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Sample records for quotient fraction construct

  1. Spaces of fractional quotients, discrete operators, and their applications. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    1999-01-01

    The theory of discrete operators in spaces of fractional quotients is developed. A theorem on the stability of discrete operators under smooth perturbations is proved. On this basis, using special quadrature formulae of rectangular kind, the convergence of approximate solutions of hypersingular integral equations to their exact solutions is demonstrated and a mathematical substantiation of the method of closed discrete vortex frameworks is obtained. The same line of argument is also applied to difference equations arising in the solution of the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a general second-order elliptic equation with variable coefficients

  2. Quotient-Comprehension Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them easy, and some also highly non-trivial (esp. for von Neumann algebras. We have not yet identified a unifying theory. Nevertheless, the paper contributes towards such a theory by introducing the new quotient-and-comprehension perspective on measurement instruments, and by describing the examples on which such a theory should be built.

  3. Investigating students’ failure in fractional concept construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Henry; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; Rahman As’ari, Abdur; Muksar, Makbul; Setiawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Failure is a failure to achieve goals. This failure occurs because a larger scheme integrates the schemes in mind that are related to the problem at hand. These schemes are integrated so that they are interconnected to form new structures. This new scheme structure is used to interpret the problems at hand. This research is a qualitative research done to trace student’s failure which happened in fractional concept construction. Subjects in this study as many as 2 students selected from 15 students with the consideration of these students meet the criteria that have been set into two groups that fail in solving the problem. Both groups, namely group 1 is a search group for the failure of students of S1 subject and group 2 is a search group for the failure of students of S2 subject.

  4. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-01-01

    A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph Γ is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup

  5. Construction of the K=8 fractional superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyres, P.C.; Grochocinski, J.M.; Tye, S.H.H.

    1993-01-01

    We construct the K=8 fractional superconformal algebras. There are two such extended Virasoro algebras, one of which was constructed earlier, involving a fractional spin (equivalently, conformal dimension) 6/5 current. The new algebra involves two additional fractional spin currents with spin 13/5. Both algebras are non-local and satisfy non-abelian braiding relations. The construction of the algebras uses the ismorphism between the Z 8 parafermion theory and the tensor product of two tricritical Ising models. For the special value of the central charge c=52/55, corresponding to the eighth member of the unitary minimal series, the 13/5 currents of the new algebra decouple, while two spin 23/5 currents (level-2 current algebra descendants of the 13/5 currents) emerge. In addition, it is shown that the K=8 algebra involving the spin 13/5 currents at central charge c=12/5 is the appropriate algebra for the construction of the K=8 (four-dimensional) fractional superstring. (orig.)

  6. Metrics in Keplerian orbits quotient spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Danila V.

    2018-03-01

    Quotient spaces of Keplerian orbits are important instruments for the modelling of orbit samples of celestial bodies on a large time span. We suppose that variations of the orbital eccentricities, inclinations and semi-major axes remain sufficiently small, while arbitrary perturbations are allowed for the arguments of pericentres or longitudes of the nodes, or both. The distance between orbits or their images in quotient spaces serves as a numerical criterion for such problems of Celestial Mechanics as search for common origin of meteoroid streams, comets, and asteroids, asteroid families identification, and others. In this paper, we consider quotient sets of the non-rectilinear Keplerian orbits space H. Their elements are identified irrespective of the values of pericentre arguments or node longitudes. We prove that distance functions on the quotient sets, introduced in Kholshevnikov et al. (Mon Not R Astron Soc 462:2275-2283, 2016), satisfy metric space axioms and discuss theoretical and practical importance of this result. Isometric embeddings of the quotient spaces into R^n, and a space of compact subsets of H with Hausdorff metric are constructed. The Euclidean representations of the orbits spaces find its applications in a problem of orbit averaging and computational algorithms specific to Euclidean space. We also explore completions of H and its quotient spaces with respect to corresponding metrics and establish a relation between elements of the extended spaces and rectilinear trajectories. Distance between an orbit and subsets of elliptic and hyperbolic orbits is calculated. This quantity provides an upper bound for the metric value in a problem of close orbits identification. Finally the invariance of the equivalence relations in H under coordinates change is discussed.

  7. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  8. Reinventing Fractions and Division as They Are Used in Algebra: The Power of Preformal Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Frederick; Matassa, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore algebra students' mathematical realities around fractions and division, and the ways in which students reinvented mathematical productions involving fractions and division. We find that algebra students' initial realities do not include the fraction-as-quotient sub-construct. This can be problematic because in algebra,…

  9. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  10. Mis\\`ere Games and Mis\\`ere Quotients

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Aaron N.

    2006-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a short course on mis\\`ere quotients offered at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, in November 2006. They include an introduction to impartial games, starting from the beginning; the basic mis\\`ere quotient construction; a proof of the Guy--Smith--Plambeck Periodicity Theorem; and statements of some recent results and open problems in the subject.

  11. Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boustique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented

  12. Modelling in Primary School: Constructing Conceptual Models and Making Sense of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2017-01-01

    This article describes sixth-grade students' engagement in two model-eliciting activities offering students the opportunity to construct mathematical models. The findings show that students utilized their knowledge of fractions including conceptual and procedural knowledge in constructing mathematical models for the given situations. Some students…

  13. Constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions for nonlinear time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arqub, Omar Abu; El-Ajou, Ahmad; Momani, Shaher

    2015-07-01

    Building fractional mathematical models for specific phenomena and developing numerical or analytical solutions for these fractional mathematical models are crucial issues in mathematics, physics, and engineering. In this work, a new analytical technique for constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions of time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations is proposed based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. The new approach provides solutions in the form of a rapidly convergent series with easily computable components using symbolic computation software. For method evaluation and validation, the proposed technique was applied to three different models and compared with some of the well-known methods. The resultant simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority and potentiality of the proposed technique in terms of the quality performance and accuracy of substructure preservation in the construct, as well as the prediction of solitary pattern solutions for time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations.

  14. Quotient semigroups and extension semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Abelian groups and semigroups play an important role in the classification of C. ∗. -algebras and their extensions. ... -algebra extension theory and K K-theory, it is crucial to study the theory of quotient semigroups from the ...

  15. What is your hospitality quotient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilets, Lyn

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the behind-the-scenes work involved with planning and implementing continuing nursing education activities, there are additional ways we can enhance the learner's experience. This article presents ideas on how to improve your hospitality quotient. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. On orbifold criteria for symplectic toric quotients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsi, Carla; Herbig, Hans-Christian; Seaton, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of regular symplectomorphism and graded regular symplectomorphism between singular phase spaces. Our main concern is to exhibit examples of unitary torus representations whose symplectic quotients cannot be graded regularly symplectomorphic to the quotient of a symplectic...

  17. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  18. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  19. Pengaruh Intellegence Quotient, Emotional Quotient, Spiritual Quotient, dan Tekanan Anggaran Waktu Audit Pada Perilaku Underreporting Of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A.Ngurah Indrajaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to explore the effect of the intellectual, emotional, spiritual and audit time of underreporting of time behavior. The method used in this study is explanatory research, which would explain the causal relationship between the four independent variables on the dependent variable. This study collected data through questionnaires. The population of this study are from public accountant auditors. This study used total sampling which used all population. While the data analysis includes descriptive analysis, the classical assumption test and verification analysis using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. Based on the results of the analysis showed that Intellegence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient have a negative effect on underreporting of time behavior and audit time budget pressure have a positive influence on the underreporting of time behavior. The results showed that the level of Intellegence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient is high and the time budget pressure is low, the auditor will not do the underreporting of time behavior. Keywords: Underreporting of Time Behaviour, Intellectual Quotient, Emotional Quotient, Spiritual Quotient, Time Budget Pressure

  20. Quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals | Zhao | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by the notion of volume difference functions, we introduce quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals and establish Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities for them, which have several recent results as special cases. Keywords: Volume difference function, dual quermassintegrals, quotient function, radial Blaschke ...

  1. On the topology of generalized quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Burzyk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized quotients are defined as equivalence classes of pairs (x, f, where x is an element of a nonempty set X and f is an element of a commutative semigroup G acting on X. Topologies on X and G induce a natural topology on B(X,G, the space of generalized quotients. Separation properties of this topology are investigated.

  2. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  3. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  4. An Analytical Model / Emotional Intelligence Quotient and QOL in Mothers with Infants in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Junko; Katsura, Toshiki; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence quotient and health-related quality of life using structural equation modeling. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,911 mothers who visited the Health Center for an infant medical examination. A hypothetical model was constructed using variables of the emotional intelligence quotient, social support, coping, parenting stress, and perceived health competen...

  5. A procedure to construct exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Özkan; Cevikel, Adem C

    2014-01-01

    We use the fractional transformation to convert the nonlinear partial fractional differential equations with the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The Exp-function method is extended to solve fractional partial differential equations in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. We apply the Exp-function method to the time fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation, the space fractional Burgers equation, and the time fractional fmKdV equation. As a result, we obtain some new exact solutions.

  6. Hodge numbers for all CICY quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Andrei; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun’s classification http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2011)005.

  7. Hodge numbers for all CICY quotients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Andrei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20, Uppsala (Sweden); Gray, James [Physics Department, Robeson Hall, Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-02

    We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun’s classification http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2011)005.

  8. Supporting Students’ Reasoning About Multiplication of Fractions by Constructing an Array Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronal Rifandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to support students in constructing an array model as a bridge from their informal knowledge to the formal one in understanding the part-whole relation concept. The part-whole relation concept is important for students to reason about multiplication of fractions. Realistic Mathematics Education which is in Indonesia adapted as Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI is used as an approach in designing a series of lessons. For this purpose, hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT became the base for conducting a teaching experiment and designing its learning materials.  The research was conducted in the fifth grade of SD Al Hikmah Surabaya, an elementary school in Indonesia, with five students as the participants. The collected data were qualitative data in the form of students’ written works and the transcript of video recording during the lesson. The data were analyzed retrospectively by confronting the conjecture of students’ thinking in the HLT with the fact in the teaching experiment. The result of the research shows that most students could use the contextual problem in promoting their ability on constructing their own array model to reason about part-whole relation.

  9. Equivalence of quotient Hilbert modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    w), that is, γ is an anti-holomorphic frame for E. In the case of n > 1, a similar construction of an anti-holomorphic hermitian vector bundle of rank n can be given. In our case, it is easy to verify that K(·, w), the reproducing kernel at w, is a common ...

  10. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  11. Equivariant volumes of non-compact quotients and instanton counting

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by Nekrasov's instanton counting, we discuss a method for calculating equivariant volumes of non-compact quotients in symplectic and hyper-K\\"ahler geometry by means of the Jeffrey-Kirwan residue-formula of non-abelian localization. In order to overcome the non-compactness, we use varying symplectic cuts to reduce the problem to a compact setting, and study what happens in the limit that recovers the original problem. We implement this method for the ADHM construction of the moduli ...

  12. Oxidation kinetics of the combustible fraction of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N B; Lin, K S; Sun, Y P; Wang, H P

    2001-01-01

    Proper disposal of construction and demolition wastes (CDW) has received wide attention recently due to significantly large quantities of waste streams collected from razed or retrofitted buildings in many metropolitan regions. Burning the combustible fractions of CDW (CCDW) and possibly recovering part of the heat content for economic uses could be valuable for energy conservation. This paper explores the oxidation kinetics of CCDW associated with its ash characterization. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of CCDW were numerically calculated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the resultant rate equations were therefore developed for illustrating the oxidation processes of CCDW simultaneously. Based on three designated heating rates, each of the oxidation processes can be featured distinctively with five different stages according to the rate of weight change at the temperature between 300 K and 923 K. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed, associated with a lab-scale fixed-bed incinerator for monitoring the composition of flue gas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was found as a major component in the flue gas. The fuel analysis also included an ash composition analysis via the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The ash streams were identified as nonhazardous materials based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Overall, the scientific findings gained in this study will be helpful for supporting a sound engineering design of real-world CCDW incineration systems.

  13. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  14. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  15. Value-based health care in inflammatory bowel diseases : creating the value quotient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, Welmoed Kirsten van

    2016-01-01

    The essence of VBHC is to improve patients’ outcomes at lower costs. This thesis attempts to construct the value quotient (vQ) for IBD: a metric for value which incorporates patient value, defined as a combination of disease control, quality of life, and productivity in the numerator, and divides it

  16. An Analytical Model / Emotional Intelligence Quotient and QOL in Mothers with Infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Junko; Katsura, Toshiki; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence quotient and health-related quality of life using structural equation modeling. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,911 mothers who visited the Health Center for an infant medical examination. A hypothetical model was constructed using variables of the emotional intelligence quotient, social support, coping, parenting stress, and perceived health competence. There were a total of 1,104 valid responses (57.8%). Significant standardized estimates were obtained, confirming the goodness of fit issues with the model. The emotional intelligence quotient had a strong impact on physical and psychological quality of life, and showed the greatest association with coping. This study differed from previous studies in that, due to the inclusion of social support and explanatory variables in coping, an increase in coping strategies was more highly associated with emotional intelligence quotient levels than with social support. An enhanced emotional intelligence quotient should be considered a primary objective to promote the health of mothers with infant children.

  17. Construction of joint confidence regions for the optimal true class fractions of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) surfaces and manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantis, Leonidas E; Nakas, Christos T; Reiser, Benjamin; Myall, Daniel; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2017-06-01

    The three-class approach is used for progressive disorders when clinicians and researchers want to diagnose or classify subjects as members of one of three ordered categories based on a continuous diagnostic marker. The decision thresholds or optimal cut-off points required for this classification are often chosen to maximize the generalized Youden index (Nakas et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 995-1003). The effectiveness of these chosen cut-off points can be evaluated by estimating their corresponding true class fractions and their associated confidence regions. Recently, in the two-class case, parametric and non-parametric methods were investigated for the construction of confidence regions for the pair of the Youden-index-based optimal sensitivity and specificity fractions that can take into account the correlation introduced between sensitivity and specificity when the optimal cut-off point is estimated from the data (Bantis et al., Biomet 2014; 70: 212-223). A parametric approach based on the Box-Cox transformation to normality often works well while for markers having more complex distributions a non-parametric procedure using logspline density estimation can be used instead. The true class fractions that correspond to the optimal cut-off points estimated by the generalized Youden index are correlated similarly to the two-class case. In this article, we generalize these methods to the three- and to the general k-class case which involves the classification of subjects into three or more ordered categories, where ROC surface or ROC manifold methodology, respectively, is typically employed for the evaluation of the discriminatory capacity of a diagnostic marker. We obtain three- and multi-dimensional joint confidence regions for the optimal true class fractions. We illustrate this with an application to the Trail Making Test Part A that has been used to characterize cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  18. Construction of Knowledge about Fractional Number A Construção do Conhecimento sobre Número Fracionário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Eigenheer Bertoni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies, experimentation, and reflections over the course of twenty years have led our investigations in the direction of students’ construction of the concepts of fraction and fractional number. Distinct trends can be identified in our investigations over the years, each resulting from and reviewed following observations of students’ thinking and reactions as well as the depth and reach of the knowledge constructed. In the first of these phases, we used manipulative material; in the second, reflexive abstractions regarding divided geometric figures; in the third, objects that showed themselves divided in the real world, which led us to situations involving these objects and their associated fractional numbers. This revealed to us an interface with the ideas of Vergnaud regarding the formation of concepts, presented in the Theory of Conceptual Fields. We began to investigate and experiment with the development of a proposal for learning fractional numbers according to the elements of this conception, which includes initial situations, schemes of the students in action, and representations of the concept. In this context, we present the trajectory of our work, a re-elaboration of the proposal in the final phase, and our findings. The proposal we developed centers on the learning of fractions in the construction of a number, making explicit its aim and what it quantifies, as well as its relations with natural numbers. Key-words: Fraction as number. Vergnaud – Formation of Concepts. Counting, Division, Measures prioritized in relation to Divided Geometric Figures.Estudos, experimentações e reflexões ao longo de vinte anos conduziram nossas investigações na direção da construção dos conceitos de fração e de número fracionário pelos alunos. Nesses anos, distintas tendências ocorreram em nossas investigações, cada uma decorrente de e revista após observações do pensar e agir do aluno, bem como da profundidade e alcance do

  19. Fractional quantum Hall effect: Construction of the Hartree-Fock state by using translational covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, R.; I.N.F.N., Trento

    1994-01-01

    The formalism introduced in a previous paper is used for discussing the Coulomb interaction of many electrons moving in two space-dimensions in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The matrix element of the coulomb interaction is evaluated in the new basis, whose states are invariant under discrete translations. This paper is devoted to the case of low filling factor, thus the authors limit themselves to the lowest Landau level and to spins all oriented along the magnetic field. For the case of filling factor ν f = 1/u they give an Ansatz on the state of many electrons which provides a good approximated solution of the Hartree-Fock equation. For general filling factor ν f = u'/u a trial state is given which converges very rapidly to a solution of the self-consistent equation. They generalize the Hartree-Fock equation by considering some correlation: all quantum states are allowed for the u' electrons with the same translation quantum numbers. Numerical results are given for the mean energy and the energy bands, for some values of the filling factor (ν f = 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1/4, 3/4, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5). The results agree numerically with the Charge Density Wave approach. The boundary conditions are shown to be very important: only large systems (degeneracy of Landau level over 200) are not affected by the boundaries. Therefore results obtained on small scale systems are somewhat unreliable. The relevance of the results for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is briefly discussed

  20. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. II - Physical Compartments and Carbon Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils constructed after mining often have low carbon (C stocks and low quality of organic matter (OM. Cover crops are decisive for the recovery process of these stocks, improving the quality of constructed soils. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on total organic C (TOC stocks, C distribution in physical fractions of OM and the C management index (CMI of a soil constructed after coal mining. The experiment was initiated in 2003 with six treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactylon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. Soil samples were collected in 2009 from the 0.00-0.03 m layer, and the TOC and C stocks in the physical particle size fractions (carbon in the coarse fraction - CCF, and mineral-associated carbon - MAC and density fractions (free light fraction - FLF; occluded light fraction - OLF, and heavy fraction - HF of OM were determined. The CMI components: carbon pool index (CPI, lability (L and lability index (LI were estimated by both fractionation methods. No differences were observed between TOC, CCF and MAC stocks. The lowest C stocks in FLF and OLF fractions were presented by T2, 0.86 and 0.61 Mg ha-1, respectively. The values of TOC stock, C stock in physical fractions and CMI were intermediate, greater than T5 and lower than T6 in all treatments, indicating the partial recovery of soil quality. As a result of the better adaptation of the species Hemarthria and Brizantha, resulting in greater accumulation of labile organic material, the CPI, L, LI and CMI values were higher in these treatments, suggesting a greater potential of these species for recovery of constructed soils.

  1. An Ecosystem Approach to Recreation Location Quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Vogel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of preserving ecological integrity in conservation and outdoor recreation decision-making processes, traditional metrics analyzing the supply of and demand for conservation and recreation resources have focused on geographical and population-centric units of measurement rather than ecological ones. One tool past researchers have used to inform recreation resource planning is the recreation location quotient (RLQ. While simple park-to-population ratios or acres-per-capita metrics provide a base measure of carrying capacity and are often useful to set broad recreation supply standards, the RLQ offers a more nuanced snapshot of supply and demand by comparing regional ratios to a standardized reference region. The RLQ is thus able to provide a statistic or quotient that highlights regions where recreation resources are particularly abundant and/or scarce relative to a reference area. This project expands the past RLQ analyses by investigating the distribution of recreation resources across the 10 ecological sections found within the US state of Minnesota. RLQs were calculated using recreation trail mileage, natural resource and recreation area acreage data, and recreation facility data from federal, state, and local agencies. Results found notable differences in supply of recreation resources across ecological sections. Some sections were considerably underrepresented in recreation resources-per area (e.g., Red River Valley and North Central Glaciated Plains while others were underrepresented in recreation resources-per capita (e.g., Minnesota and Northeast Iowa Morainal. The RLQ statistics and resulting maps illustrating relative surplus or deficiencies can inform future land acquisition decisions and highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional planning in order to ensure outdoor recreation systems are ecologically representative. Possible implications and recommendations for future planning

  2. A Pilot Study of Correlation between Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, and Ayurveda Parameters in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyam; Balsavar, Anuradha; Beniwal, R. P.; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Intelligence quotient (IQ) and social quotient (SQ) are comparable in predicting intelligence status. The latter is assessed whenever IQ testing is not possible. According to Ayurveda, Buddhi (intelligence) is affected by Prakriti (body constitution) which depends on the predominance of Tridosha and Triguna. There is a paucity of studies to examine their association. The study was designed to examine correlation among IQ, SQ, performance quotient (PQ) and maladaptive behaviour; and to find out their relationship with primary (Anubandhya) and secondary (Anubandha) doshas with intelligence in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Methodology: Children (n = 120) were recruited from outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital as part of a clinical trial of a novel Ayurveda formulation. Stanford Binet Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Seguin Form Board Test, and Maladaptive Behavior Schedule-II were administered. Ayurvedic parameters were assessed clinically by Ayurveda practitioner. Separate regression analyses were carried out to look for associations. Results: IQ and SQ were positively correlated (P = 0.01). Maladaptive behavior and SQ were negatively correlated (0.05). SQ was associated with secondary dosha (P = 0.002) and stage of disease (Roga Kriyakala) (P = 0.015). IQ was also associated with secondary dosha (P = 0.008). Conclusion: SQ and IQ are positively correlated. The correlation of Anubandha (secondary) dosha was high on IQ and SQ. PMID:29403134

  3. A Pilot Study of Correlation between Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, and Ayurveda Parameters in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyam; Balsavar, Anuradha; Beniwal, R P; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) and social quotient (SQ) are comparable in predicting intelligence status. The latter is assessed whenever IQ testing is not possible. According to Ayurveda, Buddhi (intelligence) is affected by Prakriti (body constitution) which depends on the predominance of Tridosha and Triguna. There is a paucity of studies to examine their association. The study was designed to examine correlation among IQ, SQ, performance quotient (PQ) and maladaptive behaviour; and to find out their relationship with primary (Anubandhya) and secondary (Anubandha) doshas with intelligence in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Children ( n = 120) were recruited from outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital as part of a clinical trial of a novel Ayurveda formulation. Stanford Binet Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Seguin Form Board Test, and Maladaptive Behavior Schedule-II were administered. Ayurvedic parameters were assessed clinically by Ayurveda practitioner. Separate regression analyses were carried out to look for associations. IQ and SQ were positively correlated ( P = 0.01). Maladaptive behavior and SQ were negatively correlated (0.05). SQ was associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.002) and stage of disease (Roga Kriyakala) ( P = 0.015). IQ was also associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.008). SQ and IQ are positively correlated. The correlation of Anubandha (secondary) dosha was high on IQ and SQ.

  4. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  5. Spectral theory and quotients in Von Neumann algebras | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this note we consider to what extent the functional calculus and the spectral theory in von Neumann algebras are preserved by the taking of quotients relative to two-sided ideals of the von Neumann algebra. Keywords:von Neumann algebra, functional calculus, spectral theory, quotient algebras. Quaestiones ...

  6. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (PIQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

  7. Evaluation of in vitro cytoxicity and genotoxicity of size-fractionated air particles sampled during road tunnel construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Luca; Guerrera, Elena; Villarini, Milena; Fatigoni, Cristina; Moretti, Massimo; Blasi, Paolo; Monarca, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    In tunnel construction, workers exposed to dust from blasting, gases, diesel exhausts, and oil mist have shown higher risk for pulmonary diseases. A clear mechanism to explain how these pollutants determine diseases is lacking, and alveolar epithelium's capacity to ingest inhaled fine particles is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the genotoxic effect exerted by fine particles collected in seven tunnels using the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test in an in vitro model on type II lung epithelium A549 cells. For each tunnel, five fractions with different aerodynamic diameters of particulate matter were collected with a multistage cascade sampler. The human epithelial cell line A549 was exposed to 0.2 m(3)/mL equivalent of particulate for 24 h before testing. The cytotoxic effects of particulate matter on A549 cells were also evaluated in two different viability tests. In order to evaluate the cells' ability to take up fine particles, imaging with transmission electron microscopy of cells after exposure to particulate matter was performed. Particle endocytosis after 24 h exposure was observed as intracellular aggregates of membrane-bound particles. This morphologic evidence did not correspond to an increase in genotoxicity detected by the micronucleus test.

  8. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  9. Requirements about the photothermal quotient use for yield explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, A.; Leterme, P.

    1987-01-01

    Climatic analysis of growth and development gives to photothermal quotient a large diagnosis value. Its use for the interpretation of rapeseed data shows its relevance but also its limits. By the analysis of Geslin's data it was possible to find again the photothermal quotient, corrected by a coefficient depending on temperature and radiation. Applied to rapeseed data, a similar correction proved to be essential to treat the situations with low temperature (near growth and development zero)

  10. QUADRO: A SUPERVISED DIMENSION REDUCTION METHOD VIA RAYLEIGH QUOTIENT OPTIMIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Ke, Zheng Tracy; Liu, Han; Xia, Lucy

    We propose a novel Rayleigh quotient based sparse quadratic dimension reduction method-named QUADRO (Quadratic Dimension Reduction via Rayleigh Optimization)-for analyzing high-dimensional data. Unlike in the linear setting where Rayleigh quotient optimization coincides with classification, these two problems are very different under nonlinear settings. In this paper, we clarify this difference and show that Rayleigh quotient optimization may be of independent scientific interests. One major challenge of Rayleigh quotient optimization is that the variance of quadratic statistics involves all fourth cross-moments of predictors, which are infeasible to compute for high-dimensional applications and may accumulate too many stochastic errors. This issue is resolved by considering a family of elliptical models. Moreover, for heavy-tail distributions, robust estimates of mean vectors and covariance matrices are employed to guarantee uniform convergence in estimating non-polynomially many parameters, even though only the fourth moments are assumed. Methodologically, QUADRO is based on elliptical models which allow us to formulate the Rayleigh quotient maximization as a convex optimization problem. Computationally, we propose an efficient linearized augmented Lagrangian method to solve the constrained optimization problem. Theoretically, we provide explicit rates of convergence in terms of Rayleigh quotient under both Gaussian and general elliptical models. Thorough numerical results on both synthetic and real datasets are also provided to back up our theoretical results.

  11. Methods for confidence interval estimation of a ratio parameter with application to location quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyene Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The location quotient (LQ ratio, a measure designed to quantify and benchmark the degree of relative concentration of an activity in the analysis of area localization, has received considerable attention in the geographic and economics literature. This index can also naturally be applied in the context of population health to quantify and compare health outcomes across spatial domains. However, one commonly observed limitation of LQ is its widespread use as only a point estimate without an accompanying confidence interval. Methods In this paper we present statistical methods that can be used to construct confidence intervals for location quotients. The delta and Fieller's methods are generic approaches for a ratio parameter and the generalized linear modelling framework is a useful re-parameterization particularly helpful for generating profile-likelihood based confidence intervals for the location quotient. A simulation experiment is carried out to assess the performance of each of the analytic approaches and a health utilization data set is used for illustration. Results Both the simulation results as well as the findings from the empirical data show that the different analytical methods produce very similar confidence limits for location quotients. When incidence of outcome is not rare and sample sizes are large, the confidence limits are almost indistinguishable. The confidence limits from the generalized linear model approach might be preferable in small sample situations. Conclusion LQ is a useful measure which allows quantification and comparison of health and other outcomes across defined geographical regions. It is a very simple index to compute and has a straightforward interpretation. Reporting this estimate with appropriate confidence limits using methods presented in this paper will make the measure particularly attractive for policy and decision makers.

