WorldWideScience

Sample records for quota sampling surveys

  1. Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-07-01

    Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.

  2. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  3. Textiles Quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai launched China’s first electronic trading platform for textiles export licenses yesterday, allowing firms to easily sell or buy quotas. The platform (www.e-tj.cn) is aimed at raising efficiency and curb-

  4. CBP Quota Bulletins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Quota information is issued for the trade community by the Quota Enforcement Administration Branch within the Office of International Trade. The Quota Bulletins have...

  5. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  6. The rise of survey sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the history of survey sampling. It describes how sampling became an accepted scientific method. From the first ideas in 1895 it took some 50 years before the principles of probability sampling were widely accepted. This papers has a focus on developments in official statistics in

  7. Mahalanobis' Contributions to Sample Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sample Survey started its operations in October 1950 under the ... and adopted random cuts for estimating the acreage under jute ... demographic factors relating to indebtedness, unemployment, ... traffic surveys, demand for currency coins and average life of .... Mahalanobis derived the optimum allocation in stratified.

  8. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  9. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  10. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... and output composition (mix). To illustrate our approach, data from the Danish fishery are used to calculate the potential gains from introducing individually transferable fishing quotas. Data envelopment analysis is used to model the production technology. We find that pure reallocation is as important...

  11. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

  12. Quotas, Relocation and Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrosen, Alfred

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, has two express focuses: one is the question of quotas, and the other is the problem of relocation of plants and facilities in the suburban areas and the consequent difficulties minorities face in retaining equal employment opportunities.…

  13. Board Directors' Selection Process Following a Gender Quota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    -quota selection of new board directors as well as the attitudes of board members towards the quota and perceptions of the effect of quota on processes. We incorporate a dual qualitative and quantitative methodology with in-depth interviews with 20 board directors and chairs, and a survey of 260 directors who...... companies with 50 or more employees. Thereby legislatively going further than any other country, out of the fifteen that have amended and adopted gender quota legislation. This article utilizes resource dependency and status expectations theory lenses to explore how the new legislation affected the post...... conviction. Furthermore, there are different avenues to the board. Although initial attitudes towards quotas are more negative among men than women, these attitudes decrease over time. Finally, consistent with status expectation theory, male directors are more negative than their female counterparts about...

  14. Galaxy redshift surveys with sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wullstein, Philipp; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Jee, Inh; Jeong, Donghui; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Landriau, Martin; Finkelstein, Steven; Jogee, Shardha; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Tuttle, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Survey observations of the three-dimensional locations of galaxies are a powerful approach to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, which can be used to learn about the nature of dark energy, physics of inflation, neutrino masses, etc. A competitive survey, however, requires a large volume (e.g., V survey ∼ 10Gpc 3 ) to be covered, and thus tends to be expensive. A ''sparse sampling'' method offers a more affordable solution to this problem: within a survey footprint covering a given survey volume, V survey , we observe only a fraction of the volume. The distribution of observed regions should be chosen such that their separation is smaller than the length scale corresponding to the wavenumber of interest. Then one can recover the power spectrum of galaxies with precision expected for a survey covering a volume of V survey (rather than the volume of the sum of observed regions) with the number density of galaxies given by the total number of observed galaxies divided by V survey (rather than the number density of galaxies within an observed region). We find that regularly-spaced sampling yields an unbiased power spectrum with no window function effect, and deviations from regularly-spaced sampling, which are unavoidable in realistic surveys, introduce calculable window function effects and increase the uncertainties of the recovered power spectrum. On the other hand, we show that the two-point correlation function (pair counting) is not affected by sparse sampling. While we discuss the sparse sampling method within the context of the forthcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, the method is general and can be applied to other galaxy surveys

  15. Statistical literacy and sample survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  16. Optimal sampling designs for large-scale fishery sample surveys in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BAZIGOS

    2007-12-01

    The paper deals with the optimization of the following three large scale sample surveys: biological sample survey of commercial landings (BSCL, experimental fishing sample survey (EFSS, and commercial landings and effort sample survey (CLES.

  17. Impact of Quota System and Catchment Area Policy on the University Admissions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Chinweike Omeje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quota system and the catchment areas are federal government policies formulated to bridge the gap between the educationally developed states and the educationally less developed states. Sequel to the enactment of these policies, government established several universities across the country to create equal opportunity for all candidates. In spite of the astronomical growth of the universities in Nigeria, both the federal and the state governments have not been able to contend with the surging demand for the university education, hence the adoption of the quota system and catchment area policies. Serious concerns were expressed by relevant stakeholders on their perceived impact of the quota system and the catchment area on admissions into the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. This study therefore examined the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admissions in North Central Nigeria. A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 14,347 staff in the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. A sample of 1,435 was drawn through stratified proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and interviews. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research question, whereas t-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the results showed, among others, that the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admission was to a high extent.

  18. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xin Yajuan; Tong Dingding

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  19. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  20. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition......Quotas or permits are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about the basic e ectiveness of quotas due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with signi...

  1. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  2. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare.......Quotas are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about their basic effectiveness due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with significant non...

  3. Temporal Justice, Youth Quotas and Libertarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quotas, including youth quotas for representative institutions, are usually evaluated from within the social justice discourse. That discourse relies on several questionable assumptions, seven of which I critically address and radically revise in this contribution from a libertarian perspective.

  4. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY... TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.105 Base quota levels for eligible quota holders...

  5. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an...

  6. Gender quotas in development programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, van der Peter; Humphreys, Macartan; Sanchez de la Sierra, Raul

    2018-01-01

    We examine whether gender quotas introduced by development agencies empower women. As part of a development program, an international organization created community management committees in 661 villages to oversee village level program expenditures. In a randomly selected half of these villages the

  7. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  8. Free emission quotas in the climate policy - consequences of different ways of granting quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses how different types of conditions and rules of granting quotas over time affects the companies' decision about production and implementation of measures to reduce emission. The first section analyses a quota system in which the granting of free emission quotas are based on the firm's emission history. The effects of tradable free quotas are compared to the effects of non-tradable free quotas. The second part analyses a quota system based on the firms' needs for a free system in order to secure continued production

  9. Free emission quotas in the environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, Ottar

    2001-01-01

    The granting of free emission quotas to selected companies or sectors is currently hotly debated in the climate policy. This article deals with whether such quotas can be used and, if so, how they should be used in order to achieve a more cost-effective environmental policy. It asks on what basis it may be appropriate to grant free emission quotas and discusses what criteria should be used, and if there are better alternatives. It is concluded that free emission quotas are a cost-effective instrument to avoid firm closures and reductions for sufficiently purposeful criteria. Quotas are at best only second best in reducing emigration of firms or production to other countries. However, since more efficient means may be difficult to implement, free emission quotas may be useful in these cases as well

  10. Quota Prices - Analysis and Reporting on Pacific Groundfish IFQ Quota Market

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The transfer of quota pounds and quota shares between participants in the Pacific Groundfish IFQ plays a critical role in facilitating fuller and more efficient...

  11. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-05

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  12. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  13. Sample design considerations of indoor air exposure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.G.; Mage, D.T.; Immerman, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the potential for indoor air pollution has prompted recent surveys of radon and NO 2 concentrations in homes and personal exposure studies of volatile organics, carbon monoxide and pesticides, to name a few. The statistical problems in designing sample surveys that measure the physical environment are diverse and more complicated than those encountered in traditional surveys of human attitudes and attributes. This paper addresses issues encountered when designing indoor air quality (IAQ) studies. General statistical concepts related to target population definition, frame creation, and sample selection for area household surveys and telephone surveys are presented. The implications of different measurement approaches are discussed, and response rate considerations are described

  14. Gender Quotas for Corporate Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Elomäki, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Gender quotas for corporate boards can be seen as a way of drawing attention to gendered power within the economy as well as a way to democratize the economy, yet the debate about them has focused on the economic and business benefits of gender equality rather than on gender justice or democracy. This article examines how women’s under-representation in economic decision-making was constituted as an economic problem in the European Union’s gender-equality policies and how the economization of...

  15. Quotas for the select few

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide quotas are no longer a topic only for politicians or Nobel prize winners or a subject of ambitious EU energetic strategies. For the third year they have also been a factor European companies have to take into account when calculating their plans for the forthcoming period. It is a fact that during the first trading period of the emission trading scheme that ends this year, the emission permits represented a big profit making opportunity for Slovak companies. Or compliance with the new rules at least did not cost them anything. But this pleasant position may change in the upcoming 5-year period starting in January. The new emission quota for the 2008 - 2012 period which Brussels has approved for Slovakia will have an impact on individual companies. And so many companies that had a reserve hidden in the original requirement will have to calculate with a certain limitation as far as their free space for ecological manoeuvres is concerned. However, there is still a group of select companies that will get more: power generating companies controlled by the state. (authors)

  16. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  17. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature...

  18. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  19. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  20. Non-response weighting adjustment approach in survey sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the discussion is illustrated with real examples from surveys (in particular 2003 KDHS) conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) - Kenya. Some suggestions are made for improving the quality of non-response weighting. Keywords: Survey non-response; non-response adjustment factors; weighting; sampling ...

