WorldWideScience

Sample records for Collaboration Size Size Difference Australia China

  1. The Roles of Size and Size Difference in Australian and Chinese Inter-firm Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available There has been considerable debate on the contribution and significance of firm size to the establishment, operation and success of business collaboration. One important source of this debate arises from differing definitions of firm size used in previous research. This paper uses firm size categories and size differences between collaborating firms to examine their contribution to the formation and performance of inter-firmcollaboration in Australia and China. Both qualitative case study and quantitative data analyses are adopted in this paper. Results from both the qualitative case study and quantitative study in Australia and China show that size plays a significant positive role in the formation and performance of business collaboration. Firmsprefer collaborating with larger partners. Bigger firms are more likely to achieve success collaborations. However, size difference plays a negative role in business collaboration. Collaborating with a bigger partner makes it harder to succeed. On the other hand, size and size difference play very different roles in performanceand outcomes of business collaboration in different countries.This paper compares the roles of firm size and size difference in Australian and Chinese inter-firm collaboration. The results provide important strategic implications for business managers, industry regulators, and policy decision makers regarding international business collaboration.

  2. Size makes a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. Data sources: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food...... nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). Results: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat...... content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have...

  3. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy may hold the key to explaining the effects of policy on the economy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of the bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Australia. In this paper, we found that the effectiveness of monetary policy varies with the size of the bank as well as the type of the loan. For different asset size and different kinds of loans, the effect of monetary policy is different. Thus, policy has distribu...

  4. Collaborative innovation effort and size in alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Anna-Leena; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    of organisational and marketing innovations. Additionally, small firms were more likely (than large) to engage into alliances as a part of their strategy. On more general level our data also confirm that factors such as: number of highly educated employees, foreign ownership of a firm and presence of firm......This study presents quantitative investigation of the factors that influence the process of forming strategic alliances with a special focus on the role of innovation strategies and firm’s size in alliance building process. The empirical sample is based on a large scale data from the Community...

  5. Air pollution and inhalation exposure to particulate matter of different sizes in rural households using improved stoves in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Yilong; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Huang-Fu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Wu, Fuyong; Wong, Minghung

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is considered to be among the top environmental risks in China. To examine the performance of improved stoves for reduction of indoor particulate matter (PM) emission and exposure in rural households, individual inhalation exposure to size-resolved PM was investigated using personal portable samplers carried by residents using wood gasifier stoves or improved coal stoves in a rural county in Central China. Concentrations of PM with different sizes in stationary indoor and outdoor air were also monitored at paired sites. The stationary concentrations of size-resolved PM in indoor air were greater than those in outdoor air, especially finer particles PM 0.25 . The daily averaged exposure concentrations of PM 0.25 , PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and total suspended particle for all the surveyed residents were 74.4±41.1, 159.3±74.3, 176.7±78.1 and 217.9±78.1μg/m 3 , respectively. Even using the improved stoves, the individual exposure to indoor PM far exceeded the air quality guideline by WHO at 25μg/m 3 . Submicron particles PM 1.0 were the dominant PM fraction for personal exposure and indoor and outdoor air. Personal exposure exhibited a closer correlation with indoor PM concentrations than that for outdoor concentrations. Both inhalation exposure and indoor air PM concentrations in the rural households with gasifier firewood stoves were evidently lower than the reported results using traditional firewood stoves. However, local governments in the studied rural areas should exercise caution when widely and hastily promoting gasifier firewood stoves in place of improved coal stoves, due to the higher PM levels in indoor and outdoor air and personal inhaled exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Field assessment of the impacts of landscape structure on different-sized airborne particles in residential areas of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li

    2017-10-01

    In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  8. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  9. Source of finance, growth and firm size: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jun; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    Using a comprehensive firm-level dataset spanning the period 1998-2005, this paper provides a thorough investigation of the relationship between firm size, total factor productivity growth and financial structure in China, controlling for the endogeneity of the latter. Generally, it finds financing source matters for firms of different size, and the extent to which financing source matters for firm growth is greater for small firms than big firms. Self-raised finance appears to be most effect...

  10. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  11. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  12. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  13. The degree distribution of fixed act-size collaboration networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we investigate a special evolving model of collaboration net-works, where the act-size is fixed. Based on the first-passage probability of Markov chain theory, this paper provides a rigorous proof for the existence of a limiting degree distribution of this model and proves that the degree distribution obeys the ...

  14. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: evidence from Australia(new version)

    OpenAIRE

    liu, luke

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We found the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan.

  15. Biodistribution of Different Sized Nanodiamonds in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin; Petunin, Alexey; Inzhevatkin, Evgeny; Burov, Andrey; Ronzhin, Nikita; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    The particle size is one of critical parameters influencing the biodistribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) after their administration into the body. As DNDs are prone to aggregation, the difference between their sizes in aqueous and physiological solutions has to be taken into account. Radioactive I125-BSA molecules were covalently immobilized on DNDs divided in three fractions of different average size. The DND-BSAI125 conjugates were intravenously administrated into adult mice and the particle allocation in the animal's organs and blood was evaluated based on the radioactivity distribution. We conclude that most of the conjugates were taken from the bloodstream and trapped in the liver and spleen. The short-term distribution pattern for all DNDs was similar regardless of size and practically unchanged with time. No significant clearance of the particles was observed for 4 h, but the presence of DNDs was detected in the blood. It was found that the largest particles tend to accumulate more into the liver as compared to the smaller ones. However, the size effect was not well pronounced for the studied size range.

  16. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  17. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  18. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  19. In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudien, Dirk; Knebel, Jan; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO 2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO 2 T805 and Printex ® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

  20. Permeability of different size waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Gavelytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world and life style is changing, but the most popular disposal route for waste is landfill globally until now. We have to think about waste prevention and preparing for re-use or recycling firstly, according to the waste disposal hierarchy. Disposed waste to the landfill must be the last opportunity. In a landfill, during waste degradation processes leachate is formed that can potentially cause clogging of bottom drainage layers. To ensure stability of a landfill construction, the physical properties of its components have to be controlled. The hydrology of precipitation, evaporation, runoff and the hydraulic performance of the capping and liner materials are important controls of the moisture content. The water balance depends also on the waste characteristics and waste particle size distribution. The aim of this paper is to determine the hydraulic permeability in a landfill depending on the particle size distribution of municipal solid waste disposed. The lab experiment results were compared with the results calculated with DEGAS model. Samples were taken from a landfill operated for five years. The samples particle sizes are: >100 mm, 80 mm, 60 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 0.01 mm and <0.01 mm. The permeability test was conducted using the column test. The paper presents the results of experiment and DEGAS model water permeability with waste particle size.

  1. Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? Print Having ...

  2. Drivers of close supply chain collaboration : one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de S.L.J.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of close supply chain collaboration and to develop a multi-variable conceptual model of factors that drive the need for close supply chain collaboration. Design/methodology/approach – A multi-variable conceptual model is developed

  3. Drivers of close supply chain collaboration: one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of close supply chain collaboration and to develop a multi-variable conceptual model of factors that drive the need for close supply chain collaboration. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-variable conceptual model is developed

  4. Does Secondary School Size Make a Difference? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M.; Garrett, Z.; Elbourne, D.; Bradley, S.; Noden, P.; Taylor, J.; West, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on school size but comparatively few high quality empirical studies comparing outcomes in schools of different sizes. This systematic review synthesizes the results of the published research from 31 studies on the effects of secondary school size from OECD countries since 1990. Overall the directions and patterns…

  5. Trajectory behaviour at different phonemic context sizes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a piecewise-linear model for the temporal trajectories of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients during phone transitions. As with conventional Hidden Markov Models, the parameters of the model can be estimated for different...

  6. Cultural differences in room size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulton, Aurelie; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan; Dodds, Trevor J

    2017-01-01

    Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio) and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs. long wall) from which the room was viewed. South Koreans were significantly less biased by room rectangularity and viewpoint than their German counterparts. These results are in line with previous notions of general cognitive processing strategies being more context dependent in East Asian societies than Western ones. We point to the necessity of considering culturally-specific cognitive processing strategies in visual spatial cognition research.

  7. Cultural differences in room size perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Saulton

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs. long wall from which the room was viewed. South Koreans were significantly less biased by room rectangularity and viewpoint than their German counterparts. These results are in line with previous notions of general cognitive processing strategies being more context dependent in East Asian societies than Western ones. We point to the necessity of considering culturally-specific cognitive processing strategies in visual spatial cognition research.

  8. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  9. Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Size distribution characteristics and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2012-07-01

    Size distributions of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in the range of 0.01-18 μm were measured using a nano Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) in an urban location in Guangzhou, China in July 2006. PAH size distributions were fit with five modes and the respective mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) are: Aitken mode (MMAD: ˜0.05 μm), three accumulation modes AMI, AMII, AMIII (MMAD: 0.13-0.17 μm, 0.4-0.45 μm, and 0.9-1.2 μm, respectively), and coarse mode (MMAD: 4-6 μm). Seven-ring PAH was mainly in AMII and AMIII. Five- and six-ring PAHs were found to be abundant in all the three AM. Three- and four-ring PAHs had a significant presence in the coarse mode in addition to the three AM. Size-resolved gas-particle partition coefficients of PAHs (Kp) were estimated using measured EC and OC data. The Kp values of a given PAH could differ by a factor of up to ˜7 on particles in different size modes, with the highest Kp associated with the AMI particles and the lowest Kp associated with the coarse mode particles. Comparison of calculated overall Kp with measured Kp values in Guangzhou by Yang et al. (2010) shows that adsorption on EC appeared to be the dominant mechanism driving the gas-particle partitioning of three- and four-ring PAHs while absorption in OM played a dominant role for five- and six-ring PAHs. The calculated equilibrium timescales of repartitioning indicate that five- to seven-ring PAHs could not achieve equilibrium partitioning within their typical residence time in urban atmospheres, while three- and four-ring PAHs could readily reach new equilibrium states in particles of all sizes. A partitioning flux is therefore proposed to replace the equilibrium assumption in modeling PAH transport and fate.

  11. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Pburns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    sediment size distribution based on land use is very crucial in river maintenance. ... a basis for river catchment management study and can be used by river management .... small. In this case, the difference between upstream and downstream ...

  13. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  14. Species selectivity in different sized topless trawl designs: Does size matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Karlsen, Junita Diana

    2015-01-01

    -specific quotas. The toplesstrawl design was developed to improve species-specific selectivity in such fisheries. In a topless trawl,the foot rope is located more forward than the headline to allow fish to escape upwards, whereas theheadline is located in front in traditional trawl designs. In this study we...... Atlantic, topless trawls have been introducedas legal cod-selective trawl designs. However, this study demonstrates that identical gear modificationsmade to similar trawls of different sizes and used in the same fishery can lead to different results....

  15. Noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an Amur tiger population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Tianxiao; Nie, Yonggang; Xie, Yan; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. Due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. However, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in China. In this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 hair sample to investigate the population size and genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province, China. From the samples, we determined that 23 fecal samples and 1 hair sample were from 7 Amur tigers: 2 males, 4 females and 1 individual of unknown sex. Interestingly, 2 fecal samples that were presumed to be from tigers were from Amur leopards, highlighting the significant advantages of noninvasive genetics over traditional methods in studying rare and elusive animals. Analyses from this sample suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers is much lower than that of Bengal tigers, consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of this Hunchun population in China was lower than that of the adjoining subpopulation in southwest Primorye Russia, likely due to sampling bias. Considering the small population size and relatively low genetic diversity, it is urgent to protect this endangered local subpopulation in China. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. [Black carbon content and distribution in different particle size fractions of forest soils in the middle part of Great Xing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia Hui; Gao, Lei; Cui, Xiao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Soil black carbon (BC) is considered to be the main component of passive C pool because of its inherent biochemical recalcitrance. In this paper, soil BC in the middle part of Great Xing'an Mountains was quantified, the distribution of BC in different particle size fractions was analyzed, and BC stabilization mechanism and its important role in soil C pool were discussed. The results showed that BC expressed obvious accumulation in surface soil, accounting for about 68.7% in the whole horizon (64 cm), and then decreased with the increasing soil depth, however, BC/OC showed an opposite pattern. Climate conditions redistributed BC in study area, and the soil under cooler and moister conditions would sequester more BC. BC proportion in different particle size fractions was in the order of clay>silt>fine sand>coarse sand. Although BC content in clay was the highest and was enhanced with increasing soil depth, BC/OC in clay did not show a marked change. Thus, the rise of BC/OC was attributed to the preservation of BC particles in the fine sand and silt fractions. Biochemical recalcitrance was the main stabilization mechanism for surface BC, and with the increasing soil depth, the chemical protection from clay mineral gradually played a predominant role. BC not only was the essential component of soil stable carbon pool, but also took up a sizable proportion in particulate organic carbon pool. Therefore, the storage of soil stable carbon and the potential of soil carbon sequestration would be enhanced owing to the existence of BC.

  17. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    a real life setting elective course, involving small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in engineering education. How do you engage with companies without compromising the learning outcome? How you manage the expectation from the companies and still maintaining the student responsibility for the problem...... of a compulsory 10 ECTS element with focus on interdisciplinary and industry collaboration for all Bachelors of Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark in 2016. As collaboration partner the elective has chosen to work with small and medium sized enterprises (SME) as more than half of the value added...... to the European economy comes from the SME’s and around half of all employees work in micro or small businesses with less than 50 employees5. At the same time the barriers for university collaboration with SMEs are somewhat steeper than working with larger organizations6. The paper will focus on the SME...

  18. Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Duan, Chongli; Lummaa, Virpi

    2017-05-06

    In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making. Using survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again. Firstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention. Our study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  20. A Comparison of Learning Cultures in Different Sizes and Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…

  1. Cluster dynamics at different cluster size and incident laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Tara; Bernardinello, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    X-ray emission spectra from aluminum clusters of diameter -0.4 μm and gold clusters of dia. ∼1.25 μm are experimentally studied by irradiating the cluster foil targets with 1.06 μm laser, 10 ns (FWHM) at an intensity ∼10 12 W/cm 2 . Aluminum clusters show a different spectra compared to bulk material whereas gold cluster evolve towards bulk gold. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of cluster dimension, laser wavelength and pulse duration. PIC simulations are performed to study the behavior of clusters at higher intensity I≥10 17 W/cm 2 for different size of the clusters irradiated at different laser wavelengths. Results indicate the dependence of cluster dynamics on cluster size and incident laser wavelength

  2. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis and Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  3. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao; Rossi, Sergio; Yang, Bao

    2017-01-01

    The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine ( Pinus tabulaeformis ) and Qilian juniper ( Juniperus przewalskii ) with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  4. Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently

    OpenAIRE

    Bodner, G.; Leitner, D.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Small scale root-pore interactions require validation of their impact on effective hydraulic processes at the field scale. Our objective was to develop an interpretative framework linking root effects on macroscopic pore parameters with knowledge at the rhizosphere scale. Methods A field experiment with twelve species from different families was conducted. Parameters of Kosugi?s pore size distribution (PSD) model were determined inversely from tension infiltrometer data. Measured root tr...

  5. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  6. Medium size multinational firms internationalization strategies in China

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pontiggia; T. Vescovi

    2014-01-01

    The main theme of the book is the globalisation of China’s markets and Chinese business management in the context of ongoing reform at home and the country’s growing global economic role. The Globalisation of Chinese Business includes contributions relating to a wide range of manufacturing and service sectors, encompassing such areas as foreign investment, state and private enterprise, human resource management, consumer culture and advertising, financial markets and healthcare. Following...

  7. Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Honma, Rieko; Sumita, Masae; Hanawa, Takao

    2004-02-01

    When artificial hip or knee joints are implanted in the human body, they release metallic, ceramic, and polymeric debris into the surrounding tissues. The toxicity of the released particles is of two types: chemical, caused by the released soluble ions and monomers, and mechanical, a result of mechanical stimulation produced by the insoluble particles. In this study, the cytotoxicity of particles of TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, and SiC for murine fibroblasts and macrophages were examined to evaluate just their mechanical toxicity because these particles are not expected to release soluble metal ions. Different sizes and shapes of TiO2 particles were used to evaluate the effect of size and shape on particle cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the cytotoxicity of ceramic particles does not depend on their chemical species. Cytotoxicity levels were lower than those of corresponding metal ions, indicating that the mechanical toxicity of particles is lower than the chemical toxicity of released soluble ions and monomers. The differences in size did not affect the mechanical toxicity of these particles. The dendritic particles had a higher cytotoxicity level for macrophages than did spindle and spheric particles. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 244-256, 2004

  8. Road Impacts on Abundance, Call Traits, and Body Size of Rainforest Frogs in Northeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad J. Hoskin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Frogs are potentially sensitive indicators of road impacts, with studies indicating particular susceptibility to road mortality. Calling, i.e., breeding, behavior could also be affected by traffic noise. We investigated effects on frog abundance and calling behavior where a busy highway crosses rainforest stream breeding habitat in northeast Australia. Frog abundance was repeatedly surveyed along five stream transects during a summer breeding season. Abundance of two species, Litoria rheocola and Austrochaperina pluvialis, increased significantly with perpendicular distance from the road along two transects. No trends in abundance were detected for A. pluvialis on two other transects where it was common, or for Litoria serrata on one transect where abundance was sufficient for analysis. Both species with lowered abundance near the road, L. rheocola and A. pluvialis, are rare in road kill statistics along this highway, suggesting road mortality is not the cause of reduced frog abundance near the road. We postulate that lowered abundance may reflect traffic noise effects. We analyzed calls of the International Union for Conservation of Nature endangered species L. rheocola along the one stream transect on which it was common. We found significant trends in two call traits over a very fine scale: both call rate and dominant frequency were significantly higher closer to the road. Furthermore, males were significantly smaller closer to the road. These call and body size trends most likely reflect road impacts, but resolving these is complicated by correlations between traits. Potential mechanisms, effects on fitness, and management recommendations to mitigate the impacts of roads on frogs are outlined.

  9. Nucleolar size in lymphocytes and haemocytes of different species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Berger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of nucleoli in a cell and nucleolar area vary according to the cell. We compared nucleoli in mammalian circulating lymphocytes and insect circulating haemocytes. An increased nucleolar coefficient correlated with a lowered nucleoli size. The smaller nucleolar size in mammalian lymphocytes indicates a lower proteosynthetic cellular activity in both mammalian lymphocytes and insect haemocytes. Moreover, in insect haemocytes, the smaller size of the nucleoli may reflect a lowered potential to transform into another cell type.

  10. Nuclear export of RNA: Different sizes, shapes and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tobias; Ngo, Linh H; Wickramasinghe, Vihandha O

    2018-03-01

    Export of protein-coding and non-coding RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is critical for gene expression. This necessitates the continuous transport of RNA species of different size, shape and function through nuclear pore complexes via export receptors and adaptor proteins. Here, we provide an overview of the major RNA export pathways in humans, highlighting the similarities and differences between each. Its importance is underscored by the growing appreciation that deregulation of RNA export pathways is associated with human diseases like cancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On sample size and different interpretations of snow stability datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Mitterer, C.; Schweizer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Interpretations of snow stability variations need an assessment of the stability itself, independent of the scale investigated in the study. Studies on stability variations at a regional scale have often chosen stability tests such as the Rutschblock test or combinations of various tests in order to detect differences in aspect and elevation. The question arose: ‘how capable are such stability interpretations in drawing conclusions'. There are at least three possible errors sources: (i) the variance of the stability test itself; (ii) the stability variance at an underlying slope scale, and (iii) that the stability interpretation might not be directly related to the probability of skier triggering. Various stability interpretations have been proposed in the past that provide partly different results. We compared a subjective one based on expert knowledge with a more objective one based on a measure derived from comparing skier-triggered slopes vs. slopes that have been skied but not triggered. In this study, the uncertainties are discussed and their effects on regional scale stability variations will be quantified in a pragmatic way. An existing dataset with very large sample sizes was revisited. This dataset contained the variance of stability at a regional scale for several situations. The stability in this dataset was determined using the subjective interpretation scheme based on expert knowledge. The question to be answered was how many measurements were needed to obtain similar results (mainly stability differences in aspect or elevation) as with the complete dataset. The optimal sample size was obtained in several ways: (i) assuming a nominal data scale the sample size was determined with a given test, significance level and power, and by calculating the mean and standard deviation of the complete dataset. With this method it can also be determined if the complete dataset consists of an appropriate sample size. (ii) Smaller subsets were created with similar

  12. Distributions of households by size: differences and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1982-01-01

    "This article deals with the distributions of households by size, that is, by number of persons, as they are observed in international comparisons, and for fewer countries, over time." The contribution of differentials in household size to inequality in income distribution among persons and households is discussed. Data are for both developed and developing countries. excerpt

  13. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  14. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  15. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  16. Comparative Study of Different Gill Net Mesh Sizes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    component weighting) in the catch, which were favoured by the bigger mesh sizes (70mm). ... METHODS ... fishes from each ice chest were identified using the ..... feeding habits), and population (abundance) (RPI ... biomass per unit effort.

  17. Transdermal delivery of forskolin from emulsions differing in droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Llinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Celma, Maria Jose; Escribano, Elvira; Solans, Conxita

    2015-02-01

    The skin permeation of forskolin, a diterpene isolated from Coleus forsholii, was studied using oil in water (O/W) emulsions as delivery formulations and also an oil solution for comparative purposes. Two forskolin-loaded emulsions of water/Brij 72:Symperonic A7/Miglyol 812:Isohexadecane, at 0.075 wt% forskolin concentration were prepared with the same composition and only differing in droplet size (0.38 μm and 10 μm). The emulsions showed high kinetic stability at 25 °C. In vitro study of forskolin penetration through human skin was carried out using the MicroettePlus(®) system. The concentration of the active in the receptor solution (i.e. ethanol/phosphate buffer 40/60, v/v) was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The obtained results showed that forskolin permeation from the emulsions and the oil solution, through human skin, was very high (up to 72.10%), and no effect of droplet size was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of land use type on the distribution of organic carbon in different sized soil particles effects of land use type on the distribution of organic carbon in different sized soil particles and its relationships to herb biomass in hilly red soil region of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Wu; Guo, Wang; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yue-Nan

    2012-04-01

    The changes in organic carbon content in different sized soil particles under different land use patterns partly reflect the variation of soil carbon, being of significance in revealing the process of soil organic carbon cycle. Based on the long-term monitoring of soil erosion, and by the methods of soil particle size fractionation, this paper studied the effects of different land use types (wasteland, pinewood land, and grassland) on the distribution of organic carbon content in different sized soil particles and its relationships to the herb biomass. Land use type and slope position had obvious effects on the organic carbon content in different sized soil particles, and the organic carbon content was in the order of grassland > pinewood land > wasteland. The proportion of the organic carbon in different sized soil particles was mainly depended on the land use type, and had little relationships with slope position. According to the analysis of the ratio of particle-associated organic carbon to mineral-associated organic carbon (POC/MOC), the soil organic carbon in grassland was easily to be mineralized, whereas that in wasteland and pinewood land was relatively stable. On the slopes mainly in hilly red soil region, the soil organic carbon in sand fraction had great effects on herb biomass.

  19. Zipf's law and influential factors of the Pareto exponent of the city size distribution: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    GAO Hongying; WU Kangping

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the Pareto exponent of the city size (population size and economy size) distribution, all provinces, and three regions in China in 1997, 2000 and 2003 by OLS, comparatively analyzes the Pareto exponent cross section and times, and empirically analyzes the factors which impacts on the Pareto exponents of provinces. Our analyses show that the size distributions of cities in China follow the Pareto distribution and are of structural features. Variations in the value of the P...

  20. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in hypertensive patients with different sizes of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, B; Kara, C; Ozyuvali, E; Unsal, A

    2011-01-01

    The risk of major complications, especially hemorrhage, is significantly elevated during surgery in hypertensive patients. To determine whether percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) can be safely performed in the hypertensive patients using different sized instruments. We reviewed the records of 602 patients undergoing PCNL at our institution and identified 53 who were on antihypertensive therapy at the time of surgery. Patients were categorized into three groups according to size of devices used in surgery : those 24 F percutaneous tract with 22 F nephroscope (Group 1, n = 12 [22.7%]; 26 F percutaneous tract with 24 F nephroscope (Group 2, n = 19 [35.8%]) and 30 F percutaneous tract with 26 F nephroscope (Group 3, n = 22 [41.5%]). We compared the groups with regard to baseline characteristics, intraoperative parameters, stone-free and complication rates, and the length of hospitalization. There were no differences between the three groups in age, gender, weight and stone laterality. Fluoroscopy time, access to the collecting system and mean operative time for per cm2 stone did not differ between the groups. Hemoglobin decrease, postoperative hospital stay and blood transfusion rate was higher in group 3. Stones were completely cleared in 83.3%, 84.2% and 81.3% of patients, which increased to 91.6%, 89.5%, and 90.1% with adjunctive therapy in the group 1,2 and 3, respectively. PCNL with smaller devices is a safe and effective method in hypertensive patients. It has significantly a shorter hospital stay and less bleeding rates compared to classical PCNL.

  1. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  2. Effects of exposure to bodies of different sizes on perception of and satisfaction with own body size: two randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Carnegie, Rebecca; Allward, Heather; Bacon, Emily; Lambe, Emily; Sapseid, Megan; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Skinner, Andy; Broome, Matthew R; Park, Rebecca; Harmer, Catherine J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-05-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent among women and associated with subsequent obesity and eating disorders. Exposure to images of bodies of different sizes has been suggested to change the perception of 'normal' body size in others. We tested whether exposure to different-sized (otherwise identical) bodies changes perception of own and others' body size, satisfaction with body size and amount of chocolate consumed. In Study 1, 90 18-25-year-old women with normal BMI were randomized into one of three groups to complete a 15 min two-back task using photographs of women either of 'normal weight' (Body Mass Index (BMI) 22-23 kg m -2 ), or altered to appear either under- or over-weight. Study 2 was identical except the 96 participants had high baseline body dissatisfaction and were followed up after 24 h. We also conducted a mega-analysis combining both studies. Participants rated size of others' bodies, own size, and satisfaction with size pre- and post-task. Post-task ratings were compared between groups, adjusting for pre-task ratings. Participants exposed to over- or normal-weight images subsequently perceived others' bodies as smaller, in comparison to those shown underweight bodies ( p  < 0.001). They also perceived their own bodies as smaller (Study 1, p  = 0.073; Study 2, p  = 0.018; mega-analysis, p  = 0.001), and felt more satisfied with their size (Study 1, p  = 0.046; Study 2, p  = 0.004; mega-analysis, p  = 0.006). There were no differences in chocolate consumption. This study suggests that a move towards using images of women with a BMI in the healthy range in the media may help to reduce body dissatisfaction, and the associated risk of eating disorders.

  3. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  4. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  5. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  6. Magnetic properties of crystalline nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ana T.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Campus de Caraubas, RN 333, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Dantas, Ana L.; Almeida, N.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    The effects of shape and finite size on the physical behavior of nanostructured antiferromagnetic particles are investigated. They were modeled as ellipsoidal systems which preserve the crystalline structure of the correspondent bulk material. In our analysis we consider nanoparticles composed by magnetic ions which are themselves insensitive to the presence of surfaces and/or interfaces. Results are shown for structures similar to MnF{sub 2} and NiO crystals. Special attention is given to these last once their singular magnetic arrangement, as well as, their use at different technological and/or biomedical applications, has motivated intense experimental studies at different laboratories. We use the parameters that describe the correspondent bulk material to discuss the magnetic behavior of these particles for different volumes and shapes. - Highlights: • The number of magnetic phases of tetragonal AFM nanoparticles depends on their shape. • Hysteresis loops of NiO particles depends on the direction of the dc magnetic field. • The high frequencies normal modes of NiO particles are insensitive to their geometry.

  7. Variability in permanent tooth size of three ancient populations in Xi'an, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-You; Kang, Ting; Liu, Dai-Yun; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Shao, Jin-Ling

    2012-11-01

    This paper compares permanent dental dimensions between three ancient populations that belonged to the same biological population throughout a temporal range of 2000 years to detect temporal trends and metric variation in dentition. The samples analysed were dental remains of 4502 permanent teeth from 321 individuals, which were excavated from three archaeological sites: Chang'an (1000-1300 years BP), Shanren (2200 years BP) and Shaolingyuan (3000 years BP) in the Xi'an region (northern China). For each tooth three standard measurements were taken: Mesiodistal (MD) diameter of crown, labiolingual or buccolingual (BL) diameter of crown and length of root (LR). Three ancient population samples generally displayed the same dental dimensions (p>0.05), whereas some tooth types varied. The Shaolingyuan had larger canine and the smallest maxillary second molars and the Chang'an had the largest mandibular first molars in the MD dimension. The Shanren had the smallest maxillary third molars and mandibular central incisors, and the Chang'an had the smallest maxillary lateral incisors in the BL dimension. In the LR measures, statistically significant differences of five tooth types showed that the Chang'an were smaller than the Shaolingyuan and the Shanren. Comparisons of coefficients of variation for teeth showed that the length of root and third molar usually displayed greater variation. Decreasing or increasing trend for crown size does not occur between the ancient populations, while changes in crown size of a few tooth types fluctuate. The root size is more variable than the crown size and is likely to reflect a degenerated trend in a few tooth types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  9. Planting of different-sized tree transplants on arable soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Weber, M.; Matula, S.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2009), s. 574-584 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : windbreak * growth rate * seedling size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2009

  10. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. W.; Pilkington, R.; Montgomerie, A.; Feist, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide ...

  11. Super size me: is a big Australia good for our health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelser, Deborah

    2010-05-03

    Australia faces a federally instigated migration drive aimed at increasing its population to 35 million by 2049. Immigration is welcomed by politicians, economists and business people, who credit it with helping Australia fare better than other developed countries during the recent global financial crisis. Australia's capital cities will have to expand considerably to house the new migrants. Increased urbanisation, when not accompanied by appropriate town planning, is associated with higher rates of chronic disease. Despite the migration drive, Australia's population will continue to age, and by 2056 one in four Australians will be over the age of 65 years. Australian health services are already heavily burdened. Health professionals must engage with governments to ensure that appropriate plans are put in place to accommodate the increased burden of disease that will accompany a more populous Australia. Failure to do so will compromise the health of our nation.

  12. Method and apparatus for physical separation of different sized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B.; Saunders, Steven R.

    2012-07-10

    The present application provides apparatuses and methods for the size-selective fractionation of ligand-capped nanoparticles that utilizes the tunable thermophysical properties of gas-expanded liquids. The nanoparticle size separation processes are based on the controlled reduction of the solvent strength of an organic phase nanoparticle dispersion through increases in concentration of the antisolvent gas, such as CO.sub.2, via pressurization. The method of nanomaterial separation contains preparing a vessel having a solvent and dispersed nanoparticles, pressurizing the chamber with a gaseous antisolvent, and causing a first amount of the nanoparticles to precipitate, transporting the solution to a second vessel, pressurizing the second vessel with the gaseous antisolvent and causing further nanoparticles to separate from the solution.

  13. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Taylor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion (WHP initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. Methods The worksites (n = 218 of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Results Smaller businesses (<20 employees had less current health promotion activies (mean 1.0 compared to medium size businesses (20–200 employees – mean 2.4 and large businesses (200+ employees – mean 2.9. Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 % to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses. In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses. Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. Conclusion

  14. Difference in inhaled aerosol deposition patterns in the lungs due to three different sized aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, M.; Isawa, T.; Teshima, T.; Anazawa, Y.; Motomiya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol in the lungs were studied in five normal subjects and 20 patients with lung disease by inhaling radioaerosols with three different particle size distributions. Particle size distributions were 0.84, 1.04 and 1.93 μm in activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) with its geometric standard deviation (σg) of 1.73, 1.71 and 1.52, respectively. Deposition patterns of inhaled aerosols were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by studying six different parameters: alveolar deposition ratio (ALDR), X max , X mean , standard deviation (S.D.), skewness and kurtosis of the radioactive distribution in the lungs following inhalation. It has been found that aerosol deposition patterns varied with particle size. The unevenness of aerosol deposition, X max , X mean and the number of 'hot spots' became more prominent with increase in particle size, whereas values of ALDR and S.D. decreased as particle size increased. (author)

  15. Impact of Gobi desert dust on aerosol chemistry of Xi'an, inland China during spring 2009: differences in composition and size distribution between the urban ground surface and the mountain atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols from Xi'an city (~400 m, altitude in inland China during the spring of 2009 including a massive dust event on 24 April were measured and compared with a parallel measurement at the summit (2060 m, altitude of Mt. Hua, an alpine site nearby Xi'an. EC (elemental carbon, OC (organic carbon and major ions in the city were 2–22 times higher than those on the mountaintop during the whole sampling period. Compared to that in the non-dust period a sharp increase in OC was observed at both sites during the dust period, which was mainly caused by an input of biogenic organics from the Gobi desert. However, adsorption/heterogeneous reaction of gaseous organics with dust was another important source of OC in the urban, contributing 22% of OC in the dust event. In contrast to the mountain atmosphere where fine particles were less acidic when dust was present, the urban fine particles became more acidic in the dust event than in the non-dust event, mainly due to enhanced heterogeneous formation of nitrate and diluted NH3. Cl and NO3 in the urban air during the dust event significantly shifted toward coarse particles. Such redistributions were further pronounced on the mountaintop when dust was present, resulting in both ions almost entirely staying in coarse particles. On the contrary, no significant spatial difference in size distribution of SO42− was found between the urban ground surface and the mountain atmosphere, which dominated in the fine mode (<2.1 μm during the nonevent and comparably distributed in the fine (<2.1 μm and coarse (>2.1 μm modes during the dust event.

  16. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Pilkington, R; Montgomerie, A; Feist, H

    2016-04-21

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. The worksites (n = 218) of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Smaller businesses (businesses (20-200 employees - mean 2.4) and large businesses (200+ employees - mean 2.9). Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 %) to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses) although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses). In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses). Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. This study found that smaller workplaces had many barriers, beliefs and challenges regarding WHP. Often small businesses find health promotion activities a

  17. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  18. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  19. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  20. Body Size of Contemporary Youth in Different Parts of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Howard V.

    1969-01-01

    Based on body size measurements accumulated between 1950-1960, comparisons were made of 13-year-old girls and 15-year-old boys from North and South America, northern, central, and southwest Asia, Oceania, Australia, Africa, the Near East, and Europe. (DO)

  1. Size Resolved Measurements of Springtime Aerosol Particles over the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Cliff, Stephen S.; Zhao, Yongjing; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chu, Yu-Chi; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Large sources of aerosol particles and their precursors are ubiquitous in East Asia. Such sources are known to impact the South China Sea (henceforth SCS), a sometimes heavily polluted region that has been suggested as particularly vulnerable to climate change. To help elucidate springtime aerosol transport into the SCS, an intensive study was performed on the remote Dongsha (aka Pratas) Islands Atoll in spring 2010. As part of this deployment, a Davis Rotating-drum Uniform size-cut Monitor (DRUM) cascade impactor was deployed to collect size-resolved aerosol samples at the surface that were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for concentrations of selected elements. HYSPLIT backtrajectories indicated that the transport of aerosol observed at the surface at Dongsha was occurring primarily from regions generally to the north and east. This observation was consistent with the apparent persistence of pollution and dust aerosol, along with sea salt, in the ground-based dataset. In contrast to the sea-level observations, modeled aerosol transport suggested that the westerly flow aloft (w700 hPa) transported smoke-laden air toward the site from regions from the south and west. Measured aerosol optical depth at the site was highest during time periods of modeled heavy smoke loadings aloft. These periods did not coincide with elevated aerosol concentrations at the surface, although the model suggested sporadic mixing of this free-tropospheric aerosol to the surface over the SCS. A biomass burning signature was not clearly identified in the surface aerosol composition data, consistent with this aerosol type remaining primarily aloft and not mixing strongly to the surface during the study. Significant vertical wind shear in the region also supports the idea that different source regions lead to varying aerosol impacts in different vertical layers, and suggests the potential for considerable vertical inhomogeneity in the SCS aerosol environment.

  2. Reliability of different mark-recapture methods for population size estimation tested against reference population sizes constructed from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Grimm

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of population size are fundamental in many ecological studies and biodiversity conservation. Selecting appropriate methods to estimate abundance is often very difficult, especially if data are scarce. Most studies concerning the reliability of different estimators used simulation data based on assumptions about capture variability that do not necessarily reflect conditions in natural populations. Here, we used data from an intensively studied closed population of the arboreal gecko Gehyra variegata to construct reference population sizes for assessing twelve different population size estimators in terms of bias, precision, accuracy, and their 95%-confidence intervals. Two of the reference populations reflect natural biological entities, whereas the other reference populations reflect artificial subsets of the population. Since individual heterogeneity was assumed, we tested modifications of the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, a set of models in programs MARK and CARE-2, and a truncated geometric distribution. Ranking of methods was similar across criteria. Models accounting for individual heterogeneity performed best in all assessment criteria. For populations from heterogeneous habitats without obvious covariates explaining individual heterogeneity, we recommend using the moment estimator or the interpolated jackknife estimator (both implemented in CAPTURE/MARK. If data for capture frequencies are substantial, we recommend the sample coverage or the estimating equation (both models implemented in CARE-2. Depending on the distribution of catchabilities, our proposed multiple Lincoln-Petersen and a truncated geometric distribution obtained comparably good results. The former usually resulted in a minimum population size and the latter can be recommended when there is a long tail of low capture probabilities. Models with covariates and mixture models performed poorly. Our approach identified suitable methods and extended options to

  3. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Qiao; Rossi, Sergio; Yang, Bao

    2018-01-01

    The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual...

  4. Trends in size classified particle number concentration in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, based on a 5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, J. F.; Wraith, D.; Mengersen, K.; Morawska, L.