  12. Riemann-Christoffel Tensor in Differential Geometry of Fractional Order Application to Fractal Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Guy

    2013-04-01

    By using fractional differences, one recently proposed an alternative to the formulation of fractional differential calculus, of which the main characteristics is a new fractional Taylor series and its companion Rolle's formula which apply to non-differentiable functions. The key is that now we have at hand a differential increment of fractional order which can be manipulated exactly like in the standard Leibniz differential calculus. Briefly the fractional derivative is the quotient of fractional increments. It has been proposed that this calculus can be used to construct a differential geometry on manifold of fractional order. The present paper, on the one hand, refines the framework, and on the other hand, contributes some new results related to arc length of fractional curves, area on fractional differentiable manifold, covariant fractal derivative, Riemann-Christoffel tensor of fractional order, fractional differential equations of fractional geodesic, strip modeling of fractal space time and its relation with Lorentz transformation. The relation with Nottale's fractal space-time theory then appears in quite a natural way.

  13. Research on establishing the rank and quotient of functions in product value analysisengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Burz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The constructive conception of a product results from uniting subsystems with basic usage values. These basic usage values make up the functions of the product. The notion of product function is the basic notion that product value analysis/value engineering(VA/VE operates with, and function analysis together with creative thinking constitutes „the oxygen of value engineering”. The present paper defines the notion of rank of a product function, establishes the formula for calculating its value and it reviews some ways of Determining the levels of importance of product functions, with the aim of proposing a new distribution of the importance of these Functions within the total usage value. Establishing the rank of a function can be reduced to the issue of comparing product functions by experts, consumers, team members for VA/VE. Subsequently, the ensuing results are subjected to adequate mathematical operations in order to determin the levels of importance and the quotients of each function within the product ussage value, as well as the distribution of these quotients. Due to the fact that the quota or quotient of a function within the product usage value plays an important role in conceiving and designing products, more precisely, in the economical shaping of functions, the distribution law to which this parametre is subjected is also very important. A critical study of the methods currently used to determine function quotients shows that these methods conduct to a linear distribution of these quotients, and, under these Circumstances, the ratio between the highest level of importance and the lowest level of importance is equal to the number of functions – number that is very high indeed for complex products. On the other hand, it is rightly assumed that there is a considerable number of products for which the functions do not follow a linear distribution. The Zipf distribution or its generalised form, the Pareto

  14. On ideals and quotients of AT AT AT-algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 4. On Ideals and Quotients of A T -Algebras. Changguo Wei. Volume 118 Issue 4 November 2008 pp ... Author Affiliations. Changguo Wei1. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, People's Republic of China ...

  15. Homomorphism and quotient of fuzzy k-hyperideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In [15], we introduced the notion of weak (resp. strong fuzzy k- hyperideal. In this note we investigate the behavior of them under homomorphisms of semihyperrings. Also we define the quotient of fuzzy weak (resp. strong k-hyperideals by a regular relation of semihyperring and obtain some results.

  16. KECERDASAN EMOSIONAL (EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT DALAM PENINGKATAN PRESTASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asna Andriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During this time many people have an opinion that everyone needs an Intellectual Quotient (IQ to reach an achievement in their live, but today according to a research product in psychology field gives an evidence that not only an Intellectual Quotient (IQ but also there is the other factor which influences an achievement or a successful in the future. Its named an Emotional Quotient (EQ which has means a person’s capability for managing and motivating his emotion, and interlacing the relationship with others. So that we can say that EQ is a foundation of reaching achievement for the student in their studying. This papper will discusse about the influence of Emotional Quotient (EQ towards student’s achievement in their live. There fore the parents, teachers, and counselors hopped to know and apply it for their sons, daughters, students, and cliens, in order that they can reach a good achievement in their school and more to be successful in their future.

  17. Longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments of a canyon reservoir due to cascade dam construction: a case study in Lancang River, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available Dam construction causes the accumulation of phosphorus in the sediments of reservoirs and increases the release rate of internal phosphorus (P loading. This study investigated the longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments and the relationship between the contents of phosphorus fractions and its influencing factors of the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River, Yunnan Province, China. Five sedimentary phosphorus fractions were quantified separately: loosely bound P (ex-P; reductant soluble P (BD-P; metal oxide-bound P (NaOH-P; calcium-bound P (HCl-P, and residual-P. The results showed that the total phosphorus contents ranged from 623 to 899 µg/g and were correlated positively with iron content in the sediments of the reservoir. The rank order of P fractions in sediments of the mainstream was HCl-P>NaOH-P>residual-P>BD-P>ex-P, while it was residual-P>HCl-P>NaOH-P>BD-P>ex-P in those of the tributaries. The contents of bio-available phosphorus in the tributaries, including ex-P, BD-P and NaOH-P, were significantly lower than those in the mainstream. The contents of ex-P, BD-P, NaOH-P showed a similar increasing trend from the tail to the head of the Manwan Reservoir, which contributed to the relatively higher content of bio-available phosphorus, and represents a high bio-available phosphorus releasing risk within a distance of 10 km from Manwan Dam. Correlation and redundancy analyses showed that distance to Manwan Dam and the silt/clay fraction of sediments were related closely to the spatial variation of bio-available phosphorus.

  18. Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.

  19. The relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Khajeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.

  20. Student profile with high adversity quotient in math learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, T. D.; Sari S, D. R.; Riyadi

    2018-03-01

    Lately a lot of research conducted to determine the effect of Adversity Quotient students on learning achievement. This is done because many students with excellent IQ and EQ, but often have problems when they are in the workforce. This study will analyze the profile of High School students with high Adversity Quotient (AQ) in learning mathematics. The test is done using a questionnaire to know the AQ level of the students, and the interview is done to get the data about the student profile. Based on the results of tests and interviews obtained data that students with high AQ able to face the learning of mathematics in various materials and with different models of learning.

  1. Quality measurement in the shunt treatment of hydrocephalus: analysis and risk adjustment of the Revision Quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, Joseph H; Freibott, Christina E

    2014-07-01

    OBJECT.: The Revision Quotient (RQ) has been defined as the ratio of the number of CSF shunt revisions to the number of new shunt insertions for a particular neurosurgical practice in a unit of time. The RQ has been proposed as a quality measure in the treatment of childhood hydrocephalus. The authors examined the construct validity of the RQ and explored the feasibility of risk stratification under this metric. The Kids' Inpatient Database for 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 was queried for admissions with diagnostic codes for hydrocephalus and procedural codes for CSF shunt insertion or revision. Revision quotients were calculated for hospitals that performed 12 or more shunt insertions annually. The univariate associations of hospital RQs with a variety of institutional descriptors were analyzed, and a generalized linear model of the RQ was constructed. There were 12,244 admissions (34%) during which new shunts were inserted, and there were 23,349 admissions (66%) for shunt revision. Three hundred thirty-four annual RQs were calculated for 152 different hospitals. Analysis of variance in hospital RQs over the 5 years of study data supports the construct validity of the metric. The following factors were incorporated into a generalized linear model that accounted for 41% of the variance of the measured RQs: degree of pediatric specialization, proportion of initial case mix in the infant age group, and proportion with neoplastic hydrocephalus. The RQ has construct validity. Risk adjustment is feasible, but the risk factors that were identified relate predominantly to patterns of patient flow through the health care system. Possible advantages of an alternative metric, the Surgical Activity Ratio, are discussed.

  2. Separable quotients for less-than-barrelled function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Saxon, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 459, č. 2 (2018), s. 1102-1105 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : separable quotients * weak barrelledness * dual locally complete Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X17310351?via%3Dihub

  3. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)-Adolescent Version

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Wheelwright, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) quantifies autistic traits in adults. This paper adapted the AQ for children (age 9.8-15.4 years). Three groups of participants were assessed: Group 1: n=52 adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: n=79 adolescents with classic autism; and Group 3, n=50 controls. The adolescents with AS/ HFA did not differ significantly from the adolescents with autism but both clinical groups scored higher than controls. Approximatel...

  4. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  5. Separable quotients in Cc (X), Cp (X), and their duals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Saxon, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 9 (2017), s. 3829-3841 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : (Properly) separables quotients * P-spaces * weak barrelledness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2016 http://www.ams.org/journals/proc/2017-145-09/S0002-9939-2017-13360-7/

  6. Separable quotients for less-than-barrelled function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Saxon, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 459, č. 2 (2018), s. 1102-1105 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : separable quotients * weak barrelledness * dual locally complete Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0022247X17310351?via%3Dihub

  7. Separable quotients in Cc (X), Cp (X), and their duals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Saxon, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 9 (2017), s. 3829-3841 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : (Properly) separables quotients * P- space s * weak barrelledness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2016 http://www.ams.org/journals/proc/2017-145-09/S0002-9939-2017-13360-7/

  8. Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Shielded Metal Arc Welding Exposures During Construction Projects in Oil Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin W; Andrews, Ronnee; Bertke, Steven; Ashley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume of construction workers rebuilding tanks, piping, and process equipment at two oil refineries. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. Seventy-two worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during stick welding and associated activities both within and outside of confined spaces. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions by valence states based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particulate Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged from 0.013-29 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; from 0.26-250 for Mn(0,2+) in acetic acid; from non-detectable (ND) - 350 for Mn(3+,4+) in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and from ND - 39 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m(3)) for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all Mn fractions in total particulate TWA ranged from 0.52-470 μg/m(3). The range of respirable particulate Mn TWA concentrations were from 0.20-28 for soluble Mn; from 1.4-270 for Mn(0,2+); from 0.49-150 for Mn(3+,4+); from ND - 100 for insoluble Mn; and from 2.0-490 μg/m(3) for Mn (sum of fractions). For all jobs combined, total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn(sum) were 99 (GSD = 3.35) and 8.7 (GSD = 3.54) μg/m(3) for workers inside and outside of confined spaces; respirable Mn also showed much higher levels for welders within confined spaces. Regardless of particle size and confined space work status, Mn(0,2+) fraction was the most abundant followed by Mn(3+,4+) fraction, typically >50% and ∼30-40% of Mn(sum), respectively. Eighteen welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values for total Mn (100 μg/m(3)) and 25 exceeded the recently adopted respirable

  9. [French version of screening questionnaire for high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome in adolescent: Autism Spectrum Quotient, Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient. Protocol and questionnaire translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonié, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Masson, Sandrine; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Reboul, Anne; Wicker, Bruno; Chevallier, Coralie; Beaude-Chervet, Véronique; Deleage, Marie-Hélène; Charvet, Dorothée; Barthélémy, Catherine; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Arnaud, Valérie; Manificat, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    No tools are currently available in France, for the detection of autism without mental retardation (high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome here referred as TED SDI). Use of screening tests by first-line clinicians would allow better detection of children who are likely to display such difficulties and to improve patients' care. In England, 3 questionnaires have been evaluated: Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Empathy Quotient (EQ), and Systemizing Quotient (SQ). This is the translation and evaluation of 3 questionnaires in France for TED SDI and control adolescents. The translation of the questionnaires into French required two simultaneous translations, two back-translations and two consensus meetings. This is a cross-sectional study comparing scores obtained with the three AQ, EQ and SQ questionnaires. These questionnaires were completed by the parents of four groups of adolescents 11-18 years: 100 TED SDI adolescents (50 with IQ ≥ 85 and 50 with 70≤IQ<85), 50 adolescents with another psychiatric disorder (TP) and 200 control adolescents (T). 580 questionnaires have been sent to 40 recruiting centres. By the 28th of February, 2010, 277 completed questionnaires were received completed (TED SDI: 70 (70%); TP: 25 (50%) et T: 182 (91%)). In the control group, 92 girls (mean 14.4±1.7 years) and 66 boys (14.5±1.7 years) were recruited. In the TED SDI group, 4 girls (14.3±2.4 years) and 42 boys (14.5±1.7 years) were recruited. One girl (81) and 6 boys (72.2±7.7) have an IQ between 70 and 85, and 3 girls (95.3±4.2) and 36 boys (102.9±12) have an IQ higher than 85. In the TP group, 9 girls (15.9±1.7 years) and 4 boys (15.8±1.9 years) were recruited. The aim of this study is to make the AQ, EQ and SQ questionnaires available in French for French speaking clinicians. This study will allow a rigorous evaluation of the usefulness of the AQ questionnaire in the screening of TED SDI in adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with xquotients of I*(X,R is discussed. It is shown that the results proved can give a large class of rings whose maximal right ring of quotients need not be isomorphic to its maximal left ring of quotients.

  11. Pipeline Defects Detection Using MFL Signals and Self Quotient Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Ho; Choi, Doo Hyun; Rho, Yong Woo

    2010-01-01

    Defects positioning of underground gas pipelines using MFL(magnetic flux leakage) inspection which is one of non-destructive evaluation techniques is proposed in this paper. MFL signals acquired from MFL PIG(pipeline inspection gauge) have nonlinearity and distortion caused by various extemal disturbances. SQI(self quotient image), a compensation technique for nonlinearity and distortion of MFL signal, is used to correct positioning of pipeline defects. Through the experiments using artificial defects carved in the KOGAS pipeline simulation facility, it is found that the performance of proposed defect detection is greatly improved compared to that of the conventional DCT(discrete cosine transform) coefficients based detection

  12. Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module ℱ over the polynomial algebra [Formula: see text] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring [Formula: see text] of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module [Formula: see text] and of quotient behaviors [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior

  13. Antibody index and specific antibody quotient in horses after intragastric administration of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskett, Katherine A; Mackay, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the use of a specific antibody index (AI) that relates Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgG quotient (Q(SN)) to total IgG quotient (Q(IgG)) for the detection of the anti-S neurona antibody fraction of CNS origin in CSF samples obtained from horses after intragastric administration of S neurona sporocysts. 18 adult horses. 14 horses underwent intragastric inoculation (day 0) with S neurona sporocysts, and 4 horses remained unchallenged; blood and CSF samples were collected on days - 1 and 84. For purposes of another study, some challenged horses received intermittent administration of ponazuril (20 mg/kg, PO). Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgG concentrations in CSF (SN(CSF)) and plasma (SN(plasma)) were measured via a direct ELISA involving merozoite lysate antigen and reported as ELISA units (EUs; arbitrary units based on a nominal titer for undiluted immune plasma of 100,000 EUs/mL). Total IgG concentrations in CSF (IgG(CSF)) and plasma (IgG(plasma)) were quantified via a sandwich ELISA and a radial immunodiffusion assay, respectively; Q(SN), Q(IgG), and AI were calculated. Following sporocyst challenge, mean +/- SEM SN(CSF) and SN(plasma) increased significantly (from 8.8 +/- 1.0 EUs/mL to 270.0 +/- 112.7 EUs/mL and from 1,737 +/- 245 EUs/mL to 43,169 +/- 13,770 EUs/mL, respectively). Challenge did not affect total IgG concentration, Q(SN), Q(IgG), or AI. S neurona-specific IgG detected in CSF samples from sporocyst-challenged horses appeared to be extraneural in origin; thus, this experimental challenge may not reliably result in CNS infection. Calculation of a specific AI may have application to the diagnosis of S neurona-associated myeloencephalitis in horses.

  14. The brain of the horse: weight and cephalization quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Bruno; Povinelli, Michele; Ballarin, Cristina; Granato, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The horse is a common domestic animal whose anatomy has been studied since the XVI century. However, a modern neuroanatomy of this species does not exist and most of the data utilized in textbooks and reviews derive from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here, we report information on the brain of Equus caballus obtained by sampling 131 horses, including brain weight (as a whole and subdivided into its constituents), encephalization quotient (EQ), and cerebellar quotient (CQ), and comparisons with what is known about other relevant species. The mean weight of the fresh brains in our experimental series was 598.63 g (SEM ± 7.65), with a mean body weight of 514.12 kg (SEM ± 15.42). The EQ was 0.78 and the CQ was 0.841. The data we obtained indicate that the horse possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a weight similar to that of other hoofed species of like mass. However, the shape of the brain, the noteworthy folding of the neocortex, and the peculiar longitudinal distribution of the gyri suggest an evolutionary specificity at least partially separate from that of the Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals and cetaceans) with whom Perissodactyla (odd-toed mammals) are often grouped.

  15. Language skills and intelligence quotient of protein energy malnutrition survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, May F; Shaaban, Sanaa Y; Nassar, Jilan F; Younis, Neveen T; Abdel-Mobdy, Ahmad E

    2012-06-01

    The study was conducted on 33 children aged 3-6 years who suffered from protein energy malnutrition (PEM) during infancy in comparison to 30 matching children to assess the long-term deficits in cognition and language skills. The patients' files were revised to record their admission and follow-up data and history, clinical examination, intelligence quotient and language assessment were done. The study revealed that 2-5 years from the acute attack the PEM patients were still shorter than the controls and their cognitive abilities were poorer. Their mental ages and language skills were mostly determined by their height and the duration of follow-up during their acute illness. Additionally their diet after the 3-5 years is still defective and does not meet their recommended daily allowance. These observations urge us to continue following these patients for longer durations to make sure no permanent damage occurs due to the PEM insult to the growing brain.

  16. Computing nilpotent quotients in finitely presented Lie rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Schneider

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A nilpotent quotient algorithm for finitely presented Lie rings over Z (and Q is described. The paper studies the graded and non-graded cases separately. The algorithm computes the so-called nilpotent presentation for a finitely presented, nilpotent Lie ring. A nilpotent presentation consists of generators for the abelian group and the products expressed as linear combinations for pairs formed by generators. Using that presentation the word problem is decidable in L. Provided that the Lie ring L is graded, it is possible to determine the canonical presentation for a lower central factor of L. Complexity is studied and it is shown that optimising the presentation is NP-hard. Computational details are provided with examples, timing and some structure theorems obtained from computations. Implementation in C and GAP interface are available.

  17. Symmetries of quantum spaces. Subgroups and quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podles, P.

    1995-01-01

    We prove that each action of a compact matrix quantum group on a compact quantum space can be decomposed into irreducible representations of the group. We give the formula for the corresponding multiplicities in the case of the quotient quantum spaces. We describe the subgroups and the quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

  19. MRI-based Brain Healthcare Quotients: A bridge between neural and behavioral analyses for keeping the brain healthy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Nemoto

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric disorders are a burden on social and economic resources. Therefore, maintaining brain health and preventing these disorders are important. While the physiological functions of the brain are well studied, few studies have focused on keeping the brain healthy from a neuroscientific viewpoint. We propose a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based quotient for monitoring brain health, the Brain Healthcare Quotient (BHQ, which is based on the volume of gray matter (GM and the fractional anisotropy (FA of white matter (WM. We recruited 144 healthy adults to acquire structural neuroimaging data, including T1-weighted images and diffusion tensor images, and data associated with both physical (BMI, blood pressure, and daily time use and social (subjective socioeconomic status, subjective well-being, post-materialism and Epicureanism factors. We confirmed that the BHQ was sensitive to an age-related decline in GM volume and WM integrity. Further analysis revealed that the BHQ was critically affected by both physical and social factors. We believe that our BHQ is a simple yet highly sensitive, valid measure for brain health research that will bridge the needs of the scientific community and society and help us lead better lives in which we stay healthy, active, and sharp.

  20. MRI-based Brain Healthcare Quotients: A bridge between neural and behavioral analyses for keeping the brain healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Oka, Hiroki; Fukuda, Hiroki; Yamakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric disorders are a burden on social and economic resources. Therefore, maintaining brain health and preventing these disorders are important. While the physiological functions of the brain are well studied, few studies have focused on keeping the brain healthy from a neuroscientific viewpoint. We propose a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quotient for monitoring brain health, the Brain Healthcare Quotient (BHQ), which is based on the volume of gray matter (GM) and the fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM). We recruited 144 healthy adults to acquire structural neuroimaging data, including T1-weighted images and diffusion tensor images, and data associated with both physical (BMI, blood pressure, and daily time use) and social (subjective socioeconomic status, subjective well-being, post-materialism and Epicureanism) factors. We confirmed that the BHQ was sensitive to an age-related decline in GM volume and WM integrity. Further analysis revealed that the BHQ was critically affected by both physical and social factors. We believe that our BHQ is a simple yet highly sensitive, valid measure for brain health research that will bridge the needs of the scientific community and society and help us lead better lives in which we stay healthy, active, and sharp.

  1. Left Global Hemineglect in High Autism-Spectrum Quotient Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paul Crewther

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism remains as a significant issue for many individuals due to the social impairment accompanying the disorder. Recent theories present potential relationships between autistic tendency and visual perceptual differences to explore differences in underlying visual pathways. These differences have been explored though the use of global and local stimuli to show difference in perception. This study compared the balance of global versus local perception between sub-groups from the normal population both high and low on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. A diamond illusion task containing rivaling global and local percepts was used to explore the effects of changing the occluder contrast and peripheral viewing upon global/local percept. An increase in global perception relative to increasing eccentricity of the stimulus from a fixation point was also seen in both groups. However, with increasing contrast of the occluding stripes both groups showed an increase in the percentage of global perception. When comparing between groups the high AQ showed a significant reduction in global perception compared to the low AQ group when the stimulus was presented in left hemifield. This difference wasn't present within right hemifield. We discuss how global perceptual hemineglect may suggest abnormal parietal function in individuals with high AQ.

  2. Deterministic hazard quotients (HQs): Heading down the wrong road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, L.; Hunter, C.; Simpson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The use of deterministic hazard quotients (HQs) in ecological risk assessment is common as a screening method in remediation of brownfield sites dominated by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. An HQ ≥ 1 indicates further risk evaluation is needed, but an HQ ≤ 1 generally excludes a site from further evaluation. Is the predicted hazard known with such certainty that differences of 10% (0.1) do not affect the ability to exclude or include a site from further evaluation? Current screening methods do not quantify uncertainty associated with HQs. To account for uncertainty in the HQ, exposure point concentrations (EPCs) or ecological benchmark values (EBVs) are conservatively biased. To increase understanding of the uncertainty associated with HQs, EPCs (measured and modeled) and toxicity EBVs were evaluated using a conservative deterministic HQ method. The evaluation was then repeated using a probabilistic (stochastic) method. The probabilistic method used data distributions for EPCs and EBVs to generate HQs with measurements of associated uncertainty. Sensitivity analyses were used to identify the most important factors significantly influencing risk determination. Understanding uncertainty associated with HQ methods gives risk managers a more powerful tool than deterministic approaches

  3. Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Makharia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child's intelligence quotient (IQ is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. Participants and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0–79, normal IQ (80–119, and high IQ (above 120. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001, children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001, children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001, children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001, and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001 were more likely to have high IQ. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory Among Medical Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Arifin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i is a Malay-language emotional intelligence (EI inventory that was based on a mixed-model approach of EI. It was specifically developed and validated for use among medical course applicants. However, evidence to support its use among medical students is inadequate. This study aims to provide further construct validity evidence for the USMEQ-i among medical students through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 479 medical students in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. After a preliminary analysis, data from only 317 respondents were found suitable for inclusion in CFA. CFA was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with bootstrapping due to the nonnormality of items at the multivariate level. The results of the analysis support the two-factor model of the EI component and the one-factor model of the faking component. However, the USMEQ-i should be administered with caution until further cross-validation studies are conducted among students in other medical schools in Malaysia.

  5. Use of risk quotient and probabilistic approaches to assess risks of pesticides to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    When conducting ecological risk assessments for pesticides, the United States Environmental Protection Agency typically relies upon the risk quotient (RQ). This approach is intended to be conservative in nature, making assumptions related to exposure and effects that are intended...

  6. Quotients of irreducible N=2 superconformal coset theories by discrete symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, D.; Love, A.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of massless states is studied for the irreducible N=2 superconformal coset theories when these theories are quotiented by discrete symmetries, including the effect of embedding the discrete symmetries in the gauge group. (orig.)

  7. The Effect Of Extrinsic Motivation On Adversity Quotient In Patients With HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  8. The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on Adversity Quotient in Patients with Hiv/aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  9. Descent of line bundles to GIT quotients of flag varieties by maximal torus

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shrawan

    2007-01-01

    Let L be a homogeneous ample line bundle on any flag variety G/P and let T be a maximal torus of G. We prove a general necessary and sufficient condition for L to descend as a line bundle on the GIT quotient of G/P by T. We use this result to explicitly determine exactly which L descend to the GIT quotient for any simple complex algebraic group G and any parabolic subgroup P.

  10. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  11. The comparison of Missouri mathematics project and teams games tournament viewed from emotional quotient eight grade student of junior school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Indra; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar

    2017-08-01

    This research was a quasi-experimental research with 2 × 3 factorial design. It aimed to determine the learning model between Missouri Mathematics Project (MMP) and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) that gave the best achievement on mathematics subject viewed from emotional quotient. The population of this research were all of Junior High School students at the 8th grade in Surakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia in academic year 2016/2017 which applied KTSP curriculum. The sample was taken by using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected by using methods of documentation, emotional quotient questionnaires, and mathematics achievement test. Data analysis technique used two ways analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unequal cell. According to the research findings, it could be concluded that: (1) students' mathematics achievement which were taught by using MMP is as good as emotional quotient achievement which were taught by using TGT in straight-line equation material, (2) mathematics achievement of students with high emotional quotient is better than students with medium and low emotional quotient, and mathematics achievement of students with medium emotional quotient is as good as students with low emotional quotient in straight-line equation material, (3) in each learning model, mathematics achievement of students with high emotional quotient is better than students with medium and low emotional quotient, and mathematics achievement of students with medium emotional quotient is as good as students with low emotional quotient in straight-line equation material (4) in each category of high and medium emotional quotient, student's mathematics achievement which were taught by using MMP is better than student's mathematics achievement which were taught by using TGT and in low emotional quotient student's mathematics achievement which were taught by using MMP is as good as student's mathematics achievement which were taught by using TGT in straight

  12. PENGARUH PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES, ADVERSITY QUOTIENT DENGAN MEDIASI SELF EEFFICACY TERHADAP MINAT BERWIRAUSAHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Astri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to figure out the influence of personal attributes (personality. Adversity quotient and self efficacy towards the students’ entrepreneurial interest of economics faculty of semarang state university. This study was undertaken on 277 students of economics faculty of semarang state university as the samples using propotional random sampling. In addition, the data collection technique used was a questionnaire, then the data were analyzed by path analysis. The results of the study showed that there were 21.7% of the effectof personality towards the entrepreneurial interest, 18% of the effect of adversity quotient toward the student’s entrepreneurial interest, 57% of the effect of self efficacy towards the student’s entrepreneurial interest, 49% of the effect of personality towards the self efficacy, 20.2% of the effect of adversity quotient towards the self efficacy, 27.9% of the effect of personality through self efficacy towards the students’ entrepreneurial interest, and 11.5% of the effect of the effect of adversity quotient through the self efficacy towards the entrepreneurial interest.It can be concluded that there are significant effects of personal attributes (personality and adversity quotient towards the entrepreneurial interest either directly or indirectly. The researcher suggests that the university students should improve their entrepreneurial spirit by attending training and seminar about entrepreneurship, and the next researcher to examine different objects as well as adding an external variable in accordance with the research.

  13. On the symmetric difference quotient and its application to the correction of orbits. II - A numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R. A.; Wnuk, E.

    The relative accuracy of ordinary and symmetric difference quotients for elementary functions employed in orbit corrections is investigated analytically. The theoretical results of Serafin (1982) are applied to numerical computations in rectangular coordinates, and results for a number of generalized and practical problems are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. The numerical results confirm that symmetric difference quotients give significantly more accurate predictions than ordinary difference quotients.

