ Total in SON-R 2 ½ - 7 [a] the ABC and ASQ, as well as positive and significant correlations were observed between Total IQ and VABS. The results corroborate previous findings that indicate moderate relationships between intelligence, severityof symptoms and functionality, as well as the presence of specific profile of nonverbal performance in ASD group.

  11. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Didelon, P; Tremblin, P; Hill, T; Hony, S; Hennemann, M; Hennebelle, P; Anderson, L D; Galliano, F; Schneider, N; Rayner, T; Rygl, K; Louvet, F; Zavagno, A; Konyves, V; Sauvage, M; Andre, Ph; Bontemps, S; Peretto, N; Griffin, M; Gonzalez, M; Lebouteiller, V; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Di Francesco, J; Menshchikov, A; Minier, V; Luong, Q Nguyen; Bernard, J -P; Palmeirim, P; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Russeil, D; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2015-01-01

    The surroundings of HII regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H II regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding HII regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H II region association. Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of HII bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The four hot bubbles associated with H II regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes. The radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four HII regions could be free-fal...

  12. AVAQ 594-597 deletion of the TfR2 gene in a Japanese family with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ai; Wakusawa, Shinnya; Hayashi, Hisao; Harashima, Ai; Sanae, Fujiko; Kawanaka, Miwa; Yamada, Gohtaro; Yano, Motoyashi; Yoshioka, Kenntaro

    2003-06-01

    The majority of Caucasian patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. In contrast to its high prevalence in Caucasians, hemochromatosis is a rare disorder in Japan. This may be due to the low prevalence of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene in Japanese. Recent reports suggest that the mutations of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene may be involved in non-HFE hemochromatosis. Therefore, we investigated the TfR2 gene of 6 sporadic and 5 familiar cases of Japanese hemochromatosis. Three siblings in one family were found to be homozygous for an AVAQ 594-597 deletion. All three had severe iron deposits in the hepatocytes and bile ducts, but none was affected by diabetes mellitus. This mutation was not detected in 100 control individuals. Further study was undertaken to investigate whether the large deletion of the TfR2 gene is the mutation responsible for some of the Japanese hemochromatosis cases.

  13. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  14. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  15. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  16. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  17. Reactor containment research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, N. A.

    1963-06-15

    An outline is given of containment concepts, sources and release rates of energy, responses of containment structures, effects of projectiles, and leakage rates of radioisotopes, with particular regard to major reactor accidents. (T.F.H.)

  18. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  19. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  20. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  1. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  2. DARHUBER: A Computer Program for Effect Size Estimation in Linear Regression and for Calculating the Significance of Difference between Observed and Expected R2 Values

    OpenAIRE

    Hittner, James B.; N. Clayton Silver

    2016-01-01

    In linear multiple regression it is common practice to test whether the squared multiple correlation co efficient, R2, differs significantly from zero. Although frequently used, this test is misleading because the expected value of R2 is not zero under the null hypothesis that ρ, the population value of the multiple correlation coefficient, equals zero. The non-zero expected value of R2 has implications both for significance testing and effect size estimation involving the squared multipl...

  3. Dead element replicating: degenerate R2 element replication and rDNA genomic turnover in the Bacillus rossius stick insect (Insecta: Phasmida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martoni

    Full Text Available R2 is an extensively investigated non-LTR retrotransposon that specifically inserts into the 28S rRNA gene sequences of a wide range of metazoans, disrupting its functionality. During R2 integration, first strand synthesis can be incomplete so that 5' end deleted copies are occasionally inserted. While active R2 copies repopulate the locus by retrotransposing, the non-functional truncated elements should frequently be eliminated by molecular drive processes leading to the concerted evolution of the rDNA array(s. Although, multiple R2 lineages have been discovered in the genome of many animals, the rDNA of the stick insect Bacillus rossius exhibits a peculiar situation: it harbors both a canonical, functional R2 element (R2Brfun as well as a full-length but degenerate element (R2Brdeg. An intensive sequencing survey in the present study reveals that all truncated variants in stick insects are present in multiple copies suggesting they were duplicated by unequal recombination. Sequencing results also demonstrate that all R2Brdeg copies are full-length, i. e. they have no associated 5' end deletions, and functional assays indicate they have lost the active ribozyme necessary for R2 RNA maturation. Although it cannot be completely ruled out, it seems unlikely that the degenerate elements replicate via reverse transcription, exploiting the R2Brfun element enzymatic machinery, but rather via genomic amplification of inserted 28S by unequal recombination. That inactive copies (both R2Brdeg or 5'-truncated elements are not eliminated in a short term in stick insects contrasts with findings for the Drosophila R2, suggesting a widely different management of rDNA loci and a lower efficiency of the molecular drive while achieving the concerted evolution.