    Particle number size distribution data in the range from 0.015 to 0.630 μm were collected over a 5-year period in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia. Particle size distribution was summarised by total number concentration and number median diameter (NMD) as well as the number concentration of the 0.015-0.030 ( N15-30), 0.030-0.050 ( N30-50), 0.050-0.100 ( N50-100), 0.100-0.300 ( N100-300) and 0.300-0.630 ( N300-630) μm size classes. Morning (6:00-10:00) and afternoon (16:00-19:00) measurements, the former representing fresh traffic emissions (based on the local meteorological conditions) and the latter well-mixed emissions from the CBD, during weekdays were extracted and the respective monthly mean values were estimated for time series analysis. For all size fractions, average morning concentrations were about 1.5 higher than in the afternoon whereas NMD did not vary between the morning and afternoon. The trend and seasonal components were extracted through weighted linear regression models, using the monthly variance as weights. Only the morning measurements exhibited significant trends. During this time of the day, total particle number increased by 105.7% and the increase was greater for larger particles, resulting in a shift in NMD by 7.9%. Although no seasonal component was detected the evidence against it remained weak due to the limitations of the database.

  5. Brain Size, IQ, and Racial-Group Differences: Evidence from Musculoskeletal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.

    2003-01-01

    Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…

  6. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  7. Spatial variation in size at onset of maturity of female southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii around Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Gardner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>The size at onset of maturity (SOM of female Jasus edwardsii (Hutton, 1875 was estimated at 50 sites around Tasmania, Australia, based on the presence of ovigerous setae. There was a distinct spatial cline with the largest SOM being found at northwestern sites and the smallest at southwestern sites. Variation in SOM between sites was substantial and ranged from 59 mm to 112 mm carapace length. The observed decline in SOM from north to south was the reverse of that described for the same species at similar latitudes in New Zealand, which suggests that SOM in J. edwardsii is regulated by factors in addition to temperature. The effect of density on female SOM was investigated by comparing SOM estimates from two marine reserves with adjacent fished sites; however, there was no evidence of a decline in SOM with increasing density as predicted. A model of SOM predicted by latitude and longitude is described to facilitate spatial modelling of lobster stocks. The substantial and predictable spatial variation in SOM implies that management of this fishery would be improved by incorporating spatial elements, such as regional legal minimum size limits.

  8. Birth cohorts in Asia: The importance, advantages, and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Itoh, Sachiko; Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro

    2018-02-15

    Asia contains half of the world's children, and the countries of Asia are the most rapidly industrializing nations on the globe. Environmental threats to the health of children in Asia are myriad. Several birth cohorts were started in Asia in early 2000, and currently more than 30 cohorts in 13 countries have been established for study. Cohorts can contain from approximately 100-200 to 20,000-30,000 participants. Furthermore, national cohorts targeting over 100,000 participants have been launched in Japan and Korea. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss the importance of Asian cohorts, and the advantages and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts. As for case, one small-sized (n=514) cohort indicate that even relatively low level exposure to dioxin in utero could alter birth size, neurodevelopment, and immune and hormonal functions. Several Asian cohorts focus prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyo substances and reported associations with birth size, thyroid hormone levels, allergies and neurodevelopment. Inconsistent findings may possibly be explained by the differences in exposure levels and target chemicals, and by possible statistical errors. In a smaller cohort, novel hypotheses or preliminary examinations are more easily verifiable. In larger cohorts, the etiology of rare diseases, such as birth defects, can be analyzed; however, they require a large cost and significant human resources. Therefore, conducting studies in only one large cohort may not always be the best strategy. International collaborations, such as the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia, would cover the inherent limitation of sample size in addition to heterogeneity of exposure, ethnicity, and socioeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, C.R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2015-01-01

    of these gradients to date, and find that their direction and magnitude co-vary among 12 arthropod orders (r2 = 0.72). Body size in aquatic species generally reduces with both warming and decreasing latitude, whereas terrestrial species have much reduced and even opposite gradients. These patterns support...... the prediction that oxygen limitation is a major controlling factor in water, but not in air. Furthermore, voltinism explains much of the variation in T-S and L-S patterns in terrestrial but not aquatic species. While body size decreases with warming and with decreasing latitude in multivoltine terrestrial......Two major intraspecific patterns of adult size variation are plastic temperature-size (T-S) responses and latitude-size (L-S) clines. Yet, the degree to which these co-vary and share explanatory mechanisms has not been systematically evaluated. We present the largest quantitative comparison...

  10. Design considerations regarding the development of an interdisciplinary engineering innovation course involving collaboration with small and micro-sized companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ashworth, David; Ulrich, Mai-Mai

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues and dilemmas that have come up when designing courses aimed at teaching innovation competencies to engineering students through means of authentic industry collaboration with small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The paper is focused around the phase...... of designing the course SME Innovation and Intrapreneurship where the aim has been to create a match between the company need for short, result oriented innovation projects and the structured professional and interdisciplinary learning goals for a coming bachelor of engineering. The main dilemmas...... in the development have evolved around the concept of bridging real-life with a university learning context, the question of how to change teaching and exam structure to support new and different learning objectives, as well as the challenges of handling interdisciplinary teams. The 13 week, 10 ECTS credit course...

  11. Size effect in barium titanate powders synthesized by different hydrothermal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Weian

    2006-01-01

    The size effect in barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Tetragonal BaTiO 3 powders with average sizes from 80 to 420 nm were directly prepared by different hydrothermal methods. The tetragonality of the hydrothermal BaTiO 3 decreased with decreasing particle size, which exhibited a dependence on the synthesis method. A phenomenological model for the size effect was proposed to interpret the experimental observations. The influence of the defects, mainly the lattice hydroxyl, on the size effect was investigated to understand the correlation between the size effect and synthesis condition. The permittivities of BaTiO 3 powder at different particle sizes were calculated, which predicted a maximum permittivity of over 16 000 around the room-temperature critical size of ∼70 nm. The prediction was in good accordance with the experimental data reported recently

  12. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Grain Size Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Outdoor Dust in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengqin; Pi, Lu; Luo, Yan; Geng, Meng; Hu, Wenli; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Gan, Zhiwei; Ding, Sanglan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 27 outdoor dust samples from roads, parks, and high spots were collected and analyzed to investigate the contamination of 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in Chengdu, China. The results showed that the samples from the high spots exhibited the highest heavy metal level compared with those from the roads and the parks, except for Ni, Cu, and Pb. The dust was classified into five grain size fractions. The mean loads of each grain size fraction of 11 determined metals displayed similar distribution, and the contribution of median size (63-125, 125-250, 250-500 μm) fractions accounted for more than 70% of overall heavy metal loads. The health risk posed by the determined metals to human via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was investigated. Oral and respiratory bioaccessible parts of the metals in dust were extracted using simulated stomach solution and composite lung serum. The mean bioaccessibilities of 11 investigated metals in the gastric solution were much higher than those in the composite lung serum, especially Zn, Cd, and Pb. Ingestion was the most important exposure pathway with percentage greater than 70% for both children and adults. Risk evaluation results illustrated that children in Chengdu might suffer noncarcinogenic risk when exposed to outdoor dust. Given that the cancer risk values of Pb and Cr larger than 1 × 10(-4), potential carcinogenic risk might occur for Chengdu residents through outdoor dust intake.

  14. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure

  15. See food diet? Cultural differences in estimating fullness and intake as a function of plate size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Adam, Sarah; Hautus, Michael J; Shin, Myoungju; Duizer, Lisa M; Yan, Huiquan

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that manipulations of plate size can have a direct impact on perception of food intake, measured by estimated fullness and intake. The present study, involving 570 individuals across Canada, China, Korea, and New Zealand, is the first empirical study to investigate cultural influences on perception of food portion as a function of plate size. The respondents viewed photographs of ten culturally diverse dishes presented on large (27 cm) and small (23 cm) plates, and then rated their estimated usual intake and expected fullness after consuming the dish, using 100-point visual analog scales. The data were analysed with a mixed-model ANCOVA controlling for individual BMI, liking and familiarity of the presented food. The results showed clear cultural differences: (1) manipulations of the plate size had no effect on the expected fullness or the estimated intake of the Chinese and Korean respondents, as opposed to significant effects in Canadians and New Zealanders (p Asian respondents. Overall, these findings, from a cultural perspective, support the notion that estimation of fullness and intake are learned through dining experiences, and highlight the importance of considering eating environments and contexts when assessing individual behaviours relating to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender difference in breast tissue size in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida Maria; Chellakooty, Marla; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

    2002-01-01

    as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p

  17. SizeChina : A 3D Anthropometric Survey of the Chinese Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem The design of consumer products that are worn on the head relies on the availability of accurate anthropometric information describing the shape and size of the human head and face. Historical anthropometric studies with univariate data have documented the existence of shape differences

  18. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry(LCCE), Faculty of Science, Material Science Department, University of Batna, 05000 (Algeria); Fessi, Hatem [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Zine, Nadia [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Agusti, Géraldine [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Errachid, El-Salhi [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Elaissari, Abdelhamid, E-mail: elaissari@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH{sub 4} reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH{sub 4} reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  19. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele; Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar; Fessi, Hatem; Zine, Nadia; Agusti, Géraldine; Errachid, El-Salhi; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH_4 reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH_4 reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH_4) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  20. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  1. Concentration, size distribution and dry deposition of amines in atmospheric particles of urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengxian; Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Lian, Xiufeng; Lu, Huiying; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    Size-segregated PM10 samples were collected in Guangzhou, China during autumn of 2014. Nine amines, including seven aliphatic amines and two heterocyclic amines, were detected using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer after derivatization by benzenesulfonyl chloride. The total concentration of the nine amines (Ʃamines) was 79.6-140.9 ng m-3 in PM10. The most abundant species was methylamine (MA), which had a concentration of 29.2-70.1 ng m-3. MA, dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA) and dibutylamine (DBA) were the predominant amines in the samples and accounted for approximately 80% of Ʃamines in each size segment. Two heterocyclic amines, pyrrolidine (PYR) and morpholine (MOR), were detected in all samples and had average concentrations of 1.14 ± 0.37 and 1.89 ± 0.64 ng m-3, respectively, in particles with aerodynamic diameters ammonium ranged from 0.0068 to 0.0107 in particles with diameters <1.5 μm, and the maximum ratio occurred in the smallest particles (diameter< 0.49 μm). The average dry deposition flux and velocity of Ʃamines in PM10 were 7.9 ± 1.6 μg m-2 d-1 and 0.084 ± 0.0021 cm s-1, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information on the contribution of amines to secondary organic aerosols and dry removal mechanisms in urban areas.

  2. Change in body size and mortality: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A; Baglietto, Laura; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2014-01-01

    The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994) to wave 2 (2003-2007) in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40-69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease) identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47), weight (1.80; 1.54-2.11), or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15-1.57) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57-3.65) but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults.

  3. Urban Optimum Population Size and Development Pattern Based on Ecological Footprint Model: Case of Zhoushan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan LU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agglomeration of population in the city can reflect the prosperity in the economy, society and culture. However, it has also brought a series of problems like environmental pollution, traffic congestion, housing shortage and jobs crisis. The results can be shown as the failure of urban comprehensive function, the decline of city benefits, and the contradiction between socioeconomic circumstance and ecosystem. Therefore, a reasonable population capacity, which is influenced by ecological resources, urban environment, geographical elements, social and economic factors, etc., is objectively needed. How to deal with the relationship between the utilization of natural capital and development of the city is extremely essential. This paper takes Zhoushan Island as an example, which is the fourth largest island off the coast of China. Firstly, the interactively influencing factors of urban optimal population are illustrated. And method is chosen to study the optimal population size. Secondly, based on the model of ecological footprint (EP, the paper calculates and analyzes the ecological footprint and ecological capacity of the Zhoushan Island, in order to explore the optimal population size of the city. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the resources and urban environment carrying capacity is made. Finally, the solution of the existing population problems and the suggestion for the future development pattern of the city are proposed in the urban eco-planning of Zhoushan Island. The main strategies can be summarized in two aspects: one is to reduce the ecological footprint, the other is to increase the ecological supply. The conclusion is that the current population of Zhoushan Island is far beyond the optimum population size calculated by the ecological footprint model. Therefore, sustainable development should be the guidance for urban planning in Zhoushan Island, and a low-carbon development pattern for the city is advocated.

  4. Size-controllable polypyrrole nanospheres synthesized in the presence of phosphorylated chitosan and their size effect in different applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Cao, Yi; Lu, Yun, E-mail: yunlu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-05-15

    The size-controllable polypyrrole (PPy) nanospheres are successfully synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using N-methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC) as a structure-directing agent. By simply changing the amount of NMPC, the size of the PPy nanospheres can be adjusted from 190 to 50 nm in diameter. The spectrometric results suggest that the electrostatic interactions of phosphate groups in NMPC molecule with pyrrole ring might be a driving force for formation of the uniform and size-controllable PPy nanospheres. The PPy nanospheres with the diameter of 100 nm exhibit the largest capacity and a good cycling stability as electrode materials of supercapacitors. The as-prepared PPy nanospheres also can be combined with carbon dots to form composite nanospheres presenting enhanced fluorescence intensity, which show potential application in fluorescence detection.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of different sizes of the CuO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Dongen; Ni Xiaomin; Song Jimei; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    Well-dispersed cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with the size from 10 to 100 nm were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of CuC 2 O 4 precursor at 400 deg. C. The prepared CuO nanoparticles of different sizes used as anode materials for Li ion battery all exhibit high electrochemical capacity at the first discharge. However, with the particles size changing, an interesting phenomenon appears. That is, the larger size of the particles is, the discharge capacity of the first time smaller is, while that of the second time is larger. At the same time, the mechanism of the above phenomenon is discussed in this paper. Surprisingly, we have synthesized the copper nanoparticles with different sizes by the CuO of different sizes as the electrodes

  6. Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Neal, Bruce; Zheng, Miaobing; Lal, Anita; Sacks, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package size cap), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs (energy reduction). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight (package size cap: 0.12 kg; energy reduction: 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained (package size cap: 73,883; energy reduction: 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million (package size cap) and AUD 1.4 billion (energy reduction). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were “dominant”, and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent “value for money” as obesity prevention measures in Australia. PMID:28878175

  7. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina C Ansmann

    Full Text Available Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus. These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c. A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE (95% CI: 510-598 was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE (95% CI: 181-207, while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE (95% CI: 336-556 individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128 raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5% declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  8. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2-12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes-which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement.

  9. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size.Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%.This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  10. Tumor size measured by preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma: relative differences according to size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Hoon; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Kwak, Seo Young; Ryu, Kyeung A; Choi, Bobae; Kim, Jin-Man; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the size and features of thyroid nodules. Tumor size is a key indicator of the surgical extent of thyroid cancer. We evaluated the difference in tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We reviewed the medical records of 172 consecutive patients, who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC treatment. We compared tumor size, as measured by preoperative US, with that in postoperative specimens. And we analyzed a number of factors potentially influencing the size measurement, including cancer size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis. The mean size of the tumor measured by preoperative US was 11.4, and 10.2 mm by postoperative pathologic examination. The mean percentage difference (US-pathology/US) of tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination was 9.9 ± 19.3%, which was statistically significant (p 20.0 mm) and the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis on the tumor size discrepancy between the two measurements was analyzed, the mean percentage differences according to tumor size (9.1 vs. 11.2% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.842), calcification (9.2 vs. 10.2%, p = 0.756) and coexisting thyroiditis (17.6 vs. 9.5%, p = 0.223) did not show statistical significance. Tumor sizes measured in postoperative pathology were ~90% of those measured by preoperative US in PTC; this was not affected by tumor size, the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis. When the surgical extent of PTC treatment according to tumor size measured by US is determined, the relative difference between tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination should be considered.

  11. Aerosol ionic components at Mt. Heng in central southern China: abundances, size distribution, and impacts of long-range transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaomei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Chao; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Yang; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-09-01

    Water-soluble ions in PM(2.5) were continuously measured, along with the measurements of many other species and collection of size-resolved aerosol samples, at the summit of Mt. Heng in the spring of 2009, to understand the sources of aerosols in rural central southern China. The mean concentrations of SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) in PM(2.5) were 8.02, 2.94 and 1.47 μg/m(3), indicating a moderate aerosol pollution level at Mt. Heng. Water-soluble ions composed approximately 40% of the PM(2.5) mass on average. PM(2.5) was weakly acidic with about 66% of the samples being acidic. SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) exhibited similar diurnal patterns with a broad afternoon maximum. SO(4)(2-) and NH(4)(+) were mainly present in the fine aerosols with a peak in the droplet mode of 0.56-1 μm, suggesting the important role of cloud processing in the formation of aerosol sulfate. NO(3)(-) was largely distributed in the coarse particles with a predominant peak in the size-bin of 3.2-5.6 μm. Long-distance transport of processed air masses, dust aerosols, and cloud/fog processes were the major factors determining the variations of fine aerosol at Mt. Heng. The results at Mt. Heng were compared with those obtained from our previous study at Mt. Tai in north China. The comparison revealed large differences in the aerosol characteristics and processes between southern and northern China. Backward trajectories indicated extensive transport of anthropogenic pollution from the coastal regions of eastern/northern China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to Mt. Heng in spring, highlighting the need for regionally coordinated control measures for the secondary pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "This Is the Size of One Meter": Children's Bodily-Material Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In CSCL studies, language is often foregrounded as the primary resource for engaging in collaborative learning, while the body is more often positioned as a secondary resource. There is, however, a growing interest in the body as a resource in learning and collaboration in and outside CSCL. In this paper, we present, analyse, and discuss how two…

  13. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  14. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  15. Lesion size estimator of cardiac radiofrequency ablation at different common locations with different tip temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chi; Choy, Young Bin; Haemmerich, Dieter; Vorperian, Vicken R; Webster, John G

    2004-10-01

    Finite element method (FEM) analysis has become a common method to analyze the lesion formation during temperature-controlled radiofrequency (RF) cardiac ablation. We present a process of FEM modeling a system including blood, myocardium, and an ablation catheter with a thermistor embedded at the tip. The simulation used a simple proportional-integral (PI) controller to control the entire process operated in temperature-controlled mode. Several factors affect the lesion size such as target temperature, blood flow rate, and application time. We simulated the time response of RF ablation at different locations by using different target temperatures. The applied sites were divided into two groups each with a different convective heat transfer coefficient. The first group was high-flow such as the atrioventricular (AV) node and the atrial aspect of the AV annulus, and the other was low-flow such as beneath the valve or inside the coronary sinus. Results showed the change of lesion depth and lesion width with time, under different conditions. We collected data for all conditions and used it to create a database. We implemented a user-interface, the lesion size estimator, where the user enters set temperature and location. Based on the database, the software estimated lesion dimensions during different applied durations. This software could be used as a first-step predictor to help the electrophysiologist choose treatment parameters.

  16. Engineering structure design and fabrication process of small sized China helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zeming; Chen Lu; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design and analysis for china helium-cooled solid breeder (CHHC-SB) test blanket module (TBM) have been carried out recently. As partial verification that the original size module was reasonable and the development process was feasible, fabrication work of a small sized module was to be carried out targetedly. In this paper, detailed design and structure analysis of small sized TBM was carried out based on preliminary design work, fabrication process and integrated assembly process was proposed, so a fabrication for the trial engineering of TBM was layed successfully. (authors)

  17. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Starostová

    Full Text Available While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  18. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Konarzewski, Marek; Kozłowski, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC) size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  19. Influence of different sizes of composite femora on the biomechanical behavior of cementless hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidutz, Florian; Woiczinski, Mathias; Kistler, Manuel; Schröder, Christian; Jansson, Volkmar; Fottner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    For the biomechanical evaluation of cementless stems different sizes of composite femurs have been used in the literature. However, the impact of different specimen sizes on test results is unknown. To determine the potential effect of femur size the biomechanical properties of a conventional stem (CLS Spotorno) were examined in 3 different sizes (small, medium and large composite Sawbones®). Primary stability was tested under physiologically adapted dynamic loading conditions measuring 3-dimensional micromotions. For the small composite femur the dynamic load needed to be adapted since fractures occurred when reaching 1700N. Additionally, surface strain distribution was recorded before and after implantation to draw conclusions about the tendency for stress shielding. All tested sizes revealed similar micromotions only reaching a significant different level at one measurement point. The highest micromotions were observed at the tip of the stems exceeding the limit for osseous integration of 150μm. Regarding strain distribution the highest strain reduction after implantation was registered in all sizes at the level of the lesser trochanter. Specimen size seems to be a minor influence factor for biomechanical evaluation of cementless stems. However, the small composite femur is less suitable for biomechanical testing since this size failed under physiological adapted loads. For the CLS Spotorno osseous integration is unlikely at the tip of the stem and the tendency for stress shielding is the highest at the level of the lesser trochanter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. X-ray structural analysis of two-dimensional assembling lead sulfide nanocrystals of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Elena V.; Golubkov, Valery V.; Litvin, Aleksandr P.; Parfenov, Peter S.; Cherevkov, Sergei A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Baranov, Alexander V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the structural investigation of self-organized assemblies of PbS nanocrystals (NCs) of different sizes, which were deposited on a glass substrate or embedded in a porous matrix. Regardless of the NC size and the type of the substrate and matrix, the assemblies were ordered in two-dimensional superlattices with densely packed NCs.

  1. Emission characteristics and size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; He, Qiusheng; Bai, Huiling; Yan, Yulong; Li, Yinghui

    2017-11-01

    Coking is regarded as a major source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but few researches have been conducted on the emission characteristics of PAHs from coke production. In this study, emissions of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and particle-bound PAHs emitted from charging of coal (CC) and pushing of coke (PC) in four typical coke plants were determined. The emission factors on average, sums of CC and PC, were 4.65 mg/kg, 5.96 mg/kg, 19.18 μg/kg and 20.69 μg/kg of coal charged for PM2.1 (≤ 2.1 μm), PM, PAHs in PM2.1 and total-PAHs, respectively. PM and PAHs emission from plants using stamp charging were significantly more than those using top charging. The profile of PAHs in PM with size ≤ 1.4 μm (PM1.4) emitted from CC process were similar with that from PC, however, it revealed obviously different tendency for PAHs in PM with size > 1.4 μm, indicating the different formation mechanism for coarse particles emitted from CC and PC. Size distributions of PM and PAHs indicated that they were primarily connected with PM1.4, and the contributions of PM1.4 to PM and PAHs emitted from the plants using stamp charging were higher than those using top charging. Some improved technology in air-pollution control devices should be considered in coke production in future based on the considerable impacts of PM1.4 and PAHs on human health and ambient air quality.

  2. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  3. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  4. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  5. Performances of Different Fragment Sizes for Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Rong-Yang; Gao, Ning; Deng, Xi; Li, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Sangild, Per Torp; Li, Jia-Qi

    2017-01-01

    Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been widely used to profile genome-scale DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. However, the applications and technical performances of RRBS with different fragment sizes have not been systematically reported in pigs, which serve as one of the important biomedical models for humans. The aims of this study were to evaluate capacities of RRBS libraries with different fragment sizes to characterize the porcine genome. We found that the Msp I-digested segments between 40 and 220 bp harbored a high distribution peak at 74 bp, which were highly overlapped with the repetitive elements and might reduce the unique mapping alignment. The RRBS library of 110-220 bp fragment size had the highest unique mapping alignment and the lowest multiple alignment. The cost-effectiveness of the 40-110 bp, 110-220 bp and 40-220 bp fragment sizes might decrease when the dataset size was more than 70, 50 and 110 million reads for these three fragment sizes, respectively. Given a 50-million dataset size, the average sequencing depth of the detected CpG sites in the 110-220 bp fragment size appeared to be deeper than in the 40-110 bp and 40-220 bp fragment sizes, and these detected CpG sties differently located in gene- and CpG island-related regions. In this study, our results demonstrated that selections of fragment sizes could affect the numbers and sequencing depth of detected CpG sites as well as the cost-efficiency. No single solution of RRBS is optimal in all circumstances for investigating genome-scale DNA methylation. This work provides the useful knowledge on designing and executing RRBS for investigating the genome-wide DNA methylation in tissues from pigs.

  6. The social essentials of learning: an experimental investigation of collaborative problem solving and knowledge construction in mathematics classrooms in Australia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ching Esther; Clarke, David; Cao, Yiming

    2018-03-01

    Interactive problem solving and learning are priorities in contemporary education, but these complex processes have proved difficult to research. This project addresses the question "How do we optimise social interaction for the promotion of learning in a mathematics classroom?" Employing the logic of multi-theoretic research design, this project uses the newly built Science of Learning Research Classroom (ARC-SR120300015) at The University of Melbourne and equivalent facilities in China to investigate classroom learning and social interactions, focusing on collaborative small group problem solving as a way to make the social aspects of learning visible. In Australia and China, intact classes of local year 7 students with their usual teacher will be brought into the research classroom facilities with built-in video cameras and audio recording equipment to participate in purposefully designed activities in mathematics. The students will undertake a sequence of tasks in the social units of individual, pair, small group (typically four students) and whole class. The conditions for student collaborative problem solving and learning will be manipulated so that student and teacher contributions to that learning process can be distinguished. Parallel and comparative analyses will identify culture-specific interactive patterns and provide the basis for hypotheses about the learning characteristics underlying collaborative problem solving performance documented in the research classrooms in each country. The ultimate goals of the project are to generate, develop and test more sophisticated hypotheses for the optimisation of social interaction in the mathematics classroom in the interest of improving learning and, particularly, student collaborative problem solving.

  7. Methodology on sizing and selecting thermoelectric cooler from different TEC manufacturers in cooling system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, F.L.; Fok, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The search and selection for a suitable thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to optimize a cooling system design can be a tedious task as there are many product ranges from several TEC manufacturers. Although the manufacturers do provide proprietary manuals or electronic search facilities for their products, the process is still cumbersome as these facilities are incompatible. The electronic facilities often have different user interfaces and functionalities, while the manual facilities have different presentations of the performance characteristics. This paper presents a methodology to assist the designer to size and select the TECs from different manufacturers. The approach will allow designers to find quickly and to evaluate the devices from different TEC manufacturers. Based on the approach, the article introduces a new operational framework for an Internet based thermoelectric cooling system design process that would promote the interaction and collaboration between the designers and TEC manufacturers. It is hoped that this work would be useful for the advancement of future tools to assist designers to develop, analyze and optimize thermoelectric cooling system design in minimal time using the latest TECs available on the market

  8. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  9. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  11. Effects of Land Use on Concentrations and Chemical Forms of Phosphorus in Different-Size Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, E. H.; Demisie, W.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land use has been recognized as an important driver of environmental change on all spatial and temporal scales. This study was conducted to determine the effects of land uses on phosphorus concentration in bulk soil and in water-stable aggregates in different soils. The study was conducted on three soil types (Ferrosols, Cambosols, and Primosols), which were collected from three different locations from southeast China and under three land uses (Uncultivated, Vegetable and forest land) the region is characterized as a hill and plain area. Accordingly, a total of 24 soil samples were collected. The results showed that average contents of total P were 0.55-1.55 g/kg, 0.28-1.03 g/kg and 0.14-0.8 g/kg for the soils: Cambosols, Ferrosols and Primosols respectively. Vegetable and forest land led to higher total phosphorus contents in these soils than in the uncultivated land. An aggregate fraction of >2 mm under forest land made up the largest percentage (30 up to 70%), whereas the size fraction phosphorus, organic phosphorus and Olsen P and phosphorus forms in the soils. It implies that the conversion of natural ecosystem to vegetable land increased the phosphorus proportion in the soils, which could have negative impact on the environmental quality.

  12. Performances of Different Fragment Sizes for Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Xiao Long; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Rong Yang

    2017-01-01

    sizes might decrease when the dataset size was more than 70, 50 and 110 million reads for these three fragment sizes, respectively. Given a 50-million dataset size, the average sequencing depth of the detected CpG sites in the 110-220 bp fragment size appeared to be deeper than in the 40-110 bp and 40...

  13. Myonuclear domain size and myosin isoform expression in muscle fibres from mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Karlsson, Patrick; Lindblad, Joakim; Qaisar, Rizwan; Aare, Sudhakar; Bengtsson, Ewert; Larsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study of myonuclear domain (MND) size in mammalian species representing a 100,000-fold difference in body mass, ranging from 25 g to 2500 kg, was undertaken to improve our understanding of myonuclear organization in skeletal muscle fibres. Myonuclear domain size was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions in a total of 235 single muscle fibre segments at a fixed sarcomere length. Irrespective of species, the largest MND size was observed in muscle fibres expressing fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, but in the two smallest mammalian species studied (mouse and rat), MND size was not larger in the fast-twitch fibres expressing the IIA MyHC isofom than in the slow-twitch type I fibres. In the larger mammals, the type I fibres always had the smallest average MND size, but contrary to mouse and rat muscles, type IIA fibres had lower mitochondrial enzyme activities than type I fibres. Myonuclear domain size was highly dependent on body mass in the two muscle fibre types expressed in all species, i.e. types I and IIA. Myonuclear domain size increased in muscle fibres expressing both the beta/slow (type I; r = 0.84, P fast IIA MyHC isoform (r = 0.90; P muscle fibre type, independent of species. However, myosin isoform expression is not the sole protein determining MND size, and other protein systems, such as mitochondrial proteins, may be equally or more important determinants of MND size.

  14. Effect of microcavitary alginate hydrogel with different pore sizes on chondrocyte culture for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lei; Yao, Yongchang; Wang, Dong-an; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, a novel microcavitary hydrogel was proven to be effective for proliferation of chondrocytes and maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype. In present work, we further investigated whether the size of microcavity would affect the growth and the function of chondrocytes. By changing the stirring rate, gelatin microspheres in different sizes including small size (80–120 μm), middle size (150–200 μm) and large size (250–300 μm) were prepared. And then porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated into alginate hydrogel with various sizes of gelatin microspheres. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Live/dead staining and real-time PCR were used to analyze the effect of the pore size on cell proliferation and expression of specific chondrocytic genes. According to all the data, cells cultivated in microcavitary hydrogel, especially in small size, had preferable abilities of proliferation and higher expression of cartilaginous markers including type II collagen, aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Furthermore, it was shown by western blot assay that the culture of chondrocytes in microcavitary hydrogel could improve the proliferation of cells potentially by inducing the Erk1/2-MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrated that chondrocytes favored microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm for better growth and ECM synthesis, in which Erk1/2 pathway was involved. This culture system would be promising for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel model with microcavitary structure was set up to study the interaction between cells and materials. • Microcavitary alginate hydrogel could enhance the proliferation of chondrocytes and promote the expression of cartilaginous genes as compared with plain alginate hydrogel. • Cells in microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm were capable of better growth and ECM synthesis

  15. Effect of microcavitary alginate hydrogel with different pore sizes on chondrocyte culture for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Lei; Yao, Yongchang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Dong-an, E-mail: DAWang@ntu.edu.sg [National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Chen, Xiaofeng, E-mail: chenxf@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, a novel microcavitary hydrogel was proven to be effective for proliferation of chondrocytes and maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype. In present work, we further investigated whether the size of microcavity would affect the growth and the function of chondrocytes. By changing the stirring rate, gelatin microspheres in different sizes including small size (80–120 μm), middle size (150–200 μm) and large size (250–300 μm) were prepared. And then porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated into alginate hydrogel with various sizes of gelatin microspheres. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Live/dead staining and real-time PCR were used to analyze the effect of the pore size on cell proliferation and expression of specific chondrocytic genes. According to all the data, cells cultivated in microcavitary hydrogel, especially in small size, had preferable abilities of proliferation and higher expression of cartilaginous markers including type II collagen, aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Furthermore, it was shown by western blot assay that the culture of chondrocytes in microcavitary hydrogel could improve the proliferation of cells potentially by inducing the Erk1/2-MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrated that chondrocytes favored microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm for better growth and ECM synthesis, in which Erk1/2 pathway was involved. This culture system would be promising for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel model with microcavitary structure was set up to study the interaction between cells and materials. • Microcavitary alginate hydrogel could enhance the proliferation of chondrocytes and promote the expression of cartilaginous genes as compared with plain alginate hydrogel. • Cells in microcavitary alginate hydrogel with pore size within the range of 80–120 μm were capable of better growth and ECM synthesis.

  16. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  17. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  18. Downstream reduction of rural channel size with contrasting urban effects in small coastal streams of southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, G. C.; Young, R. W.

    1981-07-01

    Although most streams show a downstream increase in channel size corresponding to a downstream increase in flood discharges, those flowing off the Illawarra escarpment of New South Wales show a marked reduction of channel size, accompanied by a down-stream increase in flood frequency in their lower reaches. Within the confined and steeply sloping valleys of the escarpment foothills, bed and bank sediments are relatively coarse and uncohesive, and channels increase in size, corresponding to increasing discharge downstream. However, once these streams emerge into more open rural valleys at lower slopes and are accompanied by extensive floodplains formed of fine cohesive sediment, there is a dramatic reduction in channel size. This decrease in channel size apparently results from a sudden decline in channel slope and associated stream power, the cohesive nature of downstream alluvium, its retention on the channel banks by a dense cover of pasture grasses, and the availability of an extensive floodplain to carry displaced floodwater. Under these conditions floodwaters very frequently spill out over the floodplain and the downstream channel-flow becomes a relatively unimportant component of the total peak discharge. This emphasizes the importance of these floodplains as a part of the total channel system. In situations where urban development has increased peak runoff and reduced the available area of effective floodplain, stream channels formed in this fine alluvium rapidly entrench and increase in cross-sectional area by 2-3 times. Minor man-induced channel alteration and maintenance appears to trigger this enlargement.

  19. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  20. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  1. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Berto,DA; Garcia,EA; Móri,C; Faitarone,ABG; Pelícia,K; Molino,AB

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.72...

  2. Magnetic properties of different grain-sized particles of sediments from the Okinawa Trough and their relationships to sedimentary environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LI Peiying; ZHANG Xiaolong; CAO Chengxiao; XU Xingyong; DU Jun; LIU Lejun

    2005-01-01

    Multiple magnetic parameters were measured for nine different grain-sized fractions separated from the sediment samples that are representatives of four different sedimentary environments of the Okinawa Trough. Based on the measured results, the contributions of different grain-sized particles to total magnetic susceptibility of bulk sediments, the magnetic mineral assemblage and magnetic domain state as well as their relationships to sedimentary environment were discussed. Our research shows that the magnetic mineral is dominated by magnetite with a small amount of hematite and is primarily in pseudo-single-domain state. That indicates that the different sedimentary environments in the Okinawa Trough have certain correlation in material provenance. The magnetic minerals enrich in different grain-sized particles in response to different sedimentary environments. The contribution of the grain sizes from coarse to fine to coarse and fine to the magnetic susceptibility from the west to the east is in accordance with terrigenous material transportation from continental shelf of the East China Sea to the Okinawa Trough. It also shows difference in magnetic properties as a result of some environmental factors.

  3. Sexual differences in post-hatching Saunders's gulls: size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2013-04-01

    Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's gulls (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes.

  4. How Group Size and Composition Influences the Effectiveness of Collaborative Screen-Based Simulation Training: A Study of Dental and Nursing University Students Learning Radiographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Söderström

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses how changes in the design of screen-based computer simulation training influence the collaborative training process. Specifically, this study examine how the size of a group and a group’s composition influence the way these tools are used. One case study consisted of 18+18 dental students randomized into either collaborative 3D simulation training or conventional collaborative training. The students worked in groups of three. The other case consisted of 12 nursing students working in pairs (partners determined by the students with a 3D simulator. The results showed that simulation training encouraged different types of dialogue compared to conventional training and that the communication patterns were enhanced in the nursing students ́ dyadic simulation training. The concrete changes concerning group size and the composition of the group influenced the nursing students’ engagement with the learning environment and consequently the communication patterns that emerged. These findings suggest that smaller groups will probably be more efficient than larger groups in a free collaboration setting that uses screen-based simulation training.

  5. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  6. Age differences in the use of serving size information on food labels: numeracy or attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Applegate, Elizabeth; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N

    2017-04-01

    The ability to use serving size information on food labels is important for managing age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cancer. Past research suggests that older adults are at risk for failing to accurately use this portion of the food label due to numeracy skills. However, the extent to which older adults pay attention to serving size information on packages is unclear. We compared the effects of numeracy and attention on age differences in accurate use of serving size information while individuals evaluated product healthfulness. Accuracy and attention were assessed across two tasks in which participants compared nutrition labels of two products to determine which was more healthful if they were to consume the entire package. Participants' eye movements were monitored as a measure of attention while they compared two products presented side-by-side on a computer screen. Numeracy as well as food label habits and nutrition knowledge were assessed using questionnaires. Sacramento area, California, USA, 2013-2014. Stratified sample of 358 adults, aged 20-78 years. Accuracy declined with age among those older adults who paid less attention to serving size information. Although numeracy, nutrition knowledge and self-reported food label use supported accuracy, these factors did not influence age differences in accuracy. The data suggest that older adults are less accurate than younger adults in their use of serving size information. Age differences appear to be more related to lack of attention to serving size information than to numeracy skills.

  7. Impact of different rectangular wires on torsional expression of different sizes of buccal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Shabnam; Boroujeni, Afshar-Rasti

    2018-01-01

    Torsions in rectangular wires are the essential part of corrections in the finishing stage of treatment. Moreover the greatest amounts of torques are applied in the molar areas. a clinically effective moment is between 5 and 20 Nmm. In this study we have decided to evaluate the impact of different tube sizes and different dimensions of wires with different modulus of elasticities on the amount torsional bond strength of molar tubes. 60 human impacted molar teeth were collected. A buccal tube was bonded on the buccal surface of all the samples by using light cured adhesive resin. After that, the teeth were mounted in a hard acrylic block. According to the size of buccal tube and the rectangular wires to be tested 4 groups will be designed. Torsional force was applied by instron machine. The torque angle at 5Nmm and at 20Nmm point will be calculated: which means, how many degrees of torque is required to reach the maximum 20Nmm moment from the minimum 5Nmm.One-way ANOVA was used to compare torque angle in all of the groups. The least amount of clinically significant angle was 2.2 ᵒ in the 0.017×0.025 SS and the largest amount of it was 23.7 ᵒ in the 0.017×0.025 TMA in 0.018×0.025 slot molar tube. But, this angle was 19.9 ᵒand 13.6 ᵒ in 0.019×0.025 SS and 0.019×0.025 TMA archwire in 0.022×0.028 molar tube. The 0.017×0.025 SS archwire in 0.018×0.025 molar tube had the lowest clinically significant angle. The largest amount was seen in group 0.017×0.025 TMA in 0.018×0.025 slot molar tube. Key words: Torsional efficacy, rectangular wires, buccal tubes, torque angle.