  14. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  15. THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The population was taken from ambulatory patients. There were 16 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was extrinsic motivation and dependent variable was Adversity Quotient. Data were collected by using questionnaire and interview, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result revealed that there was an effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient of patients with HIV/AIDS (p=0.017. The extrinsic motivation was found to have an effect on control response (p=0.027 and origin response (p=0.028, there was no influence of extrinsic motivation on ownership response (p=0.334, reach (p=0.129 and endurance (p=0.161. Discussion: It can be concluded that the extrinsic motivation with intervention of social support has a positive effect on the improvement of Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS. Further studies should measure the effectiveness of Adversity Quotient training on acceptance response in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  17. Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    In this note we investigate the generating series of the Euler characteristics of Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1). We link the appearing combinatorics to p-fountains, a generalization of the notion of fountain of coins. We obtain a representation of the generating series as coefficient of a two variable generating series.

  18. From Passion to Emotion: Emotional Quotient as Predictor of Work Attitude Behaviour among Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relojo, Dennis; Pilao, Sonia Janice; Dela Rosa, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Positive thinking, in conjunction with a robust attitude, can affect one's well-being and coping strategies under stressful events. This study sought to identify the role of Emotional Quotient (EQ) to Work Attitude Behaviour (WAB) of selected faculty members from three higher educational institutions in the Philippines. Using a non-experimental…

  19. Convolution quotients in the production of heat in an infinite cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battig, A; Kalla, S L [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia

    1974-12-01

    A solution of the problem of heat production in an infinite cylinder is considered by an appeal to the concept of convolution quotients and finite Hankel transforms. The result given by Erdelyi follows as a particular case of the result established here.

  20. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  1. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  2. Jacob's ladders, Riemann's oscillators, quotient of two oscillating multiforms and set of metamorphoses of this system

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce complicated oscillating system, namely quotient of two multiforms based on Riemann-Siegel formula. We prove that there is an infinite set of metamorphoses of this system (=chrysalis) on critical line $\\sigma=\\frac 12$ into a butterfly (=infinite series of M\\" obius functions in the region of absolute convergence $\\sigma>1$).

  3. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema. Assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P<0.0001 and P<0.001, respectively), and a significant correlation was found between SD and A-aDO2 (P<0.0001). V/Q quotient SPECT appears to be more sensitive to detect emphysematous lungs compared with morphologic CT in patients with emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema. (author)

  4. Risk assessment by percolation leaching tests of extensive green roofs with fine fraction of mixed recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Uceda, Antonio; Galvín, Adela P; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, José Ramón; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Peña, Adolfo

    2018-03-19

    Extensive green roofs are urban construction systems that provide thermal regulation and sound proofing for the buildings involved, in addition to providing an urban heat island mitigation or water retention. On the other hand, policies towards reduction of energy consumption, a circular economy and sustainability are core in the European Union. Motivated by this, an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the environmental risk assessment according to release levels of polluting elements on leachates of different green roof substrate mixtures based on recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste through (i) the performance in laboratory of two procedures: compliance and percolation tests and (ii) an upscaled experimental leaching test for long-term on-site prediction. Four plots were built on a building roof and covered with autochthonous Mediterranean plants in Córdoba, South of Spain. As growing substrate, four mixtures were used of a commercial growing substrate with different proportions of a fine mixed recycled aggregate ranging from 0 to 75% by volume. The results show that these mixtures were classified as non-hazardous materials according to legal limits of the Landfill Directive 2003/33/CE. The release levels registered in extensive green roofs were lower compared to the laboratory test data. This shows how laboratory conditions can overestimate the potential pollutant effect of these materials compared to actual conditions.

  5. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  6. Primary nocturnal enuresis is associated with lower intelligence quotient scores in boys from poorer socioeconomic status families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Khoshdel, Alireza; Jalaly, Niloofar; Golshan, Shabnam; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    To explore intelligence quotient in boys with primary nocturnal enuresis compared with normal boys considering their socioeconomic status. A total of 152 school-aged boys (including 55 boys with primary nocturnal enuresis and 97 matched normal controls) were assessed. Boys with a history of any neurological or urological disease were excluded. Two different districts of Tehran: Khani-Abad (a poor district) and Pirouzi (a middle class district) districts were enrolled according to socioeconomic status data reported by the World Health Organization. Intelligence tests were carried out using a validated Iranian translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised. Total, as well as performance intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient scores and verbal-performance discrepancy (the difference between verbal and performance intelligence quotient scores for each individual) were compared using a t-test between boys with primary nocturnal enuresis in each district and their matched controls. Considering each district separately, the total intelligence quotient score was lower in primary nocturnal enuresis cases than controls only in the lower income district (90.7 ± 23.3 vs 104.8 ± 14.7, P = 0.002). Similarly, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked lower in verbal intelligence quotient (P = 0.002) and performance intelligence quotient (P = 0.004) compared with their matched normal controls only in lower income district, whereas in the higher income district, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked similar in total intelligence quotient to their matched controls. Boys with primary nocturnal enuresis had a lower intelligence quotient compared with the control participants only in low-income district. It seems important to adjust the results of the intelligence quotient assessment in these children according to their socioeconomic status. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  8. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  9. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2017-10-01

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  10. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  11. Fractional quiver W-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Pestun, Vasily

    2018-04-01

    We introduce quiver gauge theory associated with the non-simply laced type fractional quiver and define fractional quiver W-algebras by using construction of Kimura and Pestun (Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1072-1; Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1073-0) with representation of fractional quivers.

  12. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  13. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  14. Classification of intelligence quotient via brainwave sub-band power ratio features and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahidin, A H; Megat Ali, M S A; Taib, M N; Tahir, N Md; Yassin, I M; Lias, S

    2014-04-01

    This paper elaborates on the novel intelligence assessment method using the brainwave sub-band power ratio features. The study focuses only on the left hemisphere brainwave in its relaxed state. Distinct intelligence quotient groups have been established earlier from the score of the Raven Progressive Matrices. Sub-band power ratios are calculated from energy spectral density of theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Synthetic data have been generated to increase dataset from 50 to 120. The features are used as input to the artificial neural network. Subsequently, the brain behaviour model has been developed using an artificial neural network that is trained with optimized learning rate, momentum constant and hidden nodes. Findings indicate that the distinct intelligence quotient groups can be classified from the brainwave sub-band power ratios with 100% training and 88.89% testing accuracies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema: assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-05-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-MAA single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema.

  16. A difference quotient-numerical integration method for solving radiative transfer problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Peizhu

    1992-01-01

    A difference quotient-numerical integration method is adopted to solve radiative transfer problems in an anisotropic scattering slab medium. By using the method, the radiative transfer problem is separated into a system of linear algebraic equations and the coefficient matrix of the system is a band matrix, so the method is very simple to evaluate on computer and to deduce formulae and easy to master for experimentalists. An example is evaluated and it is shown that the method is precise

  17. Phonation Quotient in Women: A Measure of Vocal Efficiency Using Three Aerodynamic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Watts, Christopher R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine measures of vital capacity and phonation quotient across three age groups in women using three different aerodynamic instruments representing low-tech and high-tech options. This study has a prospective, repeated measures design. Fifteen women in each age group of 25-39 years, 40-59 years, and 60-79 years were assessed using maximum phonation time and vital capacity obtained from three aerodynamic instruments: a handheld analog windmill type spirometer, a handheld digital spirometer, and the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS), Model 6600. Phonation quotient was calculated using vital capacity from each instrument. Analyses of variance were performed to test for main effects of the instruments and age on vital capacity and derived phonation quotient. Pearson product moment correlation was performed to assess measurement reliability (parallel forms) between the instruments. Regression equations, scatterplots, and coefficients of determination were also calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in vital capacity measures for the digital spirometer compared with the windmill-type spirometer and PAS across age groups. Strong positive correlations were present between all three instruments for both vital capacity and derived phonation quotient measurements. Measurement precision for the digital spirometer was lower than the windmill spirometer compared with the PAS. However, all three instruments had strong measurement reliability. Additionally, age did not have an effect on the measurement across instruments. These results are consistent with previous literature reporting data from male speakers and support the use of low-tech options for measurement of basic aerodynamic variables associated with voice production. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving students’ creative mathematical reasoning ability students through adversity quotient and argument driven inquiry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, W.; Wahyudin; Prabawanto, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role factors of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction in improving mathematical creative reasoning ability from students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher. The study was designed in the form of experiments with a pretest-posttest control group design that aims to examine the role of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) learning on improving students’ mathematical creative reasoning abilities. The population in this research was the student of mathematics teacher candidate in Cimahi City, while the sample of this research was 90 students of the candidate of the teacher of mathematics specified purposively then determined randomly which belong to experiment class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (1) Improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who was a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction is better than those who received direct instruction is reviewed based on the whole; (2) There was no different improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction and direct instruction was reviewed based on the type of Adversity Quotient (Quitter / AQ Low, Champer / AQ Medium, and the Climber / AQ High); (3) Learning factors and type of Adversity Quotient (AQ) affected the improvement of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and AQ together in developing of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability; (4) mathematical creative reasoning ability of students’ who is a candidate for math teacher had not been achieved optimally on the indicators novelty.

  19. Efimov spaces and the separable quotient problem for spaces C-P(K)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Śliwa, W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 457, č. 1 (2018), s. 104-113 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spaces of continuous functions * pointwise topology * separable quotient problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X17307588?via%3Dihub

  20. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid, Reisi; Leila, Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  1. Efimov spaces and the separable quotient problem for spaces C-P(K)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Śliwa, W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 457, č. 1 (2018), s. 104-113 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spaces of continuous functions * pointwise topology * separable quotient problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0022247X17307588?via%3Dihub

  2. Accurate method for luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients measurements in sunglasses lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.

  3. Examination of the relative importance of hospital employment in non-metropolitan counties using location quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jon L

    2013-01-01

    The US Health Care and Social Services sector (North American Industrial Classification System 'sector 62') has become an extremely important component of the nation's economy, employing approximately 18 million workers and generating almost $753 billion in annual payrolls. At the county level, the health care and social services sector is typically the largest or second largest employer. Hospital employment is often the largest component of the sector's total employment. Hospital employment is particularly important to non-metropolitan or rural communities. A high quality healthcare sector serves to promote economic development and attract new businesses and to provide stability in economic downturns. The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity of hospital employment in rural counties relative to the nation as a whole using location quotients and to draw conclusions regarding how potential changes in Medicare and Medicaid might affect rural populations. Estimates for county-level hospital employment are not commonly available. Estimates of county-level hospital employment were therefore generated for all counties in the USA the Census Bureau's County Business Pattern Data for 2010. These estimates were used to generate location quotients for each county which were combined with demographic data to generate a profile of factors that are related to the magnitude of location quotients. The results were then used to draw inferences regarding the possible impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 (ACA) and the possible imposition of aspects of the Budget Control Act 2011 (BCA). Although a very high percentage of rural counties contain medically underserved areas, an examination of location quotients indicates that the percentage of the county workforce employed by hospitals in the most rural counties tends to be higher than for the nation as a whole, a counterintuitive finding. Further, when location quotients are regressed upon data

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient for Assessing Low and High Levels of Autistic Traits in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Hart, Kari R

    2017-06-01

    The current study systematically investigated the effects of scoring and categorization methods on the psychometric properties of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. Four hundred and three college students completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient at least once. Total scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability using a binary or Likert scoring method, but the results were more varied for the subscales. Overall, Likert scoring yielded higher internal consistency and test-retest reliability than binary scoring. However, agreement in categorization of low and high autistic traits was poor over time (except for a median split on Likert scores). The results support using Likert scoring and administering the Autism-Spectrum Quotient at the same time as the task of interest with neurotypical participants.

  5. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  6. A new fractional wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a potent tool to analyze the time-varying signal. However, it fails in locating the fractional Fourier domain (FRFD)-frequency contents which is required in some applications. A novel fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is proposed to solve this problem. It displays the time and FRFD-frequency information jointly in the time-FRFD-frequency plane. The definition, basic properties, inverse transform and reproducing kernel of the proposed FRWT are considered. It has been shown that an FRWT with proper order corresponds to the classical wavelet transform (WT). The multiresolution analysis (MRA) associated with the developed FRWT, together with the construction of the orthogonal fractional wavelets are also presented. Three applications are discussed: the analysis of signal with time-varying frequency content, the FRFD spectrum estimation of signals that involving noise, and the construction of fractional Harr wavelet. Simulations verify the validity of the proposed FRWT.

  7. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  8. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  9. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  10. Using Constructed Knowledge to Multiply Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Taajah Felder

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of her teaching career, this author learned to create environments in which both the teacher and learners embrace understanding. She introduced new concepts with a general question or word problem and encouraged students to find solutions with a strategy of their choice. By using this instructional method, she allowed her students…

  11. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  12. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on respiratory quotient of infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Sirimongkol, Pathama; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2015-01-01

    To compare the respiratory quotient in infants with chronic lung disease before and after receiving a modular diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content. Infants with chronic lung disease from the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled and assessed for nutritional status, severity of chronic lung disease and dietary intake. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a custom-made airtight canopy with O2 and CO2 sensors. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated from VCO2/VO2 during the period they were fed low carbohydrates (37% of total calories) for at least 24 hours vs. a standard diet (47% carbohydrate). These two formulas were similar in terms of caloric density and protein content. Each patient received at least 100-150 kcal/ kg/day during the study period. Respiratory quotients of the same patient receiving the two diets were compared by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 14 patients (median age 7 months, range 1-26 months) were recruited. Twelve children had weight for age Z-score below-2SD. Their median weight for age Z-score, length for age Z-score and weight for length Z-score were -2.89, -3.08 and -1.24, respectively. The median RQ measured during the low carbohydrate diet was 0.96 (interquartile range 0.95-0.97), significantly lower than the median RQ during the standard diet, which was 1.04 (0.97-1.10). However, the respiratory rate revealed no significant difference. Two participants with underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease showed higher RQ after low carbohydrate formula feeding, which might be a result of hypersecretion due to its high fat content. Diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content can reduce the RQ in infants with chronic lung disease compared to the standard enteral formula. A 10-percent reduction of carbohydrate content may provide a sizeable effect in this group of patients. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation.

  13. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes...... of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake...

  14. Fractional supersymmetry through generalized anyonic algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douari, Jamila; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste; Hassouni, Yassine

    2001-01-01

    The construction of anyonic operators and algebra is generalized by using quons operators. Therefore, the particular version of fractional supersymmetry is constructed on the two-dimensional lattice by associating two generalized anyons of different kinds. The fractional supersymmetry Hamiltonian operator is obtained on the two-dimensional lattice and the quantum algebra U q (sl 2 ) is realized. (author)

  15. The effect of brain based learning with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningtyas, V.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research was to find out the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL) with contextual approach viewed from adversity quotient (AQ) on mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the model to optimize the brain in the new concept learning and real life problem solving by making the good environment. Adversity Quotient is the ability to response and faces the problems. In addition, it is also about how to turn the difficulties into chances. This AQ classified into quitters, campers, and climbers. The research method used in this research was quasi experiment by using 2x3 factorial designs. The sample was chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The instruments were test and questionnaire for the data of AQ. The results showed that (1) BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement, (2) there is no significant difference between each types of AQ on mathematics achievement, and (3) there is no interaction between learning model and AQ on mathematics achievement.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  17. Students’ Relational Understanding in Quadrilateral Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A. N.; Juniati, D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    The type of research is qualitative approach which aims to describe how students’ relational understanding of solving mathematic problem that was seen from Adversity Quotient aspect. Research subjects were three 7th grade students of Junior High School. They were taken by category of Adversity Quotient (AQ) such quitter, camper, and climber. Data collected based on problem solving and interview. The research result showed that (1) at the stage of understanding the problem, the subjects were able to state and write down what is known and asked, and able to mention the concepts associated with the quadrilateral problem. (2) The three subjects devise a plan by linking concepts relating to quadrilateral problems. (3) The three subjects were able to solve the problem. (4) The three subjects were able to look back the answers. The three subjects were able to understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan and look back. However, the quitter and camper subjects have not been able to give a reason for the steps they have taken.

  18. Best relay selection using SNR and interference quotient for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive networks in underlay settings operate simultaneously with the primary networks satisfying stringent interference limits. This condition forces them to operate with low transmission powers and confines their area of coverage. In an effort to reach remote destinations, underlay cognitive sources make use of relaying techniques. Selecting the best relay among those who are ready to cooperate is different in underlay settings than traditional non-cognitive networks. In this paper, we present a relay selection scheme which uses the quotient of the relay link signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the interference generated from the relay to the primary user to choose the best relay. The proposed scheme optimizes this quotient in a way to maximize the relay link SNR above a certain value whereas the interference is kept below a defined threshold. We derive closed expressions for the outage probability and bit error probability of the system incorporating this scheme. Simulation results confirm the validity of the analytical results and reveal that the relay selection in cognitive environment is feasible in low SNR regions. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. The Relationship between the Emotional Quotient and Emotional Maturity in Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayegh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional quotient is the ability to manage and control the anxiety, tension, hope and optimism in the face of obstacles on the way of achieving the purpose. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the emotional quotient and emotional maturity in the students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study carried out on 396 students with mean age of (M = 22.14, SD = 21.14. Data was collected through two questionnaires including Bar-On Emotional quotient Inventory (EQ-i and Emotional Maturity Scale (EMS. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and linear regression and Pearson's correlation tests. Results: The results showed that there's a significant relationship (P≤0.001 between emotional quotient and emotional maturity, also, between the emotional maturity with the Interpersonal Component (P≤0.001, Intrapersonal Component (P≤0.001, Adaptability Component (P≤0.001, and Stress Management Component (P ≤0.001 And General Mood Component (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that researchers carry out greater studies in students, identify factors associated with emotional maturity and develop precise plans in order to strengthen these factors and increase the rate of emotional quotient in students.

  20. Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  1. Generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space-time fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Xu Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space and time fractional derivatives is constructed. The equation is solved for free particle and for a square potential well by the method of integral transforms, Fourier transform and Laplace transform, and the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The Green function for free particle is also presented in this paper. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the cases of the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation and the ones in standard quantum

  2. The Relationship between the Emotional Quotient and Emotional Maturity in Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Fayegh Yousefi; Shohreh Baharvand Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emotional quotient is the ability to manage and control the anxiety, tension, hope and optimism in the face of obstacles on the way of achieving the purpose. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the emotional quotient and emotional maturity in the students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study carried out on 396 students with mean age of (M = 22.14, SD = 21.14). Data was col...

  3. Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Brooke Mackenzie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is associated with lower than average intelligence quotient (IQ scores. However, research done on this disorder often excludes participants based on lower than average IQ’s (i.e. between 70 and 85. The purpose of this paper is to alert researchers to the consequences of excluding participants based on IQ’s within this range and to highlight the importance of providing a clear rationale when choosing to exclude participants based on IQ. Next, we offer recommendations for researching ADHD and their relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches. Overall this paper emphasizes that including participants who have lower than average IQ in research on ADHD may promote a more realistic understanding of the condition and in turn improve our ability to treat it.

  4. Emotional and Spiritual Quotient Approach Improve Biology Education Students’ Acceptance of Evolution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darussyamsu, R.; Fadilah, M.; Putri, D. H.

    2018-04-01

    Emotional and spiritual aspect is one of main factors that influence students’ acceptance of a theory. This study aim to measure university students’ acceptance of evolution by learns evolution using emotional and spiritual quotient (ESQ) approach. This is a quasi-experimental research using one shot case study design with the subject 36 biology educational students at Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Padang. Data collected using the MATE instrument by Rutledge and Warden (2000) after the students learn evolution for eight meetings since January until March 2017. The result showed that by learning evolution theory combine with ESQ aspects increase students acceptance from very low become moderate acceptance. It concluded that ESQ aspects can improve students’ acceptance of evolution. Any criteria depend on it are discussed.

  5. Algebraic geometry and Bethe ansatz. Part I. The quotient ring for BAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper and upcoming ones, we initiate a systematic study of Bethe ansatz equations for integrable models by modern computational algebraic geometry. We show that algebraic geometry provides a natural mathematical language and powerful tools for understanding the structure of solution space of Bethe ansatz equations. In particular, we find novel efficient methods to count the number of solutions of Bethe ansatz equations based on Gröbner basis and quotient ring. We also develop analytical approach based on companion matrix to perform the sum of on-shell quantities over all physical solutions without solving Bethe ansatz equations explicitly. To demonstrate the power of our method, we revisit the completeness problem of Bethe ansatz of Heisenberg spin chain, and calculate the sum rules of OPE coefficients in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  6. Contact Quotient of Female Singers Singing Four Pitches for Five Vowels in Normal and Pressed Phonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Tan, Kendrich Graemer

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contact quotient (CQ) values of breathy, normal, and pressed phonation types in four different sections of the female singing range. Electroglottography (EGG) and acoustic signals were recorded from 10 female singing teachers. Five vowels were sung for 1-3 seconds each, in three phonation types-normal, breathy, and pressed, in four pitches representing registration change points in the singing range. CQ values were automatically generated from the EGG signal using VoceVista at 35% threshold level. Sound pressure levels were checked in Praat. Unianova and correlations were performed using an SPSS program. CQ values of female participants in the study yielded ranges of 0.25-0.62 in normal and 0.34-0.73 in pressed. Normal and pressed CQ differed significantly from each other at P singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ AS A PREDICTOR OF READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING ACHIEVEMENT OF EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Setya B. Ningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating Intelligent Quotient (IQ as a predictor of reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as to correlate the students‟ reading comprehension with their writing achievement. The participant of the study were 32 senior high school Indonesian students. There are three instruments used in this study, those are IQ test, reading comprehension test, and writing test. Upon obtaining the whole data needed, Pearson Product Moment formula was employed to determine the correlation of IQ with reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as reading comprehension with writing achievement. The result of this study revealed that IQ made significant contribution in predicting reading comprehension (23.42% and writing achievement (16.08%. In addition, the correlation coefficient of reading comprehension and writing achievement shows that they are moderately correlated (r=.587, meaning that reading comprehension contributes as many as 34.45% to writing achievement.

  8. Rethinking Intelligence Quotient Exclusion Criteria Practices in the Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Genevieve B.; Wonders, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with lower than average intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. However, research done on this disorder often excludes participants based on lower than average IQ’s (i.e., between 70 and 85). The purpose of this paper is to alert researchers to the consequences of excluding participants based on IQ’s within this range and to highlight the importance of providing a clear rationale when choosing to exclude participants based on IQ. Next, we offer recommendations for researching ADHD and their relative benefits and drawbacks of these approaches. Overall this paper emphasizes that including participants who have lower than average IQ in research on ADHD may promote a more realistic understanding of the condition and in turn improve our ability to treat it. PMID:27303350

  9. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  10. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.

    2006-07-01

    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  11. Fractional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations

  12. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  13. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  14. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  15. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Development and psychometric adaptation in Bahasa Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Z.L.; Halim, M.S.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i ; BarOn, 2004) was created to assess emotional intelligence (EI). In our research project we produced the Indonesian version. The EQ-i was translated from English into Bahasa Indonesia and back-translated into English. Test-retest reliabilities and

  16. The Latent Structure of Autistic Traits: A Taxometric, Latent Class and Latent Profile Analysis of the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J.; Dubey, Indu; Smith, Danielle; Ropar, Danielle; Tunney, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits are widely thought to operate along a continuum. A taxometric analysis of Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient data was conducted to test this assumption, finding little support but identifying a high severity taxon. To understand this further, latent class and latent profile models were estimated that indicated the presence of six…

  17. Brief Report: The Autism Spectrum Quotient Has Convergent Validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale in a High-Functioning Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to measure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and screen for ASD. It is readily available free of charge online and is easily accessible to practitioners, researchers and individuals who suspect that they may have an ASD. Thus, the AQ is a potentially useful, widely accessible tool for ASD…

  18. The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient : The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Y.; Fuermaier, A. B. M.; Den Heijer, A. E.; Tucha, O.; Althaus, M.

    The 'Empathy Quotient' (EQ) and 'Systemizing Quotient' (SQ) are used worldwide to measure people's empathizing and systemizing cognitive styles. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Dutch EQ and SQ in healthy participants (n = 685), and high functioning males with autism

  19. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  20. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  1. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  2. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  3. Relationship between respiratory quotient, nitrification, and nitrous oxide emissions in a forced aerated composting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi, E-mail: jm-tsutsuih@kochi-u.ac.jp [Research and Education Faculty, Natural Sciences Cluster, Agriculture Unit, Kochi University, B200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan); Fujiwara, Taku [Research and Education Faculty, Natural Sciences Cluster, Agriculture Unit, Kochi University, B200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan); Inoue, Daisuke [Department of Health Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara-Minami, Kanagawa (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan); Ito, Ryusei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan); Matsukawa, Kazutsugu [Research and Education Faculty, Multidisciplinary Science Cluster, Life and Environmental Medicine Science Unit, Kochi University, B200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan); Funamizu, Naoyuki [Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • RQ can be an indicator of N{sub 2}O emission in forced aerated composting process. • Emission of N{sub 2}O with nitrification was observed with RQ decrease. • Mass balances demonstrated the RQ decrease was caused by nitrification. • Conversion ratio of oxidized ammonia and total N to N{sub 2}O were ∼2.7%. - Abstract: We assessed the relationship between respiratory quotient (RQ) and nitrification and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emission in forced aerated composting using lab-scale reactors. Relatively high RQ values from degradation of readily degradable organics initially occurred. RQ then stabilized at slightly lower values, then decreased. Continuous emission of N{sub 2}O was observed during the RQ decrease. Correlation between nitrification and N{sub 2}O emission shows that the latter was triggered by nitrification. Mass balances demonstrated that the O{sub 2} consumption of nitrification (∼24.8 mmol) was slightly higher than that of CO{sub 2} emission (∼20.0 mmol), indicating that the RQ decrease was caused by the occurrence of nitrification. Results indicate that RQ is a useful index, which not only reflects the bioavailability of organics but also predicts the occurrence of nitrification and N{sub 2}O emission in forced aerated composting.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Anholt, Gideon; Raveh-Gottfried, Sagi; Hamo, Naama; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.

  5. The role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI in individuals’ cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed

  6. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ Scores in Half a Million People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ruzich

    Full Text Available This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ scores in a 'big data' sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71, slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94 This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19. As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82 scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52, and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92 scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48. Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits.

  7. The quotient of normal random variables and application to asset price fat tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caginalp, Carey; Caginalp, Gunduz

    2018-06-01

    The quotient of random variables with normal distributions is examined and proven to have power law decay, with density f(x) ≃f0x-2, with the coefficient depending on the means and variances of the numerator and denominator and their correlation. We also obtain the conditional probability densities for each of the four quadrants given by the signs of the numerator and denominator for arbitrary correlation ρ ∈ [ - 1 , 1) . For ρ = - 1 we obtain a particularly simple closed form solution for all x ∈ R. The results are applied to a basic issue in economics and finance, namely the density of relative price changes. Classical finance stipulates a normal distribution of relative price changes, though empirical studies suggest a power law at the tail end. By considering the supply and demand in a basic price change model, we prove that the relative price change has density that decays with an x-2 power law. Various parameter limits are established.