  4. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  5. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  6. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  7. The resonance absorption controlled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1977-07-01

    In this report a new method of reactor control based on tho isotopic moderator composition variation is studied, taking as a reference a D{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O system. With this method an spectacular increment in the burn-up degree and a sensible reduction of the conventional control system is obtained. An important part of this work has been the detailed analysis of the parameters affecting the neutron spectrum in a heterogeneous reactor. (Author) 50 refs.

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  9. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel. The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

  10. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamic Parameter Study of Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is performed with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY. Simulation with differing chamber parameters are implemented to study the effect of gas fill, gas mixtures and chamber radii. Xenon and argon gases are of particular interest as shielding for the first wall due to their high opacity values and ready availability. Mixing of the two gases is an attempt to engineer a gas cocktail to provide the maximum amount of shielding with the least amount of cost. A parameter study of different chamber radii shows a consistent relationship with that of first wall temperature (~1/r2) and overpressure (~1/r3). This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  13. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  15. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  16. Comparison of four enhancement strategies for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong; Wu, Wei-Min

    2011-02-15

    Aerobic granules were developed in four identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with synthetic wastewater to compare different strategies for the enhancement of granulation. The SBRs were operated by (a) increasing organic loading rate in R1; (b) reducing settling time in R2; (c) extending starvation period in R3; and (d) increasing shear force in R4. The results showed that four operational strategies were able to enhance aerobic granulation successfully in SBR, but that also showed different effect on the granulation process and characteristics of mature aerobic granules. The rapidest granulation was observed by using short settling time (R2) and the granules had higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) than other reactors. Extended starvation period (R3) and high shear force (R4) resulted in longer granulation period and the granules with higher integrity and smaller size. Higher organic loading rate (R1) resulted in the granules with larger size and higher K value. The maximum specific COD removal rates (q(max)) of the granules in all SBRs were at a similar level (0.13-0.16 g COD/h-g VSS) but the granules in R1 and R2 had higher apparent half rate constant (K) of 18 and 16 mg/L, than those in R3 and R4 (2.8 and 3.3 mg/L).

  17. Comparison of four enhancement strategies for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Dawen, E-mail: dawengao@gmail.com [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu Lin; Liang Hong [School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wu Weimin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Aerobic granules were developed in four identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with synthetic wastewater to compare different strategies for the enhancement of granulation. The SBRs were operated by (a) increasing organic loading rate in R1; (b) reducing settling time in R2; (c) extending starvation period in R3; and (d) increasing shear force in R4. The results showed that four operational strategies were able to enhance aerobic granulation successfully in SBR, but that also showed different effect on the granulation process and characteristics of mature aerobic granules. The rapidest granulation was observed by using short settling time (R2) and the granules had higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) than other reactors. Extended starvation period (R3) and high shear force (R4) resulted in longer granulation period and the granules with higher integrity and smaller size. Higher organic loading rate (R1) resulted in the granules with larger size and higher K value. The maximum specific COD removal rates (q{sub max}) of the granules in all SBRs were at a similar level (0.13-0.16 g COD/h-g VSS) but the granules in R1 and R2 had higher apparent half rate constant (K) of 18 and 16 mg/L, than those in R3 and R4 (2.8 and 3.3 mg/L).

  18. R2(GFRCHADS2 and R2(GFRCHA2DS2VASc schemes improved the performance of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores in death risk stratification of Chinese older patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu,1,2,* Shanjing Zhou,3,* Leiming Luo,1 Ping Ye1 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, 2Department of Cardiology and Hainan Branch, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Hainan Branch, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: This analysis was carried out to refine the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores by combining creatinine clearance (CrCl and glomerular filtration rate (GFR and evaluate the performance of CrCl-based and GFR-based schemes in death risk stratification of Chinese older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF.Methods: There were 219 older patients with AF, and all-cause mortality was assessed during the follow-up of 1.11 years. Renal function was evaluated using the CrCl formula and different GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], Chinese MDRD [CMDRD], Mayo Clinic Quadratic [Mayo] and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI] formulas, and five kinds of R2CHADS2 and R2CHA2DS2VASc schemes were generated by combining CrCl and GFR with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores.Results: In Cox regression multivariate analysis, CrCl <60 mL/min was moderately associated with death risk (P=0.122 and P=0.144. When MDRD, CMDRD, CKD-EPI and Mayo formulas were used to ascertain the GFR, GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was significantly associated with death risk (P<0.001 for all. In the models with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores as the linear covariates, CrCl and GFR as the continuous variables were significantly associated with death risk (P<0.05 for all. C-statistics of CrCl-based schemes – R2(CrClCHADS2 and R2(CrClCHA2DS2VASc – moderately exceeded that of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores (P=0.081 and 0.082. C-statistics of GFR-based schemes – R2(GFRCHADS2 and R2(GFRCHA2DS2VASc – significantly exceeded that of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores (P<0.05 for all.Conclusion: Chinese older patients with AF with