  8. An Initial Implementation of Multiagent Simulation of Travel Behavior for a Medium-Sized City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxiang Zhuge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the traditional four-step model is so simple that it cannot solve complex modern transportation problems, microsimulation is gradually applied for transportation planning and some researches indicate that it is more compatible and realistic. In this paper, a framework of agent-based simulation of travel behavior is proposed, which is realized by MATSim, a simulation tool developed for large-scale agent-based simulation. MATSim is currently developed and some of its models are under training, so a detailed introduction of simulation structure and preparation of input data will be presented. In practice, the preparation process differs from one to another in different simulation projects because the available data for simulation is various. Thus, a simulation of travel behavior under a condition of limited available survey data will be studied based on MATSim; furthermore, a medium-sized city in China will be taken as an example to check whether agent-based simulation of travel behavior can be successfully applied in China.

  9. Effects of different block size distributions in pressure transient response of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazeri, G.H. [Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: montazeri_gh@yahoo.com; Tahami, S.A. [Mad Daneshgostar Tabnak Co. (MDT),Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, B.; Safari, E. [Iranian Central Oil Fields Co, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: morady.babak@gmail.com

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a model for pressure transient and derivative analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs by a formulation of inter porosity flow incorporating variations in matrix block size, which is inversely related to fracture intensity. Geologically realistic Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of matrix block size, such as uniform, bimodal, linear and exponential distributions, are examined and pseudo-steady-state and transient models for inter porosity flow are assumed. The results have been physically interpreted, and, despite results obtained by other authors, it was found that the shape of pressure derivative curves for different PDFs are basically identical within some ranges of block size variability, inter porosity skin, PDFs parameters and matrix storage capacity. This tool can give an insight on the distribution of block sizes and shapes, together with other sources of information such as Logs and geological observations. (author)

  10. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  11. Do Between-Culture Differences Really Mean that People Are Different? A Look at Some Measures of Culture Effect Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Grissom, Robert J.; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends four measures of cultural effect size appropriate for cross-cultural research (standardized difference between two sample means, probabilistic superiority effect size measure, Cohen's U1, and point biserial correlation), demonstrating their efficacy on two data sets from previously published studies and arguing for their use in future…

  12. Predicting memory performance in normal ageing using different measures of hippocampal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, T.C.; Creasey, H.; Kril, J.J.; Grayson, D.A.; Piguet, O.; Bennett, H.P.; Ridley, L.J.; Broe, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life. (orig.)

  13. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SN-38 nanocrystals with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Min Chen,1,2 Wanqing Li,3 Xun Zhang,1 Ye Dong,1 Yabing Hua,1 Hui Zhang,1 Jing Gao,1 Liang Zhao,2 Ying Li,1 Aiping Zheng1 1State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2School of Pharmacy, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 3School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38 is a potent broad-spectrum antitumor drug derived from irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11. Due to its poor solubility and instability of the active lactone ring, its clinical use is significantly limited. As one of the most promising formulations for poorly water-soluble drugs, nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention. In order to solve these problems and evaluate the antitumor effect of SN-38 in vitro and in vivo, two nanocrystals with markedly different particle sizes were prepared. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the two nanocrystals. The particle sizes of SN-38 nanocrystals A (SN-38/NCs-A and SN-38 nanocrystals B (SN-38/NCs-B were 229.5±1.99 and 799.2±14.44 nm, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the crystalline state of SN-38 did not change in the size reduction process. An accelerated dissolution velocity of SN-38 was achieved by nanocrystals, and release rate of SN-38/NCs-A was significantly faster than that of SN-38/NCs-B. Cellular uptake, cellular cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, animal antitumor efficacy, and tissue distribution were subsequently examined. As a result, enhanced intracellular accumulation in HT1080 cells and cytotoxicity on different tumor cells were observed for SN-38/NCs-A compared to that for SN-38/NCs-B and solution. Besides, compared to the SN-38 solution, SN-38/NCs-A had a higher bioavailability after intravenous injection; while the bioavailability of SN-38/NCs-B was even lower than

  15. Effect of cuprous oxide with different sizes on thermal and combustion behaviors of unsaturated polyester resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanbei; Hu, Weizhao; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-07-15

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) as an effective catalyst has been applied to enhance the fire safety of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR), but the particle size influence on combustion behaviors has not been previously reported. Herein, the UPR/Cu 2 O composites (metal oxide particles with average particle-size of 10, 100, and 200nm) were successfully synthesized by thermosetting process. The effects of Cu 2 O with different sizes on thermostability and combustion behaviors of UPR were characterized by TGA, MCC, TG-IR, FTIR, and SSTF. The results revel that the addition of Cu 2 O contributes to sufficient decomposition of oxygen-containing compounds, which is beneficial to the release of nontoxic compounds. The smallest-sized Cu 2 O performs the excellent catalytic decomposition effect and promotes the complete combustion of UPR, which benefits the enhancement of fire safety. While the other additives retard pyrolysis process and yield more char residue, and thus the flame retardancy of UPR composites was improved. Therefore, catalysis plays a major role for smaller-sized particles during thermal decomposition of matrix, while flame retarded effect became gradual distinctly for the larger-sized additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  17. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  18. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  19. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes. Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively, and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively. The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05 of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05 isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm is recommended for quail egg production.

  20. Size and Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2015-01-01

    American public gratitude than the UK. While London has been accused of losing Basra and Musa Qaleh, Copenhagen has been showered with praise and top-posts in NATO. This article explains why demonstrating how the differences in size and reputation gave rise to different expectations of the special...

  1. Duration of load behaviour of different sized straight timber beams subjected to bending in variable climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhijärvi, A.; Galimard, P.; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the second in a series which sums up the results of an extensive project to quantify the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on different sized timber beams in different climates. The paper deals with straight (unnotched) beams. The results of various DOL-tests of stepwise and constant...

  2. How EU Employment Rights are Experienced in Different-Sized Enterprises and Why It Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copeland, P.; ter Haar, B.; Ales, E.; Basenghi, F.; Bromwich, W.; Senatori, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the experiences of employees in different-sized employment units for 10 EU member states in three EU policy areas. Each of the policy areas represents a different EU governance tool: directives (health and safety); education and training (the Open Method of Communication); and

  3. Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Figueroa-Bustos

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Root system size is a key trait for improving water and nitrogen uptake efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. This study aimed (i to characterize the root system and shoot traits of five wheat cultivars with apparent differences in root system size; (ii to evaluate whether the apparent differences in root system size observed at early vegetative stages in a previous semi-hydroponic phenotyping experiment are reflected at later phenological stages in plants grown in soil using large rhizoboxes. The five wheat cultivars were grown in a glasshouse in rhizoboxes filled to 1.0 m with field soil. Phenology and shoot traits were measured and root growth and proliferation were mapped to quantify root length density (RLD, root length per plant, root biomass and specific root length (SRL. Wheat cultivars with large root systems had greater root length, more root biomass and thicker roots, particularly in the top 40 cm, than those with small root systems. Cultivars that reached anthesis later had larger root system sizes than those that reached anthesis earlier. Later anthesis allowed more time for root growth and proliferation. Cultivars with large root systems had 25% more leaf area and biomass than those with small root systems, which presumably reflects high canopy photosynthesis to supply the demand for carbon assimilates to roots. Wheat cultivars with contrasting root system sizes at the onset of tillering (Z2.1 in a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system maintained their size ranking at booting (Z4.5 when grown in soil. Phenology, particularly time to anthesis, was associated with root system size.

  4. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  5. Bias in segmented gamma scans arising from size differences between calibration standards and assay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in segmented gamma scanning have emphasized software corrections for gamma-ray self-adsorption in particulates or lumps of special nuclear material in the sample. another feature of this software is an attenuation correction factor formalism that explicitly accounts for differences in sample container size and composition between the calibration standards and the individual items being measured. Software without this container-size correction produces biases when the unknowns are not packaged in the same containers as the calibration standards. This new software allows the use of different size and composition containers for standards and unknowns, as enormous savings considering the expense of multiple calibration standard sets otherwise needed. This paper presents calculations of the bias resulting from not using this new formalism. These calculations may be used to estimate bias corrections for segmented gamma scanners that do not incorporate these advanced concepts

  6. Physical properties and microstructure of Ti(CN)-based cermets with different WC particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ying; Deng, Ling; Xiong, Xiang; Ye, J.W.; Li, P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Ti(CN)-based cermets with different WC particle sizes from 0.2 to 4 μm were prepared at 1450 °C with 2 MPa Air pressure. The microstructure of cermets was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that all the cermets with different WC particle sizes have a typical “core–rim” structure. With the increase of WC powder sizes, the frequency and portion of Ti(C 0.7 N 0.3 ) cores and rim are somewhat decreased while the portion of white core is increased, due to the relative dissolution rate decreasing. In addition, the fracture mode of Ti(C,N) based cermets is a mixture of trans-granular (primary) and inter-granular (subordinate) fracture. The TRS (about 1850 MPa) of the cermets fluctuate slightly with the WC particle sizes from 0.2 to 1.0 μm, but decrease evidently with WC particle sizes up to 2 μm

  7. Size distribution, directional source contributions and pollution status of PM from Chengdu, China during a long-term sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Ma, Tong; Song, Dan-Lin; Zhou, Lai-Dong; Han, Bo; Feng, Yin-Chang; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-06-01

    Long-term and synchronous monitoring of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was conducted in Chengdu in China from 2007 to 2013. The levels, variations, compositions and size distributions were investigated. The sources were quantified by two-way and three-way receptor models (PMF2, ME2-2way and ME2-3way). Consistent results were found: the primary source categories contributed 63.4% (PMF2), 64.8% (ME2-2way) and 66.8% (ME2-3way) to PM 10 , and contributed 60.9% (PMF2), 65.5% (ME2-2way) and 61.0% (ME2-3way) to PM 2.5 . Secondary sources contributed 31.8% (PMF2), 32.9% (ME2-2way) and 31.7% (ME2-3way) to PM 10 , and 35.0% (PMF2), 33.8% (ME2-2way) and 36.0% (ME2-3way) to PM 2.5 . The size distribution of source categories was estimated better by the ME2-3way method. The three-way model can simultaneously consider chemical species, temporal variability and PM sizes, while a two-way model independently computes datasets of different sizes. A method called source directional apportionment (SDA) was employed to quantify the contributions from various directions for each source category. Crustal dust from east-north-east (ENE) contributed the highest to both PM 10 (12.7%) and PM 2.5 (9.7%) in Chengdu, followed by the crustal dust from south-east (SE) for PM 10 (9.8%) and secondary nitrate & secondary organic carbon from ENE for PM 2.5 (9.6%). Source contributions from different directions are associated with meteorological conditions, source locations and emission patterns during the sampling period. These findings and methods provide useful tools to better understand PM pollution status and to develop effective pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Response of MG63 osteoblast-like cells onto polycarbonate membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Choi, Jin San; Park, Ki Suk; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Young Moo; Lee, Hai Bang

    2004-08-01

    Response of different types of cells on materials is important for the applications of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is recognized that the behavior of the cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on materials depends largely on surface characteristics such as wettability, chemistry, charge, rigidity, and roughness. In this study, we examined the behavior of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on a polycarbonate (PC) membrane surfaces with different micropore sizes (0.2-8.0 microm in diameter). Cell adhesion and proliferation to the PC membrane surfaces were determined by cell counting and MTT assay. The effect of surface micropore on the MG63 cells was evaluated by cell morphology, protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity. It seems that the cell adhesion and proliferation were progressively inhibited as the PC membranes had micropores with increasing size, probably due to surface discontinuities produced by track-etched pores. Increasing micropore size of the PC membrane results in improved protein synthesis and ALP specific activity in isolated cells. There was a statistically significant difference (Pmicropore sizes. The MG63 cells also maintained their phenotype under conditions that support a round cell shape. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed the osteogenic phenotype of the MG63 cells onto the PC membranes with different micropore sizes. In results, as micropore size is getting larger, cell number is reduced and cell differentiation and matrix production is increased. This study demonstrated that the surface topography plays an important role for phenotypic expression of the MG63 osteoblast-like cells.

  9. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  10. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  11. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  12. Size of government and entrepreneurship. Analysis of three groups of countries with different economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz Casero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the "size of government" in entrepreneurial activity for countries with different levels of economical development. It has been used the variables "size of government" of the economic freedom indices released by the Economic Freedom Network (2000-2009 and by The Heritage Foundation (2000-2011, and the variables of "entrepreneurship" released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Furthermore, the same analysis has been carried out grouping the countries by development level, following the classification elaborated by the World Economic Forum. Statistical analyses of correlations have shown that the “size of government” is related to entrepreneurship. The variables "Size of Government: Expenditures, Taxes and Enterprises" and " Government Size” have revealed a positive correlation with the total, opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial activity indices for the economies based on efficiency and innovation, thus less taxes on income and lower government spending, increase the entrepreneurship of the country. In “factor driven economies”, there is no relationship between the size of government and entrepreneurship

  13. Neutron-optical effects at very cold neutrons scattering on the spherical particles of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinev, V.G.; Kudinova, O.I.; Novokshonova, L.A.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Udovenko, A.I.; Shelagin, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Very cold neutrons (VCN) with the wavelength λ > 4.0 ran are convenient tool for investigating the super molecular structures of different nature. Using a Born approximation (BA) to the analysis of dependencies on the wavelength of the VCN scattering cross sections, it is possible to obtain information about average sizes (R) and concentrations of the scattering particles with R∼ λ. However, with an increasing the sizes of scatterers the conditions for BA applicability can be disrupted. In this work we investigated the possibilities of BA, eikonal and geometric-optical approximations for the analysis of VCN scattering on the spherical particles with R ≥ λ

  14. More Differences or More Similarities Regarding Education in Big, Middle-sized and Small Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Merkač

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of education and qualifying of employees in small, middle-sized and big Slovenian companies. The research shows some differences regarding the attitude to the development of employees as a part of a company's business strategy, some obstacles for developing their abilities, and connections between job satisfaction and motivation for learning. It also shows how important it is for the subjects concerning education and qualifying if an individual works for a big, middle-sized, or small company.

  15. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  16. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Yann; Saner, Philippe; Philipson, Christopher; Bagchi, Robert; Ong, Robert C; Hector, Andy

    2010-07-19

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  17. Association between body size and blood pressure in children from different ethnic origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LA de Hoog, Marieke; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years) from different ethnic origins. Method: Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923), Turkish (n=99), Moroccan (n=187), Black-African (n=67) and Black-Caribbean (n=121). Data on

  18. NOTES ON OPTIMAL ALLOCATION FOR FIXED SIZE CONFIDENCE REGIONS OF THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO MULTINORMAL MEANS

    OpenAIRE

    Hyakutake, Hiroto; Kawasaki, Hidefumi

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a fixed-size confidence region of the difference of two multinormal means when the covariance matrices have intraclass correlation structure. When the covariance matrices are known, we derive an optimal allocation. A two-stage procedure is given for the problem with unknown covariance matrices.

  19. Tall swards and small grazers : competition, facilitation and coexistence of different-sized grazers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuermann, N.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in body mass are assumed to be a major factor leading to resource partitioning and the reduction of competition between species within a guild. To study the effects of body mass on foraging behaviour of grazers independently of morphological adaptations we used intra-specific size

  20. The Effects on Soccer Passing Skills When Warming Up with Two Different Sized Soccer Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcak, Keskin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is studying the effects of warm-up with two different sizes of balls on passing skills. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) was conducted on 28 non-elite football players, who participated in the present research for 10 training days. LSPT is a passing skill protocol established on completing 16 passes…

  1. Effect of different sizes of planting material on the growth and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a significant (P<0.05) effect was recorded in cap diameter (3.68cm) from the 20g weight planting material. Stipe height and girth did not show any significant difference amongst the treatments. The 60g planting material weight recorded more shoots than the 20g and 40g planting material sizes. The 60g planting ...

  2. Ozone exposure, uptake, and response of different-sized black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd S. Frederickson; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; Thomas E. Kolb

    1996-01-01

    Differences in exposure, uptake and relative sensitivity to ozone between seedling, sapling, and canopy black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were characterized during two growing seasons in north central Pennsylvania. Open-grown trees of all sizes received a similar amount of ozone exposure. Seedlings had greater foliar ozone injury, expressed...

  3. Dynamic Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Excitons in Quantum Dots of Different Sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2005-01-01

    Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes....

  4. New insights into the oleate flotation response of feldspar particles of different sizes: Anisotropic adsorption model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Deng, Wei; Yang, Yaohui; Sun, Wei; Gao, Zhiyong; Hu, Yuehua

    2017-11-01

    The anisotropic adsorption of sodium oleate (NaOL) on feldspar surfaces was investigated to elucidate the different flotation properties of feldspar particles of four different size ranges. Microflotation experiments showed that the feldspar flotation recovery of particles with sizes spanning different ranges decreased in the order 0-19>19-38>45-75>38-45μm. Zeta potential and FTIR measurements showed that NaOL was chemically adsorbed on the Al sites of the feldspar surface. The anisotropic surface energies and broken bond densities estimated by density functional theory calculations showed that, although feldspar mostly exposed (010) and (001) surfaces, only the (001) surfaces contained the Al sites needed for NaOL adsorption. The interaction energies calculated by molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the more favorable NaOL adsorption on (001) than (010) surfaces, which may represent the main cause for the anisotropic NaOL adsorption on feldspar particles of different sizes. SEM measurements showed that the main exposed surfaces on coarse and fine feldspar particles were the side (010) and basal (001) ones, respectively. A higher fraction of Al-rich (001) surfaces is exposed on fine feldspar particles, resulting in better floatability compared with coarse particles. XPS and adsorption measurements confirmed that the Al content on the feldspar surface varied with the particle size, explaining the different NaOL flotation of feldspar particles of different sizes. Therefore, the present results suggest that coarsely ground ore should be used for the separation of feldspar gangue minerals. Further improvements in the flotation separation of feldspar from associated valuable minerals can be achieved through selective comminution or grinding processes favoring the exposure of (010) surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chicken-sized oviraptorid dinosaurs from central China and their ontogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Junchang; Currie, Philip J; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xingliao; Pu, Hanyong; Jia, Songhai

    2013-02-01

    Oviraptorids are a group of specialized non-avian theropod dinosaurs that were generally one to 8 m in body length. New specimens of baby oviraptorids from the Late Cretaceous of Henan Province are some of the smallest individuals known. They include diagnostic characters such as the relative position of the antorbital fenestra and the external naris, distinct opening in the premaxilla anteroventral to the external naris, antorbital fossa partly bordered by premaxilla posterodorsally, lacrimal process of premaxilla does not contact the anterodorsal process of the lacrimal, parietal almost as long as frontal; in dorsal view, posterior margin forms a straight line between the postzygapophyses in each of the fourth and fifth cervicals; femur longer than ilium. They also elucidate the ontogenetic processes of oviraptorids, including fusion of cranial elements and changes in relative body proportions. Hind limb proportions are constant in oviraptorids, regardless of absolute body size or ontogenetic stage. This suggests a sedentary lifestyle that did not involve the pursuit of similar-sized prey. The functional implications for bite force and therefore dietary preferences are better understood through the study of such small animals. The comparison of the measurements of 115 skeletons indicates that oviraptorids maintain their hind limb proportions regardless of ontogenetic stage or absolute size, which is a pattern seen more commonly in herbivores than in carnivores. This may weakly support the hypothesis that oviraptorids are herbivores rather than active carnivores.

  6. Ultrasonic velocimetry studies on different salts of chitosan: Effect of ion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C Raja; Sathya, R; Nithiananthi, P; Jayakumar, K

    2017-11-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of ion size on the thermodynamical properties such as ultrasonic velocity (U), adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic bulk modulus (K s ), relaxation strength (r s ) have been obtained for the different salts of chitosan viz., formate (3.5Å), acetate (4.5Å), Succinate (5Å) and Adipate (6Å). To find the effect of ion size, the effect due to water has been removed by calculating the change in ultrasonic velocity (dU), change in adiabatic compressibility (dβ), in acoustic impedance (dZ), in adiabatic bulk modulus (dK s ), and in relaxation strength (dr s ). Space filling factor and polarizability has been obtained from the refractive index data through Lorentz-Lorentz relation. FTIR studies confirm the formation of different quaternary salts of chitosan and their size (mass) effects which has been verified with Hooke's law. All the said properties vary both with ion size and concentration of different salts of chitosan. This investigation may throw some light on better usage of chitosan in biomedical applications. The detailed results are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance and fouling characteristics of different pore-sized submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors (SCMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Le; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong

    2009-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR), a combination of activated sludge process and the membrane separation system, has been widely used in wastewater treatment. However, 90% of MBR reported were employing polymeric membranes. The usage of ceramic membranes in MBR is quite rare. Four submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors (SCMBRs) with different membrane pore size were used in this study to treat sewage. The results showed that the desirable carbonaceous removal of 95% and ammonia nitrogen removal of 98% were obtained for all the SCMBRs. It was also showed that the ceramic membranes were able to reject some portions of the protein and carbohydrate, whereby the carbohydrate rejection rate was much higher than that of protein. Membrane pore size did not significantly affect the COD and TOC removal efficiencies, the composition of EPS and SMP or the membrane rejection rate, although slight differences were observed. The SCMBR with the biggest membrane pore size fouled fastest, and membrane pore size was a main contributor for the different fouling potential observed.

  8. Comparison of fouling characteristics in different pore-sized submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Le; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2010-12-01

    Membrane fouling, the key disadvantage that inevitably occurs continuously in the membrane bioreactor (MBR), baffles the wide-scale application of MBR. Ceramic membrane, which possesses high chemical and thermal resistance, has seldom been used in MBR to treat municipal wastewater. Four ceramic membranes with the same materials but different pore sizes, ranging from 80 to 300 nm, were studied in parallel using four lab-scale submerged MBRs (i.e., one type of ceramic membrane in one MBR). Total COD and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed to be consistently above 94.5 and 98%, respectively, in all submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors. The experimental results showed that fouling was mainly affected by membrane's microstructure, surface roughness and pore sizes. Ceramic membrane with the roughest surface and biggest pore size (300 nm) had the highest fouling potential with respect to the TMP profile. The 80 nm membrane with a smoother surface and relatively uniform smaller pore openings experienced least membrane fouling with respect to TMP increase. The effects of the molecular weight distribution, particle size distribution and other biomass characteristics such as extracellular polymeric substances, zeta potential and capillary suction time, were also investigated in this study. Results showed that no significant differences of these attributes were observed. These observations indicate that the membrane surface properties are the dominant factors leading to different fouling potential in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on identically voided pervious concrete made with different sized aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastro Kiran, V.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Pervious concrete (PC) is also known as no fines concrete and has been found to be a reliable stormwater management tool. As a substitution for conventional impervious pavement, PC usage has been increasing during recent years. PC made with different sized aggregate shows different void ratios and changed properties. As void ratio plays a notable role on strength and permeability of PC, this study aims to focus on properties of PC at identical void ratio of 20%, made using aggregates of three size ranges, viz., 4.75-6mm, 10-12.5mm, and 10-20mm. Appropriate alternatives were used to maintain the identical void ratio. As the permeation capacity of PC gets reduced due to the clogging tendency, the life of PC will also get reduced. Hence, to make the PC to sustain for a long time it is necessary to study the clogging behavior. This study investigates the tendency of PC for clogging and the potential for regaining the permeability through de-clogging methods. Clogging tendency of PC is studied by using two sizes (coarse and fine) of clog particles and the changes in permeability are observed. Efficiency of declogging methods like pressure washing and vacuum suction on PC with different sized aggregates are also evaluated.

  10. [Spatial change of the grain-size of aeolian sediments in Qira oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong Chong; Xu, Li Shuai

    2017-04-18

    In order to understand the environmental influence of oasis-desert ecotone to oasis ecological system, we comparatively analyzed the grain size characteristics of various aeolian sediments, including the sediments in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis and in Qira River valley. The results showed that the grain size characteristics (including grain-size distribution curve, grain size parameters, and content of different size classes) of sediments in the oasis-desert ecotone were consistent along the prevailing wind direction with a grain-size range of 0.3-200 μm and modal size of 67 μm. All of the sediments were good sorting and mainly composed of suspension components and saltation components, but not denatured saltation and creeping components (>200 μm). They were typically aeolian deposits being short-range transported. The grain sizes of sediments in oasis-desert ecotone were smaller than that in the material sources of Qira River valley and desert (0.3-800 μm), but very similar to those of the modern aeolian deposits in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis. The denatured saltation and creep components (>200 μm) were suppressed to transport into oasis-desert ecotone because of the high vegetation cover in oasis-desert ecotone. Therefore, like the shelterbelts, the oasis-desert ecotone could also block the invasion of desert. They safeguarded the oasis ecological environment together.

  11. Long Lines Not So Practical in China while Small and Medium Sized Lines Favored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Chu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Maglev railroads have taken actual steps in China sincethe cooperation work between Germany and China, whichbrings more prospects to this technology. However, due to variousreasons, large-scaled long lines seem to be not so practicalat present in China, while the small and medium space scaledlines may be the initial alternatives with the booming ofthree super-metropolis groups in China, namely, the ZhujiangRiver Delta, the "Grand Beijing" area and the Yangtze RiverDelta.

  12. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  13. Mid-size urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de B.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To speak of the project for the mid-size city is to speculate about the possibility of mid-size urbanity as a design category. An urbanism not necessarily defined by the scale of the intervention or the size of the city undergoing transformation, but by the framing of the issues at hand and the

  14. Fluorescence quenching of fluoroquinolones by gold nanoparticles with different sizes and its analytical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjadi, Mohammad, E-mail: amjadi@tabrizu.ac.ir; Farzampour, Leila

    2014-01-15

    The interaction of some fluoroquinolones including norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin and ofloxacin with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different sizes (8, 20 and 75 nm) was studied. In the studied systems, fluoroquinolones are noncovalently adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs, which results in severe quenching of fluoroquinolones fluorescence possibly as a result of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Stern–Volmer quenching constants were obtained and found to increase with an increase in the size of AuNPs. Moreover, the interactions between some thiols and fluoroquinolone-adsorbed AuNPs were investigated to explore the analytical applicability of the systems. It was found that upon the addition of thiols to fluoroquinolone-AuNPs systems the fluorescence of fluoroquinolones switches to “turn-on” due to the strong binding of thiols to AuNPs and removal of quinolines from NP surface. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence enhancement showed a linear relationship with the concentration of thiols, indicating the analytical usefulness of the system. -- Highlights: • Interaction of fluoroquinolones with AuNPs of different sizes was investigated. • The fluorescence of fluoroquinolones is efficiently quenched by AuNPs. • The fluorescence quenching efficiency increases by increasing NP size. • Fluoroquinolone-AuNPs systems can be used as sensitive turn-on sensors for thiols. • Danofloxacin-20-nm AuNPs system exhibits the highest sensitivity for thiols.

  15. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  16. In vitro toxicity of different-sized ZnO nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tianshu; Guan, Rongfa; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Song, Yijuan; Jiang, Han; Zhao, Jin

    2013-11-01

    There has been rapid growth in nanotechnology in both the public and private sectors worldwide, but concern about nanosafety exists. To assess size-dependent cytotoxicity on human cancer cells, we studied the cytotoxic effect of three kinds of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, distribution, and intensity. Multiple assays have been adopted to measure the cell activity and oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs was time dependent and dose dependent. The 24-h exposure was chosen to confirm the viability and accessibility of the cells and taken as the appropriate time for the following test system. The IC50 value was found at a low concentration. The oxidative stress elicited a significant reduction in glutathione with increase in reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase. The toxicity resulted in a deletion of cells in the G1 phase and an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. One type of metallic oxide (ZnO) exerted different cytotoxic effects according to different particle sizes. Data from the previous experiments showed that 26-nm ZnO NPs appeared to have the highest toxicity to Caco-2 cells. The study demonstrated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to Caco-2 cells and the impact of particle size, which could be useful in the medical applications.

  17. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  18. Sintering of Spherical Particles of Equal and Different Size Arranged in a Body Centered Cubic Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redanz, Pia; McMeeking, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state sintering of a bcc structure of spherical particles has been studied numerically by use of simple shape parameters to describe the state of the unit cell. Both free and pressure-assisted sintering of particles of equal and different sizes for various ratios of boundary and surface dif......, different dihedral angles and the evolution of relative density and sintering stresses are studied....

  19. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  20. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Phytoplankton Size Classes Using In-Situ Measurements in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuibo Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean colour remote sensing is used as a tool to detect phytoplankton size classes (PSCs. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS phytoplankton size classes (PSCs products were compared with in-situ High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC data for the South China Sea (SCS, collected from August 2006 to September 2011. Four algorithms were evaluated to determine their ability to detect three phytoplankton size classes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and absorption spectra of phytoplankton (aph(λ were also measured to help understand PSC’s algorithm performance. Results show that the three abundance-based approaches performed better than the inherent optical property (IOP-based approach in the SCS. The size detection of microplankton and picoplankton was generally better than that of nanoplankton. A three-component model was recommended to produce maps of surface PSCs in the SCS. For the IOP-based approach, satellite retrievals of inherent optical properties and the PSCs algorithm both have impacts on inversion accuracy. However, for abundance-based approaches, the selection of the PSCs algorithm seems to be more critical, owing to low uncertainty in satellite Chl-a input data

  1. Different resource allocation strategies result from selection for litter size at weaning in rabbit does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savietto, D; Cervera, C; Rodenas, L

    2014-01-01

    diet. The litter size was lower for female rabbits housed in both NF and HC environments, but the extent and timing where this reduction took place differed between generations. In challenging conditions (NF and HC), the average reduction in the reproductive performance of female rabbits from...... a greater reduction at the 3rd parturition (−3.53 kits born alive; Pdifferences between generations in digestible energy intake, milk yield and accretion, and use of body reserves throughout lactation in NC, HC and NF, which together indicate that there were...... different resource allocation strategies in the animals from the different generations. Selection to increase litter size at weaning led to increased reproductive robustness at the onset of an environmental constraint, but failure to sustain the reproductive liability when the challenge was maintained...

  2. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Uranium release from different size fractions of sediments in Hanford 300 area, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangkun; Bao Jianguo; Hu Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell tests were carried out to investigate uranium (U) release from different size fractions of sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford 300 Area in Washington, USA. Results show that the measured concentration of U release varies with different size fractions, with the fine-grained mass fractions (<75 μm, 75–500 μm, and 500–2000 μm) being the main U carriers. However, because the sediment is mainly composed of gravel (2000–8000 μm) materials, the gravel fraction is a non-negligible U pool. Our elution experiments give a value of 8.7% of the total U being in the gravel fraction, significantly reducing the current uncertainty in evaluating U inventory. A log–log plot of released U concentration vs. elution volume (i.e., elution time) shows a power-law relationship for all size fractions, with identical exponents for the three fine size fractions (−0.875). For the <2000 μm mass fraction, comparing our eluted U values with reported total U concentrations, we estimate that a lower bound value 8.6% of the total uranium is labile. This compares well with the previously published value of 11.8% labile U after extraction with a dilute extractant for three weeks. - Highlights: ► Stirred-flow cells were used to study U release in Hanford 300 Area sediment. ► Fine-grained size fractions have higher U concentrations. ► U in coarse fraction is less studied, but its 8.7–9.3% of total U is non-negligible. ► A power-law relationship is observed between released U and elution volume. ► About 8.6% of U in the <2 mm sediment is labile.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  5. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%.

  6. Set size influences the relationship between ANS acuity and math performance: a result of different strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia Felicitas; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan

    2017-08-29

    Previous research has proposed that the approximate number system (ANS) constitutes a building block for later mathematical abilities. Therefore, numerous studies investigated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical performance, but results are inconsistent. Properties of the experimental design have been discussed as a potential explanation of these inconsistencies. In the present study, we investigated the influence of set size and presentation duration on the association between non-symbolic magnitude comparison and math performance. Moreover, we focused on strategies reported as an explanation for these inconsistencies. In particular, we employed a non-symbolic magnitude comparison task and asked participants how they solved the task. We observed that set size was a significant moderator of the relationship between non-symbolic magnitude comparison and math performance, whereas presentation duration of the stimuli did not moderate this relationship. This supports the notion that specific design characteristics contribute to the inconsistent results. Moreover, participants reported different strategies including numerosity-based, visual, counting, calculation-based, and subitizing strategies. Frequencies of these strategies differed between different set sizes and presentation durations. However, we found no specific strategy, which alone predicted arithmetic performance, but when considering the frequency of all reported strategies, arithmetic performance could be predicted. Visual strategies made the largest contribution to this prediction. To conclude, the present findings suggest that different design characteristics contribute to the inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between non-symbolic magnitude comparison and mathematical performance by inducing different strategies and additional processes.

  7. The sectional size effect on the deformation behaviour of Inconel 718 at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718, as a multiphase super-alloy, is widely used in aeronautics and astronautics industries. In this field, a modified Hall-Petch equation was used to describe the grain size effect on the deformation behaviour of Inconel 718 sheet in uniaxial tension test. There is a piecewise linearity in the σ-d−1 curve: With the thickness t is a constant, the slope changes obviously after a critical t/d ratio, which increases with strain. Moreover, the influence on sectional curve caused by temperature is also an interesting issue. To address that, the sectionalized curve was fitted at different strains and temperatures, and the phenomena of grain size effect in piecewise curve at different temperatures were further explained. A surface model of Inconel 718 was proposed to explain the intrinsic mechanism of different slopes. The research provided an in-depth understanding of the size effect on the deformation behaviour of Inconel 718 at different hot working temperatures.

  8. Effect of different sizes of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) towards physical properties of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Zulkefli, R. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Putra Jaya, R.; Warid, M. N. M.; Hassan, N.; Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    In the past decades, numerous numbers of studies have been carried out to find ways enhancing properties of bitumen. Other than using polymer, agricultural waste such as palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is one of the waste products that can be used to modify bitumen. In this study, the physical and rheological properties of POFA modified bitumen were examined based on different grinding hour and different percentage of POFA. The bitumen were mixed with different percentages of POFA (0, 5 and 7%) which passed through 0.075 mm sieve and grinded at different period (1 and 4 hour). The samples were then tested and compared to conventional bitumen. From TEM results, POFA grinded at 1 hour have sizes between 3-7 µm while POFA grinded for 4 hours have finer sizes between 500 nm to 3 µm. The results showed that fineness of POFA affect properties of bitumen significantly. Decreasing in penetration value and decreasing in softening temperature indicates that the modified bitumen becomes harder than conventional bitumen. Modified bitumen gives best results when added with 7% POFA sizes of 500 nm to 3 µm compared to 3 to 7 µm.

  9. Chromosomal inversions effect body size and shape in different breeding resources in Drosophila buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Iriarte, P J; Norry, F M; Hasson, E R

    2003-07-01

    The cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii provides an excellent model for the study of reaction norms across discrete environments because it breeds on rotting tissues (rots) of very different cactus species. Here we test the possible effects of second chromosome inversions on body size and shape (wing loading) across suitable natural breeding substrates. Using homokaryotypic stocks derived from several lines homozygous for four naturally occurring chromosomal inversions, we show that arrangements significantly affect size-related traits and wing loading. In addition, karyotypes show differing effects, across natural breeding resources, for wing loading. The 2st and 2jz(3) arrangements decrease and the 2j arrangement increases wing loading. For thorax length and wing loading, karyotypic correlations across host plants are slightly lower in females than in males. These results support the hypothesis that these traits have a genetic basis associated with the inversion polymorphism.

  10. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  11. Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.

  12. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  13. Psychochemical and Sensory Characteristic of Jelawat Fish Meat (Leptobarbus Hoevenii) From Different Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Silaban, Adi Putra; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluation and compared chemical proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid, jelawat fish from different sizes small (400-500 gr), medium (700-800 g), and large (1000-1100 g). Jelawat fish used is 27 from cage in Kampung Jelawat, Kampar. Value of jelawat fish was evaluation, value of edible portion, processing waste, water holding capacity, sensory quality, proximate, amino acid and fatty acid. The research was showed that appearance, odor, edible portion, processi...

  14. Size matters: pitch dimensions constrain inter-team distances and surface area difference in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under con- straints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour

  15. Surface plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diodes by gold nanoparticles with different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Chung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Different varieties, sizes, and shapes for nanoparticles will generate different surface plasmon resonance effects in the devices. • The red-shift phenomenon for absorption peaks is because of an increasing contribution of higher-order plasmon modes for the larger gold nanoparticles. • The mobility of electrons in the electron-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes is a few orders of magnitude lower than that of holes in the hole-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes. - Abstract: The influence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes doped into (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The current efficiency of the device, at a current density of 145 mA/cm, with PEDOT:PSS doped with GNPs of 8 nm is about 1.57 times higher than that of the device with prime PEDOT:PSS because the absorption peak of GNPs is closest to the photoluminescence peak of the emission layer, resulting in maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device. In addition, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy also reveals the maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device when the mean particle size of GNPs is 8 nm.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.