  8. The relationship between happiness and intelligent quotient: the contribution of socio-economic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Ambler, G; Strydom, A; Rai, D; Cooper, C; McManus, S; Weich, S; Meltzer, H; Dein, S; Hassiotis, A

    2013-06-01

    Happiness and higher intelligent quotient (IQ) are independently related to positive health outcomes. However, there are inconsistent reports about the relationship between IQ and happiness. The aim was to examine the association between IQ and happiness and whether it is mediated by social and clinical factors. Method The authors analysed data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey in England. The participants were adults aged 16 years or over, living in private households in 2007. Data from 6870 participants were included in the study. Happiness was measured using a validated question on a three-point scale. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test and both categorical and continuous IQ was analysed. Happiness is significantly associated with IQ. Those in the lowest IQ range (70-99) reported the lowest levels of happiness compared with the highest IQ group (120-129). Mediation analysis using the continuous IQ variable found dependency in activities of daily living, income, health and neurotic symptoms were strong mediators of the relationship, as they reduced the association between happiness and IQ by 50%. Those with lower IQ are less happy than those with higher IQ. Interventions that target modifiable variables such as income (e.g. through enhancing education and employment opportunities) and neurotic symptoms (e.g. through better detection of mental health problems) may improve levels of happiness in the lower IQ groups.

  9. Emotional quotient in frontotemporal dementia vs. Alzheimer's disease: the role of socioemotional agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Andrew R; Samimi, Mersal S; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Jimenez, Elvira E; Mendez, Mario F

    2017-01-01

    Socioemotional dysfunction distinguishes behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from other dementias. Patients with bvFTD not only have early social impairment and emotional blunting, but they also have agnosia of their socioemotional dysfunction. To investigate the relationship between agnosia and dysfunction, we assessed self-knowledge of socioemotional dysfunction with an emotional quotient (EQ) scale administered to 12 patients with bvFTD and a comparison group of 12 age-matched patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and compared these self-ratings to caregiver ratings of social dysfunction and emotional blunting. The bvFTD patients self-rated as having higher EQs than the AD patients, particularly higher self-ratings of their Social Skills, an EQ subscale which correlated with increased emotional blunting. On within-groups analysis, the bvFTD patients' high self-ratings of their EQ Appraisal of Emotions correlated with increased socioemotional dysfunction, whereas all of the AD patients' self-ratings correlated appropriately with their degree of dysfunction. Large socioemotional agnosia scores (EQ minus function) distinguishes bvFTD from AD. Additionally, in bvFTD, agnosia specifically for their ability to appreciate others' emotions correlates with the degree of socioemotional dysfunction, suggesting a role for socioemotional agnosia in increasing socioemotional dysfunction.

  10. The City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System: Conception and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a systematic review of 38 current intelligent city evaluation systems (ICESs from around the world, this research analyzes the secondary and tertiary indicators of these 38 ICESs from the perspectives of scale structuring, approaches and indicator selection, and determines their common base. From this base, the fundamentals of the City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System are developed and five dimensions are selected after a clustering analysis. The basic version, City IQ Evaluation System 1.0, involves 275 experts from 14 high-end research institutions, which include the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science and Engineering (Germany, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Planning Management Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, and the Development Research Center of the State Council of China. City IQ Evaluation System 2.0 is further developed, with improvements in its universality, openness, and dynamic adjustment capability. After employing deviation evaluation methods in the IQ assessment, City IQ Evaluation System 3.0 was conceived. The research team has conducted a repeated assessment of 41 intelligent cities around the world using City IQ Evaluation System 3.0. The results have proved that the City IQ Evaluation System, developed on the basis of intelligent life, features more rational indicators selected from data sources that can offer better universality, openness, and dynamics, and is more sensitive and precise.

  11. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  12. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Shivaprakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean′s fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect.

  13. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Importance of Phonons with Negative Phase Quotient in Disordered Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Lv, Wei; Rohskopf, Andrew; Henry, Asegun

    2018-02-08

    Current understanding of phonons is based on the phonon gas model (PGM), which is best rationalized for crystalline materials. However, most of the phonons/modes in disordered materials have a different character and thus may contribute to heat conduction in a fundamentally different way than is described by PGM. For the modes in crystals, which have sinusoidal character, one can separate the modes into two primary categories, namely acoustic and optical modes. However, for the modes in disordered materials, such designations may no longer rigorously apply. Nonetheless, the phase quotient (PQ) is a quantity that can be used to evaluate whether a mode more so shares a distinguishing property of acoustic vibrations manifested as a positive PQ, or a distinguishing property of an optical vibrations manifested as negative PQ. In thinking about this characteristic, there is essentially no intuition regarding the role of positive vs. negative PQ vibrational modes in disordered solids. Given this gap in understanding, herein we studied the respective contributions to thermal conductivity for several disordered solids as a function of PQ. The analysis sheds light on the importance of optical like/negative PQ modes in structurally/compositionally disordered solids, whereas in crystalline materials, the contributions of optical modes are usually small.

  15. Perception of emotional facial expressions in individuals with high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Poljac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviours and specific impairments in emotional processing. The present study employed The Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. 2006 to quantify autistic traits in a group of 260 healthy individuals and to investigate whether this measure is related to the perception of facial emotional expressions. The emotional processing of twelve participants that scored significantly higher than the average on the AQ was compared to twelve participants with significantly lower AQ scores. Perception of emotional expressions was estimated by The Facial Recognition Task (Montagne et al. 2007. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to accuracy and sensitivity of the perception of emotional facial expressions. Specifically, the group with high AQ score was less accurate and needed higher emotional content to recognize emotions of anger, disgust, happiness and sadness. This result implies a selective impairment that might be helpful in understanding the psychopathology of autism spectrum disorders.

  16. Ranking Renewable and Fossil Fuels on Global Warming Potential Using Respiratory Quotient Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the greenhouse gases which cause global warming. The amount of fossil fuels consumed to meet the demands in the areas of power and transportation is projected to increase in the upcoming years. Depending on carbon content, each power plant fuel has its own potential to produce carbon dioxide. Similarly, the humans consume food containing carbohydrates (CH, fat, and protein which emit CO2 due to metabolism. The biology literature uses respiratory quotient (RQ, defined as the ratio of CO2 moles exhausted per mole of O2 consumed within the body, to estimate CO2 loading in the blood stream and CO2 in nasal exhaust. Here, we apply that principle in the field of combustion to relate the RQ to CO2 emitted in tons per GJ of energy released when a fuel is combusted. The RQ value of a fuel can be determined either from fuel chemical formulae (from ultimate analyses for most liquid and solid fuels of known composition or from exhaust gas analyses. RQ ranges from 0.5 for methane (CH4 to 1 for pure carbon. Based on the results obtained, the lesser the value of “RQ” of a fuel, the lower its global warming potential. This methodology can be further extended for an “online instantaneous measurement of CO2” in automobiles based on actual fuel use irrespective of fuel composition.

  17. Influence of a Gas Exchange Correction Procedure on Resting Metabolic Rate and Respiratory Quotient in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E; Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a gas exchange correction protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), assessed by a Vmax Encore 29n metabolic cart (SensorMedics Co., Yorba Linda, California) in overnight fasted and fed humans, and to assess the predictive power of body size for corrected and uncorrected RMR. Healthy participants (23 M/29 F; 34 ± 9 years old; 26.3 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) ingested two 3-hour-apart glucose loads (75 g). Indirect calorimetry was conducted before and hourly over a 6-hour period. Immediately after indirect calorimetry assessment, gas exchange was simulated through high-precision mass-flow regulators, which permitted the correction of RMR and RQ values. Uncorrected and corrected RMR and RQ were directly related at each time over the 6-hour period. However, uncorrected versus corrected RMR was 6.9% ± 0.5% higher (128 ± 7 kcal/d; P exchange in humans over a 6-hour period is feasible and provides information of improved accuracy. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease and has neurological impairment as an important comorbidity. Objective: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, consisting of 50 cases (patients of epilepsy and 50 controls (other patients of same socioeconomic status was conducted at S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. The patients were subjected to detailed clinical history, thorough examination, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Bhatia's Battery of Performance intelligence Test. Data analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 22 software. Results: The prevalence of behavioral problems in generalized and partial seizure group was high (42% and 53.8% as compared to control group (9%. Low IQ was present more in the patients (44% of generalized and partial seizure group as compared with the control group, and results were statistically significant. Furthermore, behavioral problems were more in patients who were having more number of seizures (≥3 per year with significant P values (χ2 = 5.067, P = 0.024. Conclusion: We conclusively found that behavioral problems and cognitive factors, apart from control of seizures, must be kept in mind to determine how well a child with epilepsy progresses toward independence.

  19. Children with unilateral hearing loss may have lower intelligence quotient scores: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia L; Shinn, Justin R; Davis, Greg E; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2016-03-01

    In this meta-analysis, we reviewed observational studies investigating differences in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores of children with unilateral hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing. PubMed Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PsycINFO. A query identified all English-language studies related to pediatric unilateral hearing loss published between January 1980 and December 2014. Titles, abstracts, and articles were reviewed to identify observational studies reporting IQ scores. There were 261 unique titles, with 29 articles undergoing full review. Four articles were identified, which included 173 children with unilateral hearing loss and 202 children with normal hearing. Ages ranged from 6 to 18 years. Three studies were conducted in the United States and one in Mexico. All were of high quality. All studies reported full-scale IQ results; three reported verbal IQ results; and two reported performance IQ results. Children with unilateral hearing loss scored 6.3 points lower on full-scale IQ, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-9.1, -3.5], P value analysis suggests children with unilateral hearing loss have lower full-scale and performance IQ scores than children with normal hearing. There also may be disparity in verbal IQ scores. Laryngoscope, 126:746-754, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Adversity Quotient in Mathematics Learning (Quantitative Study on Students Boarding School in Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidah Amir MZ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze students’ Adversity Quotient (AQ in mathematics learning viewed from gender aspect. This study is quantitative survey study on students in MTs Al-Munawarah Boarding School, Pekanbaru. The subjects of study are 8th grade students consisting of  75 girls and 63 boys. Data are collected by AQ scale and analyzed with statistic descriptive and inferential (test-t. The indicator of AQ consist of control, origin, ownership, reach and endurance.  The result of descriptive analysis shows that there is difference in mean of each indicator for two groups, but analysis of test-t  shows that there is no difference in students’ mathematical AQ for two group of gender. Through variance test, students’ mathematical AQ in two groups is homogeneous. The indicator of AQ in boys which is categorized as high are endurance and reach. While, the indicator in girls is aspect of control. This study contributes to literature study in identifying students’ AQ and the effort done to enhance students’ AQ in mathematics learning.

  1. The Predictability of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Emotional Quotient (EQ with Their Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Khoshnoodfar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As teacher education and teacher related issues are under the attention in the past decade in second language (L2 teaching /learning; this research investigated the predictability of Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional quotient (EQ with their job satisfaction. To this end, 90 EFL teachers at English language institutes in Tehran province were selected as the participants. The needed data was gathered by the use of two standardized questionnaires (filled by the participants: EQ and teacher job satisfaction questionnaires. First of all, the normality of the gathered data was checked through using SPSS version 23. Then, the Spearman coefficient of correlation was used to find whether there is any relationship between the participants’ EQ and job satisfaction.  The results proved the two variables had a statistically significant and positive correlation with each other. In the next step, the researchers opted for the multiple regression analysis to achieve the research objective. The present study was a quasi-Experimental including a cause and effect design. The predictor was the independent variable (EQ and the predicted one was the dependent variable (job satisfaction. The findings illustrated a statistically significant and positive predictability of Iranian EFL teachers’ EQ with their job satisfaction. The results of the present research would be useful for second language teacher education courses. It was proven that, since teachers’ EQ can control their job satisfaction, the findings of the present paper could be beneficial in teacher training issues and teacher education.

  2. A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians Based on Fractional Mean Field Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kecai Cao; Yang Quan Chen; Daniel Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Modeling a crowd of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micromacro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end.Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model,respectively.

  3. Efficacy Quotient Tindakan ESWL Piezolith Richard Wolf 3000 pada Penderita Batu Ureter di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinny Verdini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL saat ini telah menjadi metode yang paling umum dalam tatalaksana aktif batu ureter. Sejak Maret 2008, RSCM telah menggunakan mesin ESWL piezolith 3000 richard wolf dan belum diketahui nilai efficacy quotient (EQ. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai EQ dari tindakan ESWL menggunakan mesin piezolith richard wolf 3000 pada batu ureter dan hubungan angka bebas batu dengan lokasi batu, jumlah batu, beban batu, opasitas batu, obstruksi, dan fungsi ginjal. Studi cross sectional ini dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2008-Desember 2011 dan data dianalisis dengan statistik multivariat. Terdapat 113 (95 % dari 119 pasien yang dinyatakan bebas batu setelah tindakan ESWL pertama. Didapatkan nilai EQ 0,89. Hanya ukuran batu yang mempengaruhi angka bebas batu dalam penelitian ini (p<0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa prosedur ESWL menggunakan mesin richard wolf piezolith 3000 memiliki nilai EQ dan angka bebas batu yang lebih baik daripada mesin-mesin sebelumnya dan mesin lain yang sejenis. Faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan adalah ukuran batu ureter yang ditatalaksana.Kata Kunci: batu ureter, ESWL, efficacy quotient, angka bebas batu. Efficacy Quotient of ESWL Piezolith Richard Wolf 3000 Machine in Patientswith Ureteral Stones in Dr. Cipto MangunkusumoNational Hospital 2008 - 2011AbstractExtracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL is the most common method of ureteral stone management. Since 2008, RSCM has ben using ESWL piezolith 3000 richard wolf and efficacy quotient (EQ value have not yet studied. The study aims was to determine the efficacy quotient (EQ of ESWL using piezolith richard wolf 3000 machine for ureteral stone by analyzing free-stone rate with location of stones, number of stones, stone burden, stone opacity, obstruction and kidney function. This cross sectional study was carried out in January 2008-December 2011, with multivariate analytical study. Ninety five percent (n=113 of 119 patients were

  4. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  5. Two-step phase retrieval algorithm based on the quotient of inner products of phase-shifting interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Wenhu; Zhong, Liyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the quotient of inner products, a simple and rapid algorithm is proposed to retrieve the measured phase from two-frame phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase shifts. Firstly, we filtered the background of interferograms by a Gaussian high-pass filter. Secondly, we calculated the inner products of the background-filtered interferograms. Thirdly, we extracted the phase shifts by the quotient of the inner products then calculated the measured phase by an arctangent function. Finally, we tested the performance of the proposed algorithm by the simulation calculation and the experimental research for a vortex phase plate. Both the simulation calculation and the experimental result showed that the phase shifts and the measured phase with high accuracy can be obtained by the proposed algorithm rapidly and conveniently. (paper)

  6. [Improvement of universal salt iodization program on the intelligence quotient among children in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong-qin; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhu, Xiao-nan; Dou, Yu-gui; Li, Hong-bo; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Jing

    2012-09-01

    To assess the improvement of intelligence quotient through an Universal Salt Iodization Supply Program, among children. 3518 and 1611 children were selected from primary schools in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu in 2006 and 2010 respectively. Intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured by the revised Chinese Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2). In 2006, the average IQ of children aged 8-10 was 85.1, including 16.7% of them with IQ ≤ 69. The average IQ was between 80-90 in different counties and cities, with significant differences (P 0.05). The average IQ of children aged 8-10 in 2010 was 97.2 and 12 points higher than in 2006 (P 0.05), but in boys (98.8) and in girls (95.9) the difference was significant (P intelligence. However, the average IQ was still lower than the average level of the whole Gansu province in 2010.

  7. Fractional quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...

  8. HUBUNGAN ANTARA SPIRITUAL QUOTIENT MAHASISWA DENGAN HASIL BELAJAR STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA YANG TERINTEGRASI DENGAN NILAI-NILAI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    = Miterianifa =

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether there is a relationship student Spiritual Quotient (X with learning outcomes of chemistry learning strategy subjectsthat integrates with Islamic values (Y. This study used survey method with correlation analysis technique. This study is a populationstudy with total subjects of 29 responden.Data collection techniques by using questionnaires for spiritual variable quotient (X, and the test methods to collect data for variable of learning outcomes chemistry learning strategy that integrates with Islamic values (Y. The research data were analyzed using product moment correlation analysis techniques to test the hypothesis. The hypothesis testing showed that there is a positive correlation between student spiritual quotient with learning outcomes of chemistry learning strategy subjects that integrates with Islamic values, as indicated by the correlation coefficient between Xvariables and Y (rh = 0.77, both with a significance level 5% = 0.374, and a significance level of 1% = 0,478. So the analysis mentioned r0 greater than rt so the hypothesesare accepted and significant. Based on the results of the study, expected to be material information and input for Study Program of Chemical Education and Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, in particular for the Chairman of the Study Program, lecturers and students in order to always improve spiritualquotient potential students.

  9. The effectiveness of discourse-based intervention on personal narrative of school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghis Rovshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discourse-based interventions were studied less in speech therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of discourse-based intervention on language disabilities in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ.Methods: In an experimental study, 33 students at the age of 6-13 years with borderline intelligence quotient (17 students for intervention and 16 students for control group were selected with available sampling. The intervention lasted 14 sessions (every session: 45 minutes that focused on the structure and content of discourse. Personal narrative was elicited with explanation of the same topic (go to a trip for pre- and post-test.Results: Mean scores of intelligence quotient, age and education had no difference between the two groups. The intervention caused the increase of compound sentences (p=0.038, types of cohesive conjunctions (p=0.003, and related information (p=0.008 and decrease of ungrammatical sentences (p=0.031.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program has a clinically significant effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narrative.

  10. ANALISIS PENGARUH EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT (EQ DAN STRES KERJA TERHADAP PERFORMA KERJA KARYAWAN PADA PT. BANK MESTIKA DHARMA MEDAN

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    Bambang Bambang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources are a generator of available resources in the activities and routine of an organization or company that the good and the bad performance of an organization are determined by the performance of human resources. Professional employee  is a reliable employee with balanced quality between academic and emotional capability. Academic intelligence is frequently given a higher position than emotional intelligence is an individual evaluation. Emotional intelligence is the factor  determining the effectiveness of someone is working that with high emotional intelligence, the human resources can be easily directed and guided to work in accordance with the goals of organization. The prupose of this quantitative descriptive explanatory study was to look at the influence of Emotional Quotient (EQ and Work Stress on the performance of the employees of PT. Bank Mestika Dharma Medan using the theory of human resources management related to Emotional Quotient (EQ, work stress and work performance. The population of this study was 585 employees and 238 of them were selected to be the samples for this study. The data obtained were analyzed through multiple linear regression tests using F test to simultaneously test the hypothesis and using t test to do a partial test. The result of the hypothesis test showed that simultaneously the variable of Emotional Quotient and work stress had a significant influence on the improvemnet of the performance  of the employees of PT. Bank Mestika Dharma Medan

  11. Temperature Dependence of Apparent Respiratory Quotients and Oxygen Penetration Depth in Contrasting Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Sebastian; Gudasz, Cristian; Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.; Bastviken, David; Morales-Pineda, María.

    2017-11-01

    Lake sediments constitute an important compartment in the carbon cycle of lakes, by burying carbon over geological timescales and by production and emission of greenhouse gases. The degradation of organic carbon (OC) in lake sediments is linked to both temperature and oxygen (O2), but the interactive nature of this regulation has not been studied in lake sediments in a quantitative way. We present the first systematic investigation of the effects of temperature on the apparent respiratory quotient (RQ, i.e., the molar ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) production and O2 consumption) in two contrasting lake sediments. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores of a humic lake and an eutrophic lake across a 1-21°C temperature gradient over 157 days revealed that both CO2 production and O2 consumption were positively, exponentially, and similarly dependent on temperature. The apparent RQ differed significantly between the lake sediments (0.63 ± 0.26 and 0.99 ± 0.28 in the humic and the eutrophic lake, respectively; mean ± SD) and was significantly and positively related to temperature. The O2 penetration depth into the sediment varied by a factor of 2 over the 1-21°C temperature range and was significantly, negatively, and similarly related to temperature in both lake sediments. Accordingly, increasing temperature may influence the overall extent of OC degradation in lake sediments by limiting O2 supply to aerobic microbial respiration to the topmost sediment layer, resulting in a concomitant shift to less effective anaerobic degradation pathways. This suggests that temperature may represent a key controlling factor of the OC burial efficiency in lake sediments.

  12. Reduction in non-protein respiratory quotient is related to overall survival after hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

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    Masaya Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE is an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that can occasionally lead to the shortening of life expectancy. We aimed to make a new and more accurate prognostic model taking into account the course of disease after TACE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study involving 100 HCC patients who underwent TACE at Kobe University Hospital. Indirect calorimetry and blood biochemical examinations were performed before and 7 days after TACE. Time-dependent and time-fixed factors associated with 1-year mortality after TACE were assessed by multivariate analyses. A predictive model of 1-year mortality was established by the combination of odds ratios of these factors. Multivariate analyses showed that the ratio of non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ (7 days after/before TACE and Cancer of Liver Italian Program (CLIP score were independent factors of 1-year mortality after TACE (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively. Patient-specific 1-year mortality risk scores can be calculated by summarizing the individual risk scores and looking up the patient-specific risk on the graph. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term reduction of npRQ was a time-dependent prognostic factor associated with overall survival in HCC patients undergoing TACE. CLIP score was a time-fixed prognostic factor associated with overall survival. Using the prediction model, which consists of the combination of time-dependent (npRQ ratio and time-fixed (CLIP score prognostic factors, 1-year mortality risk after TACE would be better estimated by taking into account changes during the course of disease.

  13. Broader autistic phenotype in parents of children with autism: Autism Spectrum Quotient-Turkish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermiş, Serpil; Özbaran, Burcu; Bildik, Tezan; Aydın, Cahide

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-assessment screening instrument for measuring the degree to which an individual of normal intelligence shows autistic traits. Genetic factors could be responsible for the relatives of individuals with autism exhibiting higher than normal rates of autism-related impairments, referred to as the 'broader autism phenotype' (BAP). The aim of this study was to test whether there is a difference between the parents of autistic and those of typically developing children (TDC) on AQ scores in a Turkish sample. The AQ total and subscale scores of the 100 parents (47 fathers, 53 mothers) of children with autistic disorder (AD) were compared with the 100 parents (48 fathers, 52 mothers) of TDC. The parents of AD children scored significantly higher than the TDC parents on total AQ score, and two of five subscale scores; social skills, and communication. The other three subscales (attention to detail, attention switching, imagination) did not differentiate groups. There was no significant difference between mothers and fathers on any AQ scores, neither in the AD nor TDC group. The group × gender interaction was not significant on the total or the five subscale scores of AQ. Social skill and communication subscales differentiate AD parents more successfully, and are more sensitive, as reported in other studies. The present findings confirm that social skill and communication impairments in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders are indicators of BAP. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Empathy Quotient (S-EQ

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    Dimitrijević Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined psychometric properties of the Serbian translation of the Empathy Quotient scale (S-EQ. The translated version of the EQ was applied on a sample of 694 high-school students. A sub-sample consisting of 375 high-school students also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, another widely used empathy measure. The following statistical analyses were applied: internal consistency analysis, explanatory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analyses, and factor congruence analysis. Correlation with IRI and gender differences were calculated to demonstrate validity of the instrument. Results show that the Serbian 40-item version of EQ has lower reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .782 than the original. The originally proposed one factor structure of the instrument was not confirmed. The short version with 28 items showed better reliablity (alpha= .807. The three-factor solution (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity, and social skills showed good cross-sample stability (Tucker congruence coefficient over .8 but the results of CFA confirmed the solution proposed in the reviewed literature only partially. The mean scores are similar to those obtained in the other studies, and, as expected, women have significantly higher scores than men. Correlations with all subscales of IRI are statistically significant for the first two subscales of EQ, but not for the „social skills.” We concluded that the Serbian version of the „Empathy Quotient” is a useful research tool which can contribute to cross-cultural studies of empathy, although its psychometric characteristics are not as good as those obtained in the original study. We also suggest that a 28-item should be used preferably to the original 40-item version. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identification, measurement and development of cognitive and emotional competences important for a society oriented to European integrations

  16. The Autism‐Spectrum Quotient in Siblings of People With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Ring, Howard; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron‐Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study measures the distribution of autistic traits, using the autism‐spectrum quotient (AQ), in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Total AQ scores, along with AQ subscales, were collected from child, adolescent and adult controls, siblings, and volunteers with ASC using one of the three age‐appropriate versions of the instrument: the AQ (adult self‐report), the AQ‐adolescent and AQ‐child (both parent‐reports). We examined the effect of Group (case, sibling and control) and AQ version (adult, adolescent and adult) on total and subscale scores. In addition, we tested for sex differences in all groups and on all versions. We found that in male and female adults, AQ scores in siblings fell between cases and controls (cases > siblings > controls). In children and adolescents, female siblings also scored higher than control females (female cases > female siblings > female controls), but there was no difference between male siblings and controls (male cases > male siblings = male controls). An investigation of subscale scores revealed that male siblings only differed from controls on the “Communication” subscale (male cases > male siblings > male controls), while female siblings differed from controls on all subscales except “Imagination” (female cases > female siblings > female controls). This study confirms the broader autism phenotype in siblings, and reveals this is modulated by sex and AQ version. Autism Res 2017, 10: 289–297. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. PMID:27333365

  17. An elevated respiratory quotient predicts complications after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation: an observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, J; Hébrard, A; Durand, M; Payen, J F; Albaladejo, P

    2018-04-17

    Following cardiac surgery, hyperlactatemia due to anaerobic metabolism is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality. We previously found that an elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) predicts anaerobic metabolism. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate that it is also associated with poor outcome following cardiac surgery. This single institution, prospective, observational study includes all those patients that were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, that had also been monitored using pulmonary artery catheter. Data were recorded at admission (H0) and after one hour (H1) including: oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), carbon dioxide production ([Formula: see text]), RQ ([Formula: see text]), lactate levels and mixed venous oxygen saturation ([Formula: see text]). The primary endpoint was defined as mortality at 30 days. Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic curves was used to analyze the prognostic predictive value of RQ, lactate levels and [Formula: see text], in terms of patient outcome. We studied 151 patients admitted to the ICU between May 2015 and February 2016. Seventy eight patients experienced a worse than expected outcome in the post-operative period, and among those seven died. RQ at H1 in non-survivors ([Formula: see text]) was higher than in survivors ([Formula: see text]; p = 0.02). The AUC for RQ to predict mortality was 0.77 (IC 95% [0.70-0.84]), with a threshold value of 0.76 (sensitivity 64%, specificity 100%). By comparison, the AUC for lactate levels was significantly superior (AUClact 0.89, IC 95% [0.83-0.93], p = 0.02). In this study, elevated RQ appeared to be predictive of mortality after cardiac surgery with CPB.

  18. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Werling

    Full Text Available The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE.Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24 h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA using high sensitivity accelerometers.Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8 at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3 after 20 months (p<0.05. Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3 to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9 kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6 to 27 (range 12-34.3 kg (both p<0.05. PA over 24 h did not change after surgery whereas 24 h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05. After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24 h and after food intake (p<0.05.RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24 h when corrected for total tissue.