  19. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Anuar, Abul Adli, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Idris, Hairul Nizam, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ba' an, Rohyiza, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  20. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  1. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)

    2006-02-15

    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  3. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  4. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  5. Importance of the operating pH in maintaining the stability of anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynski, L W; Cicek, N; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2011-07-01

    Two bench-scale parallel moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) were operated to assess pH-associated anammox activity changes during long term treatment of anaerobically digested sludge centrate pre-treated in a suspended growth partial nitrification reactor. The pH was maintained at 6.5 in reactor R1, while it was allowed to vary naturally between 7.5 and 8.1 in reactor R2. At high nitrogen loads reactor R2 had a 61% lower volumetric specific nitrogen removal rate than reactor R1. The low pH and the associated low free ammonia (FA) concentrations were found to be critical to stable anammox activity in the MBBR. Nitrite enhanced the nitrogen removal rate in the conditions of low pH, all the way up to the investigated level of 50mg NO(2)-N/L. At low FA levels nitrite concentrations up to 250 mg NO(2)-N/L did not cause inactivation of anammox consortia over a 2-days exposure time.

  6. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1.

  7. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  8. Functional Characterization of Cotton GaMYB62L, a Novel R2R3 TF in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Hamama Islam; Yang, Zhaoen; Chen, Eryong; Zhao, Ge; Gong, Qian; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress can trigger the production of ABA in plants, in response to adverse conditions, which induces the transcript of stress-related marker genes. The R2R3 MYB TFs are implicated in regulation of various plants developmental, metabolic and multiple environmental stress responses. Here, a R2R3-MYB cloned gene, GaMYB62L, was transformed in Arabidopsis and was functionally characterized. The GaMYB62L protein contains two SANT domains with a conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats. The GaMYB62L cDNA is 1,017 bp with a CDS of 879, encodes a 292-residue polypeptide with MW of 38.78 kD and a pI value of 8.91. Overexpressed GaMYB62L transgenic Arabidopsis have increased proline and chlorophyll content, superior seed germination rate under salt and osmotic stress, less water loss rate with reduced stomatal apertures, high drought avoidance as compared to WT on water deprivation and also significant plant survival rates at low temperature. In addition, overexpressed GaMYB62L lines were more sensitive to ABA mediated germination and root elongation assay. Moreover, ABA induced GaMYB62L overexpression, enhanced the expression of ABA stress related marker genes like RD22, COR15A, ADH1, and RD29A. Together, overexpression of GaMYB62L suggested having developed better drought, salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and thus presented it as a prospective candidate gene to achieve better abiotic stress tolerance in cotton crop. PMID:28125637

  9. Research on Server Virtualized Application of Hyper-V Server 2008 R2%Hyper-V Server2008R2的服务器虚拟化应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慨

    2011-01-01

    通过在Hyper-V Server 2008 R2上部署虚拟服务器实例,就虚拟机图形化管理、虚拟机性能规划及对Linux的支持等方面进行了探索,并对提供相同服务的虚拟服务器及真实服务器的性能进行了比较;结果显示,虚拟机的CPU、内存性能要优于真实服务器,其网络性能相近,虚拟硬盘的性能虽有所不及,但可通过采用不同的存储方案获得提升.研究表明,使用Hyper-V Server 2008 R2虚拟化技术整合多个服务器是可行的.

  10. 1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴失效分析%Invalidation analysis for main driving cross axle of R2 roughing mill in 1580 hot rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永锋

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴的失效原因进行了分析,指出该十字轴主要是在1.5倍额定负荷以上的工况条件下产生接触疲劳破坏,并提出了对十字轴表面重新加工处理,使其恢复表面硬度和粗糙度,重新单配轴承的修复方案,延长了十字轴的使用寿命.%The invalidation reason of R2 main driving cross axle in Baosteel 1580 hot rolling mill is analyzed.It is pointed out that the contact fatigue failure of the cross axle is due to more than 1.5 times of nominal load under working condition.An approach to treat the damaged working surface of the cross axle, and recover its surface stiffness and roughness, then make up bearing is put forward, and that service life of cross axle is prolonged.