  1. Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use Areas, Milford Lake, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    especially ceramics); Middle "" Mississippian, Middle Woodland and Central Plains archaeology ; the engineering and building technology of the Maya ...Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use Areas -- 0C 0 awo (L" . .614 4.- -. 1?CNOV 1 40484 * , "n. O ji - 0" By Laura S. Schwiekhard Thn ’.iint haUs...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Milford Lake, Kansas Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use

  2. Using Linked Survey Paradata to Improve Sampling Strategies in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirel Lisa B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using paradata from a prior survey that is linked to a new survey can help a survey organization develop more effective sampling strategies. One example of this type of linkage or subsampling is between the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS. MEPS is a nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population based on a complex multi-stage sample design. Each year a new sample is drawn as a subsample of households from the prior year’s NHIS. The main objective of this article is to examine how paradata from a prior survey can be used in developing a sampling scheme in a subsequent survey. A framework for optimal allocation of the sample in substrata formed for this purpose is presented and evaluated for the relative effectiveness of alternative substratification schemes. The framework is applied, using real MEPS data, to illustrate how utilizing paradata from the linked survey offers the possibility of making improvements to the sampling scheme for the subsequent survey. The improvements aim to reduce the data collection costs while maintaining or increasing effective responding sample sizes and response rates for a harder to reach population.

  3. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303.13 Section 1303.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.13 Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. (a) The...

  4. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.11 Aggregate production quotas. (a) The Administrator shall determine...

  5. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1985-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency facotr of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars. (author)

  6. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO 2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions. (authors)

  7. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  8. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  9. Holland bought Slovakian's emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    It is not a direct trade but more an environmental investment. Dutch government decided to buy over 5 million tons of carbon dioxide emission quotas of Rumania, Hungary and Slovakia. But this is not a direct purchase; it is related to investments into major projects that would decrease emission of greenhouse gases in the mentioned countries. Holland will improve its emission balance set by Kyoto Protocol and 'on the other hand we will offer eastern European countries technologies they are missing,' explained the main objectives of Dutch environmental projects Erik Saat from Senter agency at Dutch Ministry of Economy. The Dutch agency has so far selected one project in Slovakia - absorption of methane gas on waste dumps of eight Slovak towns. This project in value of 5 million Euro will decrease the emission by an equivalent of 500 thousand tons of CO 2 . Slovak Ministry of Environment that has to approve these projects welcomes any activity that would lead to decreasing greenhouse gas pollution. Every three months Senter agency select the best projects submitted in order to fulfil the commitments resulting from Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  10. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  11. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1989-08-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1988 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 67 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 22 tabs., 1 ill., 14 refs

  12. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1988-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1987 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 74 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included, assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 20 tabs., 29 refs

  13. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1986-11-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short- term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quarts and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author)

  14. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1987-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1986 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 56 samples were dated. The results were corrected for shortterm fading measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature or at 100 deg. C. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar grain were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 and 0.2 for quartz and feldspar, respectively. 21 refs. (author)

  15. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  16. Emigration Rates From Sample Surveys: An Application to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Frans; Zinn, Sabine; Leuchter, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk. Emigration surveys provide a useful data source for estimating emigration rates, provided that the estimation method accounts for sample design. In this study, emigration rates and confidence intervals are estimated from a sample survey of households in the Dakar region in Senegal, which was part of the Migration between Africa and Europe survey. The sample was a stratified two-stage sample with oversampling of households with members abroad or return migrants. A combination of methods of survival analysis (time-to-event data) and replication variance estimation (bootstrapping) yields emigration rates and design-consistent confidence intervals that are representative for the study population.

  17. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.; Muhammad, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. ETS: free quotas for subsidy coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article comments information published by a NGO according to which less than 10 per cent of investments financed through the 10c article of the ETS European directive have been made on technologies which emit less greenhouse gases, or on a diversification of the energy mix, and 90 pc of these quotas have been used in East European countries to modernize obsolete thermal plants, mainly coal plants, or to build new ones. These facts also highlight a flagrant lack of transparency in the award and use of these quotas

  20. AKRO/SF: Community Development Quota (CDQ) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program allocates a percentage of all Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands quotas for groundfish, prohibited species,...

  1. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J.; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we comp...

  2. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  3. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an individual... basic class. Any manufacturing quota fixed and issued by the Administrator shall be subject to his... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section...

  4. Quotas and Decentralization (Indonesia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Development Research Centre Government of Canada ... Although there has been general compliance with the quota for women candidates, ... party policies and mechanisms that tend to create or break down barriers to women. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  5. 50 CFR 635.27 - Quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... landings, the period of time remaining in the current fishing year, current and historical landings trends... the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 635.27 Quotas. (d) Atlantic..., current and historical landings trends, and any other relevant factors, NMFS will file for publication...

  6. Gender Quotas on Board of Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Beside arguments of fairness and equal opportunities, it is often argued that gender diversity on boards of directors may improve firm performance, but the empirical results are mixed and often negative. Based on the available research, gender quotas on boards of directors cannot be justified...

  7. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Diana; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an

  8. 21 CFR 1303.12 - Procurement quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and... substance, and, if a controlled substance listed in any schedule, the schedule number and Administration... Administration. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing...

  9. 50 CFR 622.42 - Quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... million kg). The Gulf migratory group is divided into eastern and western zones separated by 87°31′06″ W. long., which is a line directly south from the Alabama/Florida boundary. Quotas for the eastern and western zones are as follows: (A) Eastern zone—2.25 million lb (1.02 million kg), which is further divided...

  10. A survey of archaeological and geological samples dated in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of dated archaeological and geological samples is given, using thermoluminescence dating. Some of the sediment samples were also dated by means of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) using a newly developed infrared diode system. In most cases the luminescence dates are in accordance with archaeological and geological estimates. Some discrepancies were found because some feldspar samples exhibited severe anomalous fading. It may be possible to avoid this problem by basing the dating on OSL of quartz. For sediment samples of Eemian or Early Weichselian age severe underestimates were encountered with both methods. The reason might be related to the large difference between the natural dose rate and that used in laboratory irradiations. Traps corresponding to low-temperature peaks such as the 150 deg. C peak in feldspars will remain almost empty under natural conditions, but will fill up to saturation under laboratory irradiation and thereby more charges will be captured in high-temperature traps. As a result, natural growth curves and laboratory produced luminescence growth curves will have different slopes and this will lead to underestimation. This problem might avoided by holding samples at an elevated temperature during laboratory irradiation, thus keeping the low-temperature traps empty. Preliminary experiments where feldspar samples were held at 130 deg. C during irradiation have given promising results. (AB) (31 refs.)

  11. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  12. A Unimodal Model for Double Observer Distance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl F Becker

    Full Text Available Distance sampling is a widely used method to estimate animal population size. Most distance sampling models utilize a monotonically decreasing detection function such as a half-normal. Recent advances in distance sampling modeling allow for the incorporation of covariates into the distance model, and the elimination of the assumption of perfect detection at some fixed distance (usually the transect line with the use of double-observer models. The assumption of full observer independence in the double-observer model is problematic, but can be addressed by using the point independence assumption which assumes there is one distance, the apex of the detection function, where the 2 observers are assumed independent. Aerially collected distance sampling data can have a unimodal shape and have been successfully modeled with a gamma detection function. Covariates in gamma detection models cause the apex of detection to shift depending upon covariate levels, making this model incompatible with the point independence assumption when using double-observer data. This paper reports a unimodal detection model based on a two-piece normal distribution that allows covariates, has only one apex, and is consistent with the point independence assumption when double-observer data are utilized. An aerial line-transect survey of black bears in Alaska illustrate how this method can be applied.

  13. OPEC ducks quota issue amid glut worries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has ducked the question of reestablishing quotas despite the looming prospect of a second quarter oil price slide. OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna late last month approved continuing free-for-all production in the first quarter and ordered the ministerial monitoring committee to tackle the question of second quarter production levels when it meets in Geneva Feb. 12. Oil markets responded to the lack of action by dropping futures prices

  14. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. King

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation, bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS, and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008 during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe were the lowest (0.5–1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–8 μmol Fe:mol C, followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3–7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17–57 μmol Fe:mol C, and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8–21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–136 μmol Fe:mol C. During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272, the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277. Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  15. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hund

    Full Text Available Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  16. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes) depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  17. The French national survey on food consumption of children under 3 years of age - Nutri-Bébé 2013: design, methodology, population sampling and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, Jean-Pierre; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Emery, Yves; Francou, Aurée; Hébel, Pascale; Bocquet, Magali; Hankard, Régis; Turck, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    To update the data on food consumption and practices in children under 3 years of age in metropolitan France. The Nutri-Bébé 2013 cross-sectional study selected a random sample, according to the quota sampling method. After giving their informed consent, parents had to record the food consumption during three non-consecutive days framed by two face-to-face interviews, using for quantitative information different portion size measurement aids. One thousand one hundred and eighty-four children were enrolled. Mothers' mean age was 30·8 (sd 5·4) years; 38 % were primiparous; 89 % lived with a partner; 60 % had an occupation. Of the infants younger than 4 months, 31 % were breast-fed. One thousand and thirty-five children consumed infant formula followed by growing-up milk in 63 % of them; solid foods were introduced at a mean age of 5·4 (sd 2·13) months. From 8 months onwards, 25 % of children consumed the same foods as their parents on a more or less regular basis; 29 % ate in front of a screen, with a daily average screen time of 43·0 (sd 40·4) min. This robust survey highlights the low prevalence and duration of breast-feeding in France and shows a modest improvement since the previous survey of 2005 in the observance of recommendations concerning other feeding practices. The frequent consumption of adult foods and the screen time are of concern.