  17. Portion Sizes from 24-Hour Dietary Recalls Differed by Sex among Those Who Selected the Same Portion Size Category on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Park, Song-Yi; Boushey, Carol J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P; Paik, Hee-Young

    2018-05-08

    Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are

  18. Effect of air pollution on the total bacteria and pathogenic bacteria in different sizes of particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Xiangwu; Zhou, Meng; Wang, Jiaqi; He, Zhanfei; Zhang, Huihui; Lou, Liping; Mao, Weihua; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, air pollution events have occurred frequently in China during the winter. Most studies have focused on the physical and chemical composition of polluted air. Some studies have examined the bacterial bioaerosols both indoors and outdoors. But few studies have focused on the relationship between air pollution and bacteria, especially pathogenic bacteria. Airborne PM samples with different diameters and different air quality index values were collected in Hangzhou, China from December 2014 to January 2015. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA was used to categorize the airborne bacteria. Based on the NCBI database, the "Human Pathogen Database" was established, which is related to human health. Among all the PM samples, the diversity and concentration of total bacteria were lowest in the moderately or heavily polluted air. However, in the PM2.5 and PM10 samples, the relative abundances of pathogenic bacteria were highest in the heavily and moderately polluted air respectively. Considering the PM samples with different particle sizes, the diversities of total bacteria and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria in the PM10 samples were different from those in the PM2.5 and TSP samples. The composition of PM samples with different sizes range may be responsible for the variances. The relative humidity, carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations were the main factors, which affected the diversity of total bacteria and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria. Among the different environmental samples, the compositions of the total bacteria were very similar in all the airborne PM samples, but different from those in the water, surface soil, and ground dust samples. Which may be attributed to that the long-distance transport of the airflow may influence the composition of the airborne bacteria. This study of the pathogenic bacteria in airborne PM samples can provide a reference for environmental and public health researchers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Effect of particle size and alloying with different metals on {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia; Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan); Siddique, Muhammad [PINSTECH, Physics Division (Pakistan); Hussain, S. Tajammul [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Iron nanoparticles of various sizes have been synthesized using the chemical route which involves the preparation of iron bipyridine complexes in presence of different capping agents followed by thermal decomposition at 450 deg. C in inert atmosphere. The bimetallic nanoalloys of Fe with Mg and Pd have also been prepared by following the same route. The resulting nanoparticles have been characterized by EDX-RF, XRD, AFM and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The appearance of quadrupole doublets in the Moessbauer spectra of Fe nanoparticles indicates the absence of magnetic interaction and variation in parameters is due to the varying particle size. The Moessbauer spectrum of Fe-Mg{sub 2} bimetallic nanoalloy shows two doublets indicating the presence of superparamagnetism. The two doublets can be attributed to change in s-electron density of iron resulting from its two neighboring magnesium atoms. Fe-Pd nanoalloy Moessbauer spectrum is characterized by having a superparamagnetic doublet and a ferromagnetic sextet.

  20. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Matouš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA and particle image velocimetry (PIV were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  1. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Mlkvik, Marek; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  2. Performance Study on The heat-transfer characteristic of a LVG in Different Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new type of LVG were tested and the results show that it has good heat transfer function and pressure drop characteristic. In order to obtain the related functional influences of the newly LVG in different parameters, a three-dimensional numerical simulation was made. The result indicates that the perturbation effect of the same LVG at a lower current speed is better than the effect of a high speed. Inorder to avoid the breakdown of the vortex very quickly, the LVG sizes should be decreased appropriately when the current speed is high; to generate effective longitudinal vortex, the LVG must have large enough size and width, when the ratio of width to height is H=2, the effect is better than H=1; it is ideal for the attack angle of LVG in low speed zone to take Forty five degree angle.

  3. Generalized projective synchronization of two coupled complex networks of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke-Zan; He En; Zeng Zhao-Rong; Chi, K. Tse

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a new generalized projective synchronization between two complex dynamical networks of different sizes. To the best of our knowledge, most of the current studies on projective synchronization have dealt with coupled networks of the same size. By generalized projective synchronization, we mean that the states of the nodes in each network can realize complete synchronization, and the states of a pair of nodes from both networks can achieve projective synchronization. Using the stability theory of the dynamical system, several sufficient conditions for guaranteeing the existence of the generalized projective synchronization under feedback control and adaptive control are obtained. As an example, we use Chua's circuits to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach

  4. The effect of particles in different sizes on the mechanical properties of spray formed steel composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth; Pedersen, A. S.; Pryds, N.

    2000-01-01

    particle size of 46 and 134 μm were carried out with respect to their mechanical properties e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength. It was found that the addition of Al2O3 particles to the steel improves its wear properties and reduces the elongation and tensile strength of the material......The main objective of the work was to investigate the effect of addition of ceramic particles with different size distributions on the mechanical properties, e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength, of spray formed materials. The experiments were carried out in a spray-forming unit at Risø...... National Laboratory, Denmark, where composites with a low alloyed boron steel (0.2 wt.% carbon) matrix containing alumina particles were produced. A comparison between cast hot-rolled material without particles, spray formed material without particles and the spray formed composites with an average ceramic...

  5. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2013-06-06

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Z; Pechey, R; Couturier, D L; Hollands, G J; Marteau, T M

    2017-06-12

    Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass. In a between-subjects experimental design, 166 young women were randomised to drink a 175 ml portion of wine from either a smaller (250 ml) or larger (370 ml) wine glass. Primary outcomes were three micro-drinking behaviours, assessed observationally using video recordings: drinking rate, sip number and sip duration. Other possible mechanisms examined were satisfaction with the perceived amount of wine served and pleasure of the drinking experience, assessed using self-report measures. Wine drunk from the larger, compared with the smaller glass, was consumed more slowly and with shorter sip duration, counter to the hypothesised direction of effect. No differences were observed in any of the other outcome measures. These findings provide no support for the hypothesised mechanisms by which serving wine in larger wine glasses increases consumption. While micro-drinking behaviours may still prove to be a mechanism explaining consumption from different glass sizes, cross-validation of these results in a more naturalistic setting is needed.

  7. Size-Related Differences in the Thermoregulatory Habits of Free-Ranging Komodo Dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Harlow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory processes were compared among three-size groups of free-ranging Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis comprising small (5–20 kg, medium (20–40 gm and large (40–70 kg lizards. While all size groups maintained a similar preferred body temperature of ≈35∘C, they achieved this end point differently. Small dragons appeared to engage in sun shuttling behavior more vigorously than large dragons as represented by their greater frequency of daily ambient temperature and light intensity changes as well as a greater activity and overall exposure to the sun. Large dragons were more sedentary and sun shuttled less. Further, they appear to rely to a greater extent on microhabitat selection and employed mouth gaping evaporative cooling to maintain their preferred operational temperature and prevent overheating. A potential ecological consequence of size-specific thermoregulatory habits for dragons is separation of foraging areas. In part, differences in thermoregulation could contribute to inducing shifts in predatory strategies from active foraging in small dragons to more sedentary sit-and-wait ambush predators in adults.

  8. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Missimer, Thomas M.; Coulibaly, Kapo M.; Dehwah, Abdullah; Sesler, Kathryn; Rodri­ guez, Luis R. Lujan; Mantilla, David

    2013-01-01

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Right Sizing the People's Liberation Army: Exploring the Contours of China's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamphausen, Roy; Scobell, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    .... Department of Defense.%' With military spending and modernization that have persisted with little or no abatement or recantation for well over a decade, China has the entire international community wondering to what ends...

  10. Right-Sizing the People's Liberation Army: Exploring the Contours of China's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamphausen, Roy; Scobell, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    .... With military spending and modernization that have persisted with little or no abatement or recantation for well over a decade, China has the entire international community wondering to what ends...

  11. Exploring the 'Right Size' for China's Military: PLA Missions, Functions, and Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Justin B; Snyder, Sarah K

    2007-01-01

    Key Points: *Sustained and large increases in China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) defense budget are likely in coming years as increasing national-level demands for new PLA missions require increasing capability...

  12. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  13. A study on sustainable urban water management in small and medium sized cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Along with the implementation of national urbanization and modernization strategy in China, the urban scale and quantity are increasing systematically. In this process, the role of water is irreplaceable. Urban water system is a multipurpose and integrated system. Considering China's economic and social development requirements, there are many rigorous problems in exploitation, utilization, operation and management of urban water resources comparing with some developed cities in the world. Cu...

  14. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different size and surface characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Sourav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymer nanoparticles (PNP are becoming increasingly important in nanomedicine and food-based applications. Size and surface characteristics are often considered to be important factors in the cellular interactions of these PNP, although systematic investigations on the role of surface properties on cellular interactions and toxicity of PNP are scarce. Results Fluorescent, monodisperse tri-block copolymer nanoparticles with different sizes (45 and 90 nm and surface charges (positive and negative were synthesized, characterized and studied for uptake and cytotoxicity in NR8383 and Caco-2 cells. All types of PNP were taken up by the cells. The positive smaller PNP45 (45 nm showed a higher cytotoxicity compared to the positive bigger PNP90 (90 nm particles including reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, ATP depletion and TNF-α release. The negative PNP did not show any cytotoxic effect. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, uncoupling of the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and the resulting ATP depletion, induction of ROS and oxidative stress may all play a role in the possible mode of action for the cytotoxicity of these PNP. The role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the intracellular uptake of different PNP was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Involvement of size and charge in the cellular uptake of PNP by clathrin (for positive PNP, caveolin (for negative PNP and mannose receptors (for hydroxylated PNP were found with smaller PNP45 showing stronger interactions with the receptors than bigger PNP90. Conclusions The size and surface characteristics of polymer nanoparticles (PNP; 45 and 90 nm with different surface charges play a crucial role in cellular uptake. Specific interactions with cell membrane-bound receptors (clathrin, caveolin and mannose leading to cellular internalization were observed to depend on

  15. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles ( 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the evolving history of the lake. • Significant correlations between pyrogenic PAHs and eolian particles indicated potential risk from inhalation exposure. • Petroleum source PAHs are likely to stick to coarse particles and accumulate in lake sediments by surface runoff

  16. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  17. Meiotic Studies on Combinations of Chromosomes With Different Sized Centromeres in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangpu Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple centromere misdivision derivatives of a translocation between the supernumerary B chromosome and the short arm of chromosome 9 (TB-9Sb permit investigation of how centromeres of different sizes behave in meiosis in opposition or in competition with each other. In the first analysis, heterozygotes were produced between the normal TB-9Sb and derivatives of it that resulted from centromere misdivision that reduced the amounts of centromeric DNA. These heterozygotes could test whether these drastic differences would result in meiotic drive of the larger chromosome in female meiosis. Cytological determinations of the segregation of large and small centromeres among thousands of progeny of four combinations were made. The recovery of the larger centromere was at a few percent higher frequency in two of four combinations. However, examination of phosphorylated histone H2A-Thr133, a characteristic of active centromeres, showed a lack of correlation with the size of the centromeric DNA, suggesting an expansion of the basal protein features of the kinetochore in two of the three cases despite the reduction in the size of the underlying DNA. In the second analysis, plants containing different sizes of the B chromosome centromere were crossed to plants with TB-9Sb with a foldback duplication of 9S (TB-9Sb-Dp9. In the progeny, plants containing large and small versions of the B chromosome centromere were selected by FISH. A meiotic “tug of war” occurred in hybrid combinations by recombination between the normal 9S and the foldback duplication in those cases in which pairing occurred. Such pairing and recombination produce anaphase I bridges but in some cases the large and small centromeres progressed to the same pole. In one combination, new dicentric chromosomes were found in the progeny. Collectively, the results indicate that the size of the underlying DNA of a centromere does not dramatically affect its segregation properties or its ability

  18. Optimized bolt tightening strategies for gasketed flanged pipe joints of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, Muhammad; Khan, Ayesha; Nash, David Hugh; Hussain, Masroor; Wajid, Hafiz Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Achieving a proper preload in the bolts of a gasketed bolted flanged pipe joint during joint assembly is considered important for its optimized performance. This paper presents results of detailed non-linear finite element analysis of an optimized bolt tightening strategy of different joint sizes for achieving proper preload close to the target stress values. Industrial guidelines are considered for applying recommended target stress values with TCM (torque control method) and SCM (stretch control method) using a customized optimization algorithm. Different joint components performance is observed and discussed in detail.

  19. Sizing a PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Glicksman, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) must be able to support the image rate of the medical treatment facility. In addition the PACS must have adequate working storage and archive storage capacity required. The calculation of the number of images per minute and the capacity of working storage and of archiving storage is discussed. The calculation takes into account the distribution of images over the different size of radiological images, the distribution between inpatient and outpatient, and the distribution over plain film CR images and other modality images. The support of the indirect clinical image load is difficult to estimate and is considered in some detail. The result of the exercise for a particular hospital is an estimate of the average size of the images and exams on the system, of the number of gigabytes of working storage, of the number of images moved per minute, of the size of the archive in gigabytes, and of the number of images that are to be moved by the archive per minute. The types of storage required to support the image rates and the capacity required are discussed.

  20. Interaction of lysozyme protein with different sized silica nanoparticles and their resultant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Indresh, E-mail: iykumarindresh288@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    The interaction of model protein-lysozyme with three different sized anionic silica nanoparticles has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The surface area and curvature of the nanoparticles change with size, which significantly influence their interaction with protein. The lysozyme adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles due to electrostatic attraction and leads to the phase transformation from one phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) of the nanoparticle-protein system. The dominance of lysozyme induced short-range attraction over long-range electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles is responsible for phase transformation and modeled by the two-Yukawa potential. The magnitude of the attractive interaction increases with the size of the nanoparticles as a result the phase transformation commences relatively at lower concentration of lysozyme. The structure of the nanoparticle-protein system in two-phase is characterized by the diffusion limited aggregate type of mass fractal morphology.

  1. Spectral response characterization of CdTe sensors of different pixel size with the IBEX ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, P.; Radicci, V.; Trueb, P.; Disch, C.; Rissi, M.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Broennimann, C.

    2018-06-01

    We characterized the spectral response of CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes - namely 75, 150 and 300 μm - bonded to the latest generation IBEX single photon counting ASIC developed at DECTRIS, to detect monochromatic X-ray energy in the range 10-60 keV. We present a comparison of pulse height spectra recorded for several energies, showing the dependence on the pixel size of the non-trivial atomic fluorescence and charge sharing effects that affect the detector response. The extracted energy resolution, in terms of full width at half maximum or FWHM, ranges from 1.5 to 4 keV according to the pixel size and chip configuration. We devoted a careful analysis to the Quantum Efficiency and to the Spectral Efficiency - a newly-introduced measure that quantifies the impact of fluorescence and escape phenomena on the spectrum integrity in high- Z material based detectors. We then investigated the influence of the photon flux on the aforementioned quantities up to 180 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 and 50 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 for the 150 μm and 300 μm pixel case, respectively. Finally, we complemented the experimental data with analytical and with Monte Carlo simulations - taking into account the stochastic nature of atomic fluorescence - with an excellent agreement.

  2. Photoacoustic simulation study of chirp excitation response from different size absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, K.; Chinni, B.; Dogra, V.; Rao, N.

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates the strength of optical and ultrasound imaging. Nanosecond (ns) pulsed lasers used in current PA imaging systems are expensive, bulky and they often waste energy. We propose and evaluate, through simulations, the use of a continuous wave (CW) laser whose amplitude is linear frequency modulated (chirp) for PA imaging. The chirp signal provides signal-to-side-lobe ratio (SSR) improvement potential and full control over PA signal frequencies excited in the sample. The PA signal spectrum is a function of absorber size and the time frequencies present in the chirp. A mismatch between the input chirp spectrum and the output PA signal spectrum can affect the compressed pulse that is recovered from cross-correlating the two. We have quantitatively characterized this effect. The k-wave Matlab tool box was used to simulate PA signals in three dimensions for absorbers ranging in size from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm, in response to laser excitation amplitude that is linearly swept from 0.5 MHz to 4 MHz. This sweep frequency range was chosen based on the spectrum analysis of a PA signal generated from ex-vivo human prostate tissue samples. In comparison, the energy wastage by a ns laser pulse was also estimated. For the chirp methodology, the compressed pulse peak amplitude, pulse width and side lobe structure parameters were extracted for different size absorbers. While the SSR increased 6 fold with absorber size, the pulse width decreased by 25%.

  3. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  4. The Size Difference between Red and Blue Globular Clusters is not due to Projection Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  5. Ethnic differences in fetal size and growth in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Rasmussen, Svein; Jenum, Anne Karen; Nakstad, Britt; Jensen, Odd Harald Rognerud; Vangen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Impaired or excessive fetal growth is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes that differ between ethnic groups. We explored ethnic differences in fetal size and growth from mid pregnancy until birth. Data are from the multi-ethnic STORK-Groruddalen study, a population-based, prospective cohort of 823 pregnant women and their offspring in Oslo, Norway. Measures were z-scores of estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, measured by ultrasound, and similar measures at birth. Differences in fetal size and growth were assessed using separate Linear Mixed Models including all four time points, with ethnic Europeans as reference. In week 24 South Asian fetuses had smaller AC, but larger FL than Europeans, and slightly lower EFW (-0.17 SD (-0.33, -0.01), p=0.04). Middle East/North African fetuses also had larger FL, but similar AC, and hence slightly higher EFW (0.18 (0.003, 0.36), p=0.05). Both groups had slower growth of AC, FL and EFW from this time until birth, and had -0.61 SD (-0.73, -0.49) and -0.28 SD (-0.41, -0.15) lower birth weight respectively. Ethnic East Asians, on the other hand, were smaller throughout pregnancy and had -0.58 SD (-0.82, -0.34) lower birth weight. Significant ethnic differences remained after adjusting for maternal factors. We observed ethnic differences in fetal size and body proportions already in gestational week 24, and in fetal growth from this time until birth, which were only partly explained by key maternal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative analysis of endothelial cell loss following phacoemulsification in pupils of different sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Maggon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare Endothelial cell(EC loss following Phacoemulsification (PKE in pupils of different sizes. Methods: A prospective double masked observational study in which a total of 150 eyes of 150 patients between 50 & 70 years of age with senile cataract of nuclear sclerosis grade II were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups of 50 eyes each in Group A (pupil size 7 mm. Pupillary size was measured by determining the height of slit on slit-lamp biomicroscope examination. PKE was done by the same expert surgeon using vertical chop technique and a foldable intraocular lens was implanted in the capsular bag. Corneal EC count and pachymetry were performed twice and average of 2 readings was taken for the purpose of this study. Measurements were taken preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1, day 7 and day 30. Results: The mean EC count loss on postoperative day 1 in Group A was 19.45%, Group B 14.89%, Group C 10.19% with statistical significant difference between Group A and Group B, as also Group A and Group C. The difference was not significant between Group B and Group C, though there was a fall in EC count in Group C as well. Increase in corneal thickness on postoperative day 1 in group A was 5.43%, Group B 3.55%, Group C 2.14% with statistical significant difference between Group A and Group B, as also Group A and Group C with no difference in Group B and Group C. Conclusion: PKE done in eyes with maximal pupillary dilatation of 5 mm at the end of one month.

  7. Comparative analysis of endothelial cell loss following phacoemulsification in pupils of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, Raghudev; Shankar, Sandeep; Kar, Rajesh Chandra; Sharma, Vivek; Roy, Shyamal

    2017-12-01

    To compare Endothelial cell(EC) loss following Phacoemulsification (PKE) in pupils of different sizes. A prospective double masked observational study in which a total of 150 eyes of 150 patients between 50 & 70 years of age with senile cataract of nuclear sclerosis grade II were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups of 50 eyes each in Group A (pupil size 7 mm). Pupillary size was measured by determining the height of slit on slit-lamp biomicroscope examination. PKE was done by the same expert surgeon using vertical chop technique and a foldable intraocular lens was implanted in the capsular bag. Corneal EC count and pachymetry were performed twice and average of 2 readings was taken for the purpose of this study. Measurements were taken preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1, day 7 and day 30. The mean EC count loss on postoperative day 1 in Group A was 19.45%, Group B 14.89%, Group C 10.19% with statistical significant difference between Group A and Group B, as also Group A and Group C. The difference was not significant between Group B and Group C, though there was a fall in EC count in Group C as well. Increase in corneal thickness on postoperative day 1 in group A was 5.43%, Group B 3.55%, Group C 2.14% with statistical significant difference between Group A and Group B, as also Group A and Group C with no difference in Group B and Group C. PKE done in eyes with maximal pupillary dilatation of 5 mm at the end of one month.

  8. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009–2011) and chemical constituents (2007–2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag_0_3), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM_2_._5_-_1_0 and PM_1_-_2_._5. For PM_2_._5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag_0_3 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM_1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou. - Highlights: • PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1 were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. • We did not find significant cardiovascular effects of PM_2_._5_-_1_0 and PM_1_-_2_._5. • PM_1 might be most responsible for

  9. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  10. From Disparity to Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation in Australia: A Proposal for a Dual Process of Adjudication based upon Size of Progress Payment Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Coggins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act into New South Wales in 1999, construction industry payment legislation has progressively been enacted on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis throughout Australia. Of the eight Australian Acts, two distinct legislative models can be discerned – what have been termed the ‘East Coast’ and ‘West Coast’ models. This article compares the two models with respect to their payment systems and adjudication schemes, procedural justice afforded, incursion upon freedom of contract, uptake rates and efficiency. From this comparison, the strengths and weaknesses of the two models are identified. Finally, a dual process of adjudication based on progress payment claim size is proposed for a harmonised model, developed from previous proposals put forward by other authors, which aims to combine the strengths of the two existing models.

  11. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  12. The Class Size Question: A Study at Different Levels of Analysis. ACER Research Monograph No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anthony I.; Keeves, John P.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ways in which class size affected other facets of the educational environment of the classroom. The study focused on the commonly found positive relationship between class size and achievement. The most plausible explanation of the evidence seems to involve the effects of grouping more able…

  13. Sensory specific satiety and intake: The difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Liem, D.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects

  14. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  15. Ergonomic character sizes on visual display units of different sizes in industrial process control; Ergonomische Zeichengroessen auf Bildschirmen unterschiedlicher Groesse in der industriellen Prozessfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komischke, T. [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Different kinds of visual display units are used for supervising and controlling technical processes. Besides visualizations, they also feature text-based data and information. In order to ensure the legibility of these outputs knowledge from cognitive psychology can be used which allows calculating the respective target character sizes. This article presents the most important interrelations between human factors on the one hand and technical system characteristics on the other hand. (orig.)

  16. Modelling detrital coral grain-size and age: Insights from sediment abrasion process of Yongle Atoll of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zou, X.; Ge, C.; Tan, M.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Reef islands situated on the rims of atolls are composed almost exclusively of bioclastic materials locally supplied from adjacent coral reefs. Major skeletal component of these islands include coral, coralline algae, mollusks and foraminifera, produced in adjacent reefs. As the island builder, the bioclastic material is the sedimentary products, which also is the point of penetration to decipher the process. The bioclast of coral islands decrease in size with the transportation process. The grain-size provides a proxy record for the abrasion history of the unconsolidated sediment. The 230Th age of coral record the abrasion time. We hereby present a model to calculate the abrasion rate based on the data of 230Th age and grain-size of Yongle Atoll of Xisha Island, South China Sea. The grain size pattern in Yongle Atoll environment have confirm that the coral article diminution behave exponentially. The sediment composition of Yongle Atoll is identified, coral is dominant sediment constituent and the Th230 age is shown to exert an age distribution characteristics of coral detritus. We illustrate this approach by calculate the coral debris age of Xude Atoll, which located near the Yongle Atoll and then by comparing actual measured age and calculated age and to explore the dependence of the model. Observed 230 Th ages are well matched by predicted ages for medium age sediment. A poorer match for young and old sediment may result from some combination of large analytical uncertainties in the detrital ages and inhomogeneous erosion rates within the atoll. Such mismatches emphasize the need for more accurate kinematic models and for sampling strategies that are adapted to atoll-specific geologic and geomorphic conditions. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional sediment abrasion processed and on the evolution of coral atoll islands.

  17. Avoiding competition? Site use, diet and foraging behaviours in two similarly sized geese wintering in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Meijuan; Cao, Lei; Klaassen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    at Shengjin Lake, China. To examine the potential for coexistence and possible avoidance strategies, we studied (1) their habitat use, (2) foraging behaviours and (3) diets of birds foraging in mixed- and single-species flocks. Both species extensively exploited sedge meadows, where they showed considerable...

  18. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca).

  19. Immunotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles with different size and electrostatic charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Su; Nguyen, Hai-Duong; Ignacio, Rosa Mistica; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Hyeon-Cheol; Maeng, Eun Ho; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    While zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized to have promising applications in biomedicine, their immunotoxicity has been inconsistent and even contradictory. To address this issue, we investigated whether ZnO NPs with different size (20 or 100 nm) and electrostatic charge (positive or negative) would cause immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and explored their underlying molecular mechanism. Using Raw 264.7 cell line, we examined the immunotoxicity mechanism of ZnO NPs as cell viability. We found that in a cell viability assay, ZnO NPs with different size and charge could induce differential cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. Specifically, the positively charged ZnO NPs exerted higher cytotoxicity than the negatively charged ones. Next, to gauge systemic immunotoxicity, we assessed immune responses of C57BL/6 mice after oral administration of 750 mg/kg/day dose of ZnO NPs for 2 weeks. In parallel, ZnO NPs did not alter the cell-mediated immune response in mice but suppressed innate immunity such as natural killer cell activity. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, a marker for matured T-cells was slightly reduced, which implies the alteration of immune status induced by ZnO NPs. Accordingly, nitric oxide production from splenocyte culture supernatant in ZnO NP-fed mice was lower than control. Consistently, serum levels of pro/anti-inflammatory (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ and IL-12p70) in ZnO NP-fed mice were significantly suppressed. Collectively, our results indicate that different sized and charged ZnO NPs would cause in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity, of which nature is an immunosuppression.

  20. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  1. Unimodal tree size distributions possibly result from relatively strong conservatism in intermediate size classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bin

    Full Text Available Tree size distributions have long been of interest to ecologists and foresters because they reflect fundamental demographic processes. Previous studies have assumed that size distributions are often associated with population trends or with the degree of shade tolerance. We tested these associations for 31 tree species in a 20 ha plot in a Dinghushan south subtropical forest in China. These species varied widely in growth form and shade-tolerance. We used 2005 and 2010 census data from that plot. We found that 23 species had reversed J shaped size distributions, and eight species had unimodal size distributions in 2005. On average, modal species had lower recruitment rates than reversed J species, while showing no significant difference in mortality rates, per capita population growth rates or shade-tolerance. We compared the observed size distributions with the equilibrium distributions projected from observed size-dependent growth and mortality. We found that observed distributions generally had the same shape as predicted equilibrium distributions in both unimodal and reversed J species, but there were statistically significant, important quantitative differences between observed and projected equilibrium size distributions in most species, suggesting that these populations are not at equilibrium and that this forest is changing over time. Almost all modal species had U-shaped size-dependent mortality and/or growth functions, with turning points of both mortality and growth at intermediate size classes close to the peak in the size distribution. These results show that modal size distributions do not necessarily indicate either population decline or shade-intolerance. Instead, the modal species in our study were characterized by a life history strategy of relatively strong conservatism in an intermediate size class, leading to very low growth and mortality in that size class, and thus to a peak in the size distribution at intermediate sizes.

  2. Using raindrop size distributions from different types of disdrometer to establish weather radar algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Luca; Adirosi, Elisa; Roberto, Nicoletta; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Russo, Fabio; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Radar precipitation retrieval uses several relationships that parameterize precipitation properties (like rainfall rate and liquid water content and attenuation (in case of radars at attenuated frequencies such as those at C- and X- band) as a function of combinations of radar measurements. The uncertainty in such relations highly affects the uncertainty precipitation and attenuation estimates. A commonly used method to derive such relationships is to apply regression methods to precipitation measurements and radar observables simulated from datasets of drop size distributions (DSD) using microphysical and electromagnetic assumptions. DSD datasets are determined both by theoretical considerations (i.e. based on the assumption that the radar always samples raindrops whose sizes follow a gamma distribution) or from experimental measurements collected throughout the years by disdrometers. In principle, using long-term disdrometer measurements provide parameterizations more representative of a specific climatology. However, instrumental errors, specific of a disdrometer, can affect the results. In this study, different weather radar algorithms resulting from DSDs collected by diverse types of disdrometers, namely 2D video disdrometer, first and second generation of OTT Parsivel laser disdrometer, and Thies Clima laser disdrometer, in the area of Rome (Italy) are presented and discussed to establish at what extent dual-polarization radar algorithms derived from experimental DSD datasets are influenced by the different error structure of the different type of disdrometers used to collect the data.

  3. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. German and English Bodies: No Evidence for Cross-Linguistic Differences in Preferred Orthographic Grain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Schmalz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that words and nonwords with many body neighbours (i.e., words with the same orthographic body, e.g., 'cat, brat, at' are read faster than items with fewer body neighbours. This body-N effect has been explored in the context of cross-linguistic differences in reading where it has been reported that the size of the effect differs as a function of orthographic depth: readers of English, a deep orthography, show stronger facilitation than readers of German, a shallow orthography. Such findings support the psycholinguistic grain size theory, which proposes that readers of English rely on large orthographic units to reduce ambiguity of print-to-speech correspondences in their orthography. Here we re-examine the evidence for this pattern and find that there is no reliable evidence for such a cross-linguistic difference. Re-analysis of a key study (Ziegler et al., 2001, analysis of data from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007, and a large-scale analysis of nine new experiments all support this conclusion. Using Bayesian analysis techniques, we find little evidence of the body-N effect in most tasks and conditions. Where we do find evidence for a body-N effect (lexical decision for nonwords, we find evidence against an interaction with language.

  5. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  6. Induction of parturition with aglepristone in various sized bitches of different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontbonne, A; Fontaine, E; Lévy, X; Bachellerie, R; Bernex, F; Atam-Kassigadou, S; Guffroy, M; Leblond, E; Briant, E

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm in various breeds of dogs the efficacy and safety of a parturition induction treatment described to be successful in Beagle dogs. Parturition was induced in seven various sized pregnant bitches of different breeds, with 15 mg aglepristone per kg at day 59-61 post-estimated ovulation day, followed 24 h later by 0.15 IU oxytocin per kg subcutaneous injections every 2 h. Two bitches were small-sized bitches (40 kg). The results were compared to a control group (n = 6), in which bitches underwent a natural delivery in the same environmental conditions as the induced group. In the induced group, parturition was successfully induced in 7/7 bitches. The first pup in a litter was born on average 25.9 +/- 3.29 h after aglepristone administration (21-30 h). Two of seven bitches from the small-sized group delivered some of their pups before the first administration of oxytocin. The mean duration of parturition was 9.6 +/- 5.4 h vs 8.0 +/- 4.8 h in the control group. The mean interval between two successive pups being delivered was 115.6 +/- 82.8 min (34-265) vs 68.8 +/- 24.5 min in the control group (p parturition did not differ significantly between the two groups. One litter of four Yorkshire Terrier pups in the induced group were premature at the time of birth and died between 19 and 29 h post-delivery. This study, although on a very limited number of dogs, confirms the efficacy of the aglepristone/oxytocin protocol to induce parturition in dogs.

  7. Many ways to be small: different environmental regulators of size generate distinct scaling relationships in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shingleton, Alexander W.; Estep, Chad M.; Driscoll, Michael V.; Dworkin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Static allometries, the scaling relationship between body and trait size, describe the shape of animals in a population or species, and are generated in response to variation in genetic or environmental regulators of size. In principle, allometries may vary with the different size regulators that generate them, which can be problematic since allometric differences are also used to infer patterns of selection on morphology. We test this hypothesis by examining the patterns of scaling in Drosop...

  8. Different ways to organize the processes of financial administration : a field study of medium-sized Finnish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nummela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This research concentrates on exploring the ways how financial administration is currently organized in medium-sized companies in Finland. Decentralization, centralization and outsourcing are options that are available to different-sized companies. The study was executed as a field study in seven medium-sized Finnish companies that represent different branches. Furthermore, the research method was qualitative theme interview. As large companies have already established their financial service...

  9. Immunotoxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with different sizes and electrostatic charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Cheol-Su; Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kim, Dong-Heui; Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Maeng, Eun Ho; Qi, Xu-Feng; Park, Seong-Eun; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in the biomedical field, such as in drug delivery and gene therapy. However, little is known about the biological effects and potential hazards of SiO2. Herein, the colloidal SiO2 NPs with two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) and different charges (L-arginine modified: SiO2 (EN20[R]), SiO2 (EN100[R]); and negative: SiO2 (EN20[-]), SiO2 (EN100[-]) were orally administered (750 mg/kg/day) in female C57BL/6 mice for 14 days. Assessments of immunotoxicity include hematology profiling, reactive oxygen species generation and their antioxidant effect, stimulation assays for B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, and cytokine profiling. In vitro toxicity was also investigated in the RAW 264.7 cell line. When the cellularity of mouse spleen was evaluated, there was an overall decrease in the proliferation of B- and T-cells for all the groups fed with SiO2 NPs. Specifically, the SiO2 (EN20(-)) NPs showed the most pronounced reduction. In addition, the nitric oxide production and NK cell activity in SiO2 NP-fed mice were significantly suppressed. Moreover, there was a decrease in the serum concentration of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12 (p70), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ. To elucidate the cytotoxicity mechanism of SiO2 in vivo, an in vitro study using the RAW 264.7 cell line was performed. Both the size and charge of SiO2 using murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells decreased cell viability dose-dependently. Collectively, our data indicate that different sized and charged SiO2 NPs would cause differential immunotoxicity. Interestingly, the small-sized and negatively charged SiO2 NPs showed the most potent in vivo immunotoxicity by way of suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes, depressing the killing activity of NK cells, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine production, thus leading to immunosuppression.

  10. The Grain-size Patchiness of Braided Gravel-Bed Streams - example of the Urumqi River (northeast Tian Shan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L.; Barrier, L.; Narteau, C.; Métivier, F.; Liu, Y.; Lajeunesse, E.; Gayer, E.; Meunier, P.; Malverti, L.; Ye, B.

    2014-02-01

    In gravel-bed rivers, sediments are often sorted into patches of different grain-sizes, but in braided streams, the link between this sorting and the channel morpho-sedimentary elements is still unclear. In this study, the size of the bed sediment in the shallow braided gravel-bed Urumqi River is characterized by surface-count and volumetric sampling methods. Three morpho-sedimentary elements are identified in the active threads of the river: chutes at flow constrictions, which pass downstream to anabranches and bars at flow expansions. The surface and surface-layer grain-size distributions of these three elements show that they correspond to only two kinds of grain-size patches: (1) coarse-grained chutes, coarser than the bulk river bed, and (2) finer-grained anabranches and bars, consistent with the bulk river bed. In cross-section, the chute patches are composed of one coarse-grained top layer, which can be interpreted as a local armour layer overlying finer deposits. In contrast, the grain size of the bar-anabranch patches is finer and much more homogeneous in depth than the chute patches. Those patches, which are features of lateral and vertical sorting associated to the transport dynamics that build braided patterns, may be typical of active threads in shallow gravel-bed rivers and should be considered in future works on sorting processes and their geomorphologic and stratigraphic results.

  11. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  12. Sizing up countability

    OpenAIRE

    De Belder, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    SIZING UP COUNTABILITY: TOWARDS A MORE FINE-GRAINED MASS-COUNT DISTINCTION MARIJKE DE BELDER CRISSP/CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS/FACULTÉS UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS 1. Summary Borer (2005) argues that the presence of the functional projection DivP, which divides stuff into units, yields count readings in the NP and that its absence yields mass readings. I claim, however, that countability requires not only DivP (which creates units) but also SizeP (which assigns size). The head ...

  13. Finite element analysis of the three different posterior malleolus fixation strategies in relation to different fracture sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Adeel; Lv, Decheng; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Ming; Nazir, Muhammad Umar; Qasim, Wasim

    2017-04-01

    Appropriate fixation method for the posterior malleolar fractures (PMF) according to the fracture size is still not clear. Aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the different fixation methods used for fixation of PMF by finite element analysis (FEA) and to compare the effect of fixation constructs on the size of the fracture computationally. Three dimensional model of the tibia was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images. PMF of 30%, 40% and 50% fragment sizes were simulated through computational processing. Two antero-posterior (AP) lag screws, two postero-anterior (PA) lag screws and posterior buttress plate were analysed for three different fracture volumes. The simulated loads of 350N and 700N were applied to the proximal tibial end. Models were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. In single limb standing condition, the posterior plate group produced the lowest relative displacement (RD) among all the groups (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06mm). Further nodal analysis of the highest RD fracture group showed a higher mean displacement of 4.77mm and 4.23mm in AP and PA lag screws model (p=0.000). The amounts of stress subjected to these implants, 134.36MPa and 140.75MPa were also significantly lower (p=0.000). There was a negative correlation (p=0.021) between implant stress and the displacement which signifies a less stable fixation using AP and PA lag screws. Progressively increasing fracture size demands more stable fixation construct because RD increases significantly. Posterior buttress plate produces superior stability and lowest RD in PMF models irrespective of the fragment size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How comparable are size-resolved particle number concentrations from different instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, K. E.; Pryor, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The need for comparability of particle size resolved measurements originates from multiple drivers including: (i) Recent suggestions that air quality standards for particulate matter should migrate from being mass-based to incorporating number concentrations. This move would necessarily be predicated on measurement comparability which is absolutely critical to compliance determination. (ii) The need to quantify and diagnose causes of variability in nucleation and growth rates in nano-particle experiments conducted in different locations. (iii) Epidemiological research designed to identify key parameters in human health responses to fine particle exposure. Here we present results from a detailed controlled laboratory instrument inter-comparison experiment designed to investigate data comparability in the size range of 2.01-523.3 nm across a range of particle composition, modal diameter and absolute concentration. Particle size distributions were generated using a TSI model 3940 Aerosol Generation System (AGS) diluted using zero air, and sampled using four TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) configurations and a TSI model 3091 Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). The SMPS configurations used two Electrostatic Classifiers (EC) (model 3080) attached to either a Long DMA (LDMA) (model 3081) or a Nano DMA (NDMA) (model 3085) plumbed to either a TSI model 3025A Butanol Condensed Particle Counting (CPC) or a TSI model 3788 Water CPC. All four systems were run using both high and low flow conditions, and were operated with both the internal diffusion loss and multiple charge corrections turned on. The particle compositions tested were sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate and olive oil diluted in ethanol. Particles of all three were generated at three peak concentration levels (spanning the range observed at our experimental site), and three modal particle diameters. Experimental conditions were maintained for a period of 20 minutes to ensure experimental

  15. Soil erosion and effluent particle size distribution under different initial conditions and rock fragment coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Brovelli, A.; Heng, B. C. P.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    different and more complex behaviour was observed in the next event, with large differences found between fine, medium and coarse size classes. The presence of rock fragments on the topsoil reduced the time needed to reach steady state compared with the bare soil. This was attributed to the reduction of rain splash erosion caused by the rapid development of the overland flow, as a result of rock fragments reducing the flow cross-sectional area.