  11. Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (R2 and mefloquine (R3 in Brazilian Amazon region Resistência do Plasmodium vivax pela cloroquina (R2 e mefloquina (R3 na amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças C. Alecrim

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time a patient with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax who showed R2 resistance to chloroquine and R3 resistance to mefloquine in the Brazilian Amazon region based on WHO clinical criteria for diagnosis of malaria resistance. Failure was observed with unsupervised oral chloroquine, chloroquine under rigorous supervision and mefloquine in the same scheme. Finally, the patient was cured with oral artesunate.Estamos relatando pela primeira vez um paciente com malária por Plasmodium vivax que mostrou resistência R2 à cloroquina e resistência R3 à mefloquina na Amazônia brasileira, de acordo com os critérios clínicos da OMS para resistência da malária. A falha foi observada com cloroquina oral, não supervisionada, cloroquina oral administrada sob rigorosa supervisão e com mefloquina no mesmo esquema. A paciente curou com o artesunato oral.

  12. An overview of the radiation environment at the LHC in light of R2E irradiation test activities

    CERN Document Server

    Roeed, K; Spiezia, G; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present a brief overview of the radiation environment that can be expected in areas where electronics is installed in the LHC. This covers particle energy spectra in addition to nominal integrated values of the High Energy Hadron (HEH) fluence, relevant for Single Event Effects (SEEs), Total Ionizing Dose (TID), and the 1 MeV neutron equivalent, relevant for displacement damage. The risk of thermal neutrons is considered by introducing the risk factor Rth. This report is presented as part of the R2E project and should create a foundation from which appropriate irradiation test criteria can be evaluated and determined.

  13. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Transforming the Academic Fleet Into an Integrated Global Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSF-supported oceanographic research expeditions support diverse scientific investigations across all disciplines of ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation and the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) are the primary oceanographic research platforms, and operate as essential mobile observing platforms for ocean science. Ships ranging from “global” to “local” class are capable of operating throughout the deep oceans and within coastal and inland waterways. Each vessel is equipped with a suite of sensors, including geophysical, water column, and meteorological sensors, that are available for continuous operation during each expedition. The “underway” datasets obtained from these sensors provide characterization of basic environmental conditions for the oceans and are of high value for later reuse for building global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. The recently funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Project aims to develop a comprehensive plan for fleet-wide data management to ensure preservation and accessibility of our national oceanographic research data resources. The R2R Portal (www.rvdata.us) is being developed as a central shore-side data gateway through which underway data from oceanographic expeditions can be routinely cataloged and securely transmitted to the national long-term digital data archives including the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). R2R will provide essential data documentation services for every expedition along with new tools to improve documentation of the wide array of shipboard data collection activities typical of modern expeditions. Protocols will be developed

  14. Constraints on the Combined Models with $R^{2-q}$ Inflation and Viable $f(R)$ Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lin, Shan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the observational constraints on the modified gravity, which combines the $R^{2-q}$ inflation with the power-law and exponential types of the viable $f(R)$ dark energy models. We obtain the constraints on the deviation power $q$ as well as the parameters in $f(R)$ by using the CosmoMC package. The allowed ranges of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from the Planck data are highly restricted, resulting in $q < 2.66 \\times 10^{-2}$ and $2.17 \\times 10^{-2}$ for the power-law and exponential types of $f(R)$ gravity, respectively.

  15. AMINOPHENYL ARSENIATO ADDUCTS AND DERIVATIVES OF SnR2Cl2 (R = Ph, Bu: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCAR TRAORÉ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new phenylarseniato adducts and derivatives have been synthesized on allowing SnR2Cl2 (R = Ph, Bu to react with Cy2NH2.NH2PhAsO3H.3/2H2O in specific ratios. The obtained new tin (IV compounds were studied by infrared, infinite chain and discrete structures were suggested on the basis of spectroscopic data, the oxyanion behaving as a bridging bidentate or a tridentate ligand. When secondary interactions are involved supramolecular architectures were obtained.

  16. 2MASS wide field extinction maps: IV. The Orion, Mon R2, Rosette, and Canis Major star forming regions

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, M.; Alves,J.; Lada, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a near-infrared extinction map of a large region (approximately 2200 deg^2) covering the Orion, the Monoceros R2, the Rosette, and the Canis Major molecular clouds. We used robust and optimal methods to map the dust column density in the near-infrared (NICER and NICEST) towards ~19 million stars of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) point source catalog. Over the relevant regions of the field, we reached a 1-sigma error of 0.03 mag in the K-band extinction with a resolution of 3...