  18. Practical guidebook about the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO 2 emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO 2 emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO 2 quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO 2 they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO 2 quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  19. Norway and the EU may trade emission quotas from 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission wants to implement quota trade with climate gases from 2005. The proposal, which came in October 2001, describes a quota system limited to the emission of CO 2 in certain industrial sectors. Sources like road traffic and heating of buildings are not comprised by the proposal. It is intended that the agreement will later include more climate gases and more types of activities. This expansion of the implementation becomes most important from 2008-2012, for then the Kyoto Protocol sets the limits for six types of climate gases and lays down rules for international trade with emission quotas. Norway is likely to go in for a limited quota system for 2005 to 2007 and apply for an agreement with the quota market of the EU. It is not certain, however, that the Norwegian authorities will limit the national quota system the same way

  20. National plan project of quotas allocation. Reference period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document described the national plan project of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. It is a preliminary document providing hypothesis, data and results which could well be modified. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  1. THE CHANDRA COSMOS-LEGACY SURVEY: THE z > 3 SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Shankar, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Comastri, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Gilli, R. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Elvis, M. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Trakhtenbrot, B.; Schawinski, K. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fiore, F. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Griffiths, R. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-08-20

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z {sub phot}). In this work, we treat z {sub phot} as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z {sub phot} < 3 but z {sub phot} probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5–2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1}), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ∼20 from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 6. The observed decline is ∼80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s{sup −1} < logL(2–10 keV) < 44.1 erg s{sup −1}) from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1}, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ∼ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1} with respect to our data.

  2. National plan of quotas assignment. 2005-2007 reference period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This document described the national plan of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. Data and results presented could well be modified in particular in function of corrective demands proposed by the owners since the beginning of the public consulting to the notification of the affected quotas quantity. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  3. A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for Radionuclide Analysis of RI Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, K. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo [FNC Tech. Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We developed a quantitative method for attaining a representative sample during sampling survey of RI waste. Considering a source, process, and type of RI waste, the method computes the number of sample, confidence interval, variance, and coefficient of variance. We also systematize the method of sampling survey logically and quantitatively. The result of this study can be applied to sampling survey of low- and intermediate-level waste generated from nuclear power plant during the transfer process to disposal facility.

  4. Investment behaviour in individual nontransferable quota systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Jesper Levring; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the investment behaviour of the Danish demersal fishery in the North Sea. For the study period, this fishery is regulated by variants of individual nontransferable quotas. It is shown that interest rates and capital stocks are primary determinants of investments. Another......, the variance of the estimated parameters is lower in the disaggregated models. This result arises because vessels in the disaggregated models are more homogeneous. Furthermore, investments in machinery, electronics and vessels are governed by one year lagged variables, while investment in gears is governed...

  5. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility for their he......Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...

  6. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  7. International survey blauwe wijting. Elke seconde een sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faessler, S.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    IJMuiden- in 2011 wordt voor het eerst de jaarlijkse blauwe wijting survey gecoördineerd door Schascha Fässler, geboren Zwitser en sinds 2009 als 'fisheries acoustics' scientist' werkzaam bij IMARES in IJmuiden. In onderstaand artikel gaat Fässler nader in op acoustics in het algemeen en de survey

  8. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  9. Optimizing Board Effectiveness with Gender Diversity : Are Quotas the Answer?

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Durbin

    2011-01-01

    Women are underrepresented on corporate boards but are quotas the answer? Not according to the author. Annemarie Durbin cites evidence that using quotas to increase female representation can lead to tokenism, diminish the overall value of diversity on boards, affect board dynamics, and potentially lead to diluted commitments from existing female board directors. She recommends that, instea...

  10. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  11. Spatial distribution, sampling precision and survey design optimisation with non-normal variables: The case of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) recruitment in Spanish Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugores, M. Pilar; Iglesias, Magdalena; Oñate, Dolores; Miquel, Joan

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) displays a key role in ecological and economical terms. Ensuring stock sustainability requires the provision of crucial information, such as species spatial distribution or unbiased abundance and precision estimates, so that management strategies can be defined (e.g. fishing quotas, temporal closure areas or marine protected areas MPA). Furthermore, the estimation of the precision of global abundance at different sampling intensities can be used for survey design optimisation. Geostatistics provide a priori unbiased estimations of the spatial structure, global abundance and precision for autocorrelated data. However, their application to non-Gaussian data introduces difficulties in the analysis in conjunction with low robustness or unbiasedness. The present study applied intrinsic geostatistics in two dimensions in order to (i) analyse the spatial distribution of anchovy in Spanish Western Mediterranean waters during the species' recruitment season, (ii) produce distribution maps, (iii) estimate global abundance and its precision, (iv) analyse the effect of changing the sampling intensity on the precision of global abundance estimates and, (v) evaluate the effects of several methodological options on the robustness of all the analysed parameters. The results suggested that while the spatial structure was usually non-robust to the tested methodological options when working with the original dataset, it became more robust for the transformed datasets (especially for the log-backtransformed dataset). The global abundance was always highly robust and the global precision was highly or moderately robust to most of the methodological options, except for data transformation.

  12. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  13. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  14. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  15. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  16. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  17. Communication Problems in Turner Syndrome: A Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Dhooge, Inge; Verhoye, Kristof; Derde, Kristel; Curfs, Leopold

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 128 females (ages 2-58) with Turner syndrome found almost one quarter were receiving or had received treatment for stuttering, articulation problems, and/or delayed language development, with the latter two disorders being checked most frequently. Only 4 or the 68 individuals receiving growth hormone treatment reported voice changes.…

  18. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey. ©Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.09.2017.

  19. Mastering the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    On January 1, 2005, a system of trade of carbon dioxide emission quotas, also called 'market of tradable emission permits', will be implemented in the European Union. This system is one of the 3 flexibility mechanisms foreseen by the Kyoto protocol in order to reduce the global economic cost of the fight against climatic change. The aim of this seminar is to clarify the process of transfer of the European directive into French law. It comprises 8 presentations dealing with: the objectives of tradable emission quotas (greenhouse effect, Kyoto commitments, short and long term stakes); presentation of the European directive about the trade system of greenhouse gas emissions; transposition of the directive into French law (fields of application, sectors and facilities concerned, possible exemptions, first national plan of quotas allocation); voluntary emission abatement commitments by industrial companies member of the AERES; quotas recording and management, control of trades; companies strategy (investment for CO 2 abatement or purchase of quotas, impact on industries and competitiveness); experience feedback of emission quotas trading in foreign countries (international CO 2 market development); CO 2 emission quotas linked with cogeneration (emissions from cogeneration facilities, possible allocation, impact for cogeneration companies, approaches in other European countries in this domain); perspectives and conclusions. (J.S.)

  20. Gender discrimination before mandated quotas? Evidence from Norway: 1989 to 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Øystein R.

    2015-01-01

    Is the low percentage of women on boards due to discrimination? Discrimination has a time dimension; it is repeated period after period and is thus highly persistent. This persistence is tested with data from Norway before quota regulations were instituted in 2003. The data consist of an unbalanced panel sample of all non-financial listed companies from 1989 to 2002. Persistence implies a serial correlation close to one. The main finding is low persistence, implying no discrimination in the s...

  1. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. I. Sample selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.A.; Davis, M.; Yahil, A.; Huchra, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    A complete all-sky sample of objects, flux-limited at 60 microns, has been extracted from the data base of the IRAS. The sample consists of 5014 objects, of which 2649 are galaxies and 13 are not yet identified. In order to study large-scale structure with this sample, it must be free of systematic biases. Corrections are applied for a major systematic effect in the flux densities listed in the IRAS Point Source Catalog: sources resolved by the IRAS beam have flux densities systematically underestimated. In addition, accurate flux densities are obtained for sources flagged as variable, or of moderate flux quality at 60 microns. The IRAS detectors suffered radiation-induced responsivity enhancement (hysteresis) due to crossings of the satellite scans across the Galactic plane; this effect is measured and is shown to be negligible. 53 refs

  2. A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Hakim, Avi J; Dittrich, Samantha; Burnett, Janet; Kim, Evelyn; White, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities.

  3. Community-based survey versus sentinel site sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural children. Implications for nutritional surveillance and the development of nutritional programmes. G. c. Solarsh, D. M. Sanders, C. A. Gibson, E. Gouws. A study of the anthropometric status of under-5-year-olds was conducted in the Nqutu district of Kwazulu by means of a representative community-based sample and.

  4. On The Use Of Network Sampling In Diabetic Surveys | Nafiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two estimators: Hansen-Hurwitz estimator and Horvitz-Thompson estimator were considered; and the results were obtained using a program written in Microsoft Visual C++ programming language. Keywords: Graph, Sampling Frame, Households, Hansen-Hurwitz estimator and Horvitz-Thompson estimator. JORIND Vol.

  5. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  6. Sample Loss and Survey Bias in Estimates of Social Security Beneficiaries: A Tale of Two Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; James Mabli; Scott Cody

    2008-01-01

    Data from the Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide information on current and potential beneficiaries served by Social Security Administration (SSA) programs. SSA also links administrative records to the records of survey respondents who provide Social Security numbers. These matched data expand the content of the SIPP and CPS files to fields available only through SSA and Internal Revenue Service records—such as l...