  16. Raindrop Size Distribution in Different Climatic Regimes from Disdrometer and Dual-Polarized Radar Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringi, V. N.; Chandrasekar, V.; Hubbert, J.; Gorgucci, E.; Randeu, W. L.; Schoenhuber, M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of polarimetric radar data to the retrieval of raindrop size distribution parameters and rain rate in samples of convective and stratiform rain types is presented. Data from the Colorado State University (CSU), CHILL, NCAR S-band polarimetric (S-Pol), and NASA Kwajalein radars are analyzed for the statistics and functional relation of these parameters with rain rate. Surface drop size distribution measurements using two different disdrometers (2D video and RD-69) from a number of climatic regimes are analyzed and compared with the radar retrievals in a statistical and functional approach. The composite statistics based on disdrometer and radar retrievals suggest that, on average, the two parameters (generalized intercept and median volume diameter) for stratiform rain distributions lie on a straight line with negative slope, which appears to be consistent with variations in the microphysics of stratiform precipitation (melting of larger, dry snow particles versus smaller, rimed ice particles). In convective rain, `maritime-like' and `continental-like' clusters could be identified in the same two-parameter space that are consistent with the different multiplicative coefficients in the Z = aR1.5 relations quoted in the literature for maritime and continental regimes.

  17. Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Ammari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will size an optimum hybrid central content three different generators, two on renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind power and two nonrenewable (diesel generator and storage system because the new central generator has started to consider the green power technology in order for best future to the world, this central will use all the green power resource available and distributes energy to a small isolated village in southwest of Algeria named “Timiaouine”. The consumption of this village estimated with detailed in two season; season low consumption (winter and high consumption (summer, the hybrid central will be optimized by program Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER PRO, this program will simulate in two configuration, the first with storage system, the second without storage system and in the end the program HOMER PRO will choose the best configuration which is the mixture of both economic and ecologic configurations, this central warrants the energetic continuity of village. Article History: Received May 18th 2017; Received in revised form July 17th 2017; Accepted Sept 3rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ammari, C., Hamouda,M., and Makhloufi,S. (2017 Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 263-272. http://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.263-272

  18. Comparative characterization of humic substances extracted from freshwater and peat of different apparent molecular sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Sloboda Rigobello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the structural characteristics of aquatic humic substances (AHS with humic substances from peat (HSP through different analytical techniques, including elemental analysis, solid state 13C cross polarization/magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP-MAS NMR, ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and total organic carbon (TOC. The AHS were extracted from water collected in a tributary of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga/SP using XAD 8 resin, and the HSP were extracted from peat collected in the Mogi Guaçu River bank (Luis Antonio/SP with a KOH solution. After dialysis, both AHS and HSP extracts were filtered in membrane of 0.45 µm pore size (Fraction F1: < 0.45 µm and fractioned by ultrafiltration in different apparent molecular sizes (AMS (F2: 100 kDa-0.45 μm; F3: 30 kDa-100 kDa and F4: < 30 kDa. The extracts with the lowest AMS (F3 and F4 showed a higher number of aliphatic carbons than aromatic carbons, a higher concentration of groups containing oxygen and a higher percentage of fulvic acids (FA than humic acids (HA for both AHS and HSP. However, the AHS presented higher FA than HA content in relation to the HSP and distinct structural properties.

  19. Preliminary study of diagnostic workstation with different matrix size for detection of small pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie; Wang Xuejian; Wang Bo; Tong Juan; Wei Yuqing; Shen Guiquan; Wang Limei; Cao Jun; Sui He

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence in detecting small pulmonary nodules (SPNs) on soft-copy images displayed with different matrix sizes. Methods: Seventy-six chest compute radiographs were selected for the study. Of the 76 test images, 36 pulmonary nodules smaller than 20 mm in diameter were proven by CT, which were further divided into two groups: 1.0-2.0 cm and Z values and standard error of three kinds of view system for individual observers. Results: For 1.0-2.0 cm group, the mean A Z values were 0.7936 for DRCS with 2-fold magnification and window technique, 0.8225 for 1 K monitor with 2-fold magnification and window technique, and 0.8367 for 2 K monitor without magnification; for Z values increased slightly as the display matrix size improved, but there were no significant differences among the three sets in the detection of SPNs in the ROC analyses. Conclusion: It is acceptable to detect small pulmonary nodules of 1.0-2.0 cm in diameter on 1 K monitor and DRCS with magnification. High resolution diagnostic workstation is recommended for detecting small pulmonary nodules <1.0 cm in diameter. Reasonable equipment for the detection of subtle abnormality may result in better cost-efficacy and diagnostic accuracy

  20. Atmospheric particles acting as ice forming nuclei in different size ranges and cloud condensation nuclei measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santachiara, G.; Di Matteo, L.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of ice nuclei (I N) in different size classes of aerosol P M1, P M2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (Tsp) were performed at a rural site (S.Pietro Capofiume, in the Po Valley, Italy). Simultaneous measurements of particle number concentrations were also made with a condensation nucleus counter (CN C-TSI), along with particle concentration in different size classes starting from diameter d > 0.3 μm (Optical Spectrometer Grimm, Mod.1.108). No correlation is observed between I N and the particle number concentration measured with the condensation nuclei counter, and there is only a weak correlation with the particle concentration measured using the optical counter, thus confirming the contribution of the accumulation and coarse aerosol fraction. A positive correlation is observed between supersaturation with respect to ice and water values and ice nuclei number concentration, and an exponential dependence of I N on temperature is found. In addition, cloud concentration nuclei (C CN) were measured. The present measurements reveal a diurnal trend, with lower values at about midday and higher ones during the night, a similar trend between C CN and the relative humidity, and opposite to the mixing layer height.

  1. Size-matched alkyne-conjugated cyanine fluorophores to identify differences in protein glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham-Marusich, Amanda R; Plechaty, Anna M; Berninsone, Patricia M

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there are few methods to detect differences in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in a specific manner from complex mixtures. Thus, we developed an approach that combines the sensitivity and specificity of click chemistry with the resolution capabilities of 2D-DIGE. In "Click-DIGE", posttranslationally modified proteins are metabolically labeled with azido-substrate analogs, then size- and charge-matched alkyne-Cy3 or alkyne-Cy5 dyes are covalently attached to the azide of the PTM by click chemistry. The fluorescently-tagged protein samples are then multiplexed for 2DE analysis. Whereas standard DIGE labels all proteins, Click-DIGE focuses the analysis of protein differences to a targeted subset of posttranslationally modified proteins within a complex sample (i.e. specific labeling and analysis of azido glycoproteins within a cell lysate). Our data indicate that (i) Click-DIGE specifically labels azido proteins, (ii) the resulting Cy-protein conjugates are spectrally distinct, and (iii) the conjugates are size- and charge-matched at the level of 2DE. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by detecting multiple differentially expressed glycoproteins between a mutant cell line defective in UDP-galactose transport and the parental cell line. We anticipate that the diversity of azido substrates already available will enable Click-DIGE to be compatible with analysis of a wide range of PTMs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  4. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  5. Freezing polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) micelle nanoparticles with different nanostructures and sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hailong; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2014-04-28

    Herein we report how to control the nanostructures and sizes of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) nanoparticles via manipulating freezing in solvent-exchange. By characterizing and analyzing the distinct structural features of the obtained nanoparticles, we recognized that micelle self-assembly happens in the precipitation of PS-b-P2VP when water is added into the block copolymer (BCP) solution. Solvent properties significantly influence micelle types that are vesicles in acetone/H2O and spherical micelles in tetrahydrofuran/H2O, respectively, thus further inducing different frozen nanostructures of the obtained nanoparticles, onion-like in acetone/H2O and large compound micelles in tetrahydrofuran/H2O. By changing the concentration of the block copolymers and the Vsolvent/VH2O ratio to modify the freezing stage at which block copolymer micelles are frozen, we can further control the size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, small molecules (phosphotungstic acid, pyrene, 1-pyrenebutyric acid) can be trapped into the block copolymer nanoparticles via the freezing process. Their distribution in the nanoparticles relies not only on the solvent property, but also on their interactions with block copolymers. The hybrid nanoparticles with ordered distribution of small molecules can be further changed to partially-void nanoparticles. Our study demonstrated that manipulating the freezing of block copolymers in the solvent exchange process is a simple and controllable fabrication method to generate BCP nanoparticles with different architectures.

  6. Hardening by ion implantation of VT1-0 alloy having different grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Alisa, E-mail: aliska-nik@mail.ru; Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the structural and phase state of commercially pure titanium implanted by aluminum ions. TEM study has been carried out for two types of grains, namely coarse (0.4 µm) and small (0.5 µm). This paper presents details of the yield stress calculations and the analysis of strength components for the both grain types in two areas of the modified layer: at a distance of 0-150 nm (surface area I) and ∼300 nm (central area II) from the irradiated surface. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress in areas I and II. Thus, near the ion-alloyed layer, the yield stress decreases with the increase of the grain size, whilst area II demonstrates its increase. Moreover, the contribution to the general hardening of the alloy made by certain hardening mechanisms differs from contributions made by each of these mechanisms in each certain case.

  7. Binary Component Sorption of Cadmium, and Copper Ions onto Yangtze River Sediments with Different Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorption is a crucial process that influences immobilization and migration of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. Sediments represent one of the ultimate sinks for heavy metals discharged into water body. Moreover, the particle size of sediments plays an extremely important role in the immobilization of heavy metals. In this study, the sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu onto sediments with different particle sizes were investigated to predict the rate and capacity of sorption, to understand their environmental behaviors in an aqueous environment. Batch sorption and kinetic experiments were conducted to obtain the retained amount and rate of Cd and Cu in a binary system. Experimental data were simulated using sorption models to ascertain the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate. Results of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR sequential extraction showed the highest concentration of Cd (0.344 mg kg−1, and its distribution varied with sediment particle size and site. Furthermore, most of Cu (approximately 57% to 84% existed as a residual fraction. The sorption of Cu onto six sediments followed a pseudo-first order reaction, whereas that of Cd followed a pseudo-second order reaction. Additionally, the competitive Langmuir model fitted the batch sorption experimental data extremely well. The highest sorption capacities of Cd and Cu reach 0.641 mmol kg−1 and 62.3 mmol kg−1, respectively, on the smallest submerged sediment particles. The amounts of Cu and Cd desorbed (mmol kg−1 increased linearly with the initial concentration increasing. Thus, sediment texture is an important factor that influences the sorption of heavy metal onto sediments.

  8. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Dou

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  10. Estimating the Population Size and Genetic Diversity of Amur Tigers in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hailong; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Limin; Mou, Pu; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. In its historical home in Northeast China, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in Southwest Primorye and Northeast China; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. Information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this population for assessing the efficacy of conservation interventions are scarce. We used noninvasive genetic detection data from scats, capture-recapture models and an accumulation curve method to estimate the abundance of Amur tigers in Northeast China. We identified 11 individual tigers (6 females and 5 males) using 10 microsatellite loci in three nature reserves between April 2013 and May 2015. These tigers are confined primarily to a Hunchun Nature Reserve along the border with Russia, with an estimated population abundance of 9-11 tigers during the winter of 2014-2015. They showed a low level of genetic diversity. The mean number of alleles per locus was 2.60 and expected and observed heterozygosity were 0.42 and 0.49, respectively. We also documented long-distance dispersal (~270 km) of a male Amur tiger to Huangnihe Nature Reserve from the border, suggesting that the expansion of neighboring Russian populations may eventually help sustain Chinese populations. However, the small and isolated population recorded by this study demonstrate that there is an urgent need for more intensive regional management to create a tiger-permeable landscape and increased genetic connectivity with other populations.

  11. Size-resolved measurement of the mixing state of soot in the megacity Beijing, China: diurnal cycle, aging and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Cheng

    2012-05-01

    intensities, actual turnover rates of soot (kex → in up to 20% h−1 were derived, which showed a pronounced diurnal cycle peaking around noon time. This result confirms that (soot particles are undergoing fast aging/coating with the existing high levels of condensable vapors in the megacity Beijing. (5 Diurnal cycles of Fin were different between Aitken and accumulation mode particles, which could be explained by the faster growth of smaller Aitken mode particles into larger size bins.

    To improve the Fin prediction in regional/global models, we suggest parameterizing Fin by an air mass aging indicator, i.e., Fin = a + bx, where a and b are empirical coefficients determined from observations, and x is the value of an air mass age indicator. At the Yufa site in the North China Plain, fitted coefficients (a, b were determined as (0.57, 0.21, (0.47, 0.21, and (0.52, 0.0088 for x (indicators as [NOz]/[NOy], [E]/[X] ([ethylbenzene]/[m,p-xylene] and ([IM] + [OM]/[EC] ([inorganic + organic matter]/[elemental carbon], respectively. Such a parameterization consumes little additional computing time, but yields a more realistic description of Fin compared with the simple treatment of soot mixing state in regional/global models.

  12. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying, E-mail: zsy6311@163.com

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (< 65 μm) were the predominant particle size (56–97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200–400 μm) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0–10 and 30–65 μm) and long (0.4–1.0 μm) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3–6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5–6 ring PAHs) and 10–35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of > 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the

  13. Soot particulate size characterisation in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, B.; Ganippa, L.C.; Vliet, van A.P.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence was used to estimate primary particle size distributions inside the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine as a function of the crank angle, for two different engine loads at two different probe locations. Assuming a log-normal particle size

  14. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  15. Satellite-observed variability of phytoplankton size classes associated with a cold eddy in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifen; Hu, Shuibo

    2014-06-15

    Ocean-color remote sensing has been used as a tool to detect phytoplankton size classes (PSCs). In this study, a three-component model of PSC was reparameterized using seven years of pigment measurements acquired in the South China Sea (SCS). The model was then used to infer PSC in a cyclonic eddy which was observed west of Luzon Island from SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a (chla) and sea-surface height anomaly (SSHA) products. Enhanced productivity and a shift in the PSC were observed, which were likely due to upwelling of nutrient-rich water into the euphotic zone. The supply of nutrients promoted the growth of larger cells (micro- and nanoplankton), and the PSC shifted to greater sizes. However, the picoplankton were still important and contributed ∼48% to total chla concentration. In addition, PSC time series revealed a lag period of about three weeks between maximum eddy intensity and maximum chlorophyll, which may have been related to phytoplankton growth rate and duration of eddy intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with individual differences in the portion size effect in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kathleen L.; English, Laural K.; Fearnbach, S.N.; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Anderson, Kaitlin; Bermudez, Maria; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect–PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density

  17. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of different sized gold nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Sykes, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine has advanced the biomedical field with the availability of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) systems that can target a disease site enabling drug delivery and helping to monitor the disease. In this paper, we synthesised the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average size 18, 40, 60 and 80 nm, and studied the effect of nanoparticles size, concentration and incubation time on ovarian cancer cells namely, OVCAR5, OVCAR8, and SKOV3. The size measured by transmission electron microscopy images was slightly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter; measured size by ImageJ as 14.55, 38.13, 56.88 and 78.56 nm. The cellular uptake was significantly controlled by the AuNPs size, concentration, and the cell type. The nanoparticles uptake increased with increasing concentration, and 18 and 80 nm AuNPs showed higher uptake ranging from 1.3 to 5.4 μg depending upon the concentration and cell type. The AuNPs were associated with a temporary reduction in metabolic activity, but metabolic activity remained more than 60% for all sample types; NPs significantly affected the cell proliferation activity in first 12 h. The increase in nanoparticle size and concentration induced the production of reactive oxygen species in 24 h.

  18. Size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust from a desert area of northern China by eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fratini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust emission accounts for a substantial portion of particles present in the troposphere. It is emitted mostly from desert areas, mainly through intense storm episodes. The aim of this work was to quantify size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles emitted during storm events occurring in desert areas of northern China (Alashan desert, Inner Mongolia, known to act as one of the strongest sources of mineral dust particles in the Asian continent. Long-range transport of mineral dust emitted in this area is responsible for the high particle concentrations reached in densely populated areas, including the city of Beijing. Based on a theoretical analysis, an eddy covariance system was built to get size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles with optical diameters ranging between 0.26 and 7.00 µm. The system was optimised to measure fluxes under intense storm event conditions. It was tested in two sites located in the Chinese portion of the Gobi desert. During the field campaign, an intense wind erosion event, classified as a "weak dust storm", was recorded in one of them. Data obtained during this event indicate that particle number fluxes were dominated by the finer fraction, whereas in terms of mass, coarser particle accounted for the largest portion. It was found that during the storm event, ratios of size-segregated particle mass fluxes remained substantially constant and a simple parameterization of particle emission from total mass fluxes was possible. A strong correlation was also found between particle mass fluxes and the friction velocity. This relationship is extremely useful to investigate mechanisms of particle formation by wind erosion.

  19. Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Song-Ze; Yang, Qing-Pei; Shi, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    The impact of reforestation on soil organic carbon (OC), especially in deep layer, is poorly understood and deep soil OC stabilization in relation with aggregation and vegetation type in afforested area is unknown. Here, we collected topsoil (0–15 cm) and deep soil (30–45 cm) from six paired coniferous forests (CF) and broad-leaved forests (BF) reforested in the early 1990s in subtropical China. Soil aggregates were separated by size by dry sieving and OC stability was measured by closed-jar alkali-absorption in 71 incubation days. Soil OC concentration and mean weight diameter were higher in BF than CF. The cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin, mg CO2-C kg-1 soil) varied with aggregate size in BF and CF topsoils, and in deep soil, it was higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates in BF, but not CF. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in CF than in BF at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. Total nitrogen (N) and the ratio of carbon to phosphorus (C/P) were generally higher in BF than in CF in topsoil and deep soil aggregates, while the same trend of N/P was only found in deep soil aggregates. Moreover, the SOCmin negatively correlated with OC, total N, C/P and N/P. This work suggests that reforested vegetation type might play an important role in soil OC storage through internal nutrient cycling. Soil depth and aggregate size influenced OC stability, and deep soil OC stability could be altered by vegetation reforested about 20 years. PMID:26418563

  20. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m{sup 2}. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO{sub 2} emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO{sub 2} emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures. (author)

  1. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO 2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m 2 . One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO 2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO 2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures

  2. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato...... potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf δ13C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions....... leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg-1 soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were...... unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination...

  3. Built Environment Influences of Children’s Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child’s neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9–14 years in London (ON, Canada. As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child’s neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m around each child’s home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children’s MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys’ MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls’ MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child’s physical activity may differ according to sex.

  4. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Age differences in search of web pages: the effects of link size, link number, and clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Michael; Laberge, Jason; Scialfa, Charles T

    2004-01-01

    Reaction time, eye movements, and errors were measured during visual search of Web pages to determine age-related differences in performance as a function of link size, link number, link location, and clutter. Participants (15 young adults, M = 23 years; 14 older adults, M = 57 years) searched Web pages for target links that varied from trial to trial. During one half of the trials, links were enlarged from 10-point to 12-point font. Target location was distributed among the left, center, and bottom portions of the screen. Clutter was manipulated according to the percentage of used space, including graphics and text, and the number of potentially distracting nontarget links was varied. Increased link size improved performance, whereas increased clutter and links hampered search, especially for older adults. Results also showed that links located in the left region of the page were found most easily. Actual or potential applications of this research include Web site design to increase usability, particularly for older adults.

  6. Association of radionuclides with different molecular size fractions in soil solution: implications for plant uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Shaw, S.; Salbu, B.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using hollow fibre ultrafiltration to determine the molecular size distribution of radionuclides in soil solution was investigated. The physical and chemical composition of soil plays a vital role in determining radionuclide uptake by plant roots. Soil solution samples were extracted from loam, peat and sand soils that had been artificially contaminated with 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am six years previously as part of a five-year lysimeter study on radionuclide uptake to crops. Ultrafiltration of soil solution was performed using hollow fibre cartridges with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 3 and 10 kD. The association of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am with different molecular size fractions of the soil solution is discussed in terms of radionuclide bioavailability to cabbage grown in the same three soils. 137 Cs and 90 Sr were present in low molecular weight forms and as such were mobile in soil and potentially available for uptake by the cabbage. In contrast, a large proportion (61-87%) of the 239 Pu and 241 Am were associated with colloidal and high molecular weight material and therefore less available for uptake by plant roots. The contribution from low molecular weight species of 239 Pu and 241 Am to the total activity in soil solution decreased in the order loam ≥ peat ≥ sand. Association of radionuclides with low molecular weight species of less than 3 kD did not, however, automatically imply availability to plants. (author)

  7. Relation between size of contrast meter and radiographic density difference for radiographic test aluminium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Tomio; Hirayama, Kazuo; Masaoka, Naotoshi; Fujita, Minoru.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of contrast meter with difference surface area (5.0 mm x 5.0 mm, 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm, 30.0 mm x 30.0 mm) and separated type on radiographic density difference (Δ D) were investigated for radiographic test of aluminum welds. It was found that the effect of scattered radiation on contrast meter represented highest at test specimen thickness of 20 mm, and Δ D was constant as the size was increased from 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm to 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm for aluminum contrast meter. For this reason, a proposal of the contrast meter with 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm (surface area) has made to replace (15.0 mm x 15 mm) at amendment of JIS Z 3105. (auth.)

  8. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  9. Particle size distribution, chemical composition and meteorological factor analysis: A case study during wintertime snow cover in Zhengzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Qun; Yan, Qishe; Jiang, Nan; Wei, Junhua; Wei, Zhiyuan; Yin, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    There was a significant snowfall event in North China from November 23 to 25 in 2015. Considering that most of the bare surface and road dust were covered by snow, the effect of dust and soil could be ignored. Atmospheric particle samples were collected in Zhengzhou, China during a haze event from November 28 to December 4, 2015. To better understand the formation and evolution of this hazy event, the size distribution, particle number, composition of particles and meteorological parameters were measured and analyzed. Results show that the meteorological conditions played an important role in the occurrence and elimination of this event. The hourly fine particle matter (PM2.5) concentration was positively correlated with relative humidity (r = 0.84, p NH4+) on hazy days was higher than that on clean days. The higher NH4+ concentration in this case may be contributed by traffic and coal-power emission. Crustal matter accounted for 2.4% in PM2.5 on hazy days, and it confirmed that the contribution of dust emission source was negligible during this event. The ratios of NO3-/SO42 - ranging from 0.41 to 0.67 indicated the relative importance of stationary combustion. The ratios of OC/EC varied from 2.73 to 3.42 and indicated the presence of secondary organic carbon. Effective haze mitigation should enforce pollutant control measures for primary emission (dust) and secondary aerosol gaseous precursor (NH3, NO2 and SO2).

  10. Sediment grain-size characteristics and relevant correlations to the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlai; Shen, Yaping; Li, Qing; Jia, Wenru; Li, Jiao; Wang, Xuesong

    2018-06-15

    To identify characteristics of aeolian activity and the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region, this study collected surface sediment samples from the main desert and sandy lands in this region: the Hobq Desert and the Mu Us, Otindag, Horqin, and Hulunbuir sandy lands. We analyzed the grain-size characteristics and their relationships to three key environmental indicators: drift potential, the dune mobility index, and vegetation cover. The main sediment components are fine to medium sands, with poor (Hulunbuir) to moderate (all other areas) sorting, of unimodal to bimodal distribution. This suggests that improved sorting is accomplished by the loss of both relatively coarser and finer grains. Since 2000, China's eastern desert region has generally experienced low wind energy environmental conditions, resulting in decreased dune activity. In the Hobq Desert, however, the dry climate and sparse vegetation, in conjunction with the most widely distributed mobile dune area in the eastern desert region, have led to frequent and intense aeolian activity, including wind erosion, sand transport, and deposition, resulting in conditions for good sediment sorting. In the Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin sandy lands, mosaic distribution has resulted from wind erosion-dominated and deposition-dominated aeolian environments. In the Hulunbuir Sandy Land, high precipitation, low temperatures, and steppe vegetation have resulted in well-developed soils; however, strong winds and flat terrain have created an aeolian environment dominated by wind erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Firm size distribution and mobility of the top 500 firms in China, the United States and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinzhong; Xu, Qi; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers the macroscopic and microscopic statistical features of the top 500 firms in China, the United States and the world, denoted as China 500 (CH500), Fortune 500 (US500) and Fortune Global 500 (FG500). From a macroscopic perspective, the firm size distribution of each category, when measured by revenue, is steadily distributed over the observed period, even during periods of financial crises. As is evidenced by the Gini coefficient, divergences between firm scales are most significant for the CH500. From a microscopic perspective, the underlying micro-dynamics are volatile and often turbulent due to the exit and entry of firms as well as shifts in their revenues and ranks. Such fluctuations, or mobility, are visualized in rank/revenue/share clocks. We also propose a revenue/rank/share mobility index that is a quantitative measurement of mobility. Among these, we find that the share mobility acts as an effective indicator of economic status; where there is a share mobility spike, there is an ailing economy. The share mobility indexes indicate that the 2008 Financial Crisis had little impact on the Chinese economy, while it triggered violent changes in the top 500 firms in the United States and the world.

  12. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1 shell resources, (2 parasite impact, (3 competition, (4 predation, and (5 food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but

  13. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  14. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  15. Application of probiotics and different size of sodium bicarbonate powders for feedlot sheep fattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, Hery; Ramdani, Diky; Kuswaryan, Sondy; Budinuryanto, Dwi Cipto; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the use of probiotic and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of feedlot sheep. Probiotics from Heriyaki powder can function as forge preservative and sodium bicarbonate as an artificial rumen buffer that helps to stabilize pH levels in sheep's stomach. The objectives of this formulation is to improve the rumen function, feed efficiency and reduce the risk of acidosis leading to a significant increase of average daily gain (ADG, gram/head/day) of feedlot sheep. Heriyaki probiotic liquid was prepared by fermenting beans mixed with sugarcane molasses while Heriyaki powder was obtained by mixing the Heriyaki probiotic liquid with rice hull powder and additional molasses sugarcane in anaerobic condition for 5 days. The powder was then applied for preparing whole maize silage 0.5 wt% in anaerobic condition for 7 days before feeding. Meanwhile, the feed concentrate contained acid buffer of sodium bicarbonate powder at different doses and sizes [0.35 wt% commercial size (T1), 0.18 wt% mesh -400 (T2) and 0.35 wt% mesh -400 (T3)]. The diet treatment was a total mixed ratio containing 1 kg silage and 700 g concentrate. The experiment was conducted to compare the effect of 3 different treatments (T1, T2 and T3) on dry matter intake (DMI, g/day), ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of feedlot sheep for 2 months fattening, where each treatment was applied into a flock colony for 6 heads of sheep with three flock replications involving 54 heads of sheep in total for all the treatments. The results showed no difference (P>0.05) in DMI, ADG and FCR of feedlot sheep confirming the use of low-dose and finer sodium bicarbonate powder in T2 yield a targeted ADG of > 110 g but being more efficient than other treatments.

  16. Comparison of different methods for determining the size of a focal spot of microfocus X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.; Hanke, R.; Krueger, P.; Sukowski, F.; Uhlmann, N.; Voland, V.

    2008-01-01

    The EN 12543-5 describes a method for determining the focal spot size of microfocus X-ray tubes up to a minimum spot size of 5 μm. The wide application of X-ray tubes with even smaller focal spot sizes in computed tomography and radioscopy applications requires the evaluation of existing methods for focal spot sizes below 5 μm. In addition, new methods and conditions for determining submicron focal spot sizes have to be developed. For the evaluation and extension of the present methods to smaller focal spot sizes, different procedures in comparison with the existing EN 12543-5 were analyzed and applied, and the results are presented

  17. Early-type galaxies: mass-size relation at z ˜ 1.3 for different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data of the Lynx superstructure and GOODS/CDF-S to build a sample of 75 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs), spanning different environments (cluster/group/field) at z ˜ 1.3. By estimating their mass, age (SED fitting, with a careful attention to the stellar population model used) and size, we are able to probe the dependence on the environment of the mass-size relation. We find that, for ETGs with 10^{10} < M / M_⊙ < 10^{11.5}, (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ˜ 1.3 to present; (2) the mass-size relation in cluster/group environments at z ˜ 1.3 lies at smaller sizes than the local mass-size relation (R_{e,z ˜ 1.3}/R_{e,z = 0} ˜ 0.6-0.8).

  18. Costs and Benefits to Pregnant Male Pipefish Caring for Broods of Different Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period. In this study, using two experimentally determined brood sizes (partially and fully filled brood pouches), we found that full broods resulted in larger number of developing offspring, despite significantly higher absolute and relative embryo mortality, compared to partial broods. Male survival was also affected by brood size, with males caring for full broods having poorer survival, an effect that together with the reduced embryo survival was found to negate the benefit of large broods. We found that embryo mortality was lower when the brooding males were in good initial condition, that embryos in broods with low embryo mortality weighed more, and surprisingly, that males in higher initial condition had embryos of lower weight. Brood size, however, did not affect embryo weight. Male final condition, but not initial condition, correlated with higher male survival. Taken together, our results show costs and benefits of caring for large brood sizes, where the numerical benefits come with costs in terms of both embryo survival and survival of the brooding father, effects that are often mediated via male condition.

  19. Costs and Benefits to Pregnant Male Pipefish Caring for Broods of Different Sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Sagebakken

    Full Text Available Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period. In this study, using two experimentally determined brood sizes (partially and fully filled brood pouches, we found that full broods resulted in larger number of developing offspring, despite significantly higher absolute and relative embryo mortality, compared to partial broods. Male survival was also affected by brood size, with males caring for full broods having poorer survival, an effect that together with the reduced embryo survival was found to negate the benefit of large broods. We found that embryo mortality was lower when the brooding males were in good initial condition, that embryos in broods with low embryo mortality weighed more, and surprisingly, that males in higher initial condition had embryos of lower weight. Brood size, however, did not affect embryo weight. Male final condition, but not initial condition, correlated with higher male survival. Taken together, our results show costs and benefits of caring for large brood sizes, where the numerical benefits come with costs in terms of both embryo survival and survival of the brooding father, effects that are often mediated via male condition.

  20. Tree size predicts vascular epiphytic richness of traditional cultivated tea plantations in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Species–area relationship has been widely addressed on many plant communities, but very few have conducted on epiphytic communities. Epiphytic plants are plentiful on ancient tea trees (Camelia sinensis var. assamica in the well-known Jingmai tea plantation area, Langcang region of Yunnan Province, SW China, and add to the plant community biodiversity. We investigated 343 tea trees with various ground diameter, canopy area, under branch height, and tree height. A total of 146 vascular epiphytic plants, belonging to 19 species in seven families were recorded from the trunk or branches of 93 (27.11% investigated trees. We examined in situ abundance, richness, and diversity (Shannon–Weiner index of the recorded vascular epiphytes, and their relationships to tree variables. Our results showed that the distribution (abundance, richness, and diversity of epiphytic plants are significantly related to the canopy area (p<0.05 and basal diameter (p<0.0001 of tea trees, supporting their use as key factors and good predictor for the epiphyte’s appearance in this type of agro-ecosystems. We also concluded that the species–area relationship is a useful epiphytic species community research tool.

  1. Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei; Tian, Di

    2010-11-15

    Pollutant washoff from road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an increasing problem associated with the rapid urbanization of China that results in urban non-point source pollution. Here, we analyzed the RDS grain size distribution and its potential impact on heavy metal pollution in urban runoff from impervious surfaces of urban villages, colleges and residences, and main traffic roads in the Haidian District, Beijing, China. RDS with smaller grain size had a higher metal concentration. Specifically, particles with the smallest grain size (runoff water accounted for greater than 70% of the metal mass in the total suspended solids (TSS). The heavy metal content in the TSS was 2.21-6.52% of that in the RDS. These findings will facilitate our understanding of the importance of RDS grain size distribution in heavy metal pollution caused by urban storm runoff. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EMG activities and plantar pressures during ski jumping take-off on three different sized hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.

  3. Using Balls of Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    1998-06-01

    In this article, an analogy is described about the order of magnitude of the variation of atomic sizes that can be used for discussion in introductory chemistry classes. The order of magnitude of this variation, involving microscopic magnitudes, is difficult for students to imagine. For the most part, the students are very familiar with the world of sports. In any case for example, the teacher can make use of the wide, informative coverage given to the olympic games or similar events, where different sports are televised in a few days. The radii of official balls for seven well-known sports are given, and students must assign an atom to each ball by using tabulated single-bond, covalent radii and by assigning the smallest ball (i.e., corresponding to ping-pong) to the smallest atom (i.e., hydrogen). The balls can also be used to show how the ionic radii change upon ionization.

  4. Comparing brain networks of different size and connectivity density using graph theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C M van Wijk

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a valuable framework to study the organization of functional and anatomical connections in the brain. Its use for comparing network topologies, however, is not without difficulties. Graph measures may be influenced by the number of nodes (N and the average degree (k of the network. The explicit form of that influence depends on the type of network topology, which is usually unknown for experimental data. Direct comparisons of graph measures between empirical networks with different N and/or k can therefore yield spurious results. We list benefits and pitfalls of various approaches that intend to overcome these difficulties. We discuss the initial graph definition of unweighted graphs via fixed thresholds, average degrees or edge densities, and the use of weighted graphs. For instance, choosing a threshold to fix N and k does eliminate size and density effects but may lead to modifications of the network by enforcing (ignoring non-significant (significant connections. Opposed to fixing N and k, graph measures are often normalized via random surrogates but, in fact, this may even increase the sensitivity to differences in N and k for the commonly used clustering coefficient and small-world index. To avoid such a bias we tried to estimate the N,k-dependence for empirical networks, which can serve to correct for size effects, if successful. We also add a number of methods used in social sciences that build on statistics of local network structures including exponential random graph models and motif counting. We show that none of the here-investigated methods allows for a reliable and fully unbiased comparison, but some perform better than others.

  5. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farwa; Irfan, Ghazia

    2012-01-01

    High rates of contraceptive discontinuation for reasons other than the desire for pregnancy are a public health concern because of their association with negative reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Obstetrics/Gynaecology Out-Patient Department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from April-September 2012. Patients (241) were selected by consecutive sampling after informed written consent and acquiring approval of Ethical Committee. The survey interview tool was a semi-structured questionnaire. Majority (68%) of women belonged to urban, and the rest were from rural areas. Mean age of these women was 29.43 +/- 5.384 year. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives included fear of injectable contraceptives (2.9%), contraceptive failure/pregnancy (7.46%), desire to become pregnant (63.48%), husband away at job (2.49%), health concerns/side effects (16.18%), affordability (0.83%), inconvenient to use (1.24%), acceptability (0.83%) and accessibility/lack of information (4.56%). Association of different reasons of discontinuation (chi square test) with the family size (actual number of children) was significant (p = 0.019) but was not significant with husband's or wife's educational status (p = 0.33 and 0.285 respectively). Keeping in mind the complex socioeconomic conditions in our country, Family planning programmers and stake holders need to identify women who strongly want to avoid a pregnancy and finding ways to help the couples successfully initiate and maintain appropriate contraceptive use.

  6. Regulatory scientific advice in drug development: does company size make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeist, Michelle; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Gispen-De Wied, Christine C; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether the content of Scientific Advice (SA) questions addressed to a national drug regulatory agency is associated with company size. This may help to increase understanding about the knowledge, strategic, and regulatory gaps companies face during drug development. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of SA provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) in 2006-2008. Definition of company size was based on ranking by total revenues (Scrip's Pharmaceutical Company League Tables 2008). The content of each SA question was scored according to predefined domains (quality, nonclinical, clinical, regulatory, and product information), their subdomains (e.g., efficacy), and a selection of additional content variables (e.g., endpoints, choice of active comparator). In total, 201 SA documents including 1,087 questions could be identified. Small, medium-sized, and large companies asked for SA 110 (54.7%), 40 (19.9%), and 51 (25.4%) times, respectively. Clinical questions were asked most often (65.9%), mainly including efficacy (33.2%) and safety questions (24.0%). The most frequent topics were overall efficacy and safety strategy. Small companies asked quality and nonclinical questions more often (P companies (P = 0.004). Small companies asked significantly more clinical questions about pharmacokinetics, including bioequivalence, than medium-sized and large companies (P Company size is associated with the content of SA questions. MEB advice accommodates both innovative and noninnovative drug development.

  7. Laser Surface Modification of H13 Die Steel using Different Laser Spot Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqida, S. N.; Naher, S.; Brabazon, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel using three sizes of laser spot with an aim to achieve reduced grain size and surface roughness. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the grain size and the modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. From metallographic study, the smallest grain sizes measured by laser modified surface were between 0.51 μm and 2.54 μm. The minimum surface roughness, Ra, recorded was 3.0 μm. This surface roughness of the modified die steel is similar to the surface quality of cast products. The grain size correlation with hardness followed the findings correlate with Hall-Petch relationship. The potential found for increase in surface hardness represents an important method to sustain tooling life.

  8. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollner, S.; Govenar, B.; Fisher, C.R.; Bright, M.