  17. Determination of enantiomeric composition of (-)-(R)-2-tert-butyltetrahydroimidazolidin-4-one by polarimetry, 1H NMR, and chiral SFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Cirilo; Hernandez, Gilberto; Biba, Mirlinda; Welch, Christopher J

    2005-05-05

    Partial resolution of rac-2-tert-butyltetrahydroimidazolidin-4-one was carried out by recrystallization of diastereomeric salts. The enantiomeric composition of enriched samples was estimated by polarimetry, (1)H NMR, and chiral SFC. Enantiomeric composition estimated by polarimetry or by (1)H NMR was directly proportional to that estimated by chiral SFC. The occurrence of solute self-association in chloroform was detected through measurements of optical and specific rotation at variable concentration of (-)-(R)-2-tert-butyltetrahydroimidazolidin-4-one. Our data suggest that solute self-association in chloroform might be independent of enantiomeric composition.

  18. Proton-decoupled CPMG: a better experiment for measuring (15)N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2014-04-01

    (15)N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality (15)N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as (15)N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150ms. This is much shorter than (15)N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample (15)N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) (15)N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of (15)N(ε) spins in arginine side chains. We

  19. Estudo da causa determinante de sinistros de trânsito em cruzamentos ortogonais sinalizados com a placa R-2

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Charles Albert

    2013-01-01

    O estudo da causa determinante de sinistros de trânsito ocorridos em cruzamentos ortogonais sinalizados com a placa do tipo R-2 deve ser feito segundo um modelo que considere os comportamentos dos condutores quanto às velocidades desenvolvidas e quanto ao tipo de reação prévia à colisão. Tal modelo deve ser fundamentado na física clássica, na psicologia, na epistemologia, no direito penal e nas normas nacionais de trânsito. Após revisão da literatura brasileira, foi possível constatar a inexi...

  20. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  1. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation.

  2. Association of FcgR2a, but Not FcgR3a, with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Across Three Caucasian Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersma, Rinse K.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Roberts, Rebecca L.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Wolfkamp, Simone; Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E.; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Meisneris, Sander; Heijmans, Roel; Noble, Colin L.; Gearry, Richard B.; Barclay, Murrary L.; Gomez-Garcia, Maria; Lopez-Nevot, Miguel A.; Nieto, Antonio; Rodrigo, Luis; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Merriman, Tony R.; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Pena, A. Salvador; Martin, Javier; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Fc receptors II and III (FcgR2a, and FcgR3a) play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response. The FcgR2a*519GG and FcgR3a*559CC genotypes have been associated with several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, and po

  3. Association of FcgR2a, but not FcgR3a, with inflammatory bowel diseases across three Caucasian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersma, Rinse K; Crusius, J Bart A; Roberts, Rebecca L; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Wolfkamp, Simone; Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E; Festen, Eleonora A M; Meisneris, Sander; Heijmans, Roel; Noble, Colin L; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murrary L; Gómez-Garcia, María; Lopez-Nevot, Miguel A; Nieto, Antonio; Rodrigo, Luis; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Wijmenga, Cisca; Merriman, Tony R; Stokkers, Pieter C F; Peña, A Salvador; Martín, Javier; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Fc receptors II and III (FcgR2a, and FcgR3a) play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response. The FcgR2a*519GG and FcgR3a*559CC genotypes have been associated with several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, and po

  4. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy measures the distance between the two tyrosyl dadicals in the R2 subunit of the E. coli ribonucleotide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennati, Marina; Weber, Axel; Antonic, Jelena; Perlstein, Deborah L; Robblee, John; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2003-12-10

    Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). This RNR is composed of two homodimeric subunits: R1 and R2. R1 binds the NDPs in the active site, and R2 harbors the essential di-iron tyrosyl radical (Y*) cofactor. In this paper, we used PELDOR, a method that detects weak electron-electron dipolar coupling, to make the first direct measurement of the distance between the two Y*'s on each monomer of R2. In the crystal structure of R2, the Y*'s are reduced to tyrosines, and consequently R2 is inactive. In R2, where the Y*'s assume a well-defined geometry with respect to the protein backbone, the PELDOR method allows measurement of a distance of 33.1 +/- 0.2 A that compares favorably to the distance (32.4 A) between the center of mass of the spin density distribution of each Y* on each R2 monomer from the structure. The experiments provide the first direct experimental evidence for two Y*'s in a single R2 in solution.

  5. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  6. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  7. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  8. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  9. Entropy Production in Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián C.