  7. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data gathered... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  8. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses II. Status of Nurses: November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Barbara S.; And Others

    This report provides data describing the nursing population as determined by the second national sample survey of registered nurses. A brief introduction is followed by a chapter that presents an overview of the survey methodology, including details on the sampling design, the response rate, and the statistical reliability. Chapter 3 provides a…

  9. OPEC production ceilings and quotas: an analytical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1992-01-01

    After the onset of Gulf hostilities in August 1990, oil production, equivalent to some five million barrels per day, dried up. With two major exporters, Iraq and Kuwait, out of contention, other OPEC Members were suddenly free to produce and export at will. For the rest of 1990 and the whole of 1991, the issue of quotas was put on the backburner. Hence, the present analytical paper on past OPEC production quota agreements has been prepared. It is an attempt to correlate individual OPEC quotas with meaningful and tangible variables, using a curve-fitting computer programme. The main endeavour in this project is to find either a theoretical or an empirical basis for the generation of OPEC quotas. (author)

  10. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  11. National plan of allocation of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The directive 2003/87/CE of the European parliament and council from October 13, 2003 establishes a trading system of CO 2 emission quotas for some companies of the energy generation industry, of the manufacturing industry and of services. These quotas are tradable and negotiable and an initial amount of quotas is allocated to these companies according to their facilities in concern. The national plan of quotas allocation must precise the total amount of tradable emissions and its share among the different sectors of activity and facilities. The first project of allocation plan was transmitted to the European Commission on July 6, 2004 after its public consultation between June 8 and June 29 2004. Modifications have been added to meet the requests of the Commission and the French plan was finally approved on December 17, 2004 for an annual amount of 156.51 Mt of CO 2 quotas during the 2005-2007 period. This paper precises the modifications requested by the commission, the modifications of the French juridical system necessary to complete the implementation of the French part of the European quotas trading system, the elaboration of the next allocation plan for the 2008-2012 period, and the link between the European emissions trading system and the 'joint implementation' and 'clean development ' mechanisms implemented by the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  12. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the co...

  13. Novel platform for ocean survey and autonomous sampling using multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Tawfiq; Weymouth, G.D.; Varghese, Tony

    2013-01-01

    In-situ surveying and sampling of ocean environments provides critical data for laboratory work and oceanographic research. However, sampling a time-varying ocean field is often time and resource limited-meaning that samples often miss the features of interest. This paper presents a modular autonomous multi-agent robotic system which has been developed to accommodate a variety of research activities. This paper demonstrates the complementary capabilities of the agents by simultaneously survey...

  14. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  15. Geochemical drainage surveys for uranium: sampling and analytical methods based on trial surveys in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Keith, M.L.; Suhr, N.H.

    1976-01-01

    Geochemical surveys near sandstone-type uranium prospects in northeastern and north-central Pennsylvania show that the deposits can be detected by carefully planned stream sediment surveys, but not by stream water surveys. Stream waters at single sites changed in U content by x10 to 50 during the 18 months of our studies, and even near known prospects, contain less than 0.2 ppB U most of the time. Uranium extractable from stream sediment by acetic acid--H 2 O 2 provides useful contrast between mineralized and nonmineralized drainages of a square mile or less; total U in sediment does not. High organic material results in increased U content of sediments and must be corrected. Changes in U content of sediment with time reach a maximum of x3 and appear to be of short duration. A sediment of about 200 mi 2 near Jim Thorpe detects anomalies extending over several square miles near known occurrences and a second anomaly about two miles northeast of Penn Haven Jct. A similar survey in Lycoming-Sullivan Counties shows anomalous zones near known prospects of the Beaver Lake area and northwest of Muncy Creek. As, Mn, Pb, and V are enriched in the mineralized zones, and perhaps in surrounding halo zones, but do not appear to be pathfinder elements useful for reconnaissance exploration

  16. Global review of health care surveys using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), 1984-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan E; Valadez, Joseph J

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a global review on the use of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to assess health care services, health behaviors, and disease burden. Publications and reports on LQAS surveys were sought from Medline and five other electronic databases; the World Health Organization; the World Bank; governments, nongovernmental organizations, and individual scientists. We identified a total of 805 LQAS surveys conducted by different management groups during January 1984 through December 2004. There was a striking increase in the annual number of LQAS surveys conducted in 2000-2004 (128/year) compared with 1984-1999 (10/year). Surveys were conducted in 55 countries, and in 12 of these countries there were 10 or more LQAS surveys. Geographically, 317 surveys (39.4%) were conducted in Africa, 197 (28.5%) in the Americas, 115 (14.3%) in the Eastern Mediterranean, 114 (14.2%) in South-East Asia, 48 (6.0%) in Europe, and 14 (1.8%) in the Western Pacific. Health care parameters varied, and some surveys assessed more than one parameter. There were 320 surveys about risk factors for HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections; 266 surveys on immunization coverage, 240 surveys post-disasters, 224 surveys on women's health, 142 surveys on growth and nutrition, 136 surveys on diarrheal disease control, and 88 surveys on quality management. LQAS surveys to assess disease burden included 23 neonatal tetanus mortality surveys and 12 surveys on other diseases. LQAS is a practical field method which increasingly is being applied in assessment of preventive and curative health services, and may offer new research opportunities to social scientists. When LQAS data are collected recurrently at multiple time points, they can be used to measure the spatial variation in behavior change. Such data provide insight into understanding relationships between various investments in social, human, and physical capital, and into the effectiveness of different public health strategies in achieving

  17. Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers and Improve Data-Limited Stock Assessments. This biosampling project...

  18. Shorlist Masterplan Wind. Evaluation of the sampling grid of the year-round ichthyoplankton survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Beek, van J.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the research programme 'Shortlist Masterplan Wind' a year-round ichthyoplankton survey is being carried out. The sampling area is based on known spawning concentrations and prevailing currents.

  19. Evaluating the quality of sampling frames used in European cross-national surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maineri, A.M.; Scherpenzeel, A.; Bristle, Johanna; Pflüger, Senta-Melissa; Butt, Sarah; Zins, Stefan; Emery, Tom; Luijkx, R.

    This report addresses the quality of the population registers which are currently being used as sampling frames in countries participating in the four cross-European surveys cooperating in SERISS: the European Social Survey (ESS), the European Values Study (EVS), the Gender and Generations Program

  20. Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Edwards; D. Richard Cutler; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Linda Geiser; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by...

  1. From the broadest possible to the EU adapted quota system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    The Norwegian Government's proposal for a trading system for emission quotas from 2005 to 2007 will only comprise about 10 per cent of the Norwegian emissions. This proposal is far from agreeing with the recommendations of the members of the quota committee, who in 2000 recommended a system for trade with emission quotas as an important means of conforming to the Kyoto protocol in Norway in the period 2008 to 2012. The committee concluded that considerations of cost effectiveness, goal-oriented management and equal treatment dictate a broadest possible system. Such a system will guarantee that the emission is cut where the costs are least, and it will make it easier for Norway to meet the requirements of the Kyoto protocol

  2. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  3. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  4. On the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, which is on the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys, compares the efficiency of some estimators used in PPSWR sampling for multiple characteristics. From a superpopulation model, we computed the expected variances of the different estimators for each of the first two finite populations ...

  5. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  6. Biomethane as a fuel. Quota transfer; Biomethan als Kraftstoff. Quotenuebertragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    Biomethane from biomass replaces fossil natural gas. Just as natural gas, it can be easily used in the transport sector. The advantages of biomethane as a fuel are numerous: high contribution to climate protection, technically acceptable admixture, price advantage over gasoline, eligibility to the biofuel quota. This brochure provides information on: (a) Role of biomethane to meet the biofuel targets of the Federal Government; (b) Eligibility of biomethane to the biofuel quota; (c) Business models for marketing of biomethane as a fuel; (d) Benefits of bio-methane for various actors.

  7. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  8. Economic Analysis of the Effects of the Expiry of the EU Milk Quota System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réquillart, V.; Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.

    2008-01-01

    This report has been prepared to provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of the abolition of EU milk quotas on the EU dairy sector, including the different policy approaches of gradual phasing out and abrupt abolition of milk quotas

  9. [Study of spatial stratified sampling strategy of Oncomelania hupensis snail survey based on plant abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun-Ping, W; An, Z

    2017-07-27

    Objective To optimize and simplify the survey method of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshland endemic regions of schistosomiasis, so as to improve the precision, efficiency and economy of the snail survey. Methods A snail sampling strategy (Spatial Sampling Scenario of Oncomelania based on Plant Abundance, SOPA) which took the plant abundance as auxiliary variable was explored and an experimental study in a 50 m×50 m plot in a marshland in the Poyang Lake region was performed. Firstly, the push broom surveyed data was stratified into 5 layers by the plant abundance data; then, the required numbers of optimal sampling points of each layer through Hammond McCullagh equation were calculated; thirdly, every sample point in the line with the Multiple Directional Interpolation (MDI) placement scheme was pinpointed; and finally, the comparison study among the outcomes of the spatial random sampling strategy, the traditional systematic sampling method, the spatial stratified sampling method, Sandwich spatial sampling and inference and SOPA was performed. Results The method (SOPA) proposed in this study had the minimal absolute error of 0.213 8; and the traditional systematic sampling method had the largest estimate, and the absolute error was 0.924 4. Conclusion The snail sampling strategy (SOPA) proposed in this study obtains the higher estimation accuracy than the other four methods.

  10. Export quotas and policy constraints in the Indian textile and garment industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kathuria, Sanjay; Bhardwaj, Anjali

    1998-01-01

    The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing will abolish all quota restrictions in trade in textiles and clothing by the year 2005. Dismantling the quota regime represents both an opportunity (for developing countries to expand exports) and a threat (because quotas will no longer guarantee markets and even the domestic market will be open to competition). Data about the real burden imposed by distorting but nontransparent policies under the quota regime are inadequate, so the authors interviewed t...

  11. Sampling methods. A survey of methods in use in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2000-10-01

    This report is a survey of sampling techniques currently in use for radioactivity measurements in the Nordic countries, but restricted to sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition in emergency situations. It is found that the participating laboratories apply similar sampling procedures for pasture, including cutting height and size of sampled areas. Soil samples are generally taken by some sort of corer of different diameter. The number of cores taken varies, different sampling patterns are used, and pooling of the samples is done by some of the laboratories. The analysis of pasture and of soil is made with Nal-detectors or by high-resolution gamma spectrometry on fresh or dried samples. Precipitation collectors of a range of sizes are used to determine the activity concentration in precipitation and of dry deposited radionuclides. The analysis is made with high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, either directly on a water sample or on ion exchange resins. (au)

  12. 78 FR 55099 - Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... aggregate production quotas, an additional 25% of the estimated medical, scientific, and research needs as... Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Established Assessment of Annual Needs for... initial 2014 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II of the Controlled...