    2015-01-01

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient

  9. Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtys, Edward M; Huston, Laura J; Schock, Harold J; Boylan, James P; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    Female athletes who participate in sports involving jumping and cutting maneuvers are up to eight times more likely to sustain a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament than are men participating in the same sports. We tested the hypothesis that healthy young women are able to volitionally increase the apparent torsional stiffness of the knee, by maximally activating the knee muscles, significantly less than are size-matched men participating in the same type of sport. Twenty-four NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division-I athletes (twelve men and twelve women) competing in sports associated with a high risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (basketball, volleyball, and soccer) were compared with twenty-eight collegiate endurance athletes (fourteen men and fourteen women) participating in sports associated with a low risk of such injuries (bicycling, crew, and running). Male and female pairs were matched for age, height, weight, body mass index, shoe size, and activity level. Testing was performed with a weighted pendulum that applied a medially directed 80-N impulse force to the lateral aspect of the right forefoot. The resulting internal rotation of the leg was measured optically, to the nearest 0.25 degrees, at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, both with and without maximal activation of the knee muscles. Maximal rotations of the leg were greater in women than in men in both the passive and the active muscle state (16% and 27% greater [p = 0.01 and p = 0.02], respectively). Moreover, female athletes exhibited a significantly (18%) smaller volitional increase in apparent torsional stiffness of the knee under internal rotation loading than did the matched male athletes (p = 0.014); this was particularly the case for those who participated in sports involving jumping and pivoting maneuvers (42% difference between genders, p = 0.001). The collegiate female athletes involved in high-risk sports exhibited less muscular protection

  10. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B King

    Full Text Available Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females. We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835-1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further

  11. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  12. Fluctuations in email size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  13. Investment in different sized SMRs: Economic evaluation of stochastic scenarios by INCAS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenghi, S.; Boarin, S.; Ricotti, M. E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, CeSNEF-Nuclear Engineering Div., via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Small Modular LWR concepts are being developed and proposed to investors worldwide. They capitalize on operating track record of GEN II LWR, while introducing innovative design enhancements allowed by smaller size and additional benefits from the higher degree of modularization and from deployment of multiple units on the same site. (i.e. 'Economy of Multiple' paradigm) Nevertheless Small Modular Reactors pay for a dis-economy of scale that represents a relevant penalty on a capital intensive investment. Investors in the nuclear power generation industry face a very high financial risk, due to high capital commitment and exceptionally long pay-back time. Investment risk arise from uncertainty that affects scenario conditions over such a long time horizon. Risk aversion is increased by current adverse conditions of financial markets and general economic downturn, as is the case nowadays. This work investigates both the investment profitability and risk of alternative investments in a single Large Reactor or in multiple SMR of different sizes drawing information from project's Internal Rate of Return stochastic distribution. multiple SMR deployment on a single site with total power installed, equivalent to a single LR. Uncertain scenario conditions and stochastic input assumptions are included in the analysis, representing investment uncertainty and risk. Results show that, despite the combination of much larger number of stochastic variables in SMR fleets, uncertainty of project profitability is not increased, as compared to LR: SMR have features able to smooth IRR variance and control investment risk. Despite dis-economy of scale, SMR represent a limited capital commitment and a scalable investment option that meet investors' interest, even in developed and mature markets, that are traditional marketplace for LR. (authors)

  14. Brittle fracture in structural steels: perspectives at different size-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, John

    2015-03-28

    This paper describes characteristics of transgranular cleavage fracture in structural steel, viewed at different size-scales. Initially, consideration is given to structures and the service duty to which they are exposed at the macroscale, highlighting failure by plastic collapse and failure by brittle fracture. This is followed by sections describing the use of fracture mechanics and materials testing in carrying-out assessments of structural integrity. Attention then focuses on the microscale, explaining how values of the local fracture stress in notched bars or of fracture toughness in pre-cracked test-pieces are related to features of the microstructure: carbide thicknesses in wrought material; the sizes of oxide/silicate inclusions in weld metals. Effects of a microstructure that is 'heterogeneous' at the mesoscale are treated briefly, with respect to the extraction of test-pieces from thick sections and to extrapolations of data to low failure probabilities. The values of local fracture stress may be used to infer a local 'work-of-fracture' that is found experimentally to be a few times greater than that of two free surfaces. Reasons for this are discussed in the conclusion section on nano-scale events. It is suggested that, ahead of a sharp crack, it is necessary to increase the compliance by a cooperative movement of atoms (involving extra work) to allow the crack-tip bond to displace sufficiently for the energy of attraction between the atoms to reduce to zero. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Sterile endophthalmitis rates and particle size analyses of different formulations of triamcinolone acetonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodwell, David G; Krimmel, Darrel A; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of sterile endophthalmitis (SE) following intravitreal injection of three different formulations of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in a single physician practice and also to assess the mean diameter and concentration of particles of the two TA formulations currently available commercially in the USA. It was hypothesized that TA formulations with smaller particles and/or greater concentrations would have a higher incidence of SE. Single-site, interventional case series in which the medical records of 392 consecutive eyes receiving intravitreal TA as Triesence(®), Kenalog(®)-40, or preservative-free TA between September 2008 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of SE. Particle sizing of TA formulations was conducted by an independent commercial laboratory. Five cases of SE were identified. The four cases of SE following Triesence(®) (4.6%) represented a rate significantly higher than the one case of SE following preservative-free TA (0.6%; P=0.049) and the 0% incidence rate of SE following Kenalog(®)-40 (P=0.0210). Triesence(®) had significantly smaller particles than Kenalog(®)-40 (P<0.0001). The rate of SE was the highest with the formulation of TA that had the smallest particle size and highest particle load (number of particles injected). The lowest rate of SE was seen with Kenalog(®)-40, the only TA formulation that contained a benzyl alcohol preservative. The data do not support a principal causative role of benzyl alcohol in the development of TA-induced SE. Instead, the data support the particle theory of TA-induced SE; however, larger-scale, multicenter studies are needed to confirm and expand on these findings.

  16. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (Pstraw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (Pstraws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (Pstraws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai; Zhong, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. (paper)

  18. Investment in different sized SMRs: Economic evaluation of stochastic scenarios by INCAS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, S.; Boarin, S.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Small Modular LWR concepts are being developed and proposed to investors worldwide. They capitalize on operating track record of GEN II LWR, while introducing innovative design enhancements allowed by smaller size and additional benefits from the higher degree of modularization and from deployment of multiple units on the same site. (i.e. 'Economy of Multiple' paradigm) Nevertheless Small Modular Reactors pay for a dis-economy of scale that represents a relevant penalty on a capital intensive investment. Investors in the nuclear power generation industry face a very high financial risk, due to high capital commitment and exceptionally long pay-back time. Investment risk arise from uncertainty that affects scenario conditions over such a long time horizon. Risk aversion is increased by current adverse conditions of financial markets and general economic downturn, as is the case nowadays. This work investigates both the investment profitability and risk of alternative investments in a single Large Reactor or in multiple SMR of different sizes drawing information from project's Internal Rate of Return stochastic distribution. multiple SMR deployment on a single site with total power installed, equivalent to a single LR. Uncertain scenario conditions and stochastic input assumptions are included in the analysis, representing investment uncertainty and risk. Results show that, despite the combination of much larger number of stochastic variables in SMR fleets, uncertainty of project profitability is not increased, as compared to LR: SMR have features able to smooth IRR variance and control investment risk. Despite dis-economy of scale, SMR represent a limited capital commitment and a scalable investment option that meet investors' interest, even in developed and mature markets, that are traditional marketplace for LR. (authors)

  19. Mammal body size evolution in North America and Europe over 20 Myr: similar trends generated by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Eronen, Jussi T; Janis, Christine M; Saarinen, Juha J; Silvestro, Daniele; Fritz, Susanne A

    2017-02-22

    Because body size interacts with many fundamental biological properties of a species, body size evolution can be an essential component of the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here we investigate how body size evolution can be linked to the clade-specific diversification dynamics in different geographical regions. We analyse an extensive body size dataset of Neogene large herbivores (covering approx. 50% of the 970 species in the orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla) in Europe and North America in a Bayesian framework. We reconstruct the temporal patterns of body size in each order on each continent independently, and find significant increases of minimum size in three of the continental assemblages (except European perissodactyls), suggesting an active selection for larger bodies. Assessment of trait-correlated birth-death models indicates that the common trend of body size increase is generated by different processes in different clades and regions. Larger-bodied artiodactyl species on both continents tend to have higher origination rates, and both clades in North America show strong links between large bodies and low extinction rate. Collectively, our results suggest a strong role of species selection and perhaps of higher-taxon sorting in driving body size evolution, and highlight the value of investigating evolutionary processes in a biogeographic context. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Effect of Different Size Dust Grains on the Properties of Solitary Waves in Space Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Propagation of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of dust grains obey power law dust size distribution and nonthermal ions are investigated. For nonlinear DA waves, a reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order potential. The effects of a dust size distribution, dust radius and the non-thermal distribution of ions on the soliton amplitude, width and energy of electrostatic solitary structures are presented

  1. Conductivity studies of Chitosan doped with different ammonium salts: Effect of ion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C. Raja; Senthilkumar, M.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation influence of ion size on the electrical properties of various ammonium salts of various concentrations doped with Chitosan liquid electrolyte has been studied. The attachment of ammonium salts with Chitosan has been confirmed through FTIR Spectrum. Polarizability is calculated from the refractive index data. Addition of ammonium salts increases the conductivity. It is also observed that increase in ion size, increases the ionic conductivity due to increase in amorphous nature of the material. Increase in concentration leads to increase in conductivity due to the presence of more number of free ions.

  2. On the room temperature microstrain of vanadium of different grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, J.; Guttmann, V.

    1977-01-01

    The present work deals with the plastic behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium from the onset of plastic deformation to the upper yield point. The stress-strain relation was found to be omega approximately epsilonsub(p)sup(1/2). The influence of the grain size on stress followed a omega approximately d -1 relationship. The initial yield stress was independent of grain size. By means of optical and electron microscopy it was found, that the first dislocation movement starts at grain boundaries. (orig.) [de

  3. Structural investigations on differently sized monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by remineralization of apoferritin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Aladin; Horn, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the structure of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by remineralization and thermal treatment of horse spleen apoferritin molecules. The described procedure allows to synthesize particles with diameters ranging from 4 to 7 nm in size. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations were performed for shape and size determination, whereas energy-dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), high-resolution TEM, and electron diffraction measurements revealed the chemical composition and crystal structure of the particles. We found predominantly single crystalline nanoparticles with a hematite-like (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) structure

  4. Compression Properties and Electrical Conductivity of In-Situ 20 vol.% Nano-Sized TiCx/Cu Composites with Different Particle Size and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Sun, Liping; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo

    2017-05-04

    The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiC x /Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiC x /Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σ UCS ), yield strength (σ 0.2 ), and electric conductivity, compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite. The σ UCS , σ 0.2 , and electrical conductivity of cubic-TiC x /Cu composite increased by 4.37%, 20.7%, and 17.8% compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite (526 MPa, 183 MPa, and 55.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, IACS). Spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with average particle size of ~94 nm exhibited higher ultimate compression strength, yield strength, and electrical conductivity compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with 46 nm in size. The σ UCS , σ 0.2 , and electrical conductivity of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with average size of ~94 nm in size increased by 17.8%, 33.9%, and 62.5% compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite (417 MPa, 121 MPa, and 40.3% IACS) with particle size of 49 nm, respectively. Cubic-shaped TiC x particles with sharp corners and edges led to stress/strain localization, which enhanced the compression strength of the composites. The agglomeration of spherical-TiC x particles with small size led to the compression strength reduction of the composites.

  5. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  6. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  7. Changes in use of types of tobacco products by pack sizes and price segments, prices paid and consumption following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    To describe changes among smokers in use of various types of tobacco products, reported prices paid and cigarette consumption following the standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia. National cross-sectional telephone surveys of adult smokers were conducted from April 2012 (6 months before transition to plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months afterwards). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in products, brands and pack types/sizes; multivariable linear regression examined changes in inflation-adjusted prices paid and reported cigarette consumption between the pre-PP and three subsequent periods-the transition phase, PP year 1 and PP post-tax (post a 12.5% tax increase in December 2013). The proportion of current smokers using roll-your-own (RYO) products fluctuated over the study period. Proportions using value brands of factory-made (FM) cigarettes increased from pre-PP (21.4%) to PP year 1 (25.5%; p=0.002) and PP post-tax (27.8%; pIntroduction of PP was associated with an increase in use of value brands, likely due to increased numbers available and smaller increases in prices for value relative to premium brands. Reported consumption declined following the December 2013 tax increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Numerical simulation of homogenization time measurement by probes with different volume size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Novy, M.; Zitny, R.; Mostek, M.; Jahoda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results of continuous homogenization time measurement of liquid in a stirred tank depend on the scale of scrutiny. Experimental techniques use a probe, which is situated inside as a conductivity method, or outside of the tank as in the case of gamma-radiotracer methods. Expected value of homogenization time evaluated for a given degree of homogenization is higher when using the conductivity method because the conductivity probe measures relatively small volume in contrast to application of radiotracer, when the volume is much greater. Measurement through the wall of tank is a great advantage of radiotracer application but a comparison of the results with another method supposes a determination of measured volume, which is not easy. Simulation of measurement by CFD code can help to solve the problem. Methodology for CFD simulation of radiotracer experiments was suggested. Commercial software was used for simulation of liquid homogenization in mixed vessel with Rushton turbine. Numerical simulation of liquid homogenization time by CFD for different values of detected volume was confronted with measurement of homogenization time with conductivity probe and with different radioisotopes 198 Au, 82 Br and 24 Na. Detected size of the tank volume was affected by different energy of radioisotope used. (author)

  9. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  10. Long term particle size distribution measurements at Mount Waliguan, a high-altitude site in inland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kivekäs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Particle number size distributions in size range 12–570 nm were measured continuously at Mount Waliguan, a remote mountain-top station in inland China. The station is located at the altitude of 3816 m a.s.l., and some 600–1200 m above the surrounding area. The measurement period lasted from September 2005 to May 2007. The measurements were verified with independent CPC measurements at the same site. The average particle concentration in ambient conditions was 2030 cm−3, which is higher than the values measured at similar altitude in other regions of the world. On average, the Aitken mode contributed to roughly half of the particle number concentration. The concentrations were found to be higher during the summer than during the winter. The diurnal variation was also investigated and a clear pattern was found for the nucleation mode during all seasons, so that the nucleation mode particle concentration increased in the afternoon. The same pattern was visible in the Aitken mode during the summer, whereas the accumulation mode did not show any level of diurnal pattern during any season. Excluding the nucleation mode, the average day-time particle concentrations were not significantly higher than those measured at night-time, indicating no systematic pattern of change between planetary boundary layer conditions and free troposphere conditions. In air masses coming from east, the number concentration of particles was higher than in other air masses, which indicates that the air mass might be affected anthropogenic pollution east of the station. Also other factors, such as active new-particle formation, keep aerosol number concentrations high in the area.

  11. Use of methods for specifying the target difference in randomised controlled trial sample size calculations: Two surveys of trialists' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Hislop, Jennifer M; Altman, Doug G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter M; Norrie, John D; Ramsay, Craig R; Harvey, Ian M; Vale, Luke D

    2014-06-01

    Central to the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is a calculation of the number of participants needed. This is typically achieved by specifying a target difference, which enables the trial to identify a difference of a particular magnitude should one exist. Seven methods have been proposed for formally determining what the target difference should be. However, in practice, it may be driven by convenience or some other informal basis. It is unclear how aware the trialist community is of these formal methods or whether they are used. To determine current practice regarding the specification of the target difference by surveying trialists. Two surveys were conducted: (1) Members of the Society for Clinical Trials (SCT): participants were invited to complete an online survey through the society's email distribution list. Respondents were asked about their awareness, use of, and willingness to recommend methods; (2) Leading UK- and Ireland-based trialists: the survey was sent to UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered Clinical Trials Units, Medical Research Council UK Hubs for Trial Methodology Research, and the Research Design Services of the National Institute for Health Research. This survey also included questions about the most recent trial developed by the respondent's group. Survey 1: Of the 1182 members on the SCT membership email distribution list, 180 responses were received (15%). Awareness of methods ranged from 69 (38%) for health economic methods to 162 (90%) for pilot study. Willingness to recommend among those who had used a particular method ranged from 56% for the opinion-seeking method to 89% for the review of evidence-base method. Survey 2: Of the 61 surveys sent out, 34 (56%) responses were received. Awareness of methods ranged from 33 (97%) for the review of evidence-base and pilot methods to 14 (41%) for the distribution method. The highest level of willingness to recommend among users was for the anchor method (87%). Based upon

  12. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  13. Size-dependent thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

    Full Text Available In this paper a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent thermoelasticity in heterogeneous anisotropic solids. This theory shows that the temperature change can create not only thermal strains, but also thermal mean curvatures in the solids. This formulation is based on the consistent size-dependent continuum mechanics in which the couple-stress tensor is skew-symmetric. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy and entropy equations, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as entropy density, are obtained. Next, for the linear material the constitutive relations and governing coupled size-dependent thermoelasticity equations are developed. For linear material, one can see that the thermal properties are characterized by the classical symmetric thermal expansion tensor and the new size-dependent skew-symmetric thermal flexion tensor. Thus, for the most general anisotropic case, there are nine independent thermoelastic constants. Interestingly, for isotropic and cubic materials the thermal flexion tensor vanishes, which shows there is no thermal mean curvature

  14. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  15. Green Lot-Sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  16. Colloidal solutions of luminescent porous silicon clusters with different cluster sizes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herynková, Kateřina; Podkorytov, E.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Cibulka, Ondřej; Leitner, J.; Pelant, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), 1-5 ISSN 1931-7573 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline silicon * porous silicon * cluster size * luminescent markers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  17. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, R; Baselga, M; Blas, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a line selected for reproductive longevity (LP) to confront productive challenges compared to a line selected during 31 generations for litter size at weaning (V). A total of 133 reproductive rabbit does were used (72 and 61 from LP and V lines,...

  18. Carbon Mineralization in Two Ultisols Amended with Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Pyrolyzed Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar produced during pyrolysis has the potential to enhance soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The influence of biochar properties (e.g., particle size) on both short- and long-term carbon (C) mineralization of biochar remains unclear. There is minimal informa...

  19. Cohort difference in age-related trajectories in network size in old age: are networks expanding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Huxhold, O.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. Contemporary societal views on old age as well as a rise in retirement age raise the question whether patterns of stability and/or decline in network size as found in earlier studies similarly apply to later birth cohorts of older adults. Methods. Change score models are estimated to

  20. Genetic variation in nodule size at different sites on the skins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the limitations evident from these results, the objective measurement of nodules on ostrich skins is tedious when done manually, with little prospect for automation. The number of nodules per dm² (nodule density) was considered within skin sites as an indirect criterion for the improvement of nodule size. However ...

  1. Analysis of vestibular schwannoma size in multiple dimensions: a comparative cohort study of different measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, J K; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Vassbotn, F; Moen, G; Lund-Johansen, M

    2010-04-01

    In this volumetric study of the vestibular schwannoma, we evaluated the accuracy and reliability of several approximation methods that are in use, and determined the minimum volume difference that needs to be measured for it to be attributable to an actual difference rather than a retest error. We also found empirical proportionality coefficients for the different methods. DESIGN/SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Methodological study with investigation of three different VS measurement methods compared to a reference method that was based on serial slice volume estimates. These volume estimates were based on: (i) one single diameter, (ii) three orthogonal diameters or (iii) the maximal slice area. Altogether 252 T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast, from 139 VS patients, were examined. The retest errors, in terms of relative percentages, were determined by undertaking repeated measurements on 63 scans for each method. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the agreement between each of the approximation methods and the reference method. The tendency for approximation methods to systematically overestimate/underestimate different-sized tumours was also assessed, with the help of Bland-Altman plots. The most commonly used approximation method, the maximum diameter, was the least reliable measurement method and has inherent weaknesses that need to be considered. This includes greater retest errors than area-based measurements (25% and 15%, respectively), and that it was the only approximation method that could not easily be converted into volumetric units. Area-based measurements can furthermore be more reliable for smaller volume differences than diameter-based measurements. All our findings suggest that the maximum diameter should not be used as an approximation method. We propose the use of measurement modalities that take into account growth in multiple dimensions instead.

  2. Immunotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles with different size and electrostatic charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheol-Su Kim,1,* Hai-Duong Nguyen,1,* Rosa Mistica Ignacio,2 Jae-Hyun Kim,1 Hyeon-Cheol Cho,1 Eun Ho Maeng,3 Yu-Ri Kim,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Bae-Keun Park,5 Soo-Ki Kim1,5 1Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea; 3Healthcare Laboratory, Medical Device Evaluation Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School and College, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: While zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been recognized to have promising applications in biomedicine, their immunotoxicity has been inconsistent and even contradictory. To address this issue, we investigated whether ZnO NPs with different size (20 or 100 nm and electrostatic charge (positive or negative would cause immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and explored their underlying molecular mechanism. Using Raw 264.7 cell line, we examined the immunotoxicity mechanism of ZnO NPs as cell viability. We found that in a cell viability assay, ZnO NPs with different size and charge could induce differential cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. Specifically, the positively charged ZnO NPs exerted higher cytotoxicity than the negatively charged ones. Next, to gauge systemic immunotoxicity, we assessed immune responses of C57BL/6 mice after oral administration of 750 mg/kg/day dose of ZnO NPs for 2 weeks. In parallel, ZnO NPs did not alter the cell-mediated immune response in mice but suppressed innate immunity such as natural killer cell activity. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio, a marker for matured T-cells was slightly

  3. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  4. Different sizes, similar challenges: Out of home care for youth in Germany and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek T. Harder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large difference in the number of young inhabitants in the Netherlands and Germany, their child protection frameworks are quite similar. In both countries, child protection services are mainlyfocused on youth aged 0 to 18 and regulations are aimed at clients' responsibility and their active involvement during care. Youth care services consist of community-based services, day treatment and outof-home care services, which include foster care and residential care. The history of out-of-home care services in both countries is characterized by similar developments. Over the last four decades, similar trends in residential care, towards more small-scale forms of residential care, smaller residential group sizes, and increasing professionalization of staff have emerged. Over the last two decades, a comparable trend towards increasing professionalization can be seen in the context of foster care in both countries. In addition, the number of youths in out-of-home care increased in both countries over the last decade, specifically in foster care. Over the last decade, more studies have been conducted in residential care than in foster care in both countries. Despite similar trends and developments in out-of-home care practice, research mainly shows differences in applied topics and methods between Germany and the Netherlands.

  5. PCE and BNS admixture adsorption in sands with different composition and particle size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.M.; Martínez-Gaitero, R.; Gismera-Diez, S.; Puertas, F.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of a superplasticiser (SP) for concrete is of great complexity, as it is well known that properties of the end product are related to admixture and its compatibility with concrete components. Very few studies have been conducted on the compatibility between SPs and the sand of mortars and concretes, however. Practical experience has shown that sand fineness and mineralogical composition affect water demand and admixture consumption. Clay-containing sand has been found also to adsorb SPs, reducing the amount available in solution for adsorption by the cement. This study analysed the isotherms for PCE and BNS superplasticiser adsorption on four sands with different fineness and compositions commonly used to prepare mortars and concretes. BNS-based SP did not adsorb on sands, while PCE-based admixtures exhibited variable adsorption depending on different factors. The adsorption curves obtained revealed that the higher the sand fineness, the finer the particle size distribution and the higher the clay material, the greater was PCE admixture adsorption/ consumption. [es

  6. PCE and BNS admixture adsorption in sands with different composition and particle size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Alonso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a superplasticiser (SP for concrete is of great complexity, as it is well known that properties of the end product are related to admixture and its compatibility with concrete components. Very few studies have been conducted on the compatibility between SPs and the sand of mortars and concretes, however. Practical experience has shown that sand fineness and mineralogical composition affect water demand and admixture consumption. Clay-containing sand has been found also to adsorb SPs, reducing the amount available in solution for adsorption by the cement. This study analysed the isotherms for PCE and BNS superplasticiser adsorption on four sands with different fineness and compositions commonly used to prepare mortars and concretes. BNS-based SP did not adsorb on sands, while PCE-based admixtures exhibited variable adsorption depending on different factors. The adsorption curves obtained revealed that the higher the sand fineness, the finer the particle size distribution and the higher the clay material, the greater was PCE admixture adsorption/ consumption.

  7. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in Breast Cancer Patients with Different Tumor size: In vitro and In vivo Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Habit, O.H.

    2003-01-01

    Chromosomal radiosensitivity of normal tissues from breast cancer patients has been used for detection of cancer prone individuals. Interindividual variation among breast cancer patients and cancer-prone individuals is, however, not satisfactorily explained. In this study the type of tumor and its degree of progression is addressed to find out its effect on the variability produced. Three groups of breast cancer patients with different tumor sizes; I, II and III were used in this investigation. The first group of 12 patients with tumor grade I, the second group comprised 15 patients of tumor grade II and a third group of 13 patients of tumor grade III. A fourth control group of 14 normal healthy individuals of the same age group were also used. Blood samples were withdrawn before starting radiotherapy treatment. In vitro irradiation of blood with 2.0, 4.0 or 6.0 Gy, and blood culture was set up at 37 0C for 54 hr. Different types of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, rings, breaks, fragments and gaps) were scored. Another set of irradiated cultures were set up for assay of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes treated with cytochalasin B. Blood samples were also obtained from breast cancer patients 24 hr

  8. Characterization of Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors to Detect Cations of Different Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Contat-Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel screen-printing fabrication method was used to prepare organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene doped with polysterene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. Initially, three types of these screen-printed OECTs with a different channel and gate areas ratio were compared in terms of output characteristics, transfer characteristics, and current modulation in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. Results confirm that transistors with a gate electrode larger than the channel exhibit higher modulation. OECTs with this geometry were therefore chosen to investigate their ion-sensitive properties in aqueous solutions of cations of different sizes (sodium and rhodamine B. The effect of the gate electrode was additionally studied by comparing these all-PEDOT:PSS transistors with OECTs with the same geometry but with a non-polarizable metal gate (Ag. The operation of the all-PEDOT:PSS OECTs yields a response that is not dependent on a Na+ or rhodamine concentration. The weak modulation of these transistors can be explained assuming that PEDOT:PSS behaves like a supercapacitor. In contrast, the operation of Ag-Gate OECTs yields a response that is dependent on ion concentration due to the redox reaction taking place at the gate electrode with Cl− counter-ions. This indicates that, for cation detection, the response is maximized in OECTs with non-polarizable gate electrodes.

  9. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  10. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01 and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06, men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03, with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations (p = 0.07, with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  11. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Alexandra; Corneau, Louise; Lamarche, Benoît; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-05-15

    Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24-53 years) with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4-4.9 mmol/L) or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255-260 Å) (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01) and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å) (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06), men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  12. Size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochar from different plant type of feedstock with different heating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guan-Yang; Ikeya, Kosuke; Watanabe, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Biochar application to soil is a strategy to decelerate the increase in the atmospheric carbon concentration. The composition of condensed aromatic clusters appears to be an important determinant of the degradation rate of char in soil. The objective of the present study was to determine the size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochars produced from different types of feedstock (a broadleaf and a coniferous tree and two herbs) using different heating treatment temperatures (HTT; 400 °C-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction 11 band profile analysis. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance with the phase-adjusted spinning side bands of the chars indicated different spectral features depending on the HTT and similar carbon composition among the plant types at each HTT. Both the content and composition of carbon layer planes in biochar produced using the same HTT were also similar among the plant types. The carbon layer plane size in the 400 °C and 600 °C chars was distributed from 0.24 to 1.68 or 1.92 nm (corresponding to 37 or 52 rings) with the mean size of 0.79-0.92 and 0.80-1.14 nm, respectively. The carbon layer planes in the 800 °C chars ranged from 0.72-0.96 nm (7-14 rings) to 2.64-3.60 nm (91-169 rings) and the mean values were 1.47-1.89 nm. The relative carbon layer plane content in the 600 °C and 800 °C chars was typically 2 and 3 times that in the 400 °C chars. These results indicate the progression of the formation and/or the size development of graphite-like structures, suggesting that a char produced at a higher HTT would have better carbon sequestrating characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical Response of CeB_6 Nanoparticles with Different Sizes and Shapes from Discrete-Dipole Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Luo-Meng; Bao Li-Hong; Tegus, O.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete dipole approximation is used to investigate the optical response of CeB_6 nanoparticles with different sizes and different shapes. The extinction valley in the visible light range becomes narrower and the extinction peak at the near infrared region (NIR) is red-shifted with the increasing particle size. In addition, the extinction peak value of the spherical particle decreases more rapidly than that of cubic-shaped particle with an increase in the particle size, and the cubic-shaped particles exhibit better performance on blocking NIR radiation than spherical-shaped particles. The calculation results coincide well with the reported experimental results. (paper)

  14. Shape differences rather than size differences between castes in the Neotropical swarm-founding wasp Metapolybia docilis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Fernando B

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarm-founding epiponine wasps are an intriguing group of social insects in which colonies are polygynic (several queens share reproduction and differentiation between castes is often not obvious. However, caste differences in some may be more pronounced in later phases of the colony cycle. Results Using morphometric analyses and multivariate statistics, it was found that caste differences in Metapolybia docilis are slight but more distinct in latter stages of the colony cycle. Conclusions Because differences in body parts are so slight, it is proposed that such variation may be due to differential growth rates of body parts rather than to queens being larger in size, similar to other previously observed epiponines.

  15. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Liu, Fulai

    2014-09-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg(-1) soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) under P0. Midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) was similar for DI and PRD, which was significantly lower than that of FI. Leaf contents of C, N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in PRD than in DI plants, particularly under P0. When analyzed across the three irrigation regimes, it was found that the P1 plants had significantly higher leaf contents of P and Mg, but significantly lower leaf K content compared to the P0 plants. Linear correlation analyses revealed that SS was positively correlated with Ψleaf and Δ(13)C; whereas SD was negatively correlated with Ψleaf, Δ(13)C and SLA, and positively correlated with leaf C, N and Ca contents. And gs was positively correlated with SS but negatively correlated with SD. Collectively, under low P level, the smaller and denser stomata in PRD plants may bring about a more efficient stomatal control over gas exchange, hereby potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf Δ(13)C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Aneuploidogenic effects and DNA oxidation induced in vitro by differently sized gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bucchianico S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Di Bucchianico,1 Maria Rita Fabbrizi,1 Silvia Cirillo,1 Chiara Uboldi,1 Douglas Gilliland,2 Eugenia Valsami-Jones,3,4 Lucia Migliore11Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Medical Genetics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, NanoBioSciences Unit, Ispra, Italy; 3School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK; 4Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UKAbstract: Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are used in many fields, including biomedical applications; however, no conclusive information on their potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mechanisms is available. For this reason, experiments in human primary lymphocytes and murine macrophages (Raw264.7 were performed exposing cells to spherical citrate-capped Au NPs with two different nominal diameters (5 nm and 15 nm. The proliferative activity, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic markers, as well as chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with human and murine pancentromeric probes was applied to distinguish between clastogenic and aneuploidogenic effects. Our results indicate that 5 nm and 15 nm Au NPs are able to inhibit cell proliferation by apoptosis and to induce chromosomal damage, in particular chromosome mis-segregation. DNA strand breaks were detected by comet assay, and the modified protocol using endonuclease-III and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase restriction enzymes showed that pyrimidines and purines were oxidatively damaged by Au NPs. Moreover, we show a size-independent correlation between the cytotoxicity of Au NPs and their tested mass concentration or absolute number, and genotoxic effects which were more severe for Au NP 15 nm compared to Au NP 5 nm. Results indicate that

  17. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  18. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  19. Experimental determination of the energy difference between competing isomers of deposited, size-selected gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Ferrando, R; Palmer, R E

    2018-04-03

    The equilibrium structures and dynamics of a nanoscale system are regulated by a complex potential energy surface (PES). This is a key target of theoretical calculations but experimentally elusive. We report the measurement of a key PES parameter for a model nanosystem: size-selected Au nanoclusters, soft-landed on amorphous silicon nitride supports. We obtain the energy difference between the most abundant structural isomers of magic number Au 561 clusters, the decahedron and face-centred-cubic (fcc) structures, from the equilibrium proportions of the isomers. These are measured by atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, with an ultra-stable heating stage, as a function of temperature (125-500 °C). At lower temperatures (20-125 °C) the behaviour is kinetic, exhibiting down conversion of metastable decahedra into fcc structures; the higher state is repopulated at higher temperatures in equilibrium. We find the decahedron is 0.040 ± 0.020 eV higher in energy than the fcc isomer, providing a benchmark for the theoretical treatment of nanoparticles.

  20. Occupational exposures during abdominal fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures for different patient sizes - A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, William S; Belinato, Walmir; Perini, Ana P; Caldas, Linda V E; Galeano, Diego C; Santos, Carla J; Neves, Lucio P

    2018-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the occupational exposures during an abdominal fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology procedure. We investigated the relation between the Body Mass Index (BMI), of the patient, and the conversion coefficient values (CC) for a set of dosimetric quantities, used to assess the exposure risks of medical radiation workers. The study was performed using a set of male and female virtual anthropomorphic phantoms, of different body weights and sizes. In addition to these phantoms, a female and a male phantom, named FASH3 and MASH3 (reference virtual anthropomorphic phantoms), were also used to represent the medical radiation workers. The CC values, obtained as a function of the dose area product, were calculated for 87 exposure scenarios. In each exposure scenario, three phantoms, implemented in the MCNPX 2.7.0 code, were simultaneously used. These phantoms were utilized to represent a patient and medical radiation workers. The results showed that increasing the BMI of the patient, adjusted for each patient protocol, the CC values for medical radiation workers decrease. It is important to note that these results were obtained with fixed exposure parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pecan growth under different soil preparation and hole sizes: coleopterans as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different soil preparation and hole sizes in an orchard of Carya illinoinensis pecan (Wangenh. K. Koch (Juglandaceae by the Order Coleoptera fauna. A pecan orchard was established in spacing 7 m x 7 m, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil in randomized block design, with five blocks and four treatments, using: small pit 20 m x 60 cm (Cp; more harrowing subsoiler and small pit (Scp; rotary hoe and small pit (Ecp; and large pit 40 m x 60 cm (Cg. From March 2014 to November 2015, eight samples were taken from Coleoptera fauna, one per season, with four pitfall traps distributed in each treatment and the surrounding area, totaling 100 samples per collection. The Ecp treatment had the lowest diversity values and evenness for Coleoptera fauna, while the Cp and Cg treatments presented the highest indices. The species Diloboderus abderus (Sturm was as very common. It was concluded that Cg treatment does not interfere with coleopteran and promotes the highest growth in diameter of pecan plants.

  2. Probing Zeolite Crystal Architecture and Structural Imperfections using Differently Sized Fluorescent Organic Probe Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Frank C; Schmidt, Joel E; Rombouts, Jeroen A; Lammertsma, Koop; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-05-05

    A micro-spectroscopic method has been developed to probe the accessibility of zeolite crystals using a series of fluorescent 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DAMPI) probes of increasing molecular size. Staining large zeolite crystals with MFI (ZSM-5) topology and subsequent mapping of the resulting fluorescence using confocal fluorescence microscopy reveal differences in structural integrity: the 90° intergrowth sections of MFI crystals are prone to develop structural imperfections, which act as entrance routes for the probes into the zeolite crystal. Polarization-dependent measurements provide evidence for the probe molecule's alignment within the MFI zeolite pore system. The developed method was extended to BEA (Beta) crystals, showing that the previously observed hourglass pattern is a general feature of BEA crystals with this morphology. Furthermore, the probes can accurately identify at which crystal faces of BEA straight or sinusoidal pores open to the surface. The results show this method can spatially resolve the architecture-dependent internal pore structure of microporous materials, which is difficult to assess using other characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. RESEARCH OF THE FOUNDATION CONSOLIDATED BY DIFFERENT-SIZED HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isakova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of geotechnics. The problems of the weak soil base are topical. Also there sometimes happen severe accidents of soil mass. A great number of such emergencies is of a progressive character, when a local crash leads to the crash of the whole construction. Tarring the soil with epoxy can ensure geotechnical safety of the basis. That’s why the improvement of this method is needed in order to reduce yielding of the base, create ground water cutoff or create building hoisting. In the article new structural solutions for reduction of settlement are presented. The authors suggest using the manufactured plane elements containing epoxy. Such elements have different sizes and lie underneath the foundation. Similar structural scheme can be used to reduce soil settlement. The authors carried out two series of plate-bearing model tests with manufactured plane epoxy elements. In the first series of tests the biggest element was closer to the foundation, the smallest element was closer to the biggest element. In the second series of tests the smallest element was closer to the foundation, the biggest element was closer to the smallest element. After the end of plate-bearing model tests the authors received values of the base settlement and the dependency diagrams “base settlement-soil pressure”. The new structural solution for reducing soil settlement proved to be effective. Settlement of base decreased sevenfold.

  4. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  5. The effects of fluvial transport on radionuclide concentrations on different particle size classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.J.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of grain abrasion and disaggregation on the distribution of 137 Cs with respect to particle size and the effects this may have on the use of 137 Cs for determining the origin of recent sediment. Cs-137 is a product of above ground nuclear testing and has been deposited on the earth's surface by rainfall. On contact with soil, 137 Cs is strongly adsorbed by soil particles and there is a direct correlation between 137 Cs concentration and decreasing particle size. Rapid adsorption means that 137 Cs is preferentially concentrated in surface soils, and it's subsequent redistribution by physical processes rather than chemical has lead to 137 Cs being widely used to study soil erosion

  6. Size effects in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrii, Oleg A; Tsirlina, Galina A

    2001-01-01

    General characteristics of size-dependent phenomena in electrochemical systems are given. Primary attention is paid to methodical achievements of nanoelectrochemistry, which is a line of research created over the last 15 years. The development of the main concepts of electrochemistry initiated by the stream of nanoscopic information is considered. The prospects for local studies of processes on charged interfaces, elementary steps of these processes and application of nanoelectrodes and related systems in interdisciplinary fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 198 references.

  7. EXPRESSION OF ANTIVIRAL GENE ON TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon AT DIFFERENT TISSUE AND BODY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tiger shrimp defense against invading pathogen on molecular level such antiviral gene expression is limited to be reported. Gene expression is a process which codes information of genes that is converted to the protein as a phenotype. Distribution of PmAV antivirus gene, that has been reported as an important gene on non-specific response immune, is needed to be observed to several organs/tissues and size of tiger shrimp. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of gene antiviral expression at several organ/tissue and size of shrimp. The organs/tissues observed in this study were: gill, hepatopancres, muscle tissue, eyes, heart, stomach, gonad, and intestine. While the size of shrimp consisted of three groups, those are: (A 10-20 g/ind., (B 30-40 g/ind., and (C 60-70 g/ind. Analysis of antiviral gene expression was performed by RNA extraction, followed by the cDNA syntesis, and amplification of gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR. The result of PCR optimation showed the optimal concentration of cDNA and primer was 1 μL and 50 mol, respectively for PCR final volume of 25 μL. Antiviral gene was expressed on the hepatopancreas and stomach in percentage of 50.0% and 16.7%, respectively. While the highest percentage of individual expressing the antiviral gene was observed in the shrimp size of C (66.7%, followed by B (50.0% and A (16.7%. The result of study implied that the hepatopancreas has importantly involed in tiger shrimp defense mechanism on viral infection.