    2017-06-01

    We have analyzed entropy production in chemically reacting systems and extended previous results to the two limiting cases of ideal reactors, namely continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR). We have found upper and lower bounds for the entropy production in isothermal systems and given expressions for non-isothermal operation and analyzed the influence of pressure and temperature in entropy generation minimization in reactors with a fixed volume and production. We also give a graphical picture of entropy production in chemical reactions subject to constant volume, which allows us to easily assess different options. We show that by dividing a reactor into two smaller ones, operating at different temperatures, the entropy production is lowered, going as near as 48 % less in the case of a CSTR and PFR in series, and reaching 58 % with two CSTR. Finally, we study the optimal pressure and temperature for a single isothermal PFR, taking into account the irreversibility introduced by a compressor and a heat exchanger, decreasing the entropy generation by as much as 30 %.

  10. Simplifying Microbial Electrosynthesis Reactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloelle G.S. Giddings

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata, which reduces carbon dioxide to acetate. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a poteniostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  11. Hanford reactor and separations facility advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-06-27

    This document describes the advantages and limitations of Hanford production facilities. In addition to summarizing the technical parameters of the reactors and separations plants and their mechanical features, the unique aspects of these facilities to the production of special materials in which the Commission may be interested have been discussed. As the primary difference between the B-C-D-DR-F-H reactors and the K reactors and the K reactors is in the number and length of process channels. This report is addressed primarily to the 2000-tube reactors. K reactor characteristics are within the range of lattice and flexibility parameters described.

  12. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  13. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  14. Altered RyR2 regulation by the calmodulin F90L mutation associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and early sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michail; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Beck, Konrad; Vassilakopoulou, Vyronia; Hu, Handan; Calver, Brian L; Theodoridou, Maria; Kashir, Junaid; Blayney, Lynda; Livaniou, Evangelia; Rizkallah, Pierre; Nounesis, George; Lai, F Anthony

    2014-08-25

    Calmodulin (CaM) association with the cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR2) regulates excitation-contraction coupling. Defective CaM-RyR2 interaction is associated with heart failure. A novel CaM mutation (CaM(F90L)) was recently identified in a family with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and early onset sudden cardiac death. We report the first biochemical characterization of CaM(F90L). F90L confers a deleterious effect on protein stability. Ca(2+)-binding studies reveal reduced Ca(2+)-binding affinity and a loss of co-operativity. Moreover, CaM(F90L) displays reduced RyR2 interaction and defective modulation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Hence, dysregulation of RyR2-mediated Ca(2+) release via aberrant CaM(F90L)-RyR2 interaction is a potential mechanism that underlies familial IVF.

  15. Effects of idle time on biological phosphorus removal by sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawen; Yin, Hang; Liu, Lin; Li, Xing; Liang, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Three identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effects of various idle times on the biological phosphorus (P) removal. The idle times were set to 3 hr (R1), 10 hr (R2) and 17 hr (R3). The results showed that the idle time of a SBR had potential impact on biological phosphorus removal, especially when the influent phosphorus concentration increased. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of the R2 and R3 systems declined dramatically compared with the stable R1 system, and the P-release and P-uptake rates of the R3 system in particular decreased dramatically. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that uncultured Pseudomonas sp. (GQ183242.1) and beta-Proteobacteria (AY823971) were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R1 and R2 systems, while uncultured gamma-Proteobacteria were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R3 system. Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), such as uncultured Sphingomonas sp. (AM889077), were found in the R2 and R3 systems. Overall, the R1 system was the most stable and exhibited the best phosphorus removal efficiency. It was found that although the idle time can be prolonged to allow the formation of intracellular polymers when the phosphorus concentration of the influent is low, systems with a long idle time can become unstable when the influent phosphorus concentration is increased.

  16. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent-(BOLD- Based R2′ MRI Study in Monkey Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2′ MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and time evolution of relative R2′ (rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia. Materials and Methods. 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2′ was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2∗ maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2′ was calculated respectively. Results. Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2′ values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (<.05. With reperfusion time evolution, rR2′ in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6–48 hours (<.05. rR2′ values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6–24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours. Conclusion. BOLD-based R2′ MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.