  19. Culture Sustainability: Culture Quotient (CQ and Its Quantitative Empirical Application to Chinese Cities

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    Jing Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Culture sustainability is one of the indispensable components of sustainability. Culture has likely always been an important element for promoting urban and rural sustainable development. It is now playing an increasingly significant role in sparking and incubating innovation, which is becoming the main driver of economic growth and competitiveness. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted on how much culture matters to economic performance in a quantitative way. Therefore, in this paper, which is based on an intensive literature review, we try to specifically quantify the importance of culture to urban development in general and urban economic performance in particular, by proposing an index system dubbed as the Culture Quotient (CQ. Following this, an integrated database of 297 prefectural-level cities in China is accordingly established. By manipulating the database, the CQ value for each city is then calculated by using principal component analysis with SPSS (19.0. Afterwards, spatial pattern by CQ value tier is presented and illustrates urban China’s “winner-take-all” phenomenon, with the predominance by the three giant urban clusters in the coastal area, i.e., the Jing (Beijing-Jin (Tianjin-Ji (Hebei province-based Bohai rim region, Yangtze River delta, Pearl River delta, as well as some mega-cities such as Chengdu and Wuhan in other parts of China. More precisely, the regression analysis shows that there is a strong positive relationship between CQ and gross domestic product (GDP, with the striking result that every increase of one percentage point in CQ will induce a five percentage point increment in GDP. Although the finding makes an impressive and convincing case that culture does exert a great impact on urban economic development, and can also be measured in a quantitative way in Chinese cases, more cases from other countries need to be included for further verification and confirmation. We therefore urgently call for

  20. The psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory 2.0 in South Africa

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    Casper J.J. van Zyl

    2014-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0 in South Africa. Item response and classical test theory methods are employed to investigate its item functioning and factor structure. Motivation for the study: Although there has been some scientific research published on the EQ-i in South Africa, there has been no research on the revised version, the EQ-i 2.0. In addition, criticism has been levied against the estimation of internal consistency reliability in the field of emotional intelligence. This study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. Research design, approach and method: This study followed a quantitative, non-experimental,cross-sectional design using secondary data. The sample comprised 1144 working adults(570 men and 574 women. The data were collected through an online platform as part of the standardisation process in South Africa. Main findings: Results from Rasch analysis showed that almost all the items fit the model.Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega estimates revealed satisfactory reliabilities.Confirmatory factor analysis at the composite level revealed acceptable fit with the exception of the total EQ model. Practical/managerial implications: This study supports the claim of reliability and validity ofthe EQ-i 2.0 in the South African context. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes significantly to the international body of evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the EQ-i 2.0 and provides supporting evidence for the appropriate use of this assessment in South Africa.

  1. The comparison of intelligence quotients of atopic and nonatopic children in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Daramola O O M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopy-related illnesses such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are chronic illnesses, and children suffering from such illnesses are subjected to frequent absenteeism from school. Studies have shown that the performance of children with asthma was comparable to their healthy counterparts despite their absenteeism at school, in contrast to findings in other chronic illnesses like epilepsy. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the association between atopy and intelligence quotient (IQ scores in a group of Nigerian children in Ibadan, a city in southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of children in an urban elementary school. Questionnaires to ascertain the presence of atopy-associated conditions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were administered to the parents of 128 pupils in the 3 rd to 6 th grades of elementary school. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, pupils were categorized as being atopic and nonatopic. All the pupils underwent the Standard Progressive Matrices IQ test. The IQ scores were then compared among these two groups of children. Results: Out of the children studied, 26.6% were found to have atopy and after adjusting for factors such as age and sex, the IQ scores in this atopic group were not found to be statistically different from the scores in the nonatopic group (r = 2.122872, P = 0.009. Conclusion: IQ scores were not statistically significantly different for children with and without atopy. Thus, the presence of atopy does not appear to be associated with low IQ scores and hence, may not be related to poor school performance.

  2. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  4. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  5. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  6. Exact solutions to the time-fractional differential equations via local fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    This article utilizes the local fractional derivative and the exp-function method to construct the exact solutions of nonlinear time-fractional differential equations (FDEs). For illustrating the validity of the method, it is applied to the time-fractional Camassa-Holm equation and the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. Moreover, the exact solutions are obtained for the equations which are formed by different parameter values related to the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. This method is an reliable and efficient mathematical tool for solving FDEs and it can be applied to other non-linear FDEs.

  7. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  8. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  9. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  10. Tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  11. Working motivation as mediating variable for the influence of Spiritual quotient towards working performance: a study in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya

    OpenAIRE

    NUHUJANAN ROMUALDUS PHILIPPUS; TROENO EKA AFNAN; NOERMIJATI N.; SUDIRO ACHMAD

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual quotient is an important element for an individual to achieve self-actualization. An individual who understands his or her talent and potentiality is creative, visionary and flexible. Such individual has strong motivation to improve his/her performance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the influence of spiritual quotient towards working performance that was mediated by working motivation. The subjects were 89 employees working in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya. The pop...

  12. Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)

  13. Effects of exotic plantation forests on soil edaphon and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Yao; Long, Zhijian; Hu, Shanglian; Zhang, Yuanbin; Jiang, Hao

    2018-06-01

    There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased. An RDA analysis revealed that soil total PLFAs, total bacteria and fungi and total Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were significantly associated with exchangeable Al 3+ , exchangeable acid, Al 3+ , available P and Mg 2+ and pH, which resulted into microbial functional changes of soil labile and recalcitrant substrate use efficiencies. Modified microbial C- and N-use efficiency due to forest conversion ultimately meets those of rapidly growing trees in plantation forests. Enlarged soil labile fractions and soil respiratory quotients in plantation forests would be a potential positive effect for C source in the future forest management. Altogether, pure plantation practices could provoke regulatory networks and functions of soil microbes and enzyme activities, consequently leading to differentiated utilization of soil organic matter fractions accompanying the change in environmental factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intelligent quotient estimation of mental retarded people from different psychometric instruments using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Alessandro G; Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2012-02-01

    The estimation of a person's intelligence quotient (IQ) by means of psychometric tests is indispensable in the application of psychological assessment to several fields. When complex tests as the Wechsler scales, which are the most commonly used and universally recognized parameter for the diagnosis of degrees of retardation, are not applicable, it is necessary to use other psycho-diagnostic tools more suited for the subject's specific condition. But to ensure a homogeneous diagnosis it is necessary to reach a common metric, thus, the aim of our work is to build models able to estimate accurately and reliably the Wechsler IQ, starting from different psycho-diagnostic tools. Four different psychometric tests (Leiter international performance scale; coloured progressive matrices test; the mental development scale; psycho educational profile), along with the Wechsler scale, were administered to a group of 40 mentally retarded subjects, with various pathologies, and control persons. The obtained database is used to evaluate Wechsler IQ estimation models starting from the scores obtained in the other tests. Five modelling methods, two statistical and three from machine learning, that belong to the family of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are employed to build the estimator. Several error metrics for estimated IQ and for retardation level classification are defined to compare the performance of the various models with univariate and multivariate analyses. Eight empirical studies show that, after ten-fold cross-validation, best average estimation error is of 3.37 IQ points and mental retardation level classification error of 7.5%. Furthermore our experiments prove the superior performance of ANN methods over statistical regression ones, because in all cases considered ANN models show the lowest estimation error (from 0.12 to 0.9 IQ points) and the lowest classification error (from 2.5% to 10%). Since the estimation performance is better than the confidence interval of

  15. Nutritional status and intelligence quotient of primary schoolchildren in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijarotimi, O S; Ijadunola, K T

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402 children (10-15 years) randomly selected from twelve public and private primary schools in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on children's demographic features and parent's socio-economic characteristics. The subject's weight, height, height-for-age and weight-for-height z-score were measured and determined respectively. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices consisted of 60 questions was administered in a quiet classroom within 60 minutes to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. The means of measured parameters were: age, 11.5 +/- 0.08 years; weight, 33.3 +/- 0.35 kg; height, 1.4 +/- 0.0 m; height-for-age z-score, -0.003 +/- 0.04; weight-for-height z-score -7.2E-7 +/- 0.1 and IQ, 20.9 +/- 0.56 (34.8%). The occupations of the children's parents were civil service (43.3%), petty business (21.9%), farming (15.8%), vocational jobs (16.0%) and none (3.2%). The majority of the parents (31.8%) had secondary school education. Parents with no formal education, primary education, tertiary education and higher degrees accounted for 7.2%, 30.6%, 22.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Monthly incomes ranged between $38.5 and 230.8. Weight-for-height z-score of the children showed that 49.8% were normal, 40% mildly wasted, 9.7% moderately wasted and 0.5% severely wasted. Height-for-age z-score was 50% normal, 35.1% mildly stunted, 13.4% moderately stunted and 1.5% severely stunted. IQ scores were 5% superior 11.2% above average, 11.4% average, 8.2% below average and 64.2% intellectual deficit. The interrelationship between height-for-age, IQ and socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were insignificant differences between the age groups, gender and socio-economic status of the pupils. Conclusively, this study showed that the proportion of malnourished and intellectual deficit among the studied population were high. However, it is not clear whether

  16. Generalized continued fractions and ergodic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustyl'nikov, L D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a new theory of generalized continued fractions is constructed and applied to numbers, multidimensional vectors belonging to a real space, and infinite-dimensional vectors with integral coordinates. The theory is based on a concept generalizing the procedure for constructing the classical continued fractions and substantially using ergodic theory. One of the versions of the theory is related to differential equations. In the finite-dimensional case the constructions thus introduced are used to solve problems posed by Weyl in analysis and number theory concerning estimates of trigonometric sums and of the remainder in the distribution law for the fractional parts of the values of a polynomial, and also the problem of characterizing algebraic and transcendental numbers with the use of generalized continued fractions. Infinite-dimensional generalized continued fractions are applied to estimate sums of Legendre symbols and to obtain new results in the classical problem of the distribution of quadratic residues and non-residues modulo a prime. In the course of constructing these continued fractions, an investigation is carried out of the ergodic properties of a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are also of independent interest

  17. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  18. Hemispheric Differences in White Matter Microstructure between Two Profiles of Children with High Intelligence Quotient vs. Controls: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Fanny; Hannoun, Salem; Kocevar, Gabriel; Stamile, Claudio; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this study was to investigate and compare the neural substrate of two children's profiles of high intelligence quotient (HIQ). Methods: Two groups of HIQ children were included with either a homogeneous (Hom-HIQ: n = 20) or a heterogeneous IQ profile (Het-HIQ: n = 24) as defined by a significant difference between verbal comprehension index and perceptual reasoning index. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess white matter (WM) microstructure while tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis was performed to detect and localize WM regional differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial (AD), and radial diffusivities. Quantitative measurements were performed on 48 regions and 21 fiber-bundles of WM. Results: Hom-HIQ children presented higher FA than Het-HIQ children in widespread WM regions including central structures, and associative intra-hemispheric WM fasciculi. AD was also greater in numerous WM regions of Total-HIQ, Hom-HIQ, and Het-HIQ groups when compared to the Control group. Hom-HIQ and Het-HIQ groups also differed by their hemispheric lateralization in AD differences compared to Controls. Het-HIQ and Hom-HIQ groups showed a lateralization ratio (left/right) of 1.38 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both inter- and intra-hemispheric WM integrity are enhanced in HIQ children and that neural substrate differs between Hom-HIQ and Het-HIQ. The left hemispheric lateralization of Het-HIQ children is concordant with their higher verbal index while the relative right hemispheric lateralization of Hom-HIQ children is concordant with their global brain processing and adaptation capacities as evidenced by their homogeneous IQ. PMID:28420955

  19. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient among children in conflict with the law in India: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Archit; Biddala, Ooha Susmita; Dwivedi, Mandavi; Variar, Prathyaksha; Singh, Aparna; Sen, Soham; Bhat, P Shivaram; Kunte, Renuka; Nair, Velu; Shankar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of juvenile delinquency has increased in the past decade in India and juvenile crimes are increasingly being reported. This has been attributed to many biopsychosocial factors. It is essential to understand these issues in the context of India to determine the response of acts of children in conflict with the law. We aimed to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and the aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law (juvenile delinquents) in observation homes across India and compare them with those who were not. We did a case-control study in five juvenile homes in the cities of Hyderabad, Lucknow and Pune. Ninety inmates (74 boys, 16 girls) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and aggression quotient of children in conflict with the law were evaluated using two separate questionnaires, i.e. a sociodemographic questionnaire and the modified Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire. These were compared with a control group of similar age, sex and income status. All the children in conflict with the law surveyed belonged to the lower socioeconomic strata, had a significantly higher chance (pbroken homes, have addictions, jailed family members and suffered physical and sexual abuse than controls. They also scored higher on all domains of the aggression questionnaire than controls. A collection of sociodemographic attributes such as broken homes, addictions and abuse seem to have an important association with juvenile delinquency. Children in conflict with the law are also more likely to be associated with a higher aggression quotient as compared to children who were not. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  20. Analisis Proses Berpikir Siswa dalam Memecahkan Masalah Matematika berdasarkan Langkah-Langkah Bransford dan Stein ditinjau dari Adversity Quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avissa Purnama Yanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the thinking process of students of MAN I Bandar Lampung based on Adversity Quotient (AQ type climbers, campers and quitters in solving mathematical problems based on Bransford and Stein theories on equations and quadratic functions. This research is a qualitative descriptive research. Research subjects were determined through purposive sampling, and this research was conducted in class X MIA 4 MAN I Bandar Lampung with subject of 6 students divided into 3 groups. The first group consisted of 2 students of type climbers, the second group consisted of 2 students of campers, and the third group consisted of 2 students of type quitters. To determine the type of Adversity Quotient (AQ of the subject to be selected, the ARP test is used. The data collection technique in this study uses the test method, unstructured interview method conducted on selected subjects and documentation method. Data analysis techniques through data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. Written test result data is analyzed based on indicators that meet conceptual, semiconceptual, and computational thinking processes. The technique of data validity is done by using triangulation technique comparing data of test result and interview result to subject of climbers, campers and quitters. Based on the data analysis results obtained that the subject with the type Adversity Quotient (AQ each has a different thinking process. Subjects with type climbers tend to have a conceptual thinking process in solving mathematical problems based on Bransford and Stein theories. Subjects with type campers tend to have a semiconceptual thinking process in solving mathematical problems based on Bransford and Stein theories, and subjects with type quitters in solving problems based on Bransford and Stein theories tend to have a computational thinking process.

  1. Identifying the relationship between spiritual quotient and mental health in the students of Lorestan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sharareh khodabakhshi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the students' mental health has attracted a lot of attention. Many factors effect on the mental health. Nowadays, spirituality is considered as one of the important aspects of the humanistic action, which has a permanent relation with health and recovery, so the main goal of this investigation is to identify the relationship between spiritual Quotient and mental health of the students of Lorestan university of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The descriptive correlation method was applied in this investigation. The statistical population of this research consistsed of all the students (2238 of Lorestan university of medical sciences. Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size, and 330 students were selected by the arbitrary relative categorized method. The instruments for data gathering were Goldberg's GHa-23 (1972 and spiritual intelligence of Badie et al. The instruments credit was measured through content validty and the reliability of the questionnaires using Cronbach's alpha method. Besides the indexes of the descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics tests such as Pearson's coefficient correlation and multiple regression analysis and independent T test were utilized to analyze the data and testing the research hypothesizes. Results: The results showed that there is a positive relationship between spiritual quotient and the dimensions of the mental health (community orientation and moral dimension. "The ability to confront and deal with the problem", "moral virtues", "self-consciousness, love and interest". The dimension of "self-consciousness, love and interest" and "community orientation" have a significant role in predicting the mental health. Conclusion: Spiritual quotient has a positive influence on the individuals' mental health. The results show that people with a moral life are more healthy from the viewpoint of phycology.

  2. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  3. Eksperimentasi Model Pembelajaran Lc 5e Disertai Afl Pada Materi Prisma Dan Limas Ditinjau Dari Adversity Quotient

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Guritno Ari; Kusmayadi, Tri Atmojo; Riyadi, Riyadi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of using Learning Cycle 5E model using AfL in Mathematics course achievement viewed from Adversity Quotient. The quasi experimental research design was employed on this research. The technique analysis data used two-way analysis of variance with unbalanced cell frequencies at 0,05 level of significance. The results show as follows 1) LC 5E with AfL model gave better Mathematics course achievement than the one without AfL and conventional model, and LC 5E ...

  4. Determination of the fine-structure constant {alpha} by measuring the quotient of the Planck constant and the neutron mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, E; Nistler, W; Weirauch, W [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Using a special high-precision apparatus at ILL the quotient h/m{sub n} (h Planck constant, m{sub n} neutron mass) has been measured. The value measured for h/m{sub n} leads to {alpha}{sup -1} = 137.03601082(524) (relative uncertainty: 3.9{center_dot}10{sup -8}) It was the first time that this fundamental constant has been determined by means of neutrons. The experiment, which had been running since 1981 in a preliminary version and since 1987 in the final version, which was finished in December 1996, is described. (author).

  5. The comprehension of numerical relationships in the learning of fractions: a comparative study with Brazilian and Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Peregrina Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract: The understanding of rational numbers is one of the major conceptual challenges faced by students in mathematics learning in basic education. Regarding fractions, to establish the inverse relationship between the numerator and the denominator becomes a key issue in concept formation. The main goals of this study were: to understand if the inverse relationship between smaller quantities than the unit in quotient and part-whole situations influences the learning of fractions; and to compare Brazilian and Portuguese students’ comprehension of the inverse relationship between quantities in fraction problems, using quotient and part-whole situations. The results indicate that students have a better grasp of the inverse relationship between the quantities in the quotient situation and also showed that Portuguese students performed significantly better than Brazilian students in the both types of situations. The discrepancy in student performance can be explained by differences in the curricula of mathematics in grade four in these countries. Implications for the teaching of mathematics in these two countries were also discussed.

  6. Smarandache Continued Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibstedt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.

  7. Fractional corresponding operator in quantum mechanics and applications: A uniform fractional Schrödinger equation in form and fractional quantization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Chaozhen; Liu, Yingming; Luo, Maokang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use Dirac function to construct a fractional operator called fractional corresponding operator, which is the general form of momentum corresponding operator. Then we give a judging theorem for this operator and with this judging theorem we prove that R–L, G–L, Caputo, Riesz fractional derivative operator and fractional derivative operator based on generalized functions, which are the most popular ones, coincide with the fractional corresponding operator. As a typical application, we use the fractional corresponding operator to construct a new fractional quantization scheme and then derive a uniform fractional Schrödinger equation in form. Additionally, we find that the five forms of fractional Schrödinger equation belong to the particular cases. As another main result of this paper, we use fractional corresponding operator to generalize fractional quantization scheme by using Lévy path integral and use it to derive the corresponding general form of fractional Schrödinger equation, which consequently proves that these two quantization schemes are equivalent. Meanwhile, relations between the theory in fractional quantum mechanics and that in classic quantum mechanics are also discussed. As a physical example, we consider a particle in an infinite potential well. We give its wave functions and energy spectrums in two ways and find that both results are the same

  8. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  10. A fractional spline collocation-Galerkin method for the time-fractional diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezza L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to numerically solve a diffusion differential problem having time derivative of fractional order. To this end we propose a collocation-Galerkin method that uses the fractional splines as approximating functions. The main advantage is in that the derivatives of integer and fractional order of the fractional splines can be expressed in a closed form that involves just the generalized finite difference operator. This allows us to construct an accurate and efficient numerical method. Several numerical tests showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented.

  11. Search for free fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilig, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of searches for free fractional charge have been null with the exception of the experiment at Stanford under the leadership of W. Fairbank. His experiment, while claiming the observation of free fractional charge, has yet to show that this observation was not spurious. The need for a confirming experiment with a different physical system is the motivation for the current work. A torsional pendulum has been constructed of a fused silica fiber with an attached fused silica crossbar. A transverse electric field is applied to the end of the crossbar, and the resulting deflection of the crossbar is used to measure the torque applied by the field. To date the limit of measurement for the charge on the crossbar (without sample) is 0 +/- 24 electronic charges. The history of this experiment is discussed, along with plans for pushing the limits of measurement to below the single-charge level

  12. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  13. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child's sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension.

  14. ADVERSITY QUOTIENT DAN PENALARAN KREATIF MATEMATIS SISWA SMA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN ARGUMENT DRIVEN INQUIRY PADA MATERI TURUNAN FUNGSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hidayat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed in the form of experiment with the design of control group and posttest only aimed at investigating the role of learning that Argument Driven Inquiry (ADI in improving senior high school students’ creative mathematical reasoning ability. The population of this study was senior high school students’ in Cimahi City and the samples were 69 senior high school students’ set purposively and randomly to be included into the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it is concluded that: (1 creative mathematical reasoning ability of the students who received Argument Driven Inquiry (ADI instruction is better than those who received direct instruction is reviewed based on the whole and the type of Adversity Quotient (Quitter / AQ Low, Champer / AQ Medium, and the Climber / AQ High; Learning factors and type of Adversity Quotient (AQ affect the achievement of creative mathematical reasoning skills students. In addition, there is no interaction effect between learning and AQ together in developing the creative mathematical reasoning ability of students'; (3 creative mathematical reasoning ability of students’ has not been achieved optimally on the indicators novelty.

  15. PROSES BERPIKIR SISWA SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA DALAM MEMECAHKAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA BERDASARKAN LANGKAH-LANGKAH POLYA DITINJAU DARI ADVERSITY QUOTIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menjelaskan proses berpikir dan menganalisis kesulitan siswa dalam memecahkan masalah matematika berdasarkan pengukuran Polya ditinjau dari Adversity Quotient (AQ. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskirptif kualitatif dengan subjek penelitian adalah siswa dari kelas IX SMP N 1 Banda Aceh tediri dari tiga siswa. Pemilihan subjek penelitian menggunakan metode purposive sampling dan berdasarkan tingkatan AQ (climber, camper, dan quitter dan komunikasi (lisan dan tertulis. Pengumpulan data menggunakan wawancara berbasis tugas, dan triangulasi untuk mengecek validitas data. Data dianalisis menggunakan konsep dari Miles dan Huberman: yaitu tahap pengurangan data, presentasi data, dan kesimpulan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Proses berpikir dari subjek climber yaitu secara asimilasi dalam memahami, merencanakan penyelesaian, .serta mengecek kembali; (2 Subjek camper juga berpikir secara asimilasi pada tahap memahami masalah, merencanakan penyelesaian, dan mengecek kembali; (3 subjek quitter berpikir secara akomodasi dalam memahami masalah dan menyelesaikan masalah. Kata kunci: Proses Berpikir, Pemecahan Masalah, Tahap Polya, Adversity Quotient (AQ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jpm.10.1.3278.42-57

  16. In-situ Mass Distribution Quotient (iMDQ) - A New Factor to Compare Bioavailability of Pesticides in Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, R.; Folberth, C.; Scherb, H.; Suhadolc, M.; Munch, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    Aim of this work was the development of a new non-biological factor to determine microbial in-situ bioavailability of chemicals in soils. Pesticide residues were extracted from ten highly different agricultural soils that had been incubated with the 14C-herbicide isoproturon (IPU) under comparable soil conditions (water tension - 15 kPa; soil density 1.3 g cm 3). Two different pesticide extraction approaches were compared: (i) 14C-Pesticide residues were measured in the pore water (PW) which was extracted from soil by centrifugation; (ii) 14C-Pesticide residues were extracted from soil samples with an excess of water (EEW). We introduce the pesticide's in-situ mass distribution quotient (iMDQ) as a measure for pesticide bioavailability, which is calculated as a quotient of adsorbed and dissolved chemical amounts for both approaches (iMDQPW, iMDQEEW). Pesticide mineralization in soils served as a reference for real microbial availability. A highly significant correlation between iMDQPW and mineralization showed that pore water extraction is adequate to assess IPU bioavailability. In contrast, no correlation exists between IPU mineralization and its extractability from soil with an excess of water. Therefore, it can be concluded that soil equilibration at comparable conditions and subsequent pore water extraction is vital for a isoproturon bioavailability ranking of soils.

  17. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  18. Complexified quantum field theory and 'mass without mass' from multidimensional fractional actionlike variational approach with dynamical fractional exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabulsi, Ahmad Rami

    2009-01-01

    Multidimensional fractional actionlike variational problem with time-dependent dynamical fractional exponents is constructed. Fractional Euler-Lagrange equations are derived and discussed in some details. The results obtained are used to explore some novel aspects of fractional quantum field theory where many interesting consequences are revealed, in particular the complexification of quantum field theory, in particular Dirac operators and the novel notion of 'mass without mass'.

  19. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  20. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  1. Fractional supersymmetry and infinite dimensional lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2001-01-01

    In an earlier work extensions of supersymmetry and super Lie algebras were constructed consistently starting from any representation D of any Lie algebra g. Here it is shown how infinite dimensional Lie algebras appear naturally within the framework of fractional supersymmetry. Using a differential realization of g this infinite dimensional Lie algebra, containing the Lie algebra g as a sub-algebra, is explicitly constructed

  2. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  3. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  4. Fractional Poisson process (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Shiying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic process W H (t)(H-bar (12,1)) which we call fractional Poisson process. The process W H (t) is self-similar in wide sense, displays long range dependence, and has more fatter tail than Gaussian process. In addition, it converges to fractional Brownian motion in distribution

  5. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  6. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  7. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian version: a cross-cultural confirmation of the broader autism phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the 'broader' (BAP), 'medium' (MAP) and 'narrow' autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample. Parents of children with autism spectrum conditions scored higher than the control parents on total AQ, social skills and communication subscales, and exhibited higher rates of BAP, MAP and NAP. We conclude that the Italian AQ is a cross-culturally reliable measure of these different phenotypes, and can be used to identify a phenotypic gradient of severity of autistic traits in families. To understand the molecular basis of these phenotypes will require its use in genetic association studies.

  8. Hazard quotient profiles used as a risk assessment tool for PFOS and PFOA serum levels in three distinctive European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwicki, Jan K; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) blood levels are commonly used as biomarkers of human environmental exposure to these compounds. Many biomonitoring studies indicate 100% detection for PFOS and PFOA thus justifying a concern of possible risk for the most exposed...... individuals. This study addresses the predictive value of hazard quotients (HQs) calculated on the basis of serum PFOS and PFOA in male and female populations of reproductive age in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Overall, 2026 results of PFOS and PFOA serum concentrations (589 males, 1437 females) were...... and PFOA. Only in the three cases of males in Greenland were there serum PFOS levels showing HQ values exceeding 1, so indicating that such serum levels may be of concern. The mean serum concentration of PFOS was significantly higher in male than in female populations. Despite significant differences...

  9. Symmetry properties of fractional diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, R K; Kasatkin, A A; Lukashchuk, S Yu [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Karl Marx strausse 12, Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gazizov@mail.rb.ru, E-mail: alexei_kasatkin@mail.ru, E-mail: lsu@mail.rb.ru

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, nonlinear anomalous diffusion equations with time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville and Caputo) of the order of 0-2 are considered. Lie point symmetries of these equations are investigated and compared. Examples of using the obtained symmetries for constructing exact solutions of the equations under consideration are presented.

  10. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  11. Theory of fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-08-01

    A theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is constructed based on magnetic flux fractionization, which lead to instability of the system against selfcompression. A theorem is proved stating that arbitrary potentials fail to lift a specific degeneracy of the Landau level. For the case of 1/3 fractional filling a model 3-particles interaction is constructed breaking the symmetry. The rigid 3-particles wave function plays the role of order parameter. In a BCS type of theory the gap in the single particles spectrum is produced by the 3-particles interaction. The mean field critical behaviour and critical parameters are determined as well as the Ginsburg-Landau equation coefficients. The Hall conductivity is calculated from the first principles and its temperature dependence is found. The simultaneous tunnelling of 3,5,7 etc. electrons and quantum interference effects are predicted. (author)

  12. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (PIQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  13. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballarin

    Full Text Available The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ, and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  14. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  15. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  16. Exact solutions of space-time fractional EW and modified EW equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The bright soliton solutions and singular solutions are constructed for the space-time fractional EW and the space-time fractional modified EW (MEW) equations. Both equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by the use of fractional complex transform (FCT) and properties of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. Then, various ansatz method are implemented to construct the solutions for both equations.

  17. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  18. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  19. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  20. Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Allouch, Samer

    2017-07-12

    This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green\\'s function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.