  13. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  14. Sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based surveys of group-housed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Marisa L; Sun, Yaxuan; Wang, Chong; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Hoogland, Marlin; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2017-09-01

    Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs. Samples (n=972) were tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR) and the binary results analyzed using a piecewise exponential survival model for interval-censored, time-to-event data with misclassification. Thereafter, simulation studies were used to study the barn-level probability of PRRSV detection as a function of sample size, sample allocation (simple random sampling vs fixed spatial sampling), assay diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and pen-level prevalence. These studies provided estimates of the probability of detection by sample size and within-barn prevalence. Detection using fixed spatial sampling was as good as, or better than, simple random sampling. Sampling multiple barns on a site increased the probability of detection with the number of barns sampled. These results are relevant to PRRSV control or elimination projects at the herd, regional, or national levels, but the results are also broadly applicable to contagious pathogens of swine for which oral fluid tests of equivalent performance are available. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removing EU milk quotas, soft landing versus hard landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Réquillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses EU dairy policy reforms and mainly focus on EU milk quota removal scenarios. The model used to evaluate the scenario is a spatial equilibrium model of the dairy sector. It integrates the main competitor of the EU on world markets, Oceania, as well as the main importing regions in

  16. Quotas and intersectionality: ethnicity and gender in candidate selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, K.; Erzeel, S.; Mügge, L.; Damstra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality is not fully realised when it is restricted to ethnic majority men and women. This article examines how gender quotas as a form of equality policy affect ethnic minority groups, in particular, the gender balance among ethnic minority candidates for political office. Our analysis

  17. Quota disputes and subsistence whaling in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle

    2014-01-01

    In Qeqertarsuaq (Disco Island), northwest Greenland, local disputes about the allocation of annual whaling quotas for beluga and narwhals feature as a source of conflict between state-imposed categories of occupational and non-occupational hunters. The national authorities’ co-management regime...

  18. Research on the optimization of quota design in real estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunling; Ma, Susu; Zhong, Weichao

    2017-11-01

    Quota design is one of the effective methods of cost control in real estate development project and widely used in the current real estate development project to control the engineering construction cost, but quota design have many deficiencies in design process. For this purpose, this paper put forward a method to achieve investment control of real estate development project, which combine quota design and value engineering(VE) at the stage of design. Specifically, it’s an optimizing for the structure of quota design. At first, determine the design limits by investment estimate value, then using VE to carry on initial allocation of design limits and gain the functional target cost, finally, consider the whole life cycle cost (LCC) and operational problem in practical application to finish complex correction for the functional target cost. The improved process can control the project cost more effectively. It not only can control investment in a certain range, but also make the project realize maximum value within investment.

  19. The Gender Quota Campaign in Sierra Leone: An Interview with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... What led you to study the question of quotas for women in positions of political office? ... They have to fight like men fight to get into parliament. ... If you are talking about sexual and reproductive rights that affect women, most ...

  20. The Irish legislative gender quota: The first election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Mary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 legislative gender quotas were introduced as part of the Fine Gael/Labour coalition government’s political reform agenda. The legislation specifies that payments to political parties ‘shall be reduced by 50 per cent, unless at least 30 per cent of the candidates whose candidatures were authenticated by the qualified party at the preceding general election were women and at least 30 per cent were men’. The 30 per cent gender threshold came into effect at the 2016 general election. Research demonstrates that gender quotas work to increase women’s political descriptive representation, but to do so, political parties must engage with them in ‘goodwill’, be ‘wellintentioned’ or place women in ‘winnable seats’. This article examines if this was the case at the 2016 general election. Using statistics, as well as drawing from interviews with party strategists, the article assesses the impact of gender quotas on women’s candidate selection and election. We conclude that parties did embrace the spirit of the gender quota law but resistance remains.

  1. Quota System And Educational Reforms In Nigeria | Obielumani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the multi-ethnic nature of Nigeria and the desire of all to have quality education as a way of breaking the barriers of poverty, disease and ignorance, the struggle to have access to education has become more aggressive hence the introduction of quota system policy by the Federal Government as an instrument ...

  2. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  3. Practical guidebook about the market of CO{sub 2} emission quotas; Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emission de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO{sub 2} emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO{sub 2} emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO{sub 2} quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO{sub 2} they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO{sub 2} quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  4. Sampling strategy for a large scale indoor radiation survey - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Stranden, E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimisation of a stratified random sampling strategy for large scale indoor radiation surveys is discussed. It is based on the results from a small scale pilot project where variances in dose rates within different categories of houses were assessed. By selecting a predetermined precision level for the mean dose rate in a given region, the number of measurements needed can be optimised. The results of a pilot project in Norway are presented together with the development of the final sampling strategy for a planned large scale survey. (author)

  5. Carbon quota price and CDM potentials after Marrakesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenying Chen

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets quantified GHG emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties. But their emission reduction requirements related to BAU projections, one of the key factors to effect on future carbon market, are uncertain. Both the decisions made in Bonn and Marrakesh would have further consequences for how the future carbon market will take shape. This paper, with application of the carbon emission reduction trading model, evaluates future carbon quota price and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potentials under different BAU projections, and does sensitivity analysis on carry-over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, implementation rate, transaction cost, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, etc. to assess the impacts of relevant decisions of COP6-bis and COP7 on the carbon market. Under different BAU projections, future carbon quota price and CDM potentials could vary widely. Carry over of AAUs, CERs, ERUs, and holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties could raise both quota price and total CDM potentials considerably. Implementation rate could have big impacts on both carbon quota price and CDM potentials, especially for the cases formerly with relatively high CDM potentials, and it could also change the regional distribution of CDM potentials. Transaction cost's effect on the carbon market would be comparatively low, but would become unignorable in the market whose quota price is low. It would lead to a downward trend in price while upward in CDM potentials when increasing the implementation rate or lowering transaction cost. Withdrawal of USA would dramatically shrink carbon price and credit amount, and large numbers of hot air and sink credits would further greatly crowd out the CDM projects; carry over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, prompt start of CDM projects, etc., would, however, enhance the total CDM credits to ensure more investment and technology flow to developing countries to promote their sustainable development

  6. Carbon quota price and CDM potentials after Marrakesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets quantified GHG emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties. But their emission reduction requirements related to BAU projections, one of the key factors to effect on future carbon market, are uncertain. Both the decisions made in Bonn and Marrakesh would have further consequences for how the future carbon market will take shape. This paper, with application of the carbon emission reduction trading model, evaluates future carbon quota price and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) potentials under different BAU projections, and does sensitivity analysis on carry-over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, implementation rate, transaction cost, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, etc. to assess the impacts of relevant decisions of COP6-bis and COP7 on the carbon market. Under different BAU projections, future carbon quota price and CDM potentials could vary widely. Carry over of AAUs, CERs, ERUs, and holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties could raise both quota price and total CDM potentials considerably. Implementation rate could have big impacts on both carbon quota price and CDM potentials, especially for the cases formerly with relatively high CDM potentials, and it could also change the regional distribution of CDM potentials. Transaction cost's effect on the carbon market would be comparatively low, but would become unignorable in the market whose quota price is low. It would lead to a downward trend in price while upward in CDM potentials when increasing the implementation rate or lowering transaction cost. Withdrawal of USA would dramatically shrink carbon price and credit amount, and large numbers of hot air and sink credits would further greatly crowd out the CDM projects; carry over of AAUs, CERs and ERUs, holding of CERs in Non-Annex I Parties, prompt start of CDM projects, etc., would, however, enhance the total CDM credits to ensure more investment and technology flow to developing countries to promote their sustainable development

  7. Sample survey methods as a quality assurance tool in a general practice immunisation audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R

    1994-04-27

    In a multidoctor family practice there are often just too many sets of patients records to make it practical to repeat an audit by census of even an age band of the practice on a regular basis. This paper attempts to demonstrate how sample survey methodology can be incorporated into the quality assurance cycle. A simple random sample (with replacement) of 120 from 580 children with permanent records who were aged between 6 weeks and 2 years old from an Auckland general practice was performed, with sample size selected to give a predetermined precision. The survey was then repeated after 4 weeks. Both surveys were able to be completed within the course of a normal working day. An unexpectedly low level of under 2 years olds that were recorded as not overdue for any immunisations was found (22.5%) with only a modest improvement after a standard telephone/letter catch up campaign. Seventy-two percent of the sample held a group one community services card. The advantages of properly conducted sample surveys in producing useful estimates of known precision without disrupting office routines excessively were demonstrated. Through some attention to methodology, the trauma of a practice census can be avoided.

  8. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Quota... the Internet or requested from the Regional Administrator. (ii) An application for crab QS or PQS may... be notified by an IAD, that the applicant did not meet the burden of proof to change the information...