  17. ScbR- and ScbR2-mediated signal transduction networks coordinate complex physiological responses in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Li, Shanshan; Ji, Junjie; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2015-10-07

    In model organism Streptomyces coelicolor, γ-butyrolactones (GBLs) and antibiotics were recognized as signalling molecules playing fundamental roles in intra- and interspecies communications. To dissect the GBL and antibiotic signalling networks systematically, the in vivo targets of their respective receptors ScbR and ScbR2 were identified on a genome scale by ChIP-seq. These identified targets encompass many that are known to play important roles in diverse cellular processes (e.g. gap1, pyk2, afsK, nagE2, cdaR, cprA, cprB, absA1, actII-orf4, redZ, atrA, rpsL and sigR), and they formed regulatory cascades, sub-networks and feedforward loops to elaborately control key metabolite processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, morphological differentiation and stress response. Moreover, interplay among ScbR, ScbR2 and other regulators revealed intricate cross talks between signalling pathways triggered by GBLs, antibiotics, nutrient availability and stress. Our work provides a global view on the specific responses that could be triggered by GBL and antibiotic signals in S. coelicolor, among which the main echo was the change of production profile of endogenous antibiotics and antibiotic signals manifested a role to enhance bacterial stress tolerance as well, shedding new light on GBL and antibiotic signalling networks widespread among streptomycetes.

  18. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ksek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4 and TRAIL-R2 (DR5 expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  20. Electrically tunable transport and high-frequency dynamics in antiferromagnetic S r3I r2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinige, Heidi; Williamson, Morgan; Shen, Shida; Wang, Cheng; Cao, Gang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Tsoi, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We report dc and high-frequency transport properties of antiferromagnetic S r3I r2O7 . Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements show that the activation energy of this material can be tuned by an applied dc electrical bias. The latter allows for continuous variations in the sample resistivity of as much as 50% followed by a reversible resistive switching at higher biases. Such a switching is of high interest for antiferromagnetic applications in high-speed memory devices. Interestingly, we found the switching behavior to be strongly affected by a high-frequency (microwave) current applied to the sample. The microwaves at 3-7 GHz suppress the dc switching and produce resonancelike features that we tentatively associated with the dissipationless magnonics recently predicted to occur in antiferromagnetic insulators subject to ac electric fields. We have characterized the effects of microwave irradiation on electronic transport in S r3I r2O7 as a function of microwave frequency and power, strength and direction of external magnetic field, strength and polarity of applied dc bias, and temperature. Our observations support the potential of antiferromagnetic materials for high-speed/high-frequency spintronic applications.

  1. Boundary magnetization properties of epitaxial C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Binek, Christian; Berger, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The magnetoelectric antiferromagnet α -C r2O3 (chromia) is known to possess a roughness insensitive net equilibrium magnetization at the (0001) surface, called boundary magnetization (BM), which is coupled to the bulk antiferromagnetic order parameter. In order to verify whether this symmetry sensitive BM persists in alloys, we investigate the impact of diamagnetic dilution on chromia thin films alloyed with the isostructural α -A l2O3 (alumina). Single-crystalline C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films with (0001) surface orientation and varying stoichiometry have been grown by sputter codeposition in the concentration range between x =0 and x =0.6 . For these samples, we find the corundum crystal structure, the antiferromagnetic ordering, and the boundary magnetization to be preserved. We also find that the critical temperature TN can be tuned by alloying with α -A l2O3 , using the BM as a probe to study the magnetic phase transition. Furthermore, we were able to evaluate the critical exponent and the absolute BM values for different samples. Both properties corroborate that the observed magnetic signals originate from the BM rather than the bulk of the samples.

  2. Molecular and Merrifield supported chiral diamines for enantioselective addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo-Barahona, Mercedes; Cordovilla, Carlos; Genov, Miroslav N; Martínez-Ilarduya, Jesús M; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-10-28

    Chiral 1,2-ethylenediamines have been previously reported as active catalysts in the enantioselective addition reactions of ZnR2 to either methyl- or trifluoromethyl-ketones. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of different catalysts are described herein and lead to a dramatic effect in their catalytic activity. From these findings, we demonstrate the selective reactivity of the ligands used in the addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to methyl- and trifluoromethyl-ketones offering an enantioselective access either to chiral non-fluorinated alcohols or to chiral fluorinated tertiary alcohols. Considering the importance of the chiral trifluoromethyl carbinol fragment in several biologically active compounds, we have extended the scope of the addition reaction of ZnEt2 to several trifluoromethylketones catalyzed by (R,R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives. This work explores a homogeneous approach that provides excellent yields and very high ee and the use of a heterogenized tail-tied ligand affording moderate ee, high yields and allowing an easier handling and recycling.