  1. Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Allouch, Samer; Lucchesi, Marco; Maî tre, O. P. Le; Mustapha, K. A.; Knio, Omar

    2017-01-01

    This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green's function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.

  2. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  3. Fractional flux quanta in Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, E.; Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Pfeiffer, J.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Physikalisches Inst. - Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H. [Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology (CNI), Research Centre Juelich (Germany); Siegel, M. [Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Fractional Josephson vortices may appear in the so-called 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions ({kappa} is an arbitrary number) and carry magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Their properties are very different from the usual integer fluxons: they are pinned, and often represent the ground state of the system with spontaneous circulating supercurrent. They behave as well controlled macroscopic spins and can be used to construct bits, qubits, tunable photonic crystals and to study the (quantum) physics of spin systems. In this talk we discuss recent advances in 0-{pi} junction technology and present recent experimental results: evidence of the spontaneous flux in the ground state, spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequencies and observation of dynamics effects related to the flipping of the fractional vortices. (orig.)

  4. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  5. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  6. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  7. Researching Reciprocal Leadership: Using the Consciousness Quotient Inventory (CQ-i) as a Pilot Methodology to Explore Leadership with the Context of a School-University Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, Val; Fordham, Jon

    2018-01-01

    This article looks at the potential of using an online self-completing inventory that measures leadership consciousness awareness. The Consciousness Quotient inventory (CQ-i) has been developed to encourage leaders to be more conscious of their ability to be accountable and responsible for their leadership practice. The CQ-i as a method for…

  8. A simple method for measuring fungal metabolic quotient and comparing carbon use efficiency of different isolates: Application to Mediterranean leaf litter fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinzari, F.; Maggi, O.; Lunghini, D.; Di Lonardo, Paolo; Persiani, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    AbstractThe metabolic efficiency of different microbial groups in carbon source uses and single species storage efficiency is poorly characterised and not adequately represented in most biogeochemical models. It is proposed here a simple approach for an estimation of the metabolic quotient of fungal

  9. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Saskia G.M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to

  10. Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation and its applications to nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, the fractional derivatives in the sense of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative and the Bäcklund transformation of fractional Riccati equation are employed for constructing the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The power of this manageable method is presented by applying it to several examples. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► Backlund transformation of fractional Riccati equation is presented. ► A new method for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations is proposed. ► Three important fractional differential equations are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained.

  11. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  12. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  13. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  14. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  15. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  16. Generalized fractional supersymmetry associated to different species of anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douari, Jamila; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste; Hassouni, Yassine

    2001-01-01

    We consider multiple species of anyons characterized by different statistical parameters. First, we redefine the anyonic algebra and then generalize this definition by constructing the anyonic superalgebra. Finally, we use these tools to generalize the fractional supersymmetry already discussed. (author)

  17. Tunable fractional-order capacitor using layered ferroelectric polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Pairs of various Polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF)-based polymers are used for fabricating bilayer fractional order capacitors (FOCs). The polymer layers are constructed using a simple drop casting approach. The resulting FOC has two advantages: It can

  18. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  19. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  20. [Children's intelligence quotient following general anesthesia for dental care: a clinical observation by Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B; Wang, J H; Xiao, Y M; Liu, K Y; Yang, X D; Ge, L H

    2016-04-18

    It has been demonstrated that anesthetics exposure may lead to neurocognitive impairment in developing brain of animal models. However, for the limitation that the animal models cannot fully mimic the dose and duration in clinical settings especially for dental general anesthesia, the clinical significance of anesthetics exposure on developing central nervous system remains undetermined. Therefore, we conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ) after the administration of dental general anesthesia comparing to that before surgery. We conducted the current study in order to observe the fluctuation of intelligence quotient (IQ) after the administration of dental general anesthesia compared with that before surgery. Thirty two patients, ASA I, who were exposed to dental general anesthesia in Department of Pediatric Dentistry Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, aged 4 to 6.5 years, were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients with severe learning difficulties or communication disorders were excluded. Written and informed consent was obtained from each patients' family which was fully explained of the purpose and method of study. Their intelligence quotients were evaluated with the Chinese Wechsler young children scale of intelligence (Urban version) before and 2 weeks after dental anesthesia. They were treated by experienced pediatric dentists and the sevoflurane, propofol and nitrous oxide were used for general anesthesia by anesthetist. Articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine tartrate injections were used for their pulp treatment or extraction. The examiners and scorers for IQ had technical training in the test administration. All the patients were tested by the same examiner and with standardized guide language. Each subtest was scored according to the tool review. Verbal IQ and performance IQ consisted of relevant 5 subtests and full scale IQ. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 18

  1. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  2. Controlling general projective synchronization of fractional order Rossler systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shiquan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to achieve general projective synchronization of two fractional order Rossler systems. First, we construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximation integer order system. Then, a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors was utilized on the integer order system. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Fracpairs and fractions over a reduced commutative ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    In the well-known construction of the field of fractions of an integral domain, division by zero is excluded. We introduce "fracpairs" as pairs subject to laws consistent with the use of the pair as a fraction, but do not exclude denominators to be zero. We investigate fracpairs over a reduced

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of Children's Splitting Operations and Fraction Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching experiments with pairs of children have generated several hypotheses about students' construction of fractions. For example, Steffe (2004) hypothesized that robust conceptions of improper fractions depends on the development of a splitting operation. Results from teaching experiments that rely on scheme theory and Steffe's hierarchy of…

  5. Series expansion in fractional calculus and fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. We define a kind of fractional Taylor series of an infinitely fractionally-differentiable function. Further, based on our definition we generalize hypergeometric functio...

  6. New Metrics from a Fractional Gravitational Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Agop et al. proved in Commun. Theor. Phys. (2008) that, a Reissner–Nordstrom type metric is obtained, if gauge gravitational field in a fractal spacetime is constructed by means of concepts of scale relativity. We prove in this short communication that similar result is obtained if gravity in D-spacetime dimensions is fractionalized by means of the Glaeske–Kilbas–Saigo fractional. Besides, non-singular gravitational fields are obtained without using extra-dimensions. We present few examples to show that these gravitational fields hold a number of motivating features in spacetime physics. (paper)

  7. Numerical study of fractional nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Christian

    2014-10-08

    Using a Fourier spectral method, we provide a detailed numerical investigation of dispersive Schrödinger-type equations involving a fractional Laplacian in an one-dimensional case. By an appropriate choice of the dispersive exponent, both mass and energy sub- and supercritical regimes can be identified. This allows us to study the possibility of finite time blow-up versus global existence, the nature of the blow-up, the stability and instability of nonlinear ground states and the long-time dynamics of solutions. The latter is also studied in a semiclassical setting. Moreover, we numerically construct ground state solutions of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  9. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  10. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  11. Assessment of bioavailability of pesticides in soils and identification of pesticide degradation drivers using the in-situ Mass Distribution Quotient (iMDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The in-situ Mass Distribution Quotient (iMDQ) has recently been shown to reliably describe the bioavailability and mineralization of the widely applied pesticide isoproturon in agricultural soils. It is determined by pore water extraction from previously incubated soil samples and subsequent assessment of the mass distribution between solid and liquid phase. The method was verified by comparing the bioavailability with co-metabolic mineralization in soils under optimum microbial soil conditions (water tension -15 kPa and bulk density 1.3 g cm-3). A comparison of the results with the chemical partitioning assessed by the Kd method has shown a higher accuracy of the new method. By combining the iMDQ/pore water extraction method with mineralization of the pesticide under optimum microbial conditions in the soils, further information about mineralization and degradation processes could be obtained or confirmed: a) Metabolically outstanding soils could be identified due to inconsistency between bioavailability and mineralization when compared to the co-metabolic soils. In a metabolically hampered soil, the mineralization was very low compared to the bioavailability and in a soil with metabolically IPU degrading microorganisms the mineralization was extremely high despite low bioavailability. b) Analysis of metabolite patterns in soil water fractions of a degradation experiment allowed for an additional identification of the metabolic status of the soil. In co-metabolic soils, the diversity of metabolites increased proportionally with the degree of mineralization of the parent compound, whereas in a metabolically hampered soil the metabolite pattern was very diverse despite low mineralization. c) A quite stable fractioning between total mineralization of the parent compound to CO2 and build-up of non-extractable bound residues was found. This is a hint that also during co-metabolic degradation that can up to now not be attributed to a certain group of microorganisms

  12. The fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), is the manifestation of a new, highly correlated, many-particle ground state that forms in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. It is an example of the new physics that has grown out of the tremendous recent advances in semiconductor material science, which has provided us with high-quality, lower-dimensional carrier systems. The novel electronic state exposes itself in transport experiments through quantization of the Hall resistance to an exact rational fraction of h/e, and concomitantly vanishing longitudinal resistivity. Its relevant energy scale is only a few degrees kelvin. The quantization is a consequence of the spontaneous formation of an energy gap separating the condensed ground state from its rather elusive quasiparticle excitations. The theoretical understanding of the novel quantum liquids which underlie the FQHE has predominantly emerged from an ingenious many-particle wave function strongly supported by numerous few-particle simulations. Theory has now constructed a complex model for ideal two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of high magnetic fields and makes definitive, often fascinating predictions. Experiments have successively uncovered odd-denominator fractional states reaching presently to 7/13. The application of new experimental tools to the FQHE, such as optics, microwaves, and phonon techniques promises the direct observation of such parameters as the gap energy and possibly even some of the more elusive quantities in the future. While theory and experiment in the FQHE appear to be converging, there remains considerable room for challenging surprises. This paper provides a concise overview of the FQHE. It focuses on the experimental aspects and states, but does not expand on the theoretical advances. 70 refs., 11 figs

  13. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sead Rešić; Ismet Botonjić; Maid Omerović

    2016-01-01

    Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers). Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered...

  14. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  15. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-02-03

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (economic status (p Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  16. Correlation between Insertion Torque and Implant Stability Quotient in Tapered Implants with Knife-Edge Thread Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Baldi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the correlation between insertion torque (IT and implant stability quotient (ISQ in tapered implants with knife-edge threads. Methods. Seventy-five identical implants (Anyridge, Megagen were inserted by using a surgical drilling unit with torque control and an integrated resonance frequency analysis module (Implantmed, W&H. IT (N/cm and ISQ were recorded and implants were divided into three groups (n=25 according to the IT: low (50. ISQ difference among groups was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Bonferroni-corrected Mann–Whitney U-test for pairwise comparisons. The strength of the association between IT and ISQ was assessed by Spearman Rho correlation coefficient (α=0.05. Results. At the pairwise comparisons, a significant difference of ISQ values was demonstrated only between low torque and high torque groups. The strength of the association between IT and ISQ value was significant for both the entire sample and the medium torque group, while it was not significant in low and high torque groups. Conclusions. For the investigated implant, ISQ and IT showed a positive correlation up to values around 50 N/cm: higher torques subject the bone-implant system to unnecessary biological and mechanical stress without additional benefits in terms of implant stability. This trial is registered with NCT03222219.

  17. The effect of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on estimated glottal contact quotient in untrained male voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Christopher S; Erickson, Molly L

    2010-01-01

    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique is not well understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a/ vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, before and after a minute of repeated phonation into a 50-cm hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. Electroglottography was used to measure the glottal contact quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. Single-subject analysis revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in the C/N-quotient of peat in relation to decomposition rate and age determination with 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmer, N.; Holm, E.

    1984-01-01

    Peat profiles ca. 0.5 m in depth through bog hummocks with Sphagnum spp. have been studied on a subarctic mire in northern Sweden and on some bogs in southern Sweden. The C/N-quotient in the peat decreases with depth due to losses in C during the decay processes. As a result of decay and compaction, the annual peat volume increment at the bottom of the profiles is 4-15% of the increment in the upper parts. On the central bog areas in southern Sweden the decay processes during periods are interrupted at earlier stages which gives rise to a more rapid volumetric peat increment than in the marginal bog areas and in the north. Datings from 210 Pb activity have proved to be reliable only in the lower parts of the profiles (age>50 yr) as lead might be mobile in the upper parts. At the deposition in the catotelm layer after a period of at least 150 yr the organic matter has lost up to 80% of its original carbon. The accumulation of 210 Pb and N shows that the supply of these elements is higher in southern Sweden than in the north. (author)

  19. On the accuracy of instantaneous gas exchange rates, energy expenditure and respiratory quotient calculations obtained from indirect whole room calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribok, Andrei; Rumpler, William; Hoyt, Reed; Buller, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of metabolic rate calculations performed in the whole room indirect calorimeter using the molar balance equations. The equations are treated from the point of view of cause–effect relationship where the gaseous exchange rates representing the unknown causes need to be inferred from a known, noisy effect—gaseous concentrations. Two methods of such inference are analyzed. The first method is based on the previously published regularized deconvolution of the molar balance equation and the second one, proposed in this paper, relies on regularized differentiation of gaseous concentrations. It is found that both methods produce similar results for the absolute values of metabolic variables and their accuracy. The uncertainty for O 2 consumption rate is found to be 7% and for CO 2 production-–3.2%. The uncertainties in gaseous exchange rates do not depend on the absolute values of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production. In contrast, the absolute uncertainty in respiratory quotient is a function of the gaseous exchange rates and varies from 9.4% during the night to 2.3% during moderate exercise. The uncertainty in energy expenditure was found to be 5.9% and independent of the level of gaseous exchange. For both methods, closed form analytical formulas for confidence intervals are provided allowing quantification of uncertainty for four major metabolic variables in real world studies. (paper)

  20. On the accuracy of instantaneous gas exchange rates, energy expenditure and respiratory quotient calculations obtained from indirect whole room calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribok, Andrei; Hoyt, Reed; Buller, Mark; Rumpler, William

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of metabolic rate calculations performed in the whole room indirect calorimeter using the molar balance equations. The equations are treated from the point of view of cause-effect relationship where the gaseous exchange rates representing the unknown causes need to be inferred from a known, noisy effect-gaseous concentrations. Two methods of such inference are analyzed. The first method is based on the previously published regularized deconvolution of the molar balance equation and the second one, proposed in this paper, relies on regularized differentiation of gaseous concentrations. It is found that both methods produce similar results for the absolute values of metabolic variables and their accuracy. The uncertainty for O2 consumption rate is found to be 7% and for CO2 production--3.2%. The uncertainties in gaseous exchange rates do not depend on the absolute values of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In contrast, the absolute uncertainty in respiratory quotient is a function of the gaseous exchange rates and varies from 9.4% during the night to 2.3% during moderate exercise. The uncertainty in energy expenditure was found to be 5.9% and independent of the level of gaseous exchange. For both methods, closed form analytical formulas for confidence intervals are provided allowing quantification of uncertainty for four major metabolic variables in real world studies.

  1. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  2. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  3. Visual-motor association learning in undergraduate students as a function of the autism-spectrum quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkington, Karisa B; Clements, Rebecca J; Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A

    2015-10-01

    We examined how performance on an associative learning task changes in a sample of undergraduate students as a function of their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) score. The participants, without any prior knowledge of the Japanese language, learned to associate hiragana characters with button responses. In the novel condition, 50 participants learned visual-motor associations without any prior exposure to the stimuli's visual attributes. In the familiar condition, a different set of 50 participants completed a session in which they first became familiar with the stimuli's visual appearance prior to completing the visual-motor association learning task. Participants with higher AQ scores had a clear advantage in the novel condition; the amount of training required reaching learning criterion correlated negatively with AQ. In contrast, participants with lower AQ scores had a clear advantage in the familiar condition; the amount of training required to reach learning criterion correlated positively with AQ. An examination of how each of the AQ subscales correlated with these learning patterns revealed that abilities in visual discrimination-which is known to depend on the visual ventral-stream system-may have afforded an advantage in the novel condition for the participants with the higher AQ scores, whereas abilities in attention switching-which are known to require mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex-may have afforded an advantage in the familiar condition for the participants with the lower AQ scores.

  4. Solution of fractional-order differential equations based on the operational matrices of new fractional Bernstein functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.T. Alshbool

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for approximating solutions to fractional differential equations (FDEs in a modified new Bernstein polynomial basis is introduced. Writing x→xα(0<α<1 in the operational matrices of Bernstein polynomials, the fractional Bernstein polynomials are obtained and then transformed into matrix form. Furthermore, using Caputo fractional derivative, the matrix form of the fractional derivative is constructed for the fractional Bernstein matrices. We convert each term of the problem to the matrix form by means of fractional Bernstein matrices. A basic matrix equation which corresponds to a system of fractional equations is utilized, and a new system of nonlinear algebraic equations is obtained. The method is given with some priori error estimate. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented technique.

  5. Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ovidio, M.; Garra, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.

  6. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  7. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  8. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    1 . In tro d u ctio n. T he N obel P rize in C hem istry for the year 2000 w as aw arded to A lan J H ... soliton, the ground state of the ferm ion-soliton system can have ..... probability density,in a heuristic w ay that a fractional ferm ion num ber m ay ...

  9. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  10. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  11. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  12. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  13. Universal signatures of fractionalized quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Sergei V; Melko, Roger G; Hastings, Matthew B

    2012-01-13

    Ground states of certain materials can support exotic excitations with a charge equal to a fraction of the fundamental electron charge. The condensation of these fractionalized particles has been predicted to drive unusual quantum phase transitions. Through numerical and theoretical analysis of a physical model of interacting lattice bosons, we establish the existence of such an exotic critical point, called XY*. We measure a highly nonclassical critical exponent η = 1.493 and construct a universal scaling function of winding number distributions that directly demonstrates the distinct topological sectors of an emergent Z(2) gauge field. The universal quantities used to establish this exotic transition can be used to detect other fractionalized quantum critical points in future model and material systems.

  14. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  15. Fractional virus epidemic model on financial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balci Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an epidemic model that characterizes the behavior of a financial network of globally operating stock markets. Since the long time series have a global memory effect, we represent our model by using the fractional calculus. This model operates on a network, where vertices are the stock markets and edges are constructed by the correlation distances. Thereafter, we find an analytical solution to commensurate system and use the well-known differential transform method to obtain the solution of incommensurate system of fractional differential equations. Our findings are confirmed and complemented by the data set of the relevant stock markets between 2006 and 2016. Rather than the hypothetical values, we use the Hurst Exponent of each time series to approximate the fraction size and graph theoretical concepts to obtain the variables.

  16. Evaluating the emissions from heavy-duty construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Gaseous and particle emissions from construction engines are an important fraction of the total air pollutants and are gaining increasing : regulatory attention. Quantification of NOx and PM is necessary to inventory the contribution of the construct...

  17. Periodicity and positivity of a class of fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z; Mohammed, M Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Fractional differential equations have been discussed in this study. We utilize the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus to implement it within the generalization of the well known class of differential equations. The Rayleigh differential equation has been generalized of fractional second order. The existence of periodic and positive outcome is established in a new method. The solution is described in a fractional periodic Sobolev space. Positivity of outcomes is considered under certain requirements. We develop and extend some recent works. An example is constructed.

  18. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  19. The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient: The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Y; Fuermaier, A B M; Den Heijer, A E; Tucha, O; Althaus, M

    2015-09-01

    The 'Empathy Quotient' (EQ) and 'Systemizing Quotient' (SQ) are used worldwide to measure people's empathizing and systemizing cognitive styles. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Dutch EQ and SQ in healthy participants (n = 685), and high functioning males with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). Factor analysis provided support for three subscales of the abridged 28-item EQ: Cognitive Empathy, Emotional Empathy and Social Skills. Overall, the Dutch EQ and SQ appeared reliable and valid tools to assess empathizing and systemizing cognitive style in healthy adults and high functioning adults with autism. The literature showed good cross-cultural stability of the SQ and EQ in Western countries, but in Asian countries EQ is less stable and less sensitive to sex differences.

  20. Part II: Should the h-index be modified? An analysis of the m-quotient, contemporary h-index, authorship value, and impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Gabrick, Kyle S; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick R; Klimo, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The widely accepted h-index depends on the citation analysis source and does not consider the authorship position, the journal's impact factor (IF), or the age of the paper or author. We investigated these factors in citation statistics of academic neurosurgeons. An uncorrected h-index and the m-quotient, which corrects for career length, were calculated by the use of Scopus and Google Scholar. In a subset of neurosurgeons, we computed the contemporary h-index (hc), which accounts for the age of the publications; the authorship value (AV), weighted by author position; and the journal IF. An "overall' average for AV and IF including most of an author's publications and an average for publications comprising the h-index ("h-index core") were calculated. When we used Google Scholar, the mean h-index was significantly greater than that calculated when we used Scopus (P = 0.0030). m-quotient and hc-index increased with academic rank, with an m-quotient >1 achieved by 69% of chairmen and 48% of professors. The effect of AV was greatest on the greater h-indices. The average IF for the h-index core was greater than the overall IF, which did not correlate with academic rank. Few neurosurgeons consistently publish in high-impact journals. Google Scholar tends to inflate the h-index. The m-quotient and hc-index allow comparisons of researchers across time. Although average journal IF did not differ significantly among neurosurgeons academic ranks, it should be noted for individuals who consistently publish in high-impact journals. We recommend the creation of individual bibliometric profiles to better compare the academic productivity of neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Autistic Traits Measured Equivalently in Individuals With and Without An Autism Spectrum Disorder? An Invariance Analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O’Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Fo...

  2. PENGARUH ROLE CONFLICT, ROLE AMBIGUITY, SELF-EFFICACY, SENSITIFITAS ETIKA PROFESI, GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN TERHADAP KINERJA AUDITOR DENGAN EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERATING

    OpenAIRE

    Meilda Wiguna

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak: Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh role stress, role ambiguity, self-efficacy, sensitifitas etika profesi, gaya kepemimpinan terhadap kinerja auditor dengan emotional quotient sebagai variabel moderating. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah para auditor yang bekerja di Kantor Akuntan Publik di Pekanbaru, Batam, Medan.Jumlah auditor yang menjadi sampel penelitian ini adalah 145 auditor dari 29 Kantor Akuntan Publik. Metode penentuan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah purposi...

  3. Pengaruh Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, Self-efficacy, Sensitifitas Etika Profesi, Gaya Kepemimpinan terhadap Kinerja Auditor dengan Emotional Quotient sebagai Variabel Moderating

    OpenAIRE

    Wiguna, Meilda

    2014-01-01

    : Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh role stress, role ambiguity, self-efficacy, sensitifitas etika profesi, gaya kepemimpinan terhadap kinerja auditor dengan emotional quotient sebagai variabel moderating. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah para auditor yang bekerja di Kantor Akuntan Publik di Pekanbaru, Batam, Medan.Jumlah auditor yang menjadi sampel penelitian ini adalah 145 auditor dari 29 Kantor Akuntan Publik. Metode penentuan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah purposive samp...

  4. Relationship Between Perinatal and Neonatal Indices and Intelligence Quotient in Very Low Birth Weight Infants at the Age of 6 or 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Shu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chang, Chia-Han; Tsou, Kuo-Inn

    2008-01-01

    The majority of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW; < 1500 g) enter mainstream schools. They experience significant neurodevelopmental disabilities during childhood. The specific aims of our study were to evaluate the neonatal outcomes of VLBW infants and whether they would influence intelligence quotient (IQ), cognitive function and learning disabilities at the age of 6 or 8 years. Methods: We enrolled VLBW neonates who weighed less than 1500 g and who were delivered at Shin-K...

  5. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  6. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  7. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  8. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  9. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04)). Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  11. Respiratory quotient: innovative method for monitoring ‘Royal Gala’ apple storage in a dynamic controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica, Borkh. which are not stored at low temperature or in a properly controlled atmosphere (CA may have a high metabolic rate during the postharvest stage resulting in losses in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruit stored in accordance with a new method of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA.The respiratory quotient (RQ was monitored at two temperatures which were then compared using a commercially available technology based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF and static CA. Ethylene production and respiration rates were lower in apples stored in DCA than in CA, as a result of lower 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase activity, especially in apples stored in DCA-RQ2. Flesh firmness of apples stored in DCA did not differ from those stored in CA. Apples stored at 1 °C had less flesh breakdown occurrence and a high percentage of healthy fruit. ‘Royal Gala’ stored at DCA-RQ2 had less flesh breakdown than apples stored in CA; however, the apples stored in DCA-CF did not differ from those stored in DCA-RQ2 and CA. Apples stored at the highest RQ value (6 and 4, especially at 0.5 °C, had low O2 injury occurrence after storage. However the increase in temperature to 1.0 °C, reduced the occurrence of this disorder. Therefore, storage in DCA-RQ2 at 1 °C or DCA-CF at 0.5 °C are the recommendations of preference for ensuring maintenance of quality in ‘Royal Gala’ apples after eight months of storage.

  12. PYY[3-36] administration decreases the respiratory quotient and reduces adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sean H; Lei, Chunli; Jodka, Carolyn M; Nikoulina, Svetlana E; Hoyt, Julie A; Gedulin, Bronislava; Mack, Christine M; Kendall, Eric S

    2006-01-01

    In rodents, weight reduction after peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) administration may be due largely to decreased food consumption. Effects on other processes affecting energy balance (energy expenditure, fuel partitioning, gut nutrient uptake) remain poorly understood. We examined whether s.c. infusion of 1 mg/(kg x d) PYY[3-36] (for up to 7 d) increased metabolic rate, fat combustion, and/or fecal energy loss in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. PYY[3-36] transiently reduced food intake (e.g., 25-43% lower at d 2 relative to pretreatment baseline) and decreased body weight (e.g., 9-10% reduction at d 2 vs. baseline) in 3 separate studies. Mass-specific metabolic rate in kJ/(kg x h) in PYY[3-36]-treated mice did not differ from controls. The dark cycle respiratory quotient (RQ) was transiently decreased. On d 2, it was 0.747 +/- 0.008 compared with 0.786 +/- 0.004 for controls (P light cycle RQ was reduced throughout the study in PYY[3-36]-treated mice (0.730 +/- 0.006) compared with controls (0.750 +/- 0.009; P energy loss was negligible ( approximately 2% of ingested energy) and did not differ between PYY[3-36]-treated mice and controls. Thus, negative energy balance after PYY[3-36] administration in diet-induced obese mice results from reduced food intake with a relative maintenance of mass-specific energy expenditure. Fat loss and reduced RQ highlight the potential for PYY[3-36] to drive increased mobilization of fat stores to help meet energy requirements in this model.

  13. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  14. A Brief Assessment of Intelligence Decline in Schizophrenia As Represented by the Difference between Current and Premorbid Intellectual Quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ohi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia elicit several clinical features, such as psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, and subtle decline of intelligence. The latter two features become evident around the onset of the illness, although they may exist even before the disease onset in a substantial proportion of cases. Here, we review the literature concerning intelligence decline (ID during the progression of schizophrenia. ID can be estimated by comparing premorbid and current intellectual quotient (IQ by means of the Adult Reading Test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS, respectively. For the purpose of brief assessment, we have recently developed the WAIS-Short Form, which consists of Similarities and Symbol Search and well reflects functional outcomes. According to the degree of ID, patients were classified into three distinct subgroups; deteriorated, preserved, and compromised groups. Patients who show deteriorated IQ (deteriorated group elicit ID from a premorbid level (≥10-point difference between current and premorbid IQ, while patients who show preserved or compromised IQ do not show such decline (<10-point difference. Furthermore, the latter patients were divided into patients with preserved and compromised IQ based on an estimated premorbid IQ score >90 or below 90, respectively. We have recently shown the distribution of ID in a large cohort of schizophrenia patients. Consistent with previous studies, approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients had a decline of less than 10 points, i.e., normal intellectual performance. In contrast, approximately 70% of patients showed deterioration of IQ. These results indicate that there is a subgroup of schizophrenia patients who have mild or minimal intellectual deficits, following the onset of the disorder. Therefore, a careful assessment of ID is important in identifying appropriate interventions, including medications, cognitive remediation, and social/community services.