  9. An assessment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to evaluate malaria outcome indicators: extending malaria indicator surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Caitlin; Pagano, Marcello; Hedt, Bethany L; Kilian, Albert; Ratcliffe, Amy; Mabunda, Samuel; Valadez, Joseph J

    2010-02-01

    Large investments and increased global prioritization of malaria prevention and treatment have resulted in greater emphasis on programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in many countries. Many countries currently use large multistage cluster sample surveys to monitor malaria outcome indicators on a regional and national level. However, these surveys often mask local-level variability important to programme management. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has played a valuable role for local-level programme M&E. If incorporated into these larger surveys, it would provide a comprehensive M&E plan at little, if any, extra cost. The Mozambique Ministry of Health conducted a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in June and July 2007. We applied LQAS classification rules to the 345 sampled enumeration areas to demonstrate identifying high- and low-performing areas with respect to two malaria program indicators-'household possession of any bednet' and 'household possession of any insecticide-treated bednet (ITN)'. As shown by the MIS, no province in Mozambique achieved the 70% coverage target for household possession of bednets or ITNs. By applying LQAS classification rules to the data, we identify 266 of the 345 enumeration areas as having bednet coverage severely below the 70% target. An additional 73 were identified with low ITN coverage. This article demonstrates the feasibility of integrating LQAS into multistage cluster sampling surveys and using these results to support a comprehensive national, regional and local programme M&E system. Furthermore, in the recommendations we outlined how to integrate the Large Country-LQAS design into macro-surveys while still obtaining results available through current sampling practices.

  10. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lenicek Krleza, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about t...

  11. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  12. The merits of non-tradable quotas as a domestic policy instrument to prevent firm closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2001-05-01

    There is a concern in many countries that a domestic tradable quota system for greenhouse gases, where all emitters must pay for their quotas, may lead to closures of emissions-intensive industrial companies. Allocating quotas free of charge to companies operating in competitive markets has been suggested as a means to reduce the likelihood of closures. Two different designs of quota systems are studied within a two-period model: one where the quotas given free of charge are tradable, and one where the quotas are non-tradable. The two quota systems are compared with respect to their ability both to induce the firms to implement investment in abatement technology and to prevent or postpone closures. (author)

  13. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in Terego county, northern Uganda, 1996: a lot quality assurance sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Yvan J F; Legros, Dominique; Owini, Vincent; Brown, Vincent; Lee, Evan; Mbulamberi, Dawson; Paquet, Christophe

    2004-04-01

    We estimated the pre-intervention prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) trypanosomiasis using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methods in 14 parishes of Terego County in northern Uganda. A total of 826 participants were included in the survey sample in 1996. The prevalence of laboratory confirmed Tbg trypanosomiasis adjusted for parish population sizes was 2.2% (95% confidence interval =1.1-3.2). This estimate was consistent with the 1.1% period prevalence calculated on the basis of cases identified through passive and active screening in 1996-1999. Ranking of parishes in four categories according to LQAS analysis of the 1996 survey predicted the prevalences observed during the first round of active screening in the population in 1997-1998 (P LQAS were validated by the results of the population screening, suggesting that these survey methods may be useful in the pre-intervention phase of sleeping sickness control programs.

  14. A sample of galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST spectral survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Shi-Yin; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Chen, Li; Feng, Shuai; Hou, Jin-Liang; Shao, Zheng-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, Hai-Feng; Yang, Ming; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Ting-Gui; Jing, Yi-Peng; Kong, Xu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Zhi-Jian; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-01-01

    A small fraction (< 10%) of the SDSS main galaxy (MG) sample has not been targeted with spectroscopy due to the effect of fiber collisions. These galaxies have been compiled into the input catalog of the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys and named the complementary galaxy sample. In this paper, we introduce this project and status of the spectroscopies associated with the complementary galaxies in the first two years of the LAMOST spectral survey (till Sep. of 2014). Moreover, we present a sample of 1102 galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST complementary galaxies and SDSS MGs, which are defined as two members that have a projected distance smaller than 100 h −1 70 kpc and a recessional velocity difference smaller than 500 km s −1 . Compared with galaxy pairs that are only selected from SDSS, the LAMOST-SDSS pairs have the advantages of not being biased toward large separations and therefore act as a useful supplement in statistical studies of galaxy interaction and galaxy merging. (paper)

  15. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  16. Conducting a respondent-driven sampling survey with the use of existing resources in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Dana M; Bryant, Joanne; Crawford, Sione; de Wit, John B F

    2011-07-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of chain-referral sampling that is increasingly being used for HIV behavioural surveillance. When used for surveillance purposes, a sampling method should be relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. This study examined whether an RDS survey of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Sydney, Australia, could be successfully conducted through the use of minimal and existing resources. The RDS survey was conducted on the premises of a local needle and syringe program (NSP) with some adjustments to take into account the constraints of existing resources. The impact of the survey on clients and on staff was examined by summarizing NSP service data and by conducting post-survey discussions with NSP staff. From November 2009 till March 2010, 261 participants were recruited in 16 waves. A significant increase was found in the number of services provided by the NSP during and after data collection. Generally, staff felt that the survey had a positive impact by exposing a broader group of people to the NSP. However, conducting the survey may have led to privacy issues for NSP clients due to an increased number of people gathering around the NSP. This study shows that RDS can be conducted with the use of minimal and existing resources under certain conditions (e.g., use of a self-administered questionnaire and no biological samples taken). A more detailed cost-utility analysis is needed to determine whether RDS' advantages outweigh potential challenges when compared to simpler and less costly convenience methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sara J. K.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold B.; Gibbs, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Density estimates accounting for differential animal detectability are difficult to acquire for wide-ranging and elusive species such as mammalian carnivores. Pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys may provide an efficient means of tracking changes in populations of coyotes (Canis latrans), a species of particular interest in the eastern United States. Blind field trials in rural New York State indicated 119-m linear error for triangulated coyote calls, and a 1.8-km distance threshold for call detectability, which was sufficient to estimate a detection function with precision using distance sampling. We conducted statewide road-based surveys with sampling locations spaced ≥6 km apart from June to August 2010. Each detected call (be it a single or group) counted as a single object, representing 1 territorial pair, because of uncertainty in the number of vocalizing animals. From 524 survey points and 75 detections, we estimated the probability of detecting a calling coyote to be 0.17 ± 0.02 SE, yielding a detection-corrected index of 0.75 pairs/10 km2 (95% CI: 0.52–1.1, 18.5% CV) for a minimum of 8,133 pairs across rural New York State. Importantly, we consider this an index rather than true estimate of abundance given the unknown probability of coyote availability for detection during our surveys. Even so, pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys provided a novel, efficient, and noninvasive means of monitoring populations of wide-ranging and elusive, albeit reliably vocal, mammalian carnivores. Our approach offers an effective new means of tracking species like coyotes, one that is readily extendable to other species and geographic extents, provided key assumptions of distance sampling are met.

  18. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  19. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  20. CT dose survey in adults: what sample size for what precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stephen; Muylem, Alain van; Howarth, Nigel; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Tack, Denis

    2017-01-01

    To determine variability of volume computed tomographic dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) data, and propose a minimum sample size to achieve an expected precision. CTDIvol and DLP values of 19,875 consecutive CT acquisitions of abdomen (7268), thorax (3805), lumbar spine (3161), cervical spine (1515) and head (4106) were collected in two centers. Their variabilities were investigated according to sample size (10 to 1000 acquisitions) and patient body weight categories (no weight selection, 67-73 kg and 60-80 kg). The 95 % confidence interval in percentage of their median (CI95/med) value was calculated for increasing sample sizes. We deduced the sample size that set a 95 % CI lower than 10 % of the median (CI95/med ≤ 10 %). Sample size ensuring CI95/med ≤ 10 %, ranged from 15 to 900 depending on the body region and the dose descriptor considered. In sample sizes recommended by regulatory authorities (i.e., from 10-20 patients), mean CTDIvol and DLP of one sample ranged from 0.50 to 2.00 times its actual value extracted from 2000 samples. The sampling error in CTDIvol and DLP means is high in dose surveys based on small samples of patients. Sample size should be increased at least tenfold to decrease this variability. (orig.)

  1. CT dose survey in adults: what sample size for what precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stephen [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Radiology, Mons (Belgium); Muylem, Alain van [Hopital Erasme, Department of Pneumology, Brussels (Belgium); Howarth, Nigel [Clinique des Grangettes, Department of Radiology, Chene-Bougeries (Switzerland); Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Hopital Erasme, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Denis [EpiCURA, Clinique Louis Caty, Department of Radiology, Baudour (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    To determine variability of volume computed tomographic dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) data, and propose a minimum sample size to achieve an expected precision. CTDIvol and DLP values of 19,875 consecutive CT acquisitions of abdomen (7268), thorax (3805), lumbar spine (3161), cervical spine (1515) and head (4106) were collected in two centers. Their variabilities were investigated according to sample size (10 to 1000 acquisitions) and patient body weight categories (no weight selection, 67-73 kg and 60-80 kg). The 95 % confidence interval in percentage of their median (CI95/med) value was calculated for increasing sample sizes. We deduced the sample size that set a 95 % CI lower than 10 % of the median (CI95/med ≤ 10 %). Sample size ensuring CI95/med ≤ 10 %, ranged from 15 to 900 depending on the body region and the dose descriptor considered. In sample sizes recommended by regulatory authorities (i.e., from 10-20 patients), mean CTDIvol and DLP of one sample ranged from 0.50 to 2.00 times its actual value extracted from 2000 samples. The sampling error in CTDIvol and DLP means is high in dose surveys based on small samples of patients. Sample size should be increased at least tenfold to decrease this variability. (orig.)