  8. Study of radiation dose reduction of buildings of different sizes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of radiation dose reduction on the sizes and materials of buildings was studied by numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo simulation code, PHITS. The dose rates inside the buildings were calculated by simulating gamma-ray transport from radioactive cesium deposited at the ground surface. Three building models were developed: the wooden house, the open-space concrete building, and the thin-wall building, to study the effect of building size and construction material on dose reduction inside these structures. Here the floor-area sizes of the building models were varied to clarify the influence of building configuration on dose reduction. The results demonstrated that the dose rates inside the buildings linearly decreased with increasing floor area on a logarithmic scale for all types of buildings considered. The calculated dose distribution inside a building indicated that the distance from the outer walls was a determining factor for the dose rate at each position in the building. The obtained tendency was verified by comparison with data reflecting the dose reduction of typical buildings in Japan. (author)

  9. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  10. In-the-bag IOL stability of super high myopic eyes with different size of capculorhexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the in-the-bag IOL stability of different size of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis(CCCin super high myopic eyes with cataract underwent phacoemulsification.METHODS: A total of fourteen cataract patients with bilateral super high myopia were included,Phaco+IOL implantation were performed on both eyes, one eye was randomly classified into 5mm diameter CCC observation group, the fellow eye was 6mm diameter CCC observation group. Cataract extraction combined with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation(IOLwith the type of hydrophilic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens(MCX11by well experienced surgeon. The operation was running smoothly, the next day after operation, all patients were confirmed by Image-pro plus6.0 image analysis software for the measurement of main meridian sac diameter with target capsulorhexis diameter no more than ±0.2mm. Slit lamp examination of IOL shape and position, changes of anterior capculorhexis edge, refraction, anterior chamber depth was measured and observed of all eyes after operation 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo.RESULTS: Compared with postoperation 1wk, the former sac diameter of two groups were slightly smaller at postoperation 1mo, with no statistically significant difference between two groups. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had slightly hyperopic shift in follow-up 1-3mo, 6mm diameter CCC observation group had hyperopic shift in follow-up 1mo, and getting stable after 1mo. Refraction change was related to anterior chamber depth changes. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had 3 minor loop folding in follw-up 3mo.CONCLUSION: Relatively smaller continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in super high myopic eyes underwent cataract surgery may cause a tendency of uneven construction or effective lens position change of in-the-bag IOL. Unusual refraction change or shift after operation 1mo could suggest instability of IOL, early noticing or interruption could prevent further complications.

  11. Telerobotics for dry size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr; La Valle, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear Environmental Management (EM) programs is likely to emphasize small batch sizes in unstructured environments. Most existing robotic solutions are impractical due to cost, complexity, or reliability issues. New processes that are environmentally safe are too demanding for human operators, and require precise motion control making traditional electromechanical, hydraulic, and master/slave manipulators unacceptable. The critical missing element is a method to bridge the gap between manual operation and full automation. Rapid advances in computer technology, coupled with national laboratory research activities, has challenged PaR Systems to develop a new line of telerobotics, exploiting this technology, to enhance EM processes. Telerobotics systems permit the human operator to direct and supervise the operation of a remote robotic mechanism. The typical robotic device responds to human inputs and transfers human motion into robot motion. However, unlike teleoperation, the robotic system not only incorporates local decision making authority but can enhance input devices by; producing motion in multiple coordinate frames (e.g., base, tool, joint), automating repetitive motions, responding to real-time sensory input, and facilitating a virtual collaborative environment. The basic premise is to augment, not replace, the human operator and blend the individual abilities of each system. Humans have superior cognitive and pattern recognitive skills, while the robot is a tireless precise positioning device. To provide insight into why telerobotics is crucial to EM, this paper highlights a proposed telerobotic system for the Dry Size Reduction of contaminated components. Different design concepts, robotic control features, and networking for remote operation needed are discussed. (author)

  12. Pitch size and Game Surface in Different Small-Sided Games. Global Indicators, Activity Profile and Acceleration of Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Jorge; Gallardo, Leonor; Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Villacañas, Victor; García-Unanue, Jorge; Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier

    2017-06-22

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of game surface and pitch size on the movement profile in female soccer players during Small-Sided-Games (SSGs) of 4 v 4. 16 women played three different 4-a-side (400 m, 600 m and 800 m) on three surfaces (ground [GR], artificial turf [AT] and natural grass [NG]). Time-motion variables were assessed through GPS devices (Spi Pro X, GPSports, Australia). GR had the worst outputs on most variables. NG achieved higher results than AT in terms of total distance [SSG 400 (+37.000 m; p=0.006); SSG 600 (+59.989 m; pwomen's performance being higher on AT than GR, the NG surface still showed the highest outcomes in the most intense SSG. Moreover, although the performance increase in bigger pitches, if the size is too large the outputs could be reduced.

  13. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of different pack sizes of paracetamol in the United Kingdom and Ireland on intentional overdoses: a comparative study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawton, Keith

    2011-06-10

    Abstract Background In order to reduce fatal self-poisoning legislation was introduced in the UK in 1998 to restrict pack sizes of paracetamol sold in pharmacies (maximum 32 tablets) and non-pharmacy outlets (maximum 16 tablets), and in Ireland in 2001, but with smaller maximum pack sizes (24 and 12 tablets). Our aim was to determine whether this resulted in smaller overdoses of paracetamol in Ireland compared with the UK. Methods We used data on general hospital presentations for non-fatal self-harm for 2002 - 2007 from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England (six hospitals), and from the National Registry of Deliberate Self-harm in Ireland. We compared sizes of overdoses of paracetamol in the two settings. Results There were clear peaks in numbers of non-fatal overdoses, associated with maximum pack sizes of paracetamol in pharmacy and non-pharmacy outlets in both England and Ireland. Significantly more pack equivalents (based on maximum non-pharmacy pack sizes) were used in overdoses in Ireland (mean 2.63, 95% CI 2.57-2.69) compared with England (2.07, 95% CI 2.03-2.10). The overall size of overdoses did not differ significantly between England (median 22, interquartile range (IQR) 15-32) and Ireland (median 24, IQR 12-36). Conclusions The difference in paracetamol pack size legislation between England and Ireland does not appear to have resulted in a major difference in sizes of overdoses. This is because more pack equivalents are taken in overdoses in Ireland, possibly reflecting differing enforcement of sales advice. Differences in access to clinical services may also be relevant.

  15. Mice divergently selected for high and low basal metabolic rates evolved different cell size and organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  17. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  18. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, J.; Czarnołęski, M.; François-Krassowska, A.; Maciak, S.; Pis, T.

    2010-01-01

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes...

  19. Effect of nano size 3% wt TaC particles dispersion in two different metallic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, L.A.; Souza, C.P.; Menezes, R.C.; Furukava, M.; Torres, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the characteristics of two different metallic matrixes composites, ferritic and austenitic steels, reinforced with 3% wt nano size tantalum carbide by powder metallurgy. The starting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the nano sized carbide dispersion on the matrix microstructures and its consequences on the mechanical properties were identified. The preliminary results showed that the sintering were influenced by morphology and the distribution of carbide and the alloys. (author)

  20. Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Vondran, Sarah; Venner, Monica; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses....

  1. Structure and magnetism of SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling with different ball sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Junwu; Han, Xianghua; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Zhaohui; Yan, Aru; Li, Wei; Ping Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes have been fabricated by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) using hardened steel balls of one of the following sizes: 4, 6.5, 9.5 and 12.7 mm in diameters. The magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles prepared by SABM with different milling ball sizes in diameters were investigated systematically. It was showed that the nanoflakes milled by amount of small size balls had a higher coercivity and lower anisotropy, i.e., worse grain orientation although in a short milling time while the nanoflakes prepared with same weight of big balls tend to have a lower coercivity, better grain orientation. The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning. The SEM analysis shows that the morphology of nanoflakes prepared with different ball sizes are almost the same when the balls to powder weight ratio is fixed. The different magnetic properties caused by different ball sizes are mainly due to the different microstructure changes, i.e, grain refinement and c-axis orientation, which are demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Based on the experiments above, a combined milling process was suggested and done to improve magnetic properties as your need. - Highlights: • We fabricated anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). • We investigated the magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles systematically. It was showed that the coercivity, high or low, and grain orientation, good or bad, were influenced strongly by balls size. The different magnetisms caused by different ball sizes is mainly due to the different microstructure changes. • The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning

  2. Circulating omentin-1 might be associated with metabolic health status in different phenotypes of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shahab; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Mohammadi, Chonur; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Maghbooli, Zhila

    2017-12-01

    Adipokines are mediators of body composition and are involved in obesity complications. This study aimed to assess the association of circulating omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 with body composition indices and metabolic health status (MHS) in different phenotypes of body size. A total of 350 subjects were included in the current cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured using a body composition analyzer, and serum concentrations of omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 were assessed by ELISA kits. Circulating omentin-1 was significantly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.01) and marginally (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.00-1.75, P = 0.06) associated with MHS in the overweight and obese subjects, respectively. But no association was seen between omentin-1 and MHS in normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of vaspin and RBP-4 were not correlated with MHS. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between circulating omentin-1 and body mass index (BMI) as well as fat percentage (P = 0.02) in the MHS group. Serum vaspin concentrations were not related to body composition components in both groups. In addition, in the MHS group, circulating RBP-4 was positively correlated with fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (p body water (TBW) (p < 0.0001). In contrast, in the metabolically unhealthy group, RBP-4 was negatively correlated with fat percentage, FM, and BMI (p < 0.0001) and was positively correlated with FFM and TBW (p < 0.0001). This study showed that circulating levels of omentin-1 are useful predictors of metabolic health status in overweight and obese people.

  3. Synthesis of nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders through solution combustion route under different reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samir Kumar; Roy, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAp) was synthesized by combustion in the aqueous system containing calcium nitrate-diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate with urea and glycine as fuels. These ceramics are important materials for biomedical applications. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis were employed to understand the nature of synthesis process during combustion. Effects of different process parameters namely, nature of fuel (urea and glycine), fuel to oxidizer ratio (0.6-4.0) and initial furnace temperature (300-700 o C) on the combustion behavior as well as physical properties of as-formed powders were investigated. A series of combustion reactions were carried out to optimize the reaction parameters for synthesis of nano-sized HAp powders. The combustion temperature (T f ) for the oxidant and fuels were calculated to be 896 deg. C and 1035 deg. C for the stoichiometric system of urea and glycine respectively. The stoichiometric glycine-calcium nitrate produced higher flame temperature (both calculated and measured) and powder with lower specific surface area (8.75 m 2 /g) compared to the stoichiometric urea-calcium nitrate system (10.50 m 2 /g). Fuel excess combustion in both glycine and urea produced powders with higher surface area. Nanocrystalline HAp powder could be synthesized in situ with a large span of fuel to oxidizer ratio (φ) in case of urea system (0.8 < φ < 4) and (0.6 < φ < 1.5) for the glycine system. Calcium hydroxyapatite particles having diameters ranging between 20 nm and 120 nm could be successfully synthesized through optimized process variable.

  4. Differences in muscle fiber size and associated energetic costs in phylogenetically paired tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and temperate birds provide a unique system to examine mechanistic consequences of life-history trade-offs at opposing ends of the pace-of-life spectrum; tropical birds tend to have a slow pace of life whereas temperate birds the opposite. Birds in the tropics have a lower whole-animal basal metabolic rate and peak metabolic rate, lower rates of reproduction, and longer survival than birds in temperate regions. Although skeletal muscle has a relatively low tissue-specific metabolism at rest, it makes up the largest fraction of body mass and therefore contributes more to basal metabolism than any other tissue. A principal property of muscle cells that influences their rate of metabolism is fiber size. The optimal fiber size hypothesis attempts to link whole-animal basal metabolic rate to the cost of maintaining muscle mass by stating that larger fibers may be metabolically cheaper to maintain since the surface area∶volume ratio (SA∶V) is reduced compared with smaller fibers and thus the amount of area to transport ions is also reduced. Because tropical birds have a reduced whole-organism metabolism, we hypothesized that they would have larger muscle fibers than temperate birds, given that larger muscle fibers have reduced energy demand from membrane Na(+)-K(+) pumps. Alternatively, smaller muscle fibers could result in a lower capacity for shivering and exercise. To test this idea, we examined muscle fiber size and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in 16 phylogenetically paired species of tropical and temperate birds. We found that 3 of the 16 paired comparisons indicated that tropical birds had significantly larger fibers, contrary to our hypothesis. Our data show that SA∶V is proportional to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in muscles of birds.

  5. Comparison of different methods to retrieve optical-equivalent snow grain size in central Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Carlsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical-equivalent snow grain size affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and, thus, the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. Therefore, the specific surface area (SSA, from which the optical snow grain size is derived, was observed for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (Kohnen research station during austral summer 2013/14. The data were retrieved on the basis of ground-based spectral surface albedo measurements collected by the COmpact RAdiation measurement System (CORAS and airborne observations with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART. The snow grain size and pollution amount (SGSP algorithm, originally developed to analyze spaceborne reflectance measurements by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, was modified in order to reduce the impact of the solar zenith angle on the retrieval results and to cover measurements in overcast conditions. Spectral ratios of surface albedo at 1280 and 1100 nm wavelength were used to reduce the retrieval uncertainty. The retrieval was applied to the ground-based and airborne observations and validated against optical in situ observations of SSA utilizing an IceCube device. The SSA retrieved from CORAS observations varied between 27 and 89 m2 kg−1. Snowfall events caused distinct relative maxima of the SSA which were followed by a gradual decrease in SSA due to snow metamorphism and wind-induced transport of freshly fallen ice crystals. The ability of the modified algorithm to include measurements in overcast conditions improved the data coverage, in particular at times when precipitation events occurred and the SSA changed quickly. SSA retrieved from measurements with CORAS and MODIS agree with the in situ observations within the ranges given by the measurement uncertainties. However, SSA retrieved from the airborne SMART data slightly underestimated the ground-based results.

  6. Comparison of different methods to retrieve optical-equivalent snow grain size in central Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Tim; Birnbaum, Gerit; Ehrlich, André; Freitag, Johannes; Heygster, Georg; Istomina, Larysa; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Orsi, Anaïs; Schäfer, Michael; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-11-01

    The optical-equivalent snow grain size affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and, thus, the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. Therefore, the specific surface area (SSA), from which the optical snow grain size is derived, was observed for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (Kohnen research station) during austral summer 2013/14. The data were retrieved on the basis of ground-based spectral surface albedo measurements collected by the COmpact RAdiation measurement System (CORAS) and airborne observations with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART). The snow grain size and pollution amount (SGSP) algorithm, originally developed to analyze spaceborne reflectance measurements by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), was modified in order to reduce the impact of the solar zenith angle on the retrieval results and to cover measurements in overcast conditions. Spectral ratios of surface albedo at 1280 and 1100 nm wavelength were used to reduce the retrieval uncertainty. The retrieval was applied to the ground-based and airborne observations and validated against optical in situ observations of SSA utilizing an IceCube device. The SSA retrieved from CORAS observations varied between 27 and 89 m2 kg-1. Snowfall events caused distinct relative maxima of the SSA which were followed by a gradual decrease in SSA due to snow metamorphism and wind-induced transport of freshly fallen ice crystals. The ability of the modified algorithm to include measurements in overcast conditions improved the data coverage, in particular at times when precipitation events occurred and the SSA changed quickly. SSA retrieved from measurements with CORAS and MODIS agree with the in situ observations within the ranges given by the measurement uncertainties. However, SSA retrieved from the airborne SMART data slightly underestimated the ground-based results.

  7. Differences in particle size distributions collected by two wood dust samplers: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campopiano, A.; Olori, A.; Basili, F.; Ramires, D.; Zakrzewska, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of wood dust as carcinogenic to humans, and the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m 3 weighted over an 8-hour work day as defined by Italian legislation, have raised the issue of dust risk assessments in all woodworking environments. The aim is to characterize the particle size distribution for wood particles collected by two samplers used for collecting the inhalable fraction: the IOM sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, Scotland) and the conical sampler also known in Italy as conetto. These two sampling heads were chosen mainly because the Italian conical sampler, used in the past for total dust sampling, is the most widely used by the Italian Prevention Services and analysis laboratories in general, whereas the IOM sampler was specifically designed to collect the inhalable fraction of airborne particles. The devices were placed side by side within the worker's breathing zone. In addition, another IOM sampler not connected to the personal sampling pump was placed on the same worker, thus functioning as a passive sampler capable of collecting projectile particles normally produced during processing. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDAX) was used to count the number of particles collected on the sampling filters. The size of each particle identified by the SEM was determined by measuring its mean diameter. The SEM analysis revealed that the average size of the largest particles collected by the conetto sampler did not exceed 150 μm, whereas the size of particles collected by the IOM sampler was up to 350 μm. Indeed, the analysis of the filters of the passive IOM samplers showed that particles with mean diameters larger than 100 μm were collected, although the calculated percentage was very low (on average, approximately 1%). This does not mean that their gravimetric contribution is negligible; indeed, the weight of

  8. Anemia and Iron Status Among Different Body Size Phenotypes in Chinese Adult Population: a Nation-Wide, Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Xiao, Cheng; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Rui; Cao, Yongtong

    2017-12-09

    Previous studies have shown that there is a controversial relationship between iron homeostasis and obesity. This study aims to explore the relationship of anemia and iron status with different body size phenotypes in adult Chinese population. Using information on iron status-related parameters and lifestyle data from 8462 participants of the 2009 wave of China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 CHNS), we performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of anemia and iron parameters according to different body size phenotypes. Participants with higher body mass index (BMI) had a lower anemia prevalence with significant trends in both metabolic status groups (P different metabolic status groups and in different body size phenotypes, respectively. The ORs for higher ferritin and transferrin increased across different body size phenotypes in both genders, and for sTfR/log ferritin index decreased (P < 0.01 for trend). This association was still statistically significant after adjustment for multiple confounders. We found an inverse association of BMI levels with the prevalence of anemia and strong association of serum ferritin and transferrin with higher risk of obesity or overweight in both metabolic status groups.

  9. [Fractal features of soil particle size in the process of desertification in desert grassland of Ningxia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; An, Hui

    2017-10-01

    The variation of soil properties, the fractal dimension of soil particle size, and the relationships between fractal dimension of soil particle size and soil properties in the process of desertification in desert grassland of Ningxia were discussed. The results showed that the fractal dimension (D) at different desertification stages in desert grassland varied greatly, the value of D was between 1.69 and 2.62. Except for the 10-20 cm soil layer, the value of D gradually declined with increa sing desertification of desert grassland at 0-30 cm soil layer. In the process of desertification in de-sert grassland, the grassland had the highest values of D , the volume percentage of clay and silt, and the lowest values of the volume percentage of very fine sand and fine sand. However, the mobile dunes had the lowest value of D , the volume percentage of clay and silt, and the highest value of the volume percentage of very fine sand and fine sand. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil fractal dimension value and the volume percentage of soil particles 50 μm. The grain size of 50 μm was the critical value for deciding the relationship between the soil particle fractal dimension and the volume percentage. Soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased gradually with increasing desertification of desert grassland, but soil bulk density increased gradually. Qualitative change from fixed dunes to semi fixed dunes with the rapid decrease of the volume percentage of clay and silt, SOM, TN and the rapid increase of volume percentage of very fine sand and fine sand, soil bulk density. Fractal dimension was significantly correlated to SOM, TN and soil bulk density. Fractal dimension 2.58 was a critical value of fixed dunes and semi fixed dunes. So, the fractal dimension of 2.58 could be taken as the desertification indicator of desert grassland.

  10. Effects of different crumb rubber sizes on the flowability and compressive strength of hybrid fibre reinforced ECC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khed, Veerendrakumar C.; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Fadhil Nuruddin, Muhd

    2018-04-01

    The different sizes of crumb rubber have been used to investigate the effects on flowability and the compressive strength of the hybrid fibre reinforced engineered cementitious composite. Two sizes of crumb rubber 30 mesh and 1 to 3mm were used in partial replacement with the fine aggregate up to 60%. The experimental study was carried out through mathematical and statistical analysis by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Design Expert software. The response models have been developed and the results were validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was found that finer sized crumb rubber inclusion had produced better workability and higher compressive strength when compared to the larger size and it was concluded that crumb rubber has negative effect on compressive strength and positive effect on workability. The optimization results are found to an approximately good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of a stand-up type whole body counter using different sized BOMAB phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Minjung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Seyoung; Ha, Wiho; Lee, Seungsook; Park, Minjung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Kim, Kwangpyo

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to assess internal contamination level to determine the need for medical intervention. Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to measure incorporated radioactive materials inside the human body. Also, WBC is standard in vivo method and used for preparedness of response to radiological emergencies. To operate this equipment correctly, proper energy and efficiency calibrations must be performed. WBC is usually calibrated using a Bottle Manikin ABsorber (BOMAB) Phantom, which is the industrial standard. The problem occurs when the subjects to be measured have different physical characteristics (height or weight) from a phantom used in calibration. In radiation emergency situations, this problem is expected to worsen because there are special populations whose physical characteristics are different from reference male, for example children and women. The aim of this study is to resolve this problem by simulating counting efficiency of different sized BOMAB phantoms using Monte Carlo techniques. The counting efficiency response of the WBC has been modeled for different sized four BOMAB phantoms using MCNPX. The stand-up type WBC has different efficiency response on phantom size since this WBC has different geometry from other scanning-type or non-linear geometry WBC. In emergency monitoring situations, it is important to estimate activity of various sized persons. Therefore, it is necessary to apply appropriate counting efficiency according to person size. Further investigations are needed to optimize methodology for measuring small object in the stand-up type WBC

  13. Floc Size and Settling Velocity Observations From Three Contrastingly Different Natural Environments in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew; Schoellhamer, David; Mehta, Ashish; Nover, Daniel; Schladow, Geoffrey

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally, monitoring the movement of suspended cohesive sediments is highly desirable in both estuaries and lakes. When modelling cohesive sediment transport and mass settling fluxes, the settling speed of the suspended matter is a key parameter. In contrast to purely non-cohesive sandy sediments, mud can flocculate and this poses a serious complication to the modelling of sediment pathways. As flocs grow in size they become more porous and significantly less dense, but their settling speeds continue to rise due to a Stokes' Law relationship. Much research has been conducted on the flocculation characteristics of suspended muddy sediments in saline/brackish tidal conditions, where electrostatic particle bonding can occur. However very little is known about freshwater floc dynamics. This is primarily due to flocs being extremely delicate entities and are thus very difficult to observe in situ. This paper primarily describes a recently developed, portable, low intrusive instrument INSSEV_LF, which permits the direct, in situ measurement of both floc size (D) and settling velocity (Ws), simultaneously. Examples of floc spectra observed from three different environments within the USA are presented and compared. The first site was the turbidity maximum zone in San Francisco Bay, where the suspended solids concentration (SSC) was 170 mg.l-1 and many low density macroflocs up to 400 μm in diameter, settling at speeds of 4-8 mm.s-1 were observed. The second location was the shallow (1.7 m mean depth), freshwater environment of Lake Apopka in Florida. It is highly eutrophic, and demonstrates a turbid SSC of 750 mg.l-1 within a benthic suspension layer. These conditions resulted in D from 45 μm up to 1,875 μm; 80% of the floc were > 160 μm (i.e. macroflocs). Present theories for the settling of flocs rely on fractal theory of self-similarity, but this does not appear to be applicable to the Lake Apopka flocs because they do not possess any basic geometric unit

  14. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Study their Particle Size at Different Current Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzan A. Omar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by electrochemical reduction method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as structure directing agent in an organic medium viz. tetrahydrofuran (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density and molar concentration of the ligand. The reduction process takes place under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles are prepared by using a simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode as a commercially available in tin metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet act as a cathode. The parameters such as current density, solvent polarity, distance between electrodes and concentration of stabilizers are used to control the size of nanoparticles. The synthesized tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by using UV–Visible, FT-IR and SEM–EDS analysis techniques. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed the optical band gap to be 4.13, 4.16 and 4.24 ev for (8, 10 and 12 mA/cm2 and the effect of current density on theirs particle size, respectively.

  15. Characteristics of phosphorus adsorption by sediment mineral matrices with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particle size of sediment is one of the main factors that influence the phosphorus physical adsorption on sediment. In order to eliminate the effect of other components of sediment on the phosphorus physical adsorption the sediment mineral matrices were obtained by removing inorganic matter metal oxides, and organic matter from natural sediments, which were collected from the Nantong reach of the Yangtze River. The results show that an exponential relationship exists between the median particle size (D50 and specific surface area (Sg of the sediment mineral matrices, and the fine sediment mineral matrix sample has a larger specific surface area and pore volume than the coarse sediment particles. The kinetic equations were used to describe the phosphorus adsorption process of the sediment mineral matrices, including the Elovich equation, quasi-first-order adsorption kinetic equation, and quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation. The results show that the quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation has the best fitting effect. Using the mass conservation and Langmuir adsorption kinetic equations, a formula was deduced to calculate the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. The results of this study show that the phosphorus adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of D50, indicating that the specific surface area and pore volume are the main factors in determining the phosphorus adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. This study will help understand the important role of sediment in the transformation of phosphorus in aquatic environments.

  16. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao; Zhong Gaoren

    2012-01-01

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  17. Mesh-size errors in diffusion-theory calculations using finite-difference and finite-element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study has been performed of mesh-size errors in diffusion-theory calculations using finite-difference and finite-element methods. As the objective was to illuminate the issues, the study was performed for a 1D slab model of a reactor with one neutron-energy group for which analytical solutions were possible. A computer code SLAB was specially written to perform the finite-difference and finite-element calculations and also to obtain the analytical solutions. The standard finite-difference equations were obtained by starting with an expansion of the neutron current in powers of the mesh size, h, and keeping terms as far as h 2 . It was confirmed that these equations led to the well-known result that the criticality parameter varied with the square of the mesh size. An improved form of the finite-difference equations was obtained by continuing the expansion for the neutron current as far as the term in h 4 . In this case, the critical parameter varied as the fourth power of the mesh size. The finite-element solutions for 2 and 3 nodes per element revealed that the criticality parameter varied as the square and fourth power of the mesh size, respectively. Numerical results are presented for a bare reactive core of uniform composition with 2 zones of different uniform mesh and for a reactive core with an absorptive reflector. (author)

  18. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  19. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  20. Seedling performance within eight different seed-size alpine forbs under experimentation with irradiance and nutrient gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, W.; Jun, Z.Y.; Lin, W.G.; Jin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Relative performance of seedlings of species with different seed sizes may vary in response to resource availability, and may affect seedling growth. The objective was to test this hypothesis from alpine forbs species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We examined the relative growth rate, allocation and performances of eight native forbs species covering a wide range of seed size in response to four light and three nutrient regimes. Light availability had a significant effect on seedling emergence time, but not on other seedling morphological performances. Seedling emergence time and seed size were negatively correlated with each other for three species within Asteraceae family, i.e. heaviest seeds emerged earlier. Seed size, nutrient availability and their interaction affected most of studied morphological and growth traits of seedlings. Fertilisation modified the relationship between seed size and seedling biomass. Our study showed that seed size and nutrient availability had significant effects on seedling performance in alpine meadows. Seedlings from the larger-seed species presented stronger advantage in initial seedling mass and height under most of resources conditions. (author)

  1. Comparison of pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment with different leading follicular sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Bostancı, Esra Isci; Inal, Hasan Ali; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate (CC) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment with different leading follicular sizes. A total of 358 infertile women with PCOS who underwent 563 clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment cycles were included in this prospective study. Treatment cycles were divided into three groups according to leading follicular size on the day of hCG administration: Group I: follicular size 17-18 mm (n = 177), Group II: 19-22 mm (n = 321), and Group III : >22 mm (n = 65). Pregnancy rates were evaluated. Treatment outcomes of the groups were further analyzed related to endometrial thickness measurement on the day of hCG. For this purpose, cycles were placed into three subgroups as follows: endometrial thickness 9 mm. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate per cycle between the groups (8.5, 10, and 9.2 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively, p = 0.86). In further analyses related to endometrial thickness, no significant difference was also found in pregnancy rate among the groups. This results suggest that pregnancy rate is not related to leading follicle size on the day of hCG administration in PCOS patients treated with CC and IUI. In addition, pregnancy rate in women with different follicular sizes is not influenced by the endometrial thickness.

  2. Comparison of three different C18 HPLC columns with different particle sizes for the optimization of aflatoxins analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Magan, N

    2012-03-15

    In this work we compared the performance of chromatography columns with particles of 5 and 3 μm with the new 2.7 μm solid core particles for the analysis of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 using trifluoroacetic acid pre-column derivatization. Three different columns have been used and chromatographic parameters as retention time, resolution, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) were obtained from all of them and compared. The results show that comparing with the traditional columns, shorter columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm) with the new solid core particles are suitable for the analysis of these mycotoxins and allowed the reduction of the analysis time by 45.5% and 33.3% with respect to columns with particle size 5 μm (150 mm × 4.6 mm) and 3 μm (150 mm × 4.6 mm) respectively, without any detrimental effect on performance. This leads to the reduction of the analysis costs by saving on organic solvents and increasing the total number of analyses per day. The capability of these columns for analyzing samples, in different culture media, was assessed by analyzing different samples from: yeasts extract sucrose medium, corn meal agar medium and fresh hazelnut media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors associated with cluster size of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of different RFLP lineages in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Renata Lyrio; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Ribeiro, Fabíola Karla Correa; Palaci, Moisés; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Reis-Santos, Bárbara; Zandonade, Eliana; Suffys, Philip Noel; Golub, Jonathan E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor

    2018-02-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is influenced by patient-related risk, environment and bacteriological factors. We determined the risk factors associated with cluster size of IS6110 RFLP based genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates from Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study of new TB cases identified in the metropolitan area of Vitoria, Brazil between 2000 and 2010. Mtb isolates were genotyped by the IS6110 RFLP, spoligotyping and RD Rio . The isolates were classified according to genotype cluster sizes by three genotyping methods and associated patient epidemiologic characteristics. Regression Model was performed to identify factors associated with cluster size. Among 959 Mtb isolates, 461 (48%) cases had an isolate that belonged to an RFLP cluster, and six clusters with ten or more isolates were identified. Of the isolates spoligotyped, 448 (52%) were classified as LAM and 412 (48%) as non-LAM. Our regression model found that 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster were more likely belong to the LAM family, having the RD Rio genotype and to be smear-positive (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26; adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37; crude OR = 2.68, 95% IC 1.13-6.34; respectively) and living in a Serra city neighborhood decrease the risk of being in the 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster (adjusted OR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), than in the others groups. Individuals aged 21 to 30, 31 to 40 and > 50 years were less likely of belonging the 2-5 isolates/RFLP cluster than unique patterns compared to individuals cluster group (adjustment OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85) than unique patterns. We found that a large proportion of new TB infections in Vitoria is caused by prevalent Mtb genotypes belonging to the LAM family and RD Rio genotypes. Such information demonstrates that some genotypes are more likely to cause recent transmission. Targeting interventions such as screening in specific areas and social risk groups, should be a priority

  4. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  5. Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieskotten, S.; Mauck, B.; Miersch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic wakes. We investigated the ability of a harbour seal to discriminate objects of different size or shape by their hydrodynamic signature and used particle image velocimetry to identify the hydrodynamic parameters...... that a seal may be using to do so. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by different sized or shaped paddles that were moved in the calm water of an experimental box to produce a characteristic signal. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure the blindfolded subject was able to discriminate size differences...... of down to 3.6. cm (Weber fraction 0.6) when paddles were moved at the same speed. Furthermore the subject distinguished hydrodynamic signals generated by flat, cylindrical, triangular or undulated paddles of the same width. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrated that the seal could have...

  6. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  7. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  8. Guided mode resonance in planar metamaterials consisting of two ring resonators with different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhen; Che Hang; Liu Jianjun; Jing Xufeng; Li Xiangjun; Hong Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a two-ring-resonator composed planar hybrid metamaterial (MM), in which the spectra of guided mode resonance (GMR) and Fano resonance or EIT-like response induced by coherent interaction between MM resonance and GMR can be easily controlled by the size of the two rings in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, a four-ring-resonator composed MM for polarization-insensitive GMRs was demonstrated, where GMRs of both TE and TM modes are physically attributed to the diffraction coupling by two ±45° tilting gratings. Such kind of device has great potential in ultra-sensitive label-free sensors, filters, or slow light based devices. (paper)

  9. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (Ptemperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P classes (P temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  10. The comparison of predictive scheduling algorithms for different sizes of job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.

  11. Fracture Mechanics Assessment for Different Notch Sizes Using Finite Element Analysis Based on Ductile Failure Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Keun Hyung; Jeon, Jun Young; Han, Jae Jun; Nam, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dae Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, notch defects are evaluated using fracture mechanics. To understand the effects of notch defects, FE analysis is conducted to predict the limit load and J-integral for middle-cracked and single-edge cracked plates with various sizes of notch under tension and bending. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, although the limit load remains constant. The values of fracture toughness(J{sub IC}) of SM490A are determined for various notch radii through FE simulation instead of conducting an experiment. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, together with a more significant increase in fracture toughness. To conclude, as the notch radius increases, the resistance to crack propagation also increases.

  12. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composite Plates with Different Stacking Sequences and Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Romayne Anders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of using kenaf fibres over synthetic fibres in composites manufacturing are relatively cheap, less abrasive and hazardous during handling, and renewable materials. Current work investigates parametric effects on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf polymer composites plates with variation of lay-up types, notch sizes and plate thickness. Testing coupons are prepared using hand lay-up technique and circular notch were drilled prior to mechanical testing. Stress concentration at the notch edge promotes micro-damage event as tensile loading was applied leading to crack initiation and propagations across the plate width. It is suggested that woven fabric kenaf polymer composites are potentially used in low and medium load bearing applications.

  13. Water-soluble ions in atmospheric aerosols measured in five sites in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Size-fractionated, seasonal variations and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; Xu, Honghui; An, Junlin; Xue, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinfei

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the regional variations of water-soluble ions (WSIs), size-resolved measurement of aerosol particles and WSIs was conducted by using Anderson Sampler and Ion Chromatography at five sites (Nanjing, Suzhou, Lin'an, Hangzhou and Ningbo) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China in the Autumn of 2012 and Winter, Spring and Summer of 2013. WSIs exhibited obvious seasonal variations due to the monsoon conversion, with the highest level in winter and lowest level in summer. The aerosol mass concentrations and WSIs in different size segments varied with four seasons. The dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1 ranked in the order of SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+, and the dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1-10 ranked in the order of Ca2+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NH4+ > Na+. The size spectra of mass and WSIs concentration peaked mostly at 0.43-0.65 μm in four seasons. The concentration discrepancies of WSIs in different cities were caused by the geographic locations and emission source. It's belonged to ammonium-rich distribution in PM2.1 and ammonium-poor distribution in PM2.1-10 in the YRD region. The impact of temperature on mass concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in PM2.1 were stronger than those in PM2.1-10. PCA analysis shows that the sources of WSIs dominant by anthropogenic sources, soil particles or falling dust, sea salt and burning process.

  14. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  15. Comparison of manual and automated measurements of monodominant follicle diameter with different follicle size in infertile patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Pan

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the consistency of manual and automated measurements of monodominant follicle diameter with different follicle size in infertile patients. Transvaginal two-dimensional (2D ultrasound and SonoAVC (Sonography-based Automated Volume Calculation were both performed in 226 infertile patients with monodominant follicle growth. 2D diameters were separately compared with SonoAVC-generated d(V and m-d values in different follicle category, i.e. >10 to 14 mm, >14 to 18 mm, >18 to 22 mm and >22 mm. There was moderate degree of consistency between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated parameters regardless of follicle size. The mean differences were 0.82 mm between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated d(V value, and 0.22 mm between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated m-d value, respectively. The discrepancy of manual and automated measurements tended to increase as follicle size increased. Our study suggested that compared with manual measurement, SonoAVC might underestimate follicle size. The absolute size of a follicle affected the consistency of two techniques.

  16. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2008-01-01

    Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots.

  17. Contrast enhancement by differently sized paramagnetic MRI contrast agents in mice with two phenotypes of atherosclerotic plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bochove, Glenda S.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Segers, Dolf; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Krams, Rob; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of contrast-enhanced MRI to enable in vivo specific characterization of atherosclerotic plaques is increasing. In this study the intrinsic ability of three differently sized gadolinium-based contrast agents to permeate different mouse plaque phenotypes was evaluated with MRI. A

  18. The research of the quantitative prediction of the deposits concentrated regions of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenyu; Wang Shicheng

    2003-01-01

    By the general theory and method of mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information, the locative and quantitative prediction of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits of solid resources of 1 : 5,000,000 are developed in china. The deposit concentrated regions is model unit, the anomaly concentrated regions is prediction unit. The mineral prognosis of synthetic information is developed on GIS platform. The technical route and work method of looking for the large and super-large sized mineral resources and basic principle of compiling attribute table of the variables and the response variables are mentioned. In research of prediction of resources quantity, the locative and quantitative prediction are processed by separately the quantification theory Ⅲ and the corresponding characteristic analysis, two methods are compared. It is very important for resources prediction of western ten provinces in china, it is helpful. (authors)

  19. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffo, A; Alopaeus, V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used. (paper)

  20. Diagnostic value of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification for benign and malignant breast lesions with different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhao, Li-Xia; Xu, Guang; Yao, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Wu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The study was to explore diagnostic value of the virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) in distinguishing benign and malignant breast lesions of variable sizes. We performed conventional ultrasound and VTIQ in 139 breast lesions. The lesions were categorized into three groups according to size (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm), and their mean, min, and max shear wave velocities (SWVs) were measured. Diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination after surgery or needle biopsy. Receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed to determine the optimum cut-off values, calculate the area under curve (AUC), the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each velocity. For all groups, the mean, min, and max SWVs of malignant lesions were significantly higher than those of benign lesions (P < 0.05). The cut-off values of mean, min, and max SWVs were not significantly different among the three groups. In addition, the diagnostic performance of mean, min, and max SWV values is analogous, regardless of lesion size. In conclusion, VTIQ is a strong complement to conventional ultrasound, which is a promising method in the differential diagnosis of the breast lesions with different sizes. Further studies validate our results as well as reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, regardless of size is warranted. PMID:26550234

  1. Use of Sugarcane Bagasse with Different Particle Sizes to Determine the Relationship between Physical Properties and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The supramolecular structures of a substrate, such as crystallinity, specific surface area, average pore size, and cellulase adsorption capacity, etc., affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass. It is unclear which of these factors is most important for efficient hydrolysis. To eliminate the influence of the hemicellulose content and the lignin, sugarcane bagasse samples with the same cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content but with different particle sizes were used as substrates to investigate the relationship between physical properties and enzymatic conversion efficiency. When the content of hemicellulose and lignin was not significantly different, the decrease in the crystallinity index (CrI and the increase in the specific surface area (SSA, cellulase adsorption, average pore size, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA could give rise to higher enzymatic convertibility. The effects of the CrI and the average pore size were more pronounced than the effects of the SSA, the cellulase adsorption capacity, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA. According to the developed formula, the CrI was more influential than the average pore size under the specific conditions.