  15. Correlation between the thickness of the crestal and buccolingual cortical bone at varying depths and implant stability quotients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthanat Chatvaratthana

    Full Text Available Resonance frequency analysis (RFA is clinically used in dentistry to access the stiffness of dental implants in surrounding bone. However, the clear advantages and disadvantages of this method are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare implant stability quotient (ISQ values obtained from RFA with parameters obtained from a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scan of the same region.Nineteen implants (Conelog were inserted in the posterior maxillary and mandibular partially edentulous regions of 16 patients. At the time of implant placement, the ISQ values were obtained using RFA (Osstell. CBCT was used to measure the thickness of the crestal, cortical, buccolingual cortical, and cancellous bone at 3, 6, and 9 mm below the crestal bone level, as indicated by radiographic markers. The ratio of the thickness of the cortical to cancellous bone at varying depths was also calculated and classified into 4 groups (Group 1-4.There was a strong correlation between the crestal cortical bone thickness and ISQ values (P<0.001. The thickness of the buccolingual cortical bone and ratio of the cortical to cancellous bone thickness at 3 mm were significantly related to the ISQ (P = 0.018 and P = 0.034, respectively. Furthermore, the ISQs in Group 1 were the highest compared with those in Group 2 and Group 3, whereas the CBCT parameters at 6 and 9 mm did not have any specific correlation with the ISQ values.This study showed that the ISQ values obtained from RFA highly correlated with the quantity and quality of bone 3 mm below the crestal bone level. The correlation between the ISQ and bone surrounding the implant site was dependent on the depth of measurement. Therefore, RFA can help to predict the marginal bone level, as confirmed in this study.

  16. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Ranabhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ. Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173 participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD and about one-third had poor IQ (<85. The age of the children (p < 0.05 and household economic status (p < 0.001 were significant for the BMI. Likewise, frequencies of illness in the previous year, mother’s education (p < 0.05 and father’s education (p < 0.001 were significant factors for the IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  17. Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia: Overlap of self-reported autistic traits using the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    In clinical practice, the differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) versus schizophrenia can be a challenge. Some self-report instruments-such as the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ)-have been portrayed as proxies for the diagnosis of AS. However, it has not been demonstrated to what extent autistic traits-as measured by the AQ-separate AS from schizophrenia. To examine the AS-schizophrenia discriminating ability of the AQ. The AQ is a 50-item self-administered questionnaire (with score range 0-50) for measuring "autistic traits" in adults. Here, it was completed by 136 individuals: 36 with schizophrenic psychosis, 51 with AS and 49 non-clinical comparison cases. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the total AQ score was performed to examine the discriminating power of the instrument. Both individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with AS scored significantly higher on AQ than the non-clinical group. The mean total AQ score (± standard deviation) of the AS group (26.7 ± 8.9; range 9-44) was significantly higher than that of the schizophrenia group (22.7 ± 6.2; range 10-35) (P = 0.041). However, when using the full Likert scale for scoring, the difference did not reach significance. In the ROC analysis of total AQ scores for AS versus schizophrenia, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.65 (P = 0.02). Although mean AQ scores separated AS and schizophrenia at a group comparison level, significant overlap of AQ scores across the two diagnostic groups clearly reduces the discriminating power of the AQ in the separation of schizophrenia from AS.

  18. Brain morphometric analysis predicts decline of intelligence quotient in children with sickle cell disease: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Arkuszewski, Michal; Zimmerman, Robert A; Herskovits, Edward H; Melhem, Elias R

    2017-03-01

    For children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and at low risk category of stroke, we aim to build a predictive model to differentiate those with decline of intelligence-quotient (IQ) from counterparts without decline, based on structural magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging volumetric analysis. This preliminary prospective cohort study included 25 children with SCD, homozygous for hemoglobin S, with no history of stroke and transcranial Doppler mean velocities below 170cm/s at baseline. We administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) to each child at yearly intervals for 2-4 years. Each child underwent MR examination within 30 days of the baseline K-BIT evaluation date. We calculated K-BIT change rates, and used rate of change in K-BIT to classify children into two groups: a decline group and a non-decline group. We then generated predictive models to predict K-BIT decline/non-decline based on regional gray-matter (GM) volumes computed from structural MR images. We identified six structures (the left median cingulate gyrus, the right middle occipital gyrus, the left inferior occipital gyrus, the right fusiform gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, the right inferior temporal gyrus) that, when assessed for volume at baseline, are jointly predictive of whether a child would suffer subsequent K-BIT decline. Based on these six regional GM volumes and the baseline K-BIT, we built a prognostic model using the K * algorithm. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 0.84, 0.78 and 0.86, respectively. GM volumetric analysis predicts subsequent IQ decline for children with SCD. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  20. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...

  1. Oscillation results for certain fractional difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun WANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a theory that studies the properties and application of arbitrary order differentiation and integration. It can describe the physical properties of some systems more accurately, and better adapt to changes in the system, playing an important role in many fields. For example, it can describe the process of tumor growth (growth stimulation and growth inhibition in biomedical science. The oscillation of solutions of two kinds of fractional difference equations is studied, mainly using the proof by contradiction, that is, assuming the equation has a nonstationary solution. For the first kind of equation, the function symbol is firstly determined, and by constructing the Riccati function, the difference is calculated. Then the condition of the function is used to satisfy the contradiction, that is, the assumption is false, which verifies the oscillation of the solution. For the second kind of equation with initial condition, the equivalent fractional sum form of the fractional difference equation are firstly proved. With considering 0<α≤1 and α>1, respectively, by using the properties of Stirling formula and factorial function, the contradictory is got through enhanced processing, namely the assuming is not established, and the sufficient condition for the bounded solutions of the fractional difference equation is obtained. The above results will optimize the relevant conclusions and enrich the relevant results. The results are applied to the specific equations, and the oscillation of the solutions of equations is proved.

  2. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  3. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  4. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT-FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated

  5. Quotient normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    general setting of the space CL(X, Y ) of all continuous linear mappings from a normed cone (X, p) to a normed cone (Y, q), extending several well-known results related to open continuous linear mappings between normed linear spaces. Keywords. Normed cone; extended quasi-metric; continuous linear mapping; bicom-.

  6. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  7. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  8. Increased cerebrospinal fluid albumin and immunoglobulin A fractions forecast cortical atrophy and longitudinal functional deterioration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Julia; Ciolac, Dumitru; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Koirala, Nabin; Krämer, Julia; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Luessi, Felix; Bittner, Stefan; Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Zipp, Frauke; Meuth, Sven G; Groppa, Sergiu

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no unequivocal predictors of disease evolution exist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cortical atrophy measurements are, however, closely associated with cumulative disability. Here, we aim to forecast longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-driven cortical atrophy and clinical disability from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. We analyzed CSF fractions of albumin and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G, and M and their CSF to serum quotients. Widespread atrophy was highly associated with increased baseline CSF concentrations and quotients of albumin and IgA. Patients with increased CSF IgA and CSF IgM showed higher functional disability at follow-up. CSF markers of blood-brain barrier integrity and specific immune response forecast emerging gray matter pathology and disease progression in MS.

  9. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  10. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  11. The Extended Fractional Subequation Method for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jianping; Tang, Bo; Kumar, Sunil; Hou, Yanren

    2012-01-01

    An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powe...

  12. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations

  13. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, J. E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br; Vilhena, M.T. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Segatto, C.F. E-mail: cynthia@mat.ufrgs.br; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta. E-mail: rpp@mat.pucrgs.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations.

  14. Fractions as Subtraction: An Activity-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcy B.; Olson, Amy M.; Freiberg, Elizabeth J.; Vega, Ruby I.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade student responses to the question "What is a fraction?" were examined to gain an understanding of how children in upper elementary grades make sense of fractions. Rather than measure children's understanding of fractions relative to mathematically conventional part-whole constructions of…

  15. New Hamiltonian structure of the fractional C-KdV soliton equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    A generalized Hamiltonian structure of the fractional soliton equation hierarchy is presented by using of differential forms and exterior derivatives of fractional orders. Example of the fractional Hamiltonian system of the C-KdV soliton equation hierarchy is constructed, which is a new Hamiltonian structure

  16. Functional Fractional Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skeptism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its application to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with 'ordinary' differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, with physical mathematic

  17. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  18. Plasma fractionation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Evers, Theo; Falcou, Pierre-Francois; Burnouf, Thierry; Amorim, Luiz; Thomas, Sylvia

    2009-04-01

    Procurement and processing of human plasma for fractionation of therapeutic proteins or biological medicines used in clinical practice is a multi-billion dollar international trade. Together the private sector and public sector (non-profit) provide large amounts of safe and effective therapeutic plasma proteins needed worldwide. The principal therapeutic proteins produced by the dichotomous industry include gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (including pathogen-specific hyperimmune globulins, such as hepatitis B immune globulins) albumin, factor VIII and Factor IX concentrates. Viral inactivation, principally by solvent detergent and other processes, has proven highly effective in preventing transmission of enveloped viruses, viz. HBV, HIV, and HCV.

  19. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  20. Evaluation of Sensory and Motor Skills in Neurosurgery Applicants Using a Virtual Reality Neurosurgical Simulator: The Sensory-Motor Quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, Ben Z; Kania, Patrick; Luciano, Cristian; Dharmavaram, Naga; Banerjee, Pat

    2015-01-01

    -motor quotient distribution in our tested population. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Wheelwright, S; Skinner, R; Martin, J; Clubley, E

    2001-02-01

    Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Individuals score in the range 0-50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: 174 randomly selected controls. Group 3: 840 students in Cambridge University; and Group 4: 16 winners of the UK Mathematics Olympiad. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 35.8 (SD = 6.5), significantly higher than Group 2 controls (M = 16.4, SD = 6.3). 80% of the adults with AS/HFA scored 32+, versus 2% of controls. Among the controls, men scored slightly but significantly higher than women. No women scored extremely highly (AQ score 34+) whereas 4% of men did so. Twice as many men (40%) as women (21%) scored at intermediate levels (AQ score 20+). Among the AS/HFA group, male and female scores did not differ significantly. The students in Cambridge University did not differ from the randomly selected control group, but scientists (including mathematicians) scored significantly higher than both humanities and social sciences students, confirming an earlier study that autistic conditions are associated with scientific skills. Within the sciences, mathematicians scored highest. This was replicated in Group 4, the Mathematics Olympiad winners scoring significantly higher than the male Cambridge humanities students. 6% of the student sample scored 32+ on the AQ. On interview, 11 out of 11 of these met three or more DSM-IV criteria for AS/HFA, and all were studying sciences/mathematics, and 7 of the 11 met threshold on these criteria. Test-retest and interrater reliability of the AQ was good. The AQ is thus a valuable instrument for rapidly quantifying where any given individual is situated on the continuum from autism to

  2. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  3. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  4. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  5. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  6. The random continued fraction transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Charlene; Kempton, Tom; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a random dynamical system related to continued fraction expansions. It uses random combinations of the Gauss map and the Rényi (or backwards) continued fraction map. We explore the continued fraction expansions that this system produces, as well as the dynamical properties of the system.

  7. How Weird Are Weird Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  8. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  9. On fractional Fourier transform moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their

  10. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  11. q-fractional calculus and equations

    CERN Document Server

    Annaby, Mahmoud H

    2012-01-01

    This nine-chapter monograph introduces a rigorous investigation of q-difference operators in standard and fractional settings. It starts with elementary calculus of q-differences and integration of Jackson’s type before turning to q-difference equations. The existence and uniqueness theorems are derived using successive approximations, leading to systems of equations with retarded arguments. Regular  q-Sturm–Liouville theory is also introduced; Green’s function is constructed and the eigenfunction expansion theorem is given. The monograph also discusses some integral equations of Volterra and Abel type, as introductory material for the study of fractional q-calculi. Hence fractional q-calculi of the types Riemann–Liouville; Grünwald–Letnikov;  Caputo;  Erdélyi–Kober and Weyl are defined analytically. Fractional q-Leibniz rules with applications  in q-series are  also obtained with rigorous proofs of the formal  results of  Al-Salam-Verma, which remained unproved for decades. In working ...

  12. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  13. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  14. The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2008-06-01

    Based on the criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are reviewed and extended to account for leverage effects. Using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

  15. Tensor Fields for Use in Fractional-Order Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai

    2003-01-01

    To be able to construct viscoelastic material models from fractional0order differentegral equations that are applicable for 3D finite-strain analysis requires definitions for fractional derivatives and integrals for symmetric tensor fields, like stress and strain. We define these fields in the body manifold. We then map them ito spatial fields expressed in terms of an Eulerian or Lagrangian reference frame where most analysts prefer to solve boundary problems.

  16. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  17. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Zhang Shiying; Fan Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W H (j) (t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W H (j) (t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function λ(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W H (j) (t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W H (j) (t)

  18. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  19. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  20. Thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, atM.A.

    1979-08-01

    Research on the nature of thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions and the possibility of increasing their activity and identifying conditions for their use in the electrode pitch process is described. From research done on different anthracite fractions processed at varying temperatures it was concluded that accumulations of condensates from heating anthracite fractions occur significantly slower in comparison with pitch. As a result the electrode pitch process is prolonged. Thermal treatment of an anthracite fraction causes the formation and accumulation of condensates and promotes thermochemical transformations. Lastly, the use of thermally treated anthracite fractions apparently intensifies the electrode pitch process and improves its quality. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  1. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  2. A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guo-cheng; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.

  3. A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guo-cheng, E-mail: wuguocheng2002@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Numerical Simulation of Sichuan Province, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: zhshaeng@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-03

    In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.

  4. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  5. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  6. Analysis of mechanical preparations in extracted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments: value of the safety quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J Y; Machtou, P; Ruddle, C; Micallef, J P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Endographe to analyze the vertical forces and torque developed during mechanical preparations in extracted teeth. The data collected in this study may be used to calculate the safety quotient (SQ) as proposed by J.T. McSpadden. The SQ formula is defined as the torque required to break a file at D3 divided by the mean working torque required to cut dentin. The Endographe is a unique force-analyzer device equipped to measure, record, and generate graphs of the vertical forces and torque exerted during root canal preparation. All preparations were performed by endodontists in roots with narrow, more restrictive canals, larger, more open canals, or in roots sectioned in two halves. All canals, including the sectioned canals, were prepared with ProTaper files in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines for use. For narrow canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g.cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 232 (+/- 60) g (F2) and from 80 (+/- 24) g x cm (F1) to 150 (+/- 45) g x cm (S2), respectively. For large canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g x cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 340 (+/- 20) g (F1) and from 31 (+/- 9) g x cm (S2) to 96 (+/- 35) g x cm (SX), respectively. The SQ varied from 0.93 to 7.95 for narrow canals and from 1.58 to 14.50 for large canals. The SQ is intended to provide values that can be analyzed to predict whether a rotary file will have a tendency to break or will work safely during clinical use. However, if the formula is going to provide useful information, it must index the "rotation to failure torque" with the "mean working torque" at a specific location along the cutting blades of a file. Additionally, this mathematical formula does not account for factors such as the concentration of forces, the way the instruments are used, or the wear of the instruments. A precise protocol for canal preparation should emphasize using

  7. The study of environmental impact quotient (EIQ of pesticides used in wheat and barley farms in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The environmental impact quotient (EIQ developed by Kovach et al (1992 is used an effort to fill an important gap; i.e. the need to provide farmers and others with easy-to-use information about the adverse effects of pesticides. It represents a method for calculating the environmental impacts of pesticides, and the values obtained from these calculations can be used to compare different pesticides and pest management programs with each other to ultimately determine which program or pesticide is likely to have the lowest environmental impact. The EIQ value for a particular active ingredient is calculated according to a formula that includes parameters for toxicity (dermal, chronic, bird, bee, fish, and beneficial arthropod, soil half-life, systemicity, leaching potential, and plant surface half-life. Each of these parameters is given a rating of 1, 3 or 5 to reflect its potential of causing harm. Six of these ratings are based on measured or known properties and the other five are based on judgments according to their potentially low, moderate or severe impact. Since the EIQ value is mainly a hazard indicator, additional calculations are required to obtain an indication of the pesticide risk. To account for exposure, an equation called the Field Use EIQ has been developed. This rating is calculated by multiplying the EIQ value for a specific chemical from the tables by the percent active ingredient in the formulation and its dosage rate used per hectare (usually in liters or kilograms of the formulated product. EIQ is used in different studies to compare the environmental effects of different pesticides and/or different production systems (Avila et al., 2011; Doris et al., 2011; Gallivan et al., 2001; Macharia et al., 2009. The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies in using pesticides in wheat and barley farms in the city of Mashhad located in the Khorasan Razavi province in Iran. Materials and Methods Data related

  8. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest that the origin of the odd denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which governs quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics does not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  9. Theory of fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1984-09-01

    A theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is constructed by introducing 3-particle interactions breaking the symmetry for ν=1/3 according to a degeneracy theorem proved here. An order parameter is introduced and a gap in the single particle spectrum is found. The critical temperature, critical filling number and critical behaviour are determined as well as the Ginzburg-Landau equation coefficients. A first principle calculation of the Hall current is given. 3, 5, 7 electron tunneling and Josephson interference effects are predicted. (author)

  10. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  11. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, O P

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations

  12. A Novel Operational Matrix of Caputo Fractional Derivatives of Fibonacci Polynomials: Spectral Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, two numerical algorithms for solving some linear and nonlinear fractional-order differential equations are presented and analyzed. For this purpose, a novel operational matrix of fractional-order derivatives of Fibonacci polynomials was constructed and employed along with the application of the tau and collocation spectral methods. The convergence and error analysis of the suggested Fibonacci expansion were carefully investigated. Some numerical examples with comparisons are presented to ensure the efficiency, applicability and high accuracy of the proposed algorithms. Two accurate semi-analytic polynomial solutions for linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations are the result.

  13. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  14. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  15. Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.

  16. Fractional variational principles in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, PO Box MG-23, R 76900, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr

    2009-10-15

    The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance in various fields of science and engineering, especially during the last few decades. An open issue in this emerging field is represented by the fractional variational principles area. Therefore, the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations started to be examined intensely during the last decade. In this paper, we review some new trends in this field and we discuss some of their potential applications.

  17. On the Fractional Mean Value

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  18. PENGARUH ROLE CONFLICT, ROLE AMBIGUITY, SELF-EFFICACY, SENSITIFITAS ETIKA PROFESI, GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN TERHADAP KINERJA AUDITOR DENGAN EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilda Wiguna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh role stress, role ambiguity, self-efficacy, sensitifitas etika profesi, gaya kepemimpinan terhadap kinerja auditor dengan emotional quotient sebagai variabel moderating. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah para auditor yang bekerja di Kantor Akuntan Publik di Pekanbaru, Batam, Medan.Jumlah auditor yang menjadi sampel penelitian ini adalah 145 auditor dari 29 Kantor Akuntan Publik. Metode penentuan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah purposive sampling, sedangkan metode pengolahan data yang digunakan peneliti adalah analisis regresi berganda dan analisis regresi moderate dengan menggunakan software SPSS versi 17.00 untuk mengolah data. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa role conflict, role ambiguity berpengaruh negative dan signifikan terhadap kinerja auditor. Self-efficacy, sensitifitas etika profesi, gaya kepemimpinan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap kinerja auditor. Emotional quotient merupakan variabel moderating bagi self-efficacy dan sensitifitas etika profesi, tetapi bukanlah variabel moderating bagi role conflict,  role ambiguity, dan gaya kepemimpinan. Sedangkan koefisien determinasi (R2 menunjukan semua variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini memberikan kontribusi sebesar 53,5% terhadap variabel dependen. Sementara 46,5% sisanya menjelaskan variabel independen lain yang tidak diamati dalam penelitian ini. Abstract: This study examines the influence of role conflict, role ambiguity, self-efficacy, sensitivity of professional ethics, leadership style to auditor performance with emotional quotient as Moderating variable. Respondents in this study are auditors who worked for public accounting firm in Pekanbaru, Batam, Medan. The number of auditor that were visited in this study were 145 auditors from 29 public accounting firms. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method, while the data processing methods used by researcher are the

  19. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  20. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  1. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  2. Void fraction measurements using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Vance, W.H.; Joo, H.

    1992-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography is being evaluated for studying the dynamic behavior of two phase flow and for measuring void fraction in vertical and inclined water ducts. This technique provides a unique means of visualizing the behavior of fluid flow inside thick metal enclosures. To simulate vapor conditions encountered in a fluid flow duct, an air-water flow system was constructed. Air was injected into the bottom of the duct at flow rates up to 0.47 I/s (1 cfm). The water flow rate was varied between 0--3.78 I/m (0--1 gpm). The experiments were performed at the Pennsylvania State University nuclear reactor facility using a real-time neutron radiography camera. With a thermal neutron flux on the order of 10 6 n/cm 2 /s directed through the thin duct dimension, the dynamic behavior of the air bubbles was clearly visible through 5 cm (2 in.) thick aluminum support plates placed on both sides of the duct wall. Image analysis techniques were employed to extract void fractions from the data which was recorded on videotape. This consisted of time averaging 256 video frames and measuring the gray level distribution throughout the region. The distribution of the measured void fraction across the duct was determined for various air/water mixtures. Details of the results of experiments for a variety of air and water flow conditions are presented

  3. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to…

  4. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  5. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, Marc; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  6. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in
    biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in
    fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation
    is to split the raw

  7. Fermion fractionization and index theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru; Torii, Tatsuo

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the fermion fractionization and the Callias-Bott-Seeley index theorem for the Dirac operator in the open space of odd dimension is clarified. Only the case of one spatial dimension is discussed in detail. Sum rules for the expectation values of various quantities in fermion-fractionized configurations are derived. (author)

  8. Decimal Fraction Arithmetic: Logical Error Analysis and Its Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.; And Others

    This report illustrates procedures of item construction for addition and subtraction examples involving decimal fractions. Using a procedural network of skills required to solve such examples, an item characteristic matrix of skills analysis was developed to describe the characteristics of the content domain by projected student difficulties. Then…

  9. Kac and new determinants for fractional superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakushadze, Z.; Tye, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the Kac and new determinant formulas for an arbitrary (integer) level K fractional superconformal algebra using the BRST cohomology techniques developed in conformal field theory. In particular, we reproduce the Kac determinants for the Virasoro (K=1) and superconformal (K=2) algebras. For K≥3 there always exist modules where the Kac determinant factorizes into a product of more fundamental new determinants. Using our results for general K, we sketch the nonunitarity proof for the SU(2) minimal series; as expected, the only unitary models are those already known from the coset construction. We apply the Kac determinant formulas for the spin 4/3 parafermion current algebra (i.e., the K=4 fractional superconformal algebra) to the recently constructed three-dimensional flat Minkowski space-time representation of the spin-4/3 fractional superstring

  10. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, L.; Perez, D.G.; Martin, M.T.; Garavaglia, M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays

  11. Fractional Control of An Active Four-wheel-steering Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianting; Tong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    A four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicle model and reference model with a drop filter are constructed. The decoupling of 4WS vehicle model is carried out. And a fractional PIλDμ controller is introduced into the decoupling strategy to reduce the effects of the uncertainty of the vehicle parameters as well as the unmodelled dynamics on the system performance. Based on optimization techniques, the design of fractional controller are obtained to ensure the robustness of 4WS vehicle during the special range of frequencies through proper choice of the constraints. In order to compare with fractional robust controller, an optimal controller for the same vehicle is also designed. The simulations of the two control systems are carried out and it reveals that the decoupling and fractional robust controller is able to make vehicle model trace the reference model very well with better robustness.

  12. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2014-01-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  13. Characteristic of student’s false concessive failure on fractions concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, H.; Sutawidjaja, A.; As’ari, A. R.; Muksar, M.

    2018-03-01

    False concessive failure of students is students construction failure in achieving goals, where the process is false, the results obtained is true. This failure occurs because the schemes are not connected to each other, so it cannot form a new scheme. This research is a qualitative research that aim to describe the characteristics of students' false concessive failure on fractional concepts. This fractional concept is a fraction of the same part of the whole. To be able to solve the concept of this fraction, students must possess the concept of partition, the concept of addition and the concept of multiplication of the fraction.

  14. Investigation of the Dirac Equation by Using the Conformable Fractional Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper,the Dirac equation is constructed using the conformable fractional derivative so that in its limit for the fractional parameter, the normal version is recovered. Then, the Cornell potential is considered as the interaction of the system. In this case, the wave function and the energy eigenvalue equation are derived with the aim of the bi-confluent Heun functions. use of the conformable fractional derivative is proven to lead to a branching treatment for the energy of the system. Such a treatment is obvious for small values of the fractional parameter, and a united value as the fractional parameter approaches unity.

  15. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  16. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Farhat, Mohamed; Elwakil, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  17. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  18. A construction process model for implementing constructability in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langkemper, J.; Al-Jibouri, S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.

    2003-01-01

    In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed

  19. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-07

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  20. Critical combinations of radiation dose and volume predict intelligence quotient and academic achievement scores after craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Thomas E; Schreiber, Jane E; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm(2)). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help estimate the value of newer methods of irradiation. Copyright © 2014

  1. On generalized fractional vibration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.

  2. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  3. Ultracentrifugation for ultrafine nanodiamond fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniakhin, S. V.; Besedina, N. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Shvidchenko, A. V.; Eidelman, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for ultrafine fractionation of nanodiamonds using the differential centrifugation in the fields up to 215000g. The developed protocols yield 4-6 nm fraction giving main contribution to the light scattering intensity. The desired 4-6 nm fraction can be obtained from various types of initial nanodiamonds: three types of detonation nanodiamonds differing in purifying methods, laser synthesis nanodiamonds and nanodiamonds made by milling. The characterization of the obtained hydrosols was conducted with Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements, powder XRD and TEM. According to powder XRD and TEM data ultracentrifugation also leads to a further fractionation of the primary diamond nanocrystallites in the hydrosols from 4 to 2 nm.

  4. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  7. Intelligent fractions learning system: implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds) IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-905824-24-3 An Intelligent Fractions Learning System: Implementation Andrew Cyrus SMITH1, Teemu H. LAINE2 1CSIR... to fractions. Our aim with the current research project is to extend the existing UFractions learning system to incorporate automatic data capturing. ?Intelligent UFractions? allows a teacher to remotely monitor the children?s progress during...

  8. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Pollack, James B.; Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. Beginning with Ozima and Nakazawa's (1980) hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals, it is pointed out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. It is shown that enough fractionated Xe to supply the earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and Martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, the present hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula.

  9. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  10. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  11. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and Earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. We begin with Ozima and Nakazawa's hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals. We point out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. We show that enough fractionated Xe to supply the Earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, our hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula. The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system

  12. Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.

  13. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  14. Conformable Fractional Bessel Equation and Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Ünal, Emrah; Çelik, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the fractional power series solutions around regular singular point x=0 of conformable fractional Bessel differential equation and fractional Bessel functions. Then, we compare fractional solutions with ordinary solutions. In addition, we present certain property of fractional Bessel functions.

  15. Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmazer, Resat

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.

  16. Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation by Generalized Mittag-Leffler Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, A. A. M.; Rida, S. Z.; Mohammadein, A. A.; Ali, H. M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we use Mittag—Leffler function method for solving some nonlinear fractional differential equations. A new solution is constructed in power series. The fractional derivatives are described by Caputo's sense. To illustrate the reliability of the method, some examples are provided.