  2. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India: Results of National Sample Survey Organization's Perception Survey on Use of AYUSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Sugumar, V Raji

    2015-10-04

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  4. The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) . I. Project description, survey sample, and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nick L. J.; Cami, Jan; Farhang, Amin; Smoker, Jonathan; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Lallement, Rosine; Sarre, Peter J.; Marshall, Charlotte C. M.; Smith, Keith T.; Evans, Christopher J.; Royer, Pierre; Linnartz, Harold; Cordiner, Martin A.; Joblin, Christine; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Foing, Bernard H.; Bhatt, Neil H.; Bron, Emeric; Elyajouri, Meriem; de Koter, Alex; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Javadi, Atefeh; Kaper, Lex; Khosroshadi, Habib G.; Laverick, Mike; Le Petit, Franck; Mulas, Giacomo; Roueff, Evelyne; Salama, Farid; Spaans, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are largely unidentified molecules ubiquitously present in the interstellar medium (ISM). After decades of study, two strong and possibly three weak near-infrared DIBs have recently been attributed to the C60^+ fullerene based on observational and laboratory measurements. There is great promise for the identification of the over 400 other known DIBs, as this result could provide chemical hints towards other possible carriers. In an effort tosystematically study the properties of the DIB carriers, we have initiated a new large-scale observational survey: the ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES). The main objective is to build on and extend existing DIB surveys to make a major step forward in characterising the physical and chemical conditions for a statistically significant sample of interstellar lines-of-sight, with the goal to reverse-engineer key molecular properties of the DIB carriers. EDIBLES is a filler Large Programme using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. It is designed to provide an observationally unbiased view of the presence and behaviour of the DIBs towards early-spectral-type stars whose lines-of-sight probe the diffuse-to-translucent ISM. Such a complete dataset will provide a deep census of the atomic and molecular content, physical conditions, chemical abundances and elemental depletion levels for each sightline. Achieving these goals requires a homogeneous set of high-quality data in terms of resolution (R 70 000-100 000), sensitivity (S/N up to 1000 per resolution element), and spectral coverage (305-1042 nm), as well as a large sample size (100+ sightlines). In this first paper the goals, objectives and methodology of the EDIBLES programme are described and an initial assessment of the data is provided.

  5. Boards and the Selection Procedures Post Gender Quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arna Arnardóttir, Auður; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Terjesen, Siri

    Purpose: Director Selection process can greatly effect board’s behavior and effectiveness and ultimately the firm’s performance and outcome. Director selection practices are hence important and yet underresearched topic, especially practices applied in the wake of gender quota legislations....... The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the extant literature by gaining greater understanding into how new female board members are recruited and selected when demand for one gender is high. Design/methodology/approach: Mixed research methodology was applied. Questionnaire (N=260) and in......-depth interviews (N=20) were conducted with Icelandic non-executive board directors, to identify the selection criteria that are deemed most important when selecting the new female director candidates taking seat on boards in the wake of gender quota legislation and compare those practices with previous selection...

  6. Inequality in education and quotas for black students in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice R. Durham

    Full Text Available This article discusses the proposed definition of quotas for black students in universities in view of the widespread inequalities in the Brazilian educational system. The author defends that the proposed measure would lead to limitations and distortions, for it is based on rigid, artificial categories, in sharp contrast with the country's ethnic heterogeneity, and fails to consider key factors in the schooling experience of afro-descendants. The study of statistical series has shown that in spite of the progress made, there is still a great educational gap dividing white students from black and mulatto students. This led the author to conclude that public initiatives geared to reinforcing basic skills would constitute a more effective affirmative action than the establishment of quotas.

  7. Price and welfare effects of emission quota allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts with downloadable Discussion Papers in PDF are available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no Abstract: We analyze how different ways of allocating emission quotas may influence the electricity market. Using a large-scale numerical model of the Western European energy market, we show that different allocation mechanisms can have very different effects on the electricity market, even if the total emission target is fixed. This is particularly the case if output-based alloca...

  8. Norwegian climate policy reforms in the presence of an international quota market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnæs, Geir H.; Tsygankova, Marina; Martinsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the second-best optimal difference between tax rates on goods that generate greenhouse gas emissions and non-polluting goods is equal to the quota price plus a Ramsey tax on the quota price when emission quotas are traded between governments and the price elasticity of these goods is identical. This tax difference exceeds the second-best optimal difference between tax rates on goods that generate a negative externality equivalent to the quota price and non-polluting goods. Model simulations show that a unilateral increase in emission tax to above the international quota price generates a welfare gain for Norway. Model simulations also show that an international tax/quota price increase generates a welfare gain (loss) for Norway if Norwegian imports of oil become substantial (marginal) in the long run. - Highlights: • Higher second-best optimal emission tax rate with government quota trading • Optimal second-best emission tax rate exceeds the quota price. • Norwegian emission tax increase above international quota price boosts welfare. • International quota price increase boosts Norwegian welfare

  9. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  10. Sampling effects on the identification of roadkill hotspots: Implications for survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Marques, J Tiago; Lourenço, André; Medinas, Denis; Barbosa, A Márcia; Beja, Pedro; Mira, António

    2015-10-01

    Although locating wildlife roadkill hotspots is essential to mitigate road impacts, the influence of study design on hotspot identification remains uncertain. We evaluated how sampling frequency affects the accuracy of hotspot identification, using a dataset of vertebrate roadkills (n = 4427) recorded over a year of daily surveys along 37 km of roads. "True" hotspots were identified using this baseline dataset, as the 500-m segments where the number of road-killed vertebrates exceeded the upper 95% confidence limit of the mean, assuming a Poisson distribution of road-kills per segment. "Estimated" hotspots were identified likewise, using datasets representing progressively lower sampling frequencies, which were produced by extracting data from the baseline dataset at appropriate time intervals (1-30 days). Overall, 24.3% of segments were "true" hotspots, concentrating 40.4% of roadkills. For different groups, "true" hotspots accounted from 6.8% (bats) to 29.7% (small birds) of road segments, concentrating from 60% (lizards, lagomorphs, carnivores) of roadkills. Spatial congruence between "true" and "estimated" hotspots declined rapidly with increasing time interval between surveys, due primarily to increasing false negatives (i.e., missing "true" hotspots). There were also false positives (i.e., wrong "estimated" hotspots), particularly at low sampling frequencies. Spatial accuracy decay with increasing time interval between surveys was higher for smaller-bodied (amphibians, reptiles, small birds, small mammals) than for larger-bodied species (birds of prey, hedgehogs, lagomorphs, carnivores). Results suggest that widely used surveys at weekly or longer intervals may produce poor estimates of roadkill hotspots, particularly for small-bodied species. Surveying daily or at two-day intervals may be required to achieve high accuracy in hotspot identification for multiple species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Like a virgin (mother): analysis of data from a longitudinal, US population representative sample survey

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Amy H; Attard, Samantha M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Joyner, William H; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of self report of pregnancy without sexual intercourse (virgin pregnancy) and factors related to such reporting, in a population representative group of US adolescents and young adults. Design Longitudinal, population representative sample survey. Setting Nationally representative, multiethnic National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, United States. Participants 7870 women enrolled at wave I (1995) and completing the most recent wave of data collect...

  13. The emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced by a new proposal for trade of quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The emission quota system will stimulate enterprises that do not currently have to pay a CO 2 tax and which are not subjected to any other political instrument to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, the main part of the total Norwegian emission of greenhouse gases will be covered by climate policy instruments. The quota system enters into force on January 1, 2005, from which date the EU quota system will also be in force. The quota system will comprise CO 2 emissions from oil refineries, iron and steel manufacturers, producers of cement, lime, glass and ceramic products, and certain energy plants. Not all firms that are obliged to obtain quotas will receive as many quotas as they are expected to need. Norway introduced a CO 2 tax in 1991 and is among the countries with the strongest and most extensive political instruments against emission of greenhouse gases

  14. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dealing with trade-offs in destructive sampling designs for occupancy surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canessa

    Full Text Available Occupancy surveys should be designed to minimise false absences. This is commonly achieved by increasing replication or increasing the efficiency of surveys. In the case of destructive sampling designs, in which searches of individual microhabitats represent the repeat surveys, minimising false absences leads to an inherent trade-off. Surveyors can sample more low quality microhabitats, bearing the resultant financial costs and producing wider-spread impacts, or they can target high quality microhabitats were the focal species is more likely to be found and risk more severe impacts on local habitat quality. We show how this trade-off can be solved with a decision-theoretic approach, using the Millewa Skink Hemiergis millewae from southern Australia as a case study. Hemiergis millewae is an endangered reptile that is best detected using destructive sampling of grass hummocks. Within sites that were known to be occupied by H. millewae, logistic regression modelling revealed that lizards were more frequently detected in large hummocks. If this model is an accurate representation of the detection process, searching large hummocks is more efficient and requires less replication, but this strategy also entails destruction of the best microhabitats for the species. We developed an optimisation tool to calculate the minimum combination of the number and size of hummocks to search to achieve a given cumulative probability of detecting the species at a site, incorporating weights to reflect the sensitivity of the results to a surveyor's priorities. The optimisation showed that placing high weight on minimising volume necessitates impractical replication, whereas placing high weight on minimising replication requires searching very large hummocks which are less common and may be vital for H. millewae. While destructive sampling methods are sometimes necessary, surveyors must be conscious of the ecological impacts of these methods. This study provides a

  16. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  17. National sample survey to assess the new case disease burden of leprosy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Katoch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A national sample survey of leprosy was undertaken in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR institutions, National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP, Panchayati Raj members, and treated leprosy patients to detect new cases of leprosy in India. The objectives of the survey were to estimate the new leprosy case load; record both Grade 1 and Grade 2 disabilities in the new cases; and to assess the magnitude of stigma and discrimination prevalent in the society. A cluster based, cross-sectional survey involving all States was used for the door-to-door survey using inverse sampling methodology. Rural and urban clusters were sampled separately. The population screened for detecting 28 new cases in rural and 30 in urban clusters was enumerated, recorded and analyzed. Data capture and analysis in different schedules were the main tools used. For quality control three tiers of experts were utilized for the confirmation of cases and disabilities. Self-stigma was assessed in more than half of the total new patients detected with disabilities by the approved questionnaire. A different questionnaire was used to assess the stigma in the community. A population of 14,725,525 (10,302,443 rural; 4,423,082 urban was screened and 2161 new cases - 1300 paucibacillary (PB and 861 multibacillary (MB were detected. New case estimates for leprosy was 330,346 (95% Confidence limits, 287,445-380,851. Disabilities observed in these cases were 2.05/100,000 population and 13.9 per cent (302/2161 in new cases. Self-stigma in patients with disabilities was reduced, and the patients were well accepted by the spouse, neighbour, at workplace and in social functions.