  3. Targeting death receptor TRAIL-R2 by chalcones for TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Ksek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P; Król, Wojciech

    2012-11-20

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  4. MiRNA 17 family regulates cisplatin-resistant and metastasis by targeting TGFbetaR2 in NSCLC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyong Jiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been proven to play crucial roles in cancer, including tumor chemotherapy resistance and metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. TGFβ signal pathway abnormality is widely found in cancer and correlates with tumor proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. Here, miR-17, 20a, 20b were detected down-regulated in A549/DDP cells (cisplatin resistance compared with A549 cells (cisplatin sensitive. Over-expression of miR-17, 20a, 20b can not only decrease cisplatin-resistant but also reduce migration by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in A549/DDP cells. These functions of miR-17, 20a, 20b may be caused at least in part via inhibition of TGFβ signal pathway, as miR-17, 20a, 20b are shown to directly target and repress TGF-beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2 which is an important component of TGFβ signal pathway. Consequently, our study suggests that miRNA 17 family (including miR-17, 20a, 20b can act as TGFβR2 suppressor for reversing cisplatin-resistant and suppressing metastasis in NSCLC.

  5. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  6. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  7. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  8. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  9. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  10. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  11. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  12. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelon, P.; Motte, F.; Tremblin, P.; Hill, T.; Hony, S.; Hennemann, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Galliano, F.; Schneider, N.; Rayner, T.; Rygl, K.; Louvet, F.; Zavagno, A.; Könyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Griffin, M.; González, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Russeil, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The surroundings of H ii regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H ii regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. Aims: We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding H ii regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H ii region association, which has been imaged by the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras as part of the HOBYS key programme. Methods: Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of H ii bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. Results: The four hot bubbles associated with H ii regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes, which are partly embedded in filaments. The envelope's radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four H ii regions could be free-falling because they display shallow density profiles: ρ(r) ∝ r- q with q ≤slant 1.5. As for their outer parts, the two compact H ii regions show a ρ(r) ∝ r-2 profile, which is typical of the equilibrium structure of a singular isothermal sphere. In contrast, the central UCH ii region shows a steeper outer profile, ρ(r) ∝ r-2.5, that could be interpreted as material being forced to collapse, where an external agent overwhelms the internal pressure support. Conclusions: The size of the heated bubbles, the spectral type of the irradiating stars, and the mean initial neutral gas density are used to estimate the ionisation expansion time, texp ~ 0.1 Myr, for the dense UCH ii and compact H ii regions and ~ 0.35 Myr for the extended H ii region. Numerical simulations with and

  13. Rational Reprogramming of the R2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase into a Self-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.; Voegtli, W.C.; Khidekel, N.; Moënne-Loccoz, P.; Krebs, C.; Ley, B.A.; Huynh, B.H.; Loehr, T.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.; Bollinger, Jr., J.M. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    The outcome of O{sub 2} activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine){sub 2}-(carboxylate){sub 4} ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H{sub peroxo}) in O{sub 2} activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the 'extra' electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122 and which converts very slowly (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7 h) upon incubation at 0 C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone {epsilon}-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with {sup 16}O{sub 2} or {sub 18}O{sub 2} show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O{sub 2}. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Moessbauer and EXAFS characterization of

  14. Evaluation of A Novel Split-Feeding Anaerobic/Oxic Baffled Reactor (A/OBR) For Foodwaste Anaerobic Digestate: Performance, Modeling and Bacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Peng, Liyu; Jiang, Yixin; Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Su, Haijia

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the treatment efficiency from an anaerobic digester, a novel six-compartment anaerobic/oxic baffled reactor (A/OBR) was employed. Two kinds of split-feeding A/OBRs R2 and R3, with influent fed in the 1st, 3rd and 5th compartment of the reactor simultaneously at the respective ratios of 6:3:1 and 6:2:2, were compared with the regular-feeding reactor R1 when all influent was fed in the 1st compartment (control). Three aspects, the COD removal, the hydraulic characteristics and the bacterial community, were systematically investigated, compared and evaluated. The results indicated that R2 and R3 had similar tolerance to loading shock, but the R2 had the highest COD removal of 91.6% with a final effluent of 345 mg/L. The mixing patterns in both split-feeding reactors were intermediate between plug-flow and completely-mixed, with dead spaces between 8.17% and 8.35% compared with a 31.9% dead space in R1. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that the split-feeding strategy provided a higher bacterial diversity and more stable bacterial community than that in the regular-feeding strategy. Further analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria, among which Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes might be responsible for organic matter degradation and Proteobacteria for nitrification and denitrification.

  15. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  16. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  17. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  18. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  19. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  20. Scaledown of a methanol reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    This article shows how it is possible to define operating conditions for pilot plants and development labs by scaling down a commercial reactor. Points out that scaledown consideration and experiment planning can be done in a similar manner for the boiling water-cooled, Lurgi-type reactor. Explains that although the design of large, single-train plants to produce methanol for fuel use has different economic objectives, product specifications, and technical constraints from the traditional commercial methanol plants, the same fundamental laws of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics apply to both types of operation.