  17. Fractional statistics in 2+1 dimensions through the Gaussian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, G.

    1986-01-01

    The free massless field in 2+1 dimensions is written as an ''integral'' over free massless fields in 1+1 dimensions. Taking the operators with fractional dimension in the Gaussian model as a springboard we construct operators with fractional statistics in the former theory

  18. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  19. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Kavvas; T. Tu; A. Ercan; J. Polsinelli

    2017-01-01

    Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally...

  20. Analytical incorporation of fractionation effects in probabilistic treatment planning for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Niklas; Hennig, Philipp; Wieser, Hans-Peter; Bangert, Mark

    2018-04-01

    We show that it is possible to explicitly incorporate fractionation effects into closed-form probabilistic treatment plan analysis and optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy with analytical probabilistic modeling (APM). We study the impact of different fractionation schemes on the dosimetric uncertainty induced by random and systematic sources of range and setup uncertainty for treatment plans that were optimized with and without consideration of the number of treatment fractions. The APM framework is capable of handling arbitrarily correlated uncertainty models including systematic and random errors in the context of fractionation. On this basis, we construct an analytical dose variance computation pipeline that explicitly considers the number of treatment fractions for uncertainty quantitation and minimization during treatment planning. We evaluate the variance computation model in comparison to random sampling of 100 treatments for conventional and probabilistic treatment plans under different fractionation schemes (1, 5, 30 fractions) for an intracranial, a paraspinal and a prostate case. The impact of neglecting the fractionation scheme during treatment planning is investigated by applying treatment plans that were generated with probabilistic optimization for 1 fraction in a higher number of fractions and comparing them to the probabilistic plans optimized under explicit consideration of the number of fractions. APM enables the construction of an analytical variance computation model for dose uncertainty considering fractionation at negligible computational overhead. It is computationally feasible (a) to simultaneously perform a robustness analysis for all possible fraction numbers and (b) to perform a probabilistic treatment plan optimization for a specific fraction number. The incorporation of fractionation assumptions for robustness analysis exposes a dose to uncertainty trade-off, i.e., the dose in the organs at risk is increased for a

  1. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  2. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  3. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  4. Fractional charge definitions and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of fractional charge has come to prominence in recent decades through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects which carry fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, baryon number B and lepton number L. It is shown here on the basis of a few simple assumptions that all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which many-body correlations can produce familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, and in some circumstances nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. The fractional charges may be carried either by fundamental particles or by fundamental solitons. This excludes nontopological solitons and also skyrmions: The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d=1), the vortex (d=2), and the magnetic monopole (d=3). Further, for a charge which is not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional local values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  5. Parameter estimation in fractional diffusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Kubilius, Kęstutis; Ralchenko, Kostiantyn

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to parameter estimation in diffusion models involving fractional Brownian motion and related processes. For many years now, standard Brownian motion has been (and still remains) a popular model of randomness used to investigate processes in the natural sciences, financial markets, and the economy. The substantial limitation in the use of stochastic diffusion models with Brownian motion is due to the fact that the motion has independent increments, and, therefore, the random noise it generates is “white,” i.e., uncorrelated. However, many processes in the natural sciences, computer networks and financial markets have long-term or short-term dependences, i.e., the correlations of random noise in these processes are non-zero, and slowly or rapidly decrease with time. In particular, models of financial markets demonstrate various kinds of memory and usually this memory is modeled by fractional Brownian diffusion. Therefore, the book constructs diffusion models with memory and provides s...

  6. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  7. Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws for the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws (Cls) to the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera (CDGDK) equation with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The time fractional CDGDK is reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order. New exact traveling wave solutions for the time fractional CDGDK are obtained by fractional sub-equation method. In the reduced equation, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense. Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method is applied to construct Cls for time fractional CDGDK.

  8. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  9. dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youwei Zhang

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Fractional calculus has attracted much attention in ... cally proved that the fractional calculus theory is non- ... calculus and various definitions of fractional integration .... basic features of the tanh-expansion are outlined as.

  10. The improved fractional sub-equation method and its applications to the space–time fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; Li, Ying; Sun, Youfa

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a new general ansätz, the improved fractional sub-equation method is proposed to construct analytical solutions of nonlinear evolution equations involving Jumarie's modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. By means of this method, the space–time fractional Whitham–Broer–Kaup and generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV equations are successfully solved. The obtained results show that the proposed method is quite effective, promising and convenient for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► We propose a novel method for nonlinear fractional differential equations. ► Two important fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained. ► These solutions will advance the understanding of nonlinear physical phenomena.

  11. Generalized Multiparameters Fractional Variational Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon our recent paper on generalized fractional variational calculus (FVC. Here, we briefly review some of the fractional derivatives (FDs that we considered in the past to develop FVC. We first introduce new one parameter generalized fractional derivatives (GFDs which depend on two functions, and show that many of the one-parameter FDs considered in the past are special cases of the proposed GFDs. We develop several parts of FVC in terms of one parameter GFDs. We point out how many other parts could be developed using the properties of the one-parameter GFDs. Subsequently, we introduce two new two- and three-parameter GFDs. We introduce some of their properties, and discuss how they can be used to develop FVC. In addition, we indicate how these formulations could be used in various fields, and how the generalizations presented here can be further extended.

  12. Semi-infinite fractional programming

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ram U

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a smooth and unified transitional framework from generalised fractional programming, with a finite number of variables and a finite number of constraints, to semi-infinite fractional programming, where a number of variables are finite but with infinite constraints. It focuses on empowering graduate students, faculty and other research enthusiasts to pursue more accelerated research advances with significant interdisciplinary applications without borders. In terms of developing general frameworks for theoretical foundations and real-world applications, it discusses a number of new classes of generalised second-order invex functions and second-order univex functions, new sets of second-order necessary optimality conditions, second-order sufficient optimality conditions, and second-order duality models for establishing numerous duality theorems for discrete minmax (or maxmin) semi-infinite fractional programming problems.   In the current interdisciplinary supercomputer-oriented research envi...

  13. Natural extensions for Nakada's α-expansions : Descending from 1 to g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.J.; Kraaikamp, C.

    By means of singularisations and insertions in Nakada's α-expansions, which involves the removal of partial quotients 1 while introducing partial quotients with a minus sign, the natural extension of Nakada's continued fraction map Tα is given for (10-2)/3≤α<1. From our construction it follows

  14. Pulmonary MRI at 3T: Non-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance Imaging Characterization Quotients for differentiation of infectious and malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sebastian Niko, E-mail: sebastian.nagel@charite.de [Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Kim, Damon, E-mail: damon.kim@charite.de [Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Röntgendiagnostik, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Schwanebecker Chaussee 50, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Penzkofer, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.penzkofer@charite.de [Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Steffen, Ingo G., E-mail: ingo.steffen@charite.de [Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Wyschkon, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.wyschkon@charite.de [Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate 3T pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of solid pulmonary lesions in immunocompromised patients and to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight pulmonary lesions in 29 patients were evaluated. Seventeen patients were immunocompromised (11 infections and 6 lymphomas) and 12 served as controls (4 bacterial pneumonias, 8 solid tumors). Ten of the 15 infections were acute. Signal intensities (SI) were measured in the lesion, chest wall muscle, and subcutaneous fat. Scaled SIs as Non-enhanced Imaging Characterization Quotients ((SI{sub Lesion} − SI{sub Muscle})/(SI{sub Fat} − SI{sub Muscle})*100) were calculated from the T2-weighted images using the mean SI (T2-NICQ{sub mean}) or the 90th percentile of SI (T2-NICQ{sub 90th}) of the lesion. Simple quotients were calculated by dividing the SI of the lesion by the SI of chest wall muscle (e.g. T1-Q{sub mean}: SI{sub Lesion}/SI{sub Muscle}). Results: Infectious pulmonary lesions showed a higher T2-NICQ{sub mean} (40.1 [14.6–56.0] vs. 20.9 [2.4–30.1], p < 0.05) and T2-NICQ{sub 90th} (74.3 [43.8–91.6] vs. 38.5 [15.8–48.1], p < 0.01) than malignant lesions. T1-Q{sub mean} was higher in malignant lesions (0.85 [0.68–0.94] vs. 0.93 [0.87–1.09], p < 0.05). Considering infections only, T2-NICQ{sub 90th} was lower when anti-infectious treatment was administered >24 h prior to MRI (81.8 [71.8–97.6] vs. 41.4 [26.6–51.1], p < 0.01). Using Youden’s index (YI), the optimal cutoff to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions was 43.1 for T2-NICQ{sub mean} (YI = 0.42, 0.47 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity) and 55.5 for T2-NICQ{sub 90th} (YI = 0.61, 0.71 sensitivity, 0.91 specificity). Combining T2-NICQ{sub 90th} and T1-Q{sub mean} increased diagnostic performance (YI = 0.72, 0.77 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity). Conclusion: Considering each quotient alone, T2-NICQ{sub 90th} showed the best diagnostic performance and

  15. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  16. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  17. [Longitudinal study of intelligence quotient of a group of Dominican children who had experienced third degree malnutrition in their first two years of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Ariza, M; Gonzalez Sanchez, M; Reyes Baez, J F; Ariza Castillo, M

    1988-01-01

    Intelligence quotients (IQs) were measured in 15 children hospitalized in their 1st 2 years with 3rd degree malnutrition and in their siblings of closest age who had no history of hospitalization for malnutrition. Clinical records were reviewed of 459 malnourished infants admitted to the Dr. Robert Reid Cabral Hospital in Santo Domingo between January 1976-January 1977. 230 of the children had died, and 15 of the 57 survivors who returned to the hospital for a preliminary interview were selected as subjects. Their closely aged siblings served as controls. Both groups were given Bender's visual-motor test and Weschler's intelligence scale for children. The ages of the subjects were 7-0 years and of siblings 6-13 years. Children who had spent a greater number of days in the hospital appeared to have a greater degree of mental impairment. 2 of the children with marasmus presented moderate mental retardation, 1 slight retardation, and another borderline retardation. The controls for these 5 cases included 1 moderately retarded, 2 slightly retarded, and 1 borderline case. 1 child with marasmus who was removed from his home showed a normal intelligence while his control who had remained in the home had a slight retardation. There was no consistent relationship between the cephalic perimeter and the IQ score, although 40% of the malnourished children and 30% of controls had perimeters below the normal range. 20% of cases and no controls required more than 18 months to learn to walk. Cases were also slower than controls to begin speaking and to be toilet trained. The tests showed that the control group members had somewhat higher intelligence quotients than the malnourished group. 53.2% of the malnourished children had IQs far below normal at 60-69, compared to 39.9% of controls. 93% of the study group and 87% of controls had IQs below normal values of 80-89. But there was no statistically significant difference in average IQs: 72.2 + or - 17.5 in the study group and 75

  18. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Schreiber, Jane E. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistcs, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistcs, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  19. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm 2 ). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help estimate

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression on a Child's Intelligence Quotient: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Based on 974 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Guoyuan; Pan, Bochen; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Guangying; Wang, Lie

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologists have explored the relationship between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the resulting offspring, but the results remain inconclusive. This study aims to analyze the literature regarding the association between maternal PND and a child's IQ. A search of articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE databases from inception to September 2015 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of relevant reference lists. The following search terms were used: (postpartum OR postnatal OR puerperal) AND (depression OR depressive symptoms OR blues OR dysthymia OR disorders OR psychosis) AND (intelligence quotient OR IQ OR intelligence tests OR intelligence OR cognitive OR cognition) AND (children OR child OR adolescent OR offspring) AND (cohort OR prospective OR follow-up OR follow OR longitudinal). Articles exploring the association between maternal PND and IQ of offspring aged 2 years and older were included. A total of 510 records were retrieved. Two authors independently selected eligible studies and extracted data. Three authors assessed the quality of the studies. To explore the associations between maternal PND and full IQ and verbal IQ, random-effects meta-analyses were performed, followed by subgroup analysis of impact on full IQ. Nine articles were eligible for review. On the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, 7 studies were considered to be of high quality. When one study of participants aged 3.8 years was excluded from the meta-analysis, the pooled weighted mean difference of full IQ between the children of PND mothers and non-PND mothers was -4.086 (95% CI, -6.578 to -1.594), and the pooled standard mean difference of verbal IQ between the children of PND mothers and non-PND mothers was -0.361 (95% CI, -0.564 to -0.158). Subgroup analysis showed that the child's age at evaluation, diagnostic method of PND, study quality, and socioeconomic status did not affect the mean difference in full IQ between

  1. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. We review the allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series as a way of determining the fractal character of the underlying phenomena. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. Fractional operators acting on fractal functions yield fractal functions, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a fractal statistical process. Control of physiologic complexity is one of the goals of medicine. Allometric control incorporates long-time memory, inverse power-law (IPL correlations, and long-range interactions in complex phenomena as manifest by IPL distributions. We hypothesize that allometric control, rather than homeostatic control, maintains the fractal character of erratic physiologic time series to enhance the robustness of physiological networks. Moreover, allometric control can be described using the fractional calculus to capture the dynamics of complex physiologic networks. This hypothesis is supported by a number of physiologic time series data.

  2. On a Fractional Binomial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The classical binomial process has been studied by Jakeman (J. Phys. A 23:2815-2825, 1990) (and the references therein) and has been used to characterize a series of radiation states in quantum optics. In particular, he studied a classical birth-death process where the chance of birth is proportional to the difference between a larger fixed number and the number of individuals present. It is shown that at large times, an equilibrium is reached which follows a binomial process. In this paper, the classical binomial process is generalized using the techniques of fractional calculus and is called the fractional binomial process. The fractional binomial process is shown to preserve the binomial limit at large times while expanding the class of models that include non-binomial fluctuations (non-Markovian) at regular and small times. As a direct consequence, the generality of the fractional binomial model makes the proposed model more desirable than its classical counterpart in describing real physical processes. More statistical properties are also derived.

  3. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  4. A fast fractional difference algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2014-01-01

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  5. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  6. Geodesic continued fractions and LLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for a continued fraction-like algorithm to determine simultaneous rational approximations to dd real numbers α1,…,αdα1,…,αd. It combines an algorithm of Hermite and Lagarias with ideas from LLL-reduction. We dynamically LLL-reduce a quadratic form with parameter tt as t↓0t↓0.

  7. A graph with fractional revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Antoine; Chan, Ada; Loranger, Érika; Tamon, Christino; Vinet, Luc

    2018-02-01

    An example of a graph that admits balanced fractional revival between antipodes is presented. It is obtained by establishing the correspondence between the quantum walk on a hypercube where the opposite vertices across the diagonals of each face are connected and, the coherent transport of single excitations in the extension of the Krawtchouk spin chain with next-to-nearest neighbour interactions.

  8. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Machado, José Antó nio Tenreiro

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  9. What next in fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Trends in models for predicting the total dose required to produce tolerable normal-tissue injury can be seen by the progression from the ''cube root law'', through Strandqvist's slope of 0.22, to NSD, TDF and CRE which have separate time and fraction number exponents, to even better approximations now available. The dose-response formulae that can be used to define the effect of fraction size (and number) include (1) the linear quadratic (LQ) model (2) the two-component (TC) multi-target model and (3) repair-misrepair models. The LQ model offers considerable convenience, requires only two parameters to be determined, and emphasizes the difference between late and early normal-tissue dependence on dose per fraction first shown by exponents greater than the NSD slope of 0.24. Exponents of overall time, e.g. Tsup(0.11), yield the wrong shape of time curve, suggesting that most proliferating occurs early, although it really occurs after a delay depending on the turnover time of the tissue. Improved clinical results are being sought by hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, or continuous low dose rate irradiation as in interstitial implants. (U.K.)

  10. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  11. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  12. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  13. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  14. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kavvas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally consistent equation is also developed. The governing equation of transient saturated groundwater flow in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer in fractional time is then obtained by combining the fractional continuity and water flux equations. To illustrate the capability of the proposed governing equation of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer, a numerical application of the fractional governing equation to a confined aquifer groundwater flow problem was also performed.

  15. A set for relational reasoning: Facilitation of algebraic modeling by a fraction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has identified correlations between early mastery of fractions and later math achievement, especially in algebra. However, causal connections between aspects of reasoning with fractions and improved algebra performance have yet to be established. The current study investigated whether relational reasoning with fractions facilitates subsequent algebraic reasoning using both pre-algebra students and adult college students. Participants were first given either a relational reasoning fractions task or a fraction algebra procedures control task. Then, all participants solved word problems and constructed algebraic equations in either multiplication or division format. The word problems and the equation construction tasks involved simple multiplicative comparison statements such as "There are 4 times as many students as teachers in a classroom." Performance on the algebraic equation construction task was enhanced for participants who had previously completed the relational fractions task compared with those who completed the fraction algebra procedures task. This finding suggests that relational reasoning with fractions can establish a relational set that promotes students' tendency to model relations using algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.C.; Hansson, T.H.; Kivelson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, we derive a field-theory model for the fractional quantum hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, we construct a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density and the Hall conductance is quantized at filling factors ν = (2k-1)/sup -1/ with k an arbitrary integer. At these fractions the ground state is incompressible, and the quasiparticles and quasiholes have fractional charge and obey fractional statistics. Finally, we show that the collective density fluctuations are massive

  17. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S; Sedukhin, S [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I

    1998-03-01

    The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

  18. Generalized time fractional IHCP with Caputo fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murio, D A; MejIa, C E

    2008-01-01

    The numerical solution of the generalized time fractional inverse heat conduction problem (GTFIHCP) on a finite slab is investigated in the presence of measured (noisy) data when the time fractional derivative is interpreted in the sense of Caputo. The GTFIHCP involves the simultaneous identification of the heat flux and temperature transient functions at one of the boundaries of the finite slab together with the initial condition of the original direct problem from noisy Cauchy data at a discrete set of points on the opposite (active) boundary. A finite difference space marching scheme with adaptive regularization, using trigonometric mollification techniques and generalized cross validation is introduced. Error estimates for the numerical solution of the mollified problem and numerical examples are provided.

  19. Inter-fraction variations in respiratory motion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J R; Modat, M; Ourselin, S; Hawkes, D J [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London (United Kingdom); Hughes, S; Qureshi, A; Ahmad, S; Landau, D B, E-mail: j.mcclelland@cs.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' s Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-07

    Respiratory motion can vary dramatically between the planning stage and the different fractions of radiotherapy treatment. Motion predictions used when constructing the radiotherapy plan may be unsuitable for later fractions of treatment. This paper presents a methodology for constructing patient-specific respiratory motion models and uses these models to evaluate and analyse the inter-fraction variations in the respiratory motion. The internal respiratory motion is determined from the deformable registration of Cine CT data and related to a respiratory surrogate signal derived from 3D skin surface data. Three different models for relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal have been investigated in this work. Data were acquired from six lung cancer patients. Two full datasets were acquired for each patient, one before the course of radiotherapy treatment and one at the end (approximately 6 weeks later). Separate models were built for each dataset. All models could accurately predict the respiratory motion in the same dataset, but had large errors when predicting the motion in the other dataset. Analysis of the inter-fraction variations revealed that most variations were spatially varying base-line shifts, but changes to the anatomy and the motion trajectories were also observed.

  20. Concentrations of Selected Metals In Some Ready-To-Eat-Foods Consumed in Southern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intakes and Target Hazard Quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selected metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr and Co in some ready-to-eat-foods consumed in Nigeria were investigated with a view providing information on the risk associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 in these ready-to-eat-foods are in the ranges of 2.4 – 5.2 for Cu; 0.1– 0.8 for Cd; 0.7 – 4.0 for Ni; 8.1 – 53.7 for Fe; 8.9 – 20.0 for Zn; 0.1 – 3.8 for Pb; 5.1 – 14.4 for Mn; 0.83 – 21.4 for Cr and 0.20 – 1.32 for Co. The concentrations and estimated intakes of Cd, Ni and Pb in some of these food types exceeded the permissible limits and tolerable daily intake respectively. The target hazard quotients (THQ for the individual metals indicate levels of concern for Ni, Cd, and Co in some of the ready-to-eat-foods. The combined THQ values for the metals in the examined samples ranged from 1.7 to 10 with significant contributions from Cd, Ni and Co.

  1. Poor postdischarge head growth is related to a 10% lower intelligence quotient in very preterm infants at the chronological age of five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Vera; Fuchs, Teresa; Griesmaier, Elke; Kager, Katrin; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between head growth and cognitive outcome at the age of five years in preterm infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation from 2003 to 2009, as previous research has mostly focused on outcomes in toddlers. The head circumference of 273 very preterm infants born in Tyrol, Austria, was measured at birth, discharge, the corrected ages of three, 12 and 24 months and the chronological age of five years. Suboptimal head size was defined as a head circumference of more than one standard deviation below the mean. Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) at five years was determined using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence, third edition. Infants with a suboptimal head size at the age of three months had a significantly lower median IQ than those with a normal head size (90 [20-122] versus 98 [20-138], p = 0.001) and from three months onwards they were more likely to exhibit cognitive delay. A suboptimal head size from the age of three months was consistently related to a 10% lower IQ, and this study adds further evidence that head growth failure, especially during the early postdischarge period, is related to impaired cognitive abilities. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Hasanain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ score. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7–8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September–October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Results Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  3. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Isa, Zaleha Md; Aljunid, Syed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2012-07-27

    Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7-8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September-October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  4. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  5. Some comparison of two fractional oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yonggang; Zhang Xiu'e

    2010-01-01

    The other form of fractional oscillator equation comparing to the widely discussed one is ushered in. The properties of vibration of two fractional oscillators are discussed under the influence of different initial conditions. The interpretation of the characteristics of the fractional oscillators using different method is illustrated. Based on two fractional oscillator equations, two linked bodies and the continuous system are studied.

  6. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic fraction, the completed product shall be evaluated by tests applicable to each fraction. (b) When similar...

  7. A fractional Dirac equation and its solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslih, Sami I; Agrawal, Om P; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fractional Dirac equation and its solution. The fractional Dirac equation may be obtained using a fractional variational principle and a fractional Klein-Gordon equation; both methods are considered here. We extend the variational formulations for fractional discrete systems to fractional field systems defined in terms of Caputo derivatives. By applying the variational principle to a fractional action S, we obtain the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. We present a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian for the fractional Dirac equation of order α. We also use a fractional Klein-Gordon equation to obtain the fractional Dirac equation which is the same as that obtained using the fractional variational principle. Eigensolutions of this equation are presented which follow the same approach as that for the solution of the standard Dirac equation. We also provide expressions for the path integral quantization for the fractional Dirac field which, in the limit α → 1, approaches to the path integral for the regular Dirac field. It is hoped that the fractional Dirac equation and the path integral quantization of the fractional field will allow further development of fractional relativistic quantum mechanics.

  8. On the fractional calculus of Besicovitch function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yongshun

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between fractional calculus and fractal functions has been explored. Based on prior investigations dealing with certain fractal functions, fractal dimensions including Hausdorff dimension, Box dimension, K-dimension and Packing dimension is shown to be a linear function of order of fractional calculus. Both Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative of Besicovitch function have been discussed.

  9. 12 CFR 5.67 - Fractional shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with fractional shares, a national bank issuing additional stock by stock dividend, upon... fair price upon the fraction not being issued through its sale, or the purchase of the additional... stock; (c) Remit the cash equivalent of the fraction not being issued to those to whom fractional shares...

  10. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha−1 yr−1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000–250, 250–53, and fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000–250 μm > 250–53μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient. PMID:27031697

  11. Fractional vector calculus and fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.

    2017-04-01

    Basic fluid mechanics equations are studied and revised under the prism of fractional continuum mechanics (FCM), a very promising research field that satisfies both experimental and theoretical demands. The geometry of the fractional differential has been clarified corrected and the geometry of the fractional tangent spaces of a manifold has been studied in Lazopoulos and Lazopoulos (Lazopoulos KA, Lazopoulos AK. Progr. Fract. Differ. Appl. 2016, 2, 85-104), providing the bases of the missing fractional differential geometry. Therefore, a lot can be contributed to fractional hydrodynamics: the basic fractional fluid equations (Navier Stokes, Euler and Bernoulli) are derived and fractional Darcy's flow in porous media is studied.

  12. FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF TECHNICAL AMMONIUM LIGNOSULPHONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Leger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use lignin in any analytical methodology without reducing its considerable polydispersity by fractionation. An ammonium lignosulphonate sample was fractionated using a method of partial solubility in solutions of isopropanol increasingly diluted with distilled water, effectively fractionating by polarity. Selected fractions were characterised by gravimetric determination of the fractions, and determination of acid insoluble lignin, soluble lignin, and carbohydrate contents. Acid-insoluble lignin content was very low, and soluble lignin provided the majority of the lignin content, as should be expected from sulphonated lignin. Carbohydrate contents were also fairly low, the highest percentage at 14.5 being in Fraction 2, with the bulk lignin and Fraction 3 having 6.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Differences in the composition of each fraction support the efficacy of the fractionation process and permitted selection of fractions for use in subsequent studies.

  13. Fractional hydrodynamic equations for fractal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2005-01-01

    We use the fractional integrals in order to describe dynamical processes in the fractal medium. We consider the 'fractional' continuous medium model for the fractal media and derive the fractional generalization of the equations of balance of mass density, momentum density, and internal energy. The fractional generalization of Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are considered. We derive the equilibrium equation for fractal media. The sound waves in the continuous medium model for fractional media are considered

  14. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ji-Huan; Elagan, S.K.; Li, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  15. Continuous fractional distillation of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-05

    This invention has for its object a process of distillation, fractional, and continuous, of shale oil, tar, etc., characterized by the vapors leaving the evaporation chamber being forced, before condensation, to go over a continuous circuit. The vapors traverse first a preheater then return to the vaporization chamber in which they are passed along large surfaces and by application of the counter-current principle in contact with the liquid to be distilled. They stream through the chamber in a continuous manner (the quantity of vapor emitted in the circuit being determined in a manner to advance the distillation just to completion); the excess of vapor formed being removed from the circuit and sent to a condensing apparatus for fractionation.

  16. Ultrasound speckle reduction based on fractional order differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dangguo; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Fan; Yi, Sanli; Xiang, Yan; Ma, Lei; Xiong, Xin; He, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound images show a granular pattern of noise known as speckle that diminishes their quality and results in difficulties in diagnosis. To preserve edges and features, this paper proposes a fractional differentiation-based image operator to reduce speckle in ultrasound. An image de-noising model based on fractional partial differential equations with balance relation between k (gradient modulus threshold that controls the conduction) and v (the order of fractional differentiation) was constructed by the effective combination of fractional calculus theory and a partial differential equation, and the numerical algorithm of it was achieved using a fractional differential mask operator. The proposed algorithm has better speckle reduction and structure preservation than the three existing methods [P-M model, the speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) technique, and the detail preserving anisotropic diffusion (DPAD) technique]. And it is significantly faster than bilateral filtering (BF) in producing virtually the same experimental results. Ultrasound phantom testing and in vivo imaging show that the proposed method can improve the quality of an ultrasound image in terms of tissue SNR, CNR, and FOM values.

  17. Measuring condensate fraction in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip; Kee, Hae-Young

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of off-diagonal long-range order in superconductors shows that the spin-spin correlation function is significantly influenced by the order if the order parameter is anisotropic on a microscopic scale. Thus, magnetic neutron scattering can provide a direct measurement of the condensate fraction of a superconductor. It is also argued that recent measurements in high-temperature superconductors come very close to achieving this goal. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Han Wei; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Lee, Wong Cheng J.; Huang, Sha; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2011-01-01

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. ...

  19. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  20. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.