  2. Performance and separation occurrence of binary probit regression estimator using maximum likelihood method and Firths approach under different sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, Evellin Dewi

    2017-12-01

    The parameters of binary probit regression model are commonly estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. However, MLE method has limitation if the binary data contains separation. Separation is the condition where there are one or several independent variables that exactly grouped the categories in binary response. It will result the estimators of MLE method become non-convergent, so that they cannot be used in modeling. One of the effort to resolve the separation is using Firths approach instead. This research has two aims. First, to identify the chance of separation occurrence in binary probit regression model between MLE method and Firths approach. Second, to compare the performance of binary probit regression model estimator that obtained by MLE method and Firths approach using RMSE criteria. Those are performed using simulation method and under different sample size. The results showed that the chance of separation occurrence in MLE method for small sample size is higher than Firths approach. On the other hand, for larger sample size, the probability decreased and relatively identic between MLE method and Firths approach. Meanwhile, Firths estimators have smaller RMSE than MLEs especially for smaller sample sizes. But for larger sample sizes, the RMSEs are not much different. It means that Firths estimators outperformed MLE estimator.

  3. Effect of traffic restriction on atmospheric particle concentrations and their size distributions in urban Lanzhou, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Liu, Na; He, Jianjun; Chen, Jinbei

    2014-02-01

    During the 2012 Lanzhou International Marathon, the local government made a significant effort to improve traffic conditions and air quality by implementing traffic restriction measures. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures on urban air quality, especially particle concentrations and their size distributions, atmospheric particle size distributions (0.5-20 microm) obtained using an aerodynamic particle sizer (model 3321, TSI, USA) in June 2012 were analyzed. It was found that the particle number, surface area and volume concentrations for size range 0.5-10 microm were (15.0 +/- 2.1) cm(-3), (11.8 +/- 2.6) microm2/cm3 and (1.9 +/- 0.6) microm2/cm3, respectively, on the traffic-restricted day (Sunday), which is 63.2%, 53.0% and 47.2% lower than those on a normal Sunday. For number and surface area concentrations, the most affected size range was 0.5-0.7 and 0.5-0.8 microm, respectively, while for volume concentration, the most affected size ranges were 0.5-0.8, 1.7-2.0 and 5.0-5.4 microm. Number and volume concentrations of particles in size range 0.5-1.0 microm correlated well with the number of non-CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) powered vehicles, while their correlation with the number of CNG-powered vehicles was very low, suggesting that reasonable urban traffic controls along with vehicle technology improvements could play an important role in improving urban air quality.

  4. A guideline for sizing Photovoltaic panels across different climatic zones in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waongo, M; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries a long time series of solar radiation measurements are not often available. This is due to the cost, maintenance and calibration requirements of measuring devices. Consequently, the use of solar energy by Photovoltaic (PV) conversion copes with the choice and the optimization of the PV system. This work concerned the analysis of climate parameters strongly influencing the Photovoltaic (PV) systems energy production and the simulation of an ideal system based on a single PV module. Estimation and analysis of time series of climate parameters covered a set of six weather stations with respect to the three climatic zones in Burkina Faso (BF), over 38 years. The analysis showed that the solar irradiation in BF lies between 3 kWh/m 2 /day and 7.5 kWh/m 2 /day. The highest values of the solar irradiation are measured in the Northern part of the country while lowest values are measured in the Southern part. Daily mean temperature for all weather stations was greater than the Standard Test Condition (STC) temperature (25°C) over a long period of the year. Information on solar irradiation and temperature is fundamental for PV systems sizing process. For PV performance evaluation, a simulation is carried out using an ideal system composed of a single PV module from TENESOL Company. This simulation is performed for three classes of climatic conditions 'Mean situation', 'Adverse situation', and 'Beneficial situation', and evaluated for six sitesacross BF. The results revealed intra-annual and spatial variability of Maximum Power (MP). Across BF, MP varied between 60 W/day and 190 W/day in Sahelian zone, between 65 W/day and 185 W/day in soudano-sahelian zone, and between 67 W/day and 208 W/day in Soudanian zone. MP intra-annual variability is higher during the period July-August, mainly for 'Beneficial situation'. The negative effect of temperature on PV energy production is specially amplified in Sahelian zone due to its highest temperatures

  5. Trends in size and treatment of recently diagnosed choroidal melanoma, 1987-1997: findings from patients examined at collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS) centers: COMS report no. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    To describe time trends, from 1987 through 1997, (1) in size of choroidal melanoma among patients with recent diagnosis confirmed at a clinical center that participated in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) and (2) in choice of treatment by patients who did not enroll in one of the COMS randomized trials. Investigators at all COMS clinical centers (41 in the United States and 2 in Canada) agreed to report, in a masked fashion that did not include personal identifiers, all patients diagnosed as having choroidal melanoma during the accrual period for COMS randomized trials of radiotherapy. Information reported for patients who did not enroll in a COMS randomized trial included tumor dimensions, date of diagnosis, and initial treatment selected. Patients reported by centers that continued to report cases until 1997 and diagnosed as having choroidal melanoma no more than 1 year before evaluation at a participating COMS center contributed the data analyzed. Time trends in tumor size among patients reported and in elective treatment of patients not enrolled in COMS randomized trials. Of 8712 patients with choroidal melanoma examined, 6703 met criteria for analysis of time trend in tumor size and 4077 were analyzed for treatment trends over time. The number of cases with longest tumor basal diameter greater than 15.0 mm declined over time from 393 (30%) of 1330 cases reported in 1987 through 1989 to 345 (25%) of 1397 cases reported in 1996 or 1997. The proportion of patients eligible for COMS randomized trials who did not enroll and who elected enucleation remained stable over time for tumors of all sizes; the proportion of these patients who elected eye-conserving radiotherapy increased over time. Juxtapapillary tumors accounted for nearly half of the enucleations among ineligible patients who had tumors no larger than 15.0 mm in longest basal diameter. Among patients examined at COMS centers during 1987 through 1997, the trends observed for patients with

  6. Variation, Evolution, and Correlation Analysis of C+G Content and Genome or Chromosome Size in Different Kingdoms and Phyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing; Du, Donglei

    2014-01-01

    C+G content (GC content or G+C content) is known to be correlated with genome/chromosome size in bacteria but the relationship for other kingdoms remains unclear. This study analyzed genome size, chromosome size, and base composition in most of the available sequenced genomes in various kingdoms. Genome size tends to increase during evolution in plants and animals, and the same is likely true for bacteria. The genomic C+G contents were found to vary greatly in microorganisms but were quite similar within each animal or plant subkingdom. In animals and plants, the C+G contents are ranked as follows: monocot plants>mammals>non-mammalian animals>dicot plants. The variation in C+G content between chromosomes within species is greater in animals than in plants. The correlation between average chromosome C+G content and chromosome length was found to be positive in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria (but not in other analyzed bacterial phyla), Ascomycota fungi, and likely also in some plants; negative in some animals, insignificant in two protist phyla, and likely very weak in Archaea. Clearly, correlations between C+G content and chromosome size can be positive, negative, or not significant depending on the kingdoms/groups or species. Different phyla or species exhibit different patterns of correlation between chromosome-size and C+G content. Most chromosomes within a species have a similar pattern of variation in C+G content but outliers are common. The data presented in this study suggest that the C+G content is under genetic control by both trans- and cis- factors and that the correlation between C+G content and chromosome length can be positive, negative, or not significant in different phyla. PMID:24551092

  7. Emotion at Stake—The Role of Stake Size and Emotions in a Power-to-Take Game Experiment in China with a Comparison to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Bosman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates how monetary incentives and emotions influence behavior in a two-player power-to-take game (PTTG. In this game, one player can claim any part of the other's endowment (take rate, and the second player can respond by destroying any part of his or her own endowment. The experiment is run in China. We further compare our findings with the behavior of two European subject pools. Our results give new insights regarding emotion regulation. Even though stake size does not appear to matter for take rates and destruction rates, it does matter for the reaction function of the responder regarding the take rate. When stakes are high, there is less destruction for low and intermediate take rates, and more destruction for high take rates, compared to relatively low stakes. Under low incentives, ‘hot’ anger-type emotions are important for destruction, while ‘cool’ contempt becomes prominent under high monetary incentives. These results suggest emotion regulation in the high-stake condition. Moreover, emotions are found to fully mediate the impact of the take rate on destruction when stakes are low, whereas they only partially do so if stakes are high. Comparing the low-stakes data for China with existing European data, we find similarities in behavior, emotions and emotion intensities, as well as the full mediation of the take rate by emotions. We find some differences related to the type of emotions that are important for destruction. Whereas anger and joy are important in both, in addition, irritation and fear play a role in China, while this holds for contempt in the EU.

  8. Impacts of memory on a regular lattice for different population sizes with asynchronous update in spatial snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Feng; Liu, Xingwen; Li, Min

    2018-05-01

    Memory is an important factor on the evolution of cooperation in spatial structure. For evolutionary biologists, the problem is often how cooperation acts can emerge in an evolving system. In the case of snowdrift game, it is found that memory can boost cooperation level for large cost-to-benefit ratio r, while inhibit cooperation for small r. Thus, how to enlarge the range of r for the purpose of enhancing cooperation becomes a hot issue recently. This paper addresses a new memory-based approach and its core lies in: Each agent applies the given rule to compare its own historical payoffs in a certain memory size, and take the obtained maximal one as virtual payoff. In order to get the optimal strategy, each agent randomly selects one of its neighbours to compare their virtual payoffs, which can lead to the optimal strategy. Both constant-size memory and size-varying memory are investigated by means of a scenario of asynchronous updating algorithm on regular lattices with different sizes. Simulation results show that this approach effectively enhances cooperation level in spatial structure and makes the high cooperation level simultaneously emerge for both small and large r. Moreover, it is discovered that population sizes have a significant influence on the effects of cooperation.

  9. Bioconversion of different sizes of microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by microwave irradiation with/without NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Huadong; Chen, Hongzhang; Qu, Yongshui; Li, Hongqiang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High concentration of alkali or temperature was necessary in cellulose degradation. • Effects of alkali pretreatment could be enhanced with the addition of microwave irradiation. • The structures diversities of microcrystalline cellulose were eliminated in the fermentation. • The significance of particle size and treat condition varied with reaction time. - Abstract: The process of microwave irradiation (MWI) pretreatment on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with different sizes with/without NaOH was investigated on the variation of the ratio of degradated solid residue (R DS ), particle size, crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size (Sc) and specific surface area (SSA). High concentration of alkali or high temperature was necessary in dissolving or decomposing the cellulose. Appropriate pretreatment severity eliminated the effects of structural diversities in feedstocks, which led to convergence in the ethanol fermentation. After the reaction proceeded to 120 h, the samples could be converted to glucose completely and the highest ethanol yield of the theoretical was 58.91% for all the samples pretreated by the combined treatment of MWI and NaOH. In addition, the statistical analysis implied that when reaction time got to 24 h, particle size and pretreatment condition affected much more significant than other factors

  10. Reproducibility of R-fMRI metrics on the impact of different strategies for multiple comparison correction and sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Lu, Bin; Yan, Chao-Gan

    2018-01-01

    Concerns regarding reproducibility of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) findings have been raised. Little is known about how to operationally define R-fMRI reproducibility and to what extent it is affected by multiple comparison correction strategies and sample size. We comprehensively assessed two aspects of reproducibility, test-retest reliability and replicability, on widely used R-fMRI metrics in both between-subject contrasts of sex differences and within-subject comparisons of eyes-open and eyes-closed (EOEC) conditions. We noted permutation test with Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement (TFCE), a strict multiple comparison correction strategy, reached the best balance between family-wise error rate (under 5%) and test-retest reliability/replicability (e.g., 0.68 for test-retest reliability and 0.25 for replicability of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) for between-subject sex differences, 0.49 for replicability of ALFF for within-subject EOEC differences). Although R-fMRI indices attained moderate reliabilities, they replicated poorly in distinct datasets (replicability < 0.3 for between-subject sex differences, < 0.5 for within-subject EOEC differences). By randomly drawing different sample sizes from a single site, we found reliability, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) rose as sample size increased. Small sample sizes (e.g., < 80 [40 per group]) not only minimized power (sensitivity < 2%), but also decreased the likelihood that significant results reflect "true" effects (PPV < 0.26) in sex differences. Our findings have implications for how to select multiple comparison correction strategies and highlight the importance of sufficiently large sample sizes in R-fMRI studies to enhance reproducibility. Hum Brain Mapp 39:300-318, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  12. Shape and size of jatropha beans (Jatropha curcas L. during drying at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the physical properties of the jatropha beans over the drying under six air conditions, based on measurements of roundness, sphericity, volume, superficial area, projected area and surface/volume ratio. Jatropha beans with moisture content around 0.61 (decimal d.b. were subjected to thin-layer drying in oven with forced-air circulation under six temperature conditions (36, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 °C and relative humidity of 31.7; 19.6; 9.4; 4.8; 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, until reaching the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d. b.. The results showed that the necessary time for jatropha beans to reach the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d.b. were 1.5; 2.25; 3.0; 4.75; 6.75 and 12.0 h for the drying temperatures of 105, 90, 75, 60, 45 and 36 °C, respectively; and the reduction in the moisture content as well as the drying conditions promoted changes in the shape and reduced the size of the jatropha beans.

  13. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  14. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS......), medium (MCS) or late (LCS) cut grass silage. The ECS, MCS and LCS silages contained 449, 578, and 634 g NDF kg-1 and 166, 111 and 81 g crude protein kg-1 DM, respectively. The in situ rumen indigestible NDF (INDF) was 77, 164 and 268 g kg-1 of NDF; the degradation rate of digestible NDF (kdDNDF) was 64......, 47 and 44 g kg-1 h-1 and DM intake was 2.5, 2.1 and 1.5 kg d-1 for ECS, MCS and LCS silage, respectively. Faeces samples were collected during four days, washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved into six sieving fractions; bottom bowl (B), 0.106 (C), 0.212 (D), 0.5 (S), 1.0 (M) and 2.36 (O) mm...

  15. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fay

    Full Text Available This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both, and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity, but harder to learn (identification accuracy for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  16. Microwave Synthesized Monodisperse CdS Spheres of Different Size and Color for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse CdS spheres of size of 40 to 140 nm were obtained by microwave heating from basic solutions. It is observed that larger CdS spheres were formed at lower solution pH (8.4–8.8 and smaller ones at higher solution pH (10.8–11.3. The color of CdS products changed with solution pH and reaction temperature; those synthesized at lower pH and temperature were of green-yellow color, whereas those formed at higher pH and temperature were of orange-yellow color. A good photovoltage was observed in CdS:poly(3-hexylthiophene solar cells with spherical CdS particles. This is due to the good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in P3HT solution that led to a large interface area between the organic and inorganic semiconductors. Higher photocurrent density was obtained in green-yellow CdS particles of lower defect density. The efficient microwave chemistry accelerated the hydrolysis of thiourea in pH lower than 9 and produced monodisperse spherical CdS nanoparticles suitable for solar cell applications.

  17. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  18. Generalization of Wilemski-Fixman-Weiss decoupling approximation to the case involving multiple sinks of different sizes, shapes, and reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jesik; Lee, Jinuk; Eun, Changsun; Lee, Sangyoub

    2006-08-07

    We generalize the Wilemski-Fixman-Weiss decoupling approximation to calculate the transient rate of absorption of point particles into multiple sinks of different sizes, shapes, and reactivities. As an application we consider the case involving two spherical sinks. We obtain a Laplace-transform expression for the transient rate that is in excellent agreement with computer simulations. The long-time steady-state rate has a relatively simple expression, which clearly shows the dependence on the diffusion constant of the particles and on the sizes and reactivities of sinks, and its numerical result is in good agreement with the known exact result that is given in terms of recursion relations.

  19. Application of Network Scale Up Method in the Estimation of Population Size for Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of HIV infection. For developing proper interventions, it is important to know the size of MSM population. However, size estimation of MSM populations is still a significant public health challenge due to high cost, hard to reach and stigma associated with the population.We aimed to estimate the social network size (c value in general population and the size of MSM population in Shanghai, China by using the net work scale-up method.A multistage random sampling was used to recruit participants aged from 18 to 60 years who had lived in Shanghai for at least 6 months. The "known population method" with adjustment of backward estimation and regression model was applied to estimate the c value. And the MSM population size was further estimated using an adjusted c value taking into account for the transmission effect through social respect level towards MSM.A total of 4017 participants were contacted for an interview, and 3907 participants met the inclusion criterion. The social network size (c value of participants was 236 after adjustment. The estimated size of MSM was 36354 (95% CI: 28489-44219 for the male Shanghaies aged 18 to 60 years, and the proportion of MSM among the total male population aged 18 to 60 years in Shanghai was 0.28%.We employed the network scale-up method and used a wide range of data sources to estimate the size of MSM population in Shanghai, which is useful for HIV prevention and intervention among the target population.

  20. Synthesis and Tribological Performance of Different Particle-Sized Nickel-Ion-Exchanged α-Zirconium Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Dong, Jinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Nickel-ion-exchanged α-zirconium phosphate (Ni-α-ZrP) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal synthesis method. Different raw material ratios (NaF/H3PO4/Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) influence the particle size of the Ni-α-ZrP samples. The grain size could be controlled and distributed from 20 to 600 nm. Ni-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in lithium grease in a four-ball test. A 3.0 wt.% addition of Ni-α-ZrP to lithium grease yielded maximum non-seizure load values of 1235 N, and the wear scar diameter on the lower balls is 0.42 mm at 294 N. Compared with smaller particles, the addition of Ni-α-ZrP with a larger particle size to grease yields a better load-carrying capacity.

  1. Influence of content and particle size of waste pet bottles on concrete behavior at different w/c ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, C.; Camacho, N.; Hernandez, M.; Matheus, A.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the mechanical behavior of concrete with recycled Polyethylene Therephtalate (PET), varying the water/cement ratio (0.50 and 0.60), PET content (10 and 20 vol%) and the particle size. Also, the influence of the thermal degradation of PET in the concrete was studied, when the blends were exposed to different temperatures (200, 400, 600 o C). Results indicate that PET-filled concrete, when volume proportion and particle size of PET increased, showed a decrease in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity; however, the water absorption increased. On the other hand, the flexural strength of concrete-PET when exposed to a heat source was strongly dependent on the temperature, water/cement ratio, as well as on the PET content and particle size. Moreover, the activation energy was affected by the temperature, PET particles location on the slabs and water/cement ratio.

  2. Size validity of plasma-metamaterial cloaking monitored by scattering wave in finite-difference time-domain method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bambina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of the cloak-size reduction is investigated numerically by a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. A metallic pole that imitates an antenna is cloaked with an anisotropic and parameter-gradient medium against electromagnetic-wave propagation in microwave range. The cloaking structure is a metamaterial submerged in a plasma confined in a vacuum chamber made of glass. The smooth-permittivity plasma can be compressed in the radial direction, which enables us to decrease the size of the cloak. Theoretical analysis is performed numerically by comparing scattering waves in various cases; there exists a high reduction of the scattering wave when the radius of the cloak is larger than a quarter of one wavelength. This result indicates that the required size of the cloaking layer is more than an object scale in the Rayleigh scattering regime.

  3. Convergence and approximate calculation of average degree under different network sizes for decreasing random birth-and-death networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Kui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, convergence and approximate calculation of average degree under different network sizes for decreasing random birth-and-death networks (RBDNs) are studied. First, we find and demonstrate that the average degree is convergent in the form of power law. Meanwhile, we discover that the ratios of the back items to front items of convergent reminder are independent of network link number for large network size, and we theoretically prove that the limit of the ratio is a constant. Moreover, since it is difficult to calculate the analytical solution of the average degree for large network sizes, we adopt numerical method to obtain approximate expression of the average degree to approximate its analytical solution. Finally, simulations are presented to verify our theoretical results.

  4. Influence of content and particle size of waste pet bottles on concrete behavior at different w/c ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, C; Camacho, N; Hernández, M; Matheus, A; Gutiérrez, A

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this work was to study the mechanical behavior of concrete with recycled Polyethylene Therephtalate (PET), varying the water/cement ratio (0.50 and 0.60), PET content (10 and 20 vol%) and the particle size. Also, the influence of the thermal degradation of PET in the concrete was studied, when the blends were exposed to different temperatures (200, 400, 600 degrees C). Results indicate that PET-filled concrete, when volume proportion and particle size of PET increased, showed a decrease in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity; however, the water absorption increased. On the other hand, the flexural strength of concrete-PET when exposed to a heat source was strongly dependent on the temperature, water/cement ratio, as well as on the PET content and particle size. Moreover, the activation energy was affected by the temperature, PET particles location on the slabs and water/cement ratio.

  5. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  6. Estimating expenditure on male and female offspring in a sexually size-dimorphic bird : A comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, Michael J. L.; Van Lieshout, Emile; Pen, Ido; Visser, G. Henk; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    1. The parents of sexually size-dimorphic offspring are often assumed to invest more resources producing individuals of the larger sex. A range of different methods have been employed to estimate relative expenditure on the sexes, including quantifying sex-specific offspring growth, food intake,

  7. Estimating expenditure on male and female offspring in a sexually size-dimorphic bird : A comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, Michael J. L.; Van Lieshout, Emile; Pen, Ido; Visser, G. Henk; Komdeur, Jan

    1. The parents of sexually size-dimorphic offspring are often assumed to invest more resources producing individuals of the larger sex. A range of different methods have been employed to estimate relative expenditure on the sexes, including quantifying sex-specific offspring growth, food intake,

  8. Why size matters: differences in brain volume account for apparent sex differences in callosal anatomy: the sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum. © 2013.

  9. The relationship between the population size and the postirradiation mortality of mice with respect to individual differences in stress reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Pipalova, I.; Netikova, J.

    1976-01-01

    Differences in radiosensitivity, expressed by the death rate up to the 30th day after irradiation by single whole-body exposures in the region of LD 50 , were followed in mice caged in groups by five, 15 and 25 individuals. No marked differences in the whole-group mortality of differently sized collectives were detected. Preirradiation as well as postirradiation leucocyte counts (after a sublethal irradiation) exhibit, however, differences, which correspond to an assumed different degree of the adrenocortical activity in differently sized collectives. Also the follow-up of the stress reactivity of the animals by measuring the Na/K ratio in 24-hour-samples of urine prior to irradiation demonstrated marked differences between the groups with low number and high number of animals in a cage. By correlating values of this indirect indicator of the adrenocortical activity with manifestations of the individual radiosensitivity it was found that the extremely hyporeactive animals (belonging to groups with five animals per cage) and the extremely hyperreactive ones (belonging to groups with 25 animals per cage) exhibit a markedly higher mortality. The absence of differences in the whole-group mortality of differently sized collectives can be explained by the existence of nonlinear 'U'-shaped relations between the adrenocortical activity and the individuals' radiosensitivity. The results support the conception on the unfavorable prognostic significance of unbalanced reactions of homeostatic functions of system regulation under conditions of radiation syndrome. (orig.) [de

  10. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  11. Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Motoori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm. On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  12. Inhibition of quantum size effects from surface dangling bonds: The first principles study on different morphology SiC nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Jing; Li, Shu-Long; Gong, Pei; Li, Ya-Lin; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jia, Ya-Hui; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, we investigated the structure and photoelectric properties of Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs) with different morphologies and sizes by using the first-principle in density functional theory, and found a phenomenon that is opposite to quantum size effect, namely, the band gap of nanowires increases with the increase of the diameter. To reveal the nature of this phenomenon, we further carry out the passivation of SiCNWs. The results show that the hydrogenated SiCNWs are direct band gap semiconductors, and the band gap decreases with the diameter increasing, which indicates the dangling bonds of the SiCNWs suppress its quantum size effect. The optical properties of SiCNWs with different diameters before and after hydrogenated are compared, we found that these surface dangling bonds lead to spectral shift which is different with quantum size effect of SiCNWs. These results have potential scientific value to deepen the understanding of the photoelectric properties of SiCNWs and to promote the development of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Effect of dust size distribution on ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas with different dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Yang, Yang; Yan, Qiang [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China); Wang, Xiao-Yun [Lanzhou Jiao Tong University, Department of Mathematics and Physics (China); Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@126.com [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Theoretical studies are carried out for ion acoustic solitons in multicomponent nonuniform plasma considering the dust size distribution. The Korteweg−de Vries equation for ion acoustic solitons is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. Two special dust size distributions are considered. The dependences of the width and amplitude of solitons on dust size parameters are shown. It is found that the properties of a solitary wave depend on the shape of the size distribution function of dust grains.

  14. Concepts in sample size determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umadevi K Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators involved in clinical, epidemiological or translational research, have the drive to publish their results so that they can extrapolate their findings to the population. This begins with the preliminary step of deciding the topic to be studied, the subjects and the type of study design. In this context, the researcher must determine how many subjects would be required for the proposed study. Thus, the number of individuals to be included in the study, i.e., the sample size is an important consideration in the design of many clinical studies. The sample size determination should be based on the difference in the outcome between the two groups studied as in an analytical study, as well as on the accepted p value for statistical significance and the required statistical power to test a hypothesis. The accepted risk of type I error or alpha value, which by convention is set at the 0.05 level in biomedical research defines the cutoff point at which the p value obtained in the study is judged as significant or not. The power in clinical research is the likelihood of finding a statistically significant result when it exists and is typically set to >80%. This is necessary since the most rigorously executed studies may fail to answer the research question if the sample size is too small. Alternatively, a study with too large a sample size will be difficult and will result in waste of time and resources. Thus, the goal of sample size planning is to estimate an appropriate number of subjects for a given study design. This article describes the concepts in estimating the sample size.

  15. Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redelbach, Martin; Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2014-01-01

    There are ambitious greenhouse gas emission (GHG) targets for the manufacturers of light duty vehicles. To reduce the GHG emissions, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and extended range electric vehicle (EREV) are promising powertrain technologies. However, the battery is still a very critical component due to the high production cost and heavy weight. This paper introduces a holistic approach for the optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. The assessment focuses on the heterogeneity across drivers, by analyzing the impact of different driving profiles on the optimal battery setup from total cost of ownership (TCO) perspective. The results show that the battery size has a significant effect on the TCO. For an average German driver (15,000 km/a), battery capacities of 4 kWh (PHEV) and 6 kWh (EREV) would be cost optimal by 2020. However, these values vary strongly with the driving profile of the user. Moreover, the optimal battery size is also affected by external factors, e.g. electricity and fuel prices or battery production cost. Therefore, car manufacturers should develop a modular design for their batteries, which allows adapting the storage capacity to meet the individual customer requirements instead of “one size fits all”. - Highlights: • Optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. • Focus on heterogeneity across drivers (e.g. mileage, trip distribution, speed). • Optimal battery size strongly depends on the driving profile and energy prices. • OEMs require a modular design for their batteries to meet individual requirements

  16. Group size and nest success in red-cockaded woodpeckers in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: helpers make a difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) group size and nest productivity. Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size was positively correlated with fledging success. Although the relationships between woodpecker group size and nest productivity measures were nor statistically significant, a pattern of...

  17. Preoperative morphometric differences in the distal femur are based on skeletal size in Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masataka; Owaki, Hajime; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Fuji, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the morphometric parameters of preoperative distal femurs to determine the differences by diagnosis and gender after accounting for skeletal size. One-hundred and seventy-nine Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (25 males and 154 females) were assessed. The anteroposterior length (AP), mediolateral width (ML), aspect ratio (AR), surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) to posterior condylar axis (PCA) angle, and Whiteside to SEA angle were measured on preoperative computed tomography scans. The AP/ML, AR/ML, SEA/PCA, and Whiteside/PCA relationships were evaluated and compared by patient diagnosis and gender. The results were also compared with the sizes of 10 currently available TKA implants in Japan. The mean AP, ML, AR, SEA/PCA angle, and Whiteside/PCA angle were 58.8 mm, 64.7 mm, 0.91, external rotation (ER) 3.5°, and ER 1.6°, respectively. AP and AR each were significantly correlated with ML (p different between patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. AP/ML and AR/ML were significantly correlated within each diagnosis (p differences between the diagnoses. AP and ML were significantly longer (p gender. However, the analysis of covariance showed no significant differences between gender in the AP/ML and AR/MR correlations. The AP/ML ratio of our data was similar to the size variations of the 10 TKA implants, but the AR/ML ratio was quite different from almost all the implants. No differences in preoperative femur morphometry were found between patients with different diagnoses, but the gender difference in AR was related to the difference in skeletal size between males and females. Case series with no comparison groups, Level IV.

  18. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  19. Vulnerability assessment: A comparison of three different city sizes in the coastal area of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwandari Handayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of connecting urbanization phenomena and vulnerability assessments, this paper aims to explore vulnerability assessment in three different city sizes in the northern coast of Central Java province of Indonesia. It compares the vulnerability levels of the three cities based on their sizes (that is, levels of urbanization. It uses the most current secondary data from the lowest administrative levels, called as kelurahan (urban village, for its assessment. There are two indexes used to indicate their vulnerability levels, namely exposure and sensitivity index (ESI and adaptive capacity index (ACI. By combining the ESI and ACI, the study found that the kelurahans in Tegal (the medium sized city have similar vulnerability levels. The kelurahans in Semarang (as the big city have more combination of vulnerability levels—indicating that the city has various sensitivity, exposure, as well as adaptive capacity among its kelurahans. In Lasem (the small sized city, due to limitations imposed by adaptation—mostly because of lack of public services and high dependency on primary economic sectors—all of its kelurahans were found to be vulnerable. The study therefore concluded that the bigger a city is, the more the different areas of that city will have varying levels of vulnerability, leading to a high propensity of vulnerability among its inhabitants. On the other hand, the smaller a city is, the less capacity it will have in reducing its emerging vulnerability challenges.

  20. Size distribution of salbutamol/ipratropium aerosols produced by different nebulizers in the absence and presence of heat and humidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ssu-Han; Yang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Fang, Tien-Pei; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the size distribution of inhaled and exhaled aerosolized drugs, or the effect of heated humidification on particle size and lung deposition. The present study evaluated these aspects of bronchodilator (salbutamol/ipratropium) delivery using a lung model in the absence and presence of heat and humidification. We positioned filters to collect and measure the initial drug, inhaled drug, and exhaled drug. Particle size distribution was evaluated using an 8-stage Marple personal cascade impactor with 0.2-μm polycarbonate filters. A greater inhaled drug mass was delivered using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) than by using a small volume nebulizer (SVN), when heated humidifiers were not employed. When heated and humidified medical gas was used, there was no significant difference between the inhaled drug mass delivered by the VMN and that delivered by the SVN. A significantly greater mass of inhaled 1.55-μm drug particles was produced by the VMN than with the SVN, under heated and humidified conditions. However, the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of the aerosolized drug produced by the SVN and VMN did not differ significantly under the same conditions. The VMN produced more fine particles of salbutamol/ipratropium, and the drug particle size clearly increased in the presence of heat and humidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Side-by-Side Comparison of Commonly Used Biomolecules That Differ in Size and Affinity on Tumor Uptake and Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Kwon, Keon-Woo; Michael, Praveesuda; Ting, Richard; Kim, Ju-Young; Jin, Moonsoo M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to use a systemically injected agent to image tumor is influenced by tumor characteristics such as permeability and vascularity, and the size, shape, and affinity of the imaging agent. In this study, six different imaging biomolecules, with or without specificity to tumor, were examined for tumor uptake and internalization at the whole body, ex-vivo tissue, and cellular levels: antibodies, antibody fragments (Fab), serum albumin, and streptavidin. The time of peak tumor uptake was dependent solely on the size of molecules, suggesting that molecular size is the major factor that influences tumor uptake by its effect on systemic clearance and diffusion into tumor. Affinity to tumor antigen failed to augment tumor uptake of Fab above non-specific accumulation, which suggests that Fab fragments of typical monoclonal antibodies may fall below an affinity threshold for use as molecular imaging agents. Despite abundant localization into the tumor, albumin and streptavidin were not found on cell surface or inside cells. By comparing biomolecules differing in size and affinity, our study highlights that while pharmacokinetics are a dominant factor in tumor uptake for biomolecules, affinity to tumor antigen is required for tumor binding and internalization. PMID:25901755

  2. The effect of grain and pore sizes on the mechanical behavior of thin Al films deposited under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, E.; Landa, M.; Janovská, M.; Seiner, H.; Gutman, O.; Tepper-Faran, T.; Shilo, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the relationships between deposition conditions, microstructure and mechanical behavior in thin aluminum films commonly used in micro and nano-devices. A particular focus is placed on the effect of porosity, which is present in all thin films deposited by evaporation or sputtering techniques. The influences of the deposition temperature on the grain size, pore size and crystallographic texture were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the films was investigated using four different methods. Each method is suitable for characterizing different properties and for testing the material at different length scales. Nanoindentation was used to study hardness at the level of individual grains; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic moduli and porosity; and bulge and tensile tests were used to study released films under biaxial and uniaxial tensions. Our results demonstrate that even low porosities may have tremendous effects on the mechanical properties and that different methods allow the capture of different aspects of these effects. Therefore, a combination of several methods is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical behavior of a film. It is also shown that porosity with different pore size leads to very different effects on the mechanical behavior

  3. Comparison of two different dust emission mechanisms over the Horqin Sandy Land area: Aerosols contribution and size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Tingting; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Dust aerosols (PM10) emission fluxes due to convective turbulent dust emissions (CTDE) and saltation-bombardment and/or aggregation-disintegration dust emissions (SADE) events were comparatively studied using the data obtained from the Naiman station over the Horqin Sandy Land area in Inner Mongolia, China from 2011 to 2015. The annual cumulative dust fluxes released by CTDE events was about one third of that by SADE events, with the order of 103∼104 μg m-2 s-1. The particle size distributions (PSDs) with diameter between 0.1 and 20 μm during CTDE and SADE events over the Horqin Sandy Land area were simulated based on the fragmentation theory, respectively. The results indicated that an improved equation based on fragmentation theory could be applied to describe the PSDs over the Horqin site which may be because the scale-invariant fragmentation theory mainly explains the PSDs of free dust particles on the surface, which differ from the PSDs of suspend airborne dust and the improved equation was more applicable to the PSDs of SADE events because the dust emission mechanism of SADE are saltation bombardment and aggregation disintegration. The number-related mean aerosol diameters (DN) barely varied under different friction velocity (u*) for SADE events, while the volume-related mean aerosol diameters (DV) changed distinctly with the change of u*. For CTDE events, the DN and DV had no obvious relationship with the change of u* because the dominating influence factor during CTDE event was thermal convection rather than u*. The mass-related PSDs usually exhibited a peak between 0.45 and 0.70 μm during SADE events, while for CTDE events there was a wide peak in the range of 0.10 0.70 μm. The results suggest that DN should be not be recommended as an individual parameter to describe the PSDs. The mass-related PSDs can effectively distinguish the SADE and CTDE events.

  4. Numerical simulation of temperature distribution using finite difference equations and estimation of the grain size during friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Singh, H.; Dhindaw, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnesium alloy AE42 was friction stir processed under different cooling conditions. ► Heat flow model was developed using finite difference heat equations. ► Generalized MATLAB code was developed for solving heat flow model. ► Regression equation for estimation of grain size was developed. - Abstract: The present investigation is aimed at developing a heat flow model to simulate temperature history during friction stir processing (FSP). A new approach of developing implicit form of finite difference heat equations solved using MATLAB code was used. A magnesium based alloy AE42 was friction stir processed (FSPed) at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions. Temperature history was continuously recorded in the nugget zone during FSP using data acquisition system and k type thermocouples. The developed code was validated at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions during FSP experimentation. The temperature history at different locations in the nugget zone at different instants of time was further utilized for the estimation of grain growth rate and final average grain size of the FSPed specimen. A regression equation relating the final grain size, maximum temperature during FSP and the cooling rate was developed. The metallurgical characterization was done using optical microscopy, SEM, and FIB-SIM analysis. The simulated temperature profiles and final average grain size were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The presence of fine precipitate particles generated in situ in the investigated magnesium alloy also contributed in the evolution of fine grain structure through Zener pining effect at the grain boundaries.

  5. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-06-17

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  6. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  7. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  8. Functional implications of species differences in the size and morphology of the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In birds, there is a retinofugal projection from the brain to the retina originating from the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in the midbrain. Despite a large number of anatomical, physiological and histochemical studies, the function of this retinofugal system remains unclear. Several functions have been proposed including: gaze stabilization, pecking behavior, dark adaptation, shifting attention, and detection of aerial predators. This nucleus varies in size and organization among some species, but the relative size and morphology of the ION has not been systematically studied. Here, we present a comparison of the relative size and morphology of the ION in 81 species of birds, representing 17 different orders. Our results show that several orders of birds, besides those previously reported, have a large, well-organized ION, including: hummingbirds, woodpeckers, coots and allies, and kingfishers. At the other end of the spectrum, parrots, herons, waterfowl, owls and diurnal raptors have relatively small ION volumes. ION also appears to be absent or unrecognizable is several taxa, including one of the basal avian groups, the tinamous, which suggests that the ION may have evolved only in the more modern group of birds, Neognathae. Finally, we demonstrate that evolutionary changes in the relative size and the cytoarchitectonic organization of ION have occurred largely independent of phylogeny. The large relative size of the ION in orders with very different lifestyles and feeding behaviors suggest there is no clear association with pecking behavior or predator detection. Instead, our results suggest that the ION is more complex and enlarged in birds that have eyes that are emmetropic in some parts of the visual field and myopic in others. We therefore posit that the ION is involved in switching attention between two parts of the retina i.e. from an emmetropic to a myopic part of the retina.

  9. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in