  18. Hospital survey on patient safety culture: psychometric analysis on a Scottish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Cakil; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn; Jackson, Jeanette

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture on a Scottish NHS data set. The data were collected from 1969 clinical staff (estimated 22% response rate) from one acute hospital from each of seven Scottish Health boards. Using a split-half validation technique, the data were randomly split; an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the calibration data set, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the validation data set to investigate and check the original US model fit in a Scottish sample. Following the split-half validation technique, exploratory factor analysis results showed a 10-factor optimal measurement model. The confirmatory factor analyses were then performed to compare the model fit of two competing models (10-factor alternative model vs 12-factor original model). An S-B scaled χ(2) square difference test demonstrated that the original 12-factor model performed significantly better in a Scottish sample. Furthermore, reliability analyses of each component yielded satisfactory results. The mean scores on the climate dimensions in the Scottish sample were comparable with those found in other European countries. This study provided evidence that the original 12-factor structure of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture scale has been replicated in this Scottish sample. Therefore, no modifications are required to the original 12-factor model, which is suggested for use, since it would allow researchers the possibility of cross-national comparisons.

  19. Green serves the dirtiest. On the interaction between black and green quotas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Rosendahl, Knut Einar [Statistics Norway Research Department, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-10-15

    Tradable black (CO2) and green (renewables) quotas gain in popularity and stringency within climate policies of many OECD countries. The overlapping regulation through both instruments, however, may have important adverse economic implications. Based on stylized theoretical analysis and substantiated with numerical model simulations for the German electricity market, we show that a green quota imposed on top of a black quota does not only induce substantial excess cost but serves the dirtiest power technologies as compared to a black quota regime only. (orig.)

  20. Optimum strata boundaries and sample sizes in health surveys using auxiliary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Karuna Garan; Khan, Mohammad G M; Khan, Sabiha

    2018-01-01

    Using convenient stratification criteria such as geographical regions or other natural conditions like age, gender, etc., is not beneficial in order to maximize the precision of the estimates of variables of interest. Thus, one has to look for an efficient stratification design to divide the whole population into homogeneous strata that achieves higher precision in the estimation. In this paper, a procedure for determining Optimum Stratum Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Sizes (OSS) for each stratum of a variable of interest in health surveys is developed. The determination of OSB and OSS based on the study variable is not feasible in practice since the study variable is not available prior to the survey. Since many variables in health surveys are generally skewed, the proposed technique considers the readily-available auxiliary variables to determine the OSB and OSS. This stratification problem is formulated into a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that seeks minimization of the variance of the estimated population parameter under Neyman allocation. It is then solved for the OSB by using a dynamic programming (DP) technique. A numerical example with a real data set of a population, aiming to estimate the Haemoglobin content in women in a national Iron Deficiency Anaemia survey, is presented to illustrate the procedure developed in this paper. Upon comparisons with other methods available in literature, results reveal that the proposed approach yields a substantial gain in efficiency over the other methods. A simulation study also reveals similar results.

  1. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men whohave sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey.\\ud Methods: We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men inthe same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European...

  2. A Survey for Spectroscopic Binaries in a Large Sample of G Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Latham, D. W.; Stefanik, R. P.; Torres, G.; Mazeh, T.; Goldberg, D.; Andersen, J.; Nordstrom, B.

    For more than 5 years now, the radial velocities for a large sample of G dwarfs (3,347 stars) have been monitored in order to obtain an unequaled set of orbital parameters for solar-type stars (~400 orbits, up to now). This survey provides a considerable improvement on the classical systematic study by Duquennoy and Mayor (1991; DM91). The observational part of the survey has been carried out in the context of a collaboration between the Geneva Observatory on the two coravel spectrometers for the southern sky and CfA at Oakridge and Whipple Observatories for the northern sky. As a first glance at these new results, we will address in this contribution a special aspect of the orbital eccentricity distribution, namely the disappearance of the void observed in DM91 for quasi-circular orbits with periods larger than 10 days.

  3. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  5. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Supplemental Environmental Project: Aquatic Life Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryhill, Jesse Tobias [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gaukler, Shannon Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    As part of a settlement agreement for nuclear waste incidents in 2014, several supplemental environment projects (SEPs) were initiated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) between the U.S. Department of Energy and the state of New Mexico. One SEP from this agreement consists of performing aquatic life surveys and will be used to assess the applicability of using generic ambient water-quality criteria (AWQC) for aquatic life. AWQC are generic criteria developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to cover a broad range of aquatic species and are not unique to a specific region or state. AWQC are established by a composition of toxicity data, called species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), and are determined by LC50 (lethal concentration of 50% of the organisms studied) acute toxicity experiments for chemicals of interest. It is of interest to determine whether aquatic species inhabiting waters on the Pajarito Plateau are adequately protected using the current generic AWQC. The focus of this study will determine which aquatic species are present in ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial waters within LANL boundaries and from reference waters adjacent to LANL. If the species identified from these waters do not generally represent species used in the SSDs, then SSDs may need to be modified and AWQC may need to be updated. This sampling and analysis plan details the sampling methodology, surveillance locations, temporal scheduling, and analytical approaches that will be used to complete aquatic life surveys. A significant portion of this sampling and analysis plan was formalized by referring to Appendix E: SEP Aquatic Life Surveys DQO (Data Quality Objectives).

  6. Optimum sample size to estimate mean parasite abundance in fish parasite surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydka S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To reach ethically and scientifically valid mean abundance values in parasitological and epidemiological studies this paper considers analytic and simulation approaches for sample size determination. The sample size estimation was carried out by applying mathematical formula with predetermined precision level and parameter of the negative binomial distribution estimated from the empirical data. A simulation approach to optimum sample size determination aimed at the estimation of true value of the mean abundance and its confidence interval (CI was based on the Bag of Little Bootstraps (BLB. The abundance of two species of monogenean parasites Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus from Mugil cephalus across the Azov-Black Seas localities were subjected to the analysis. The dispersion pattern of both helminth species could be characterized as a highly aggregated distribution with the variance being substantially larger than the mean abundance. The holistic approach applied here offers a wide range of appropriate methods in searching for the optimum sample size and the understanding about the expected precision level of the mean. Given the superior performance of the BLB relative to formulae with its few assumptions, the bootstrap procedure is the preferred method. Two important assessments were performed in the present study: i based on CIs width a reasonable precision level for the mean abundance in parasitological surveys of Ligophorus spp. could be chosen between 0.8 and 0.5 with 1.6 and 1x mean of the CIs width, and ii the sample size equal 80 or more host individuals allows accurate and precise estimation of mean abundance. Meanwhile for the host sample size in range between 25 and 40 individuals, the median estimates showed minimal bias but the sampling distribution skewed to the low values; a sample size of 10 host individuals yielded to unreliable estimates.

  7. Using the Superpopulation Model for Imputations and Variance Computation in Survey Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Novák

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at variance computation techniques for estimates of population characteristics based on survey sampling and imputation. We use the superpopulation regression model, which means that the target variable values for each statistical unit are treated as random realizations of a linear regression model with weighted variance. We focus on regression models with one auxiliary variable and no intercept, which have many applications and straightforward interpretation in business statistics. Furthermore, we deal with caseswhere the estimates are not independent and thus the covariance must be computed. We also consider chained regression models with auxiliary variables as random variables instead of constants.

  8. Why does Brazil need racial quotas? An analysis of the admission of quota students at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense / UENF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Gonçalves da Matta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about the quota system at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF. Quotas at UENF cover the following beneficiaries, after low-income verification: public school students, blacks, indigenous, people with physical disabilities, and children of police officers killed or disabled in the line of duty. The study focused on the comparative analysis of the 2008 and 2009 entrance examinations. The relationship between supply and demand for vacancies as well as the passing grades were analyzed. The analysis revealed that there is a greater demand for quotas in the courses in which the candidate/vacancy ratio is higher, and that quotas are unnecessary for approval in many courses.

  9. [Comparison study on sampling methods of Oncomelania hupensis snail survey in marshland schistosomiasis epidemic areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhao; Wen-Xin, Zhang; Zhong, Yao; Yu-Kuan, Ma; Qing, Liu; Hou-Lang, Duan; Yi-di, Shang

    2016-06-29

    To optimize and simplify the survey method of Oncomelania hupensis snail in marshland endemic region of schistosomiasis and increase the precision, efficiency and economy of the snail survey. A quadrate experimental field was selected as the subject of 50 m×50 m size in Chayegang marshland near Henghu farm in the Poyang Lake region and a whole-covered method was adopted to survey the snails. The simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified random sampling methods were applied to calculate the minimum sample size, relative sampling error and absolute sampling error. The minimum sample sizes of the simple random sampling, systematic sampling and stratified random sampling methods were 300, 300 and 225, respectively. The relative sampling errors of three methods were all less than 15%. The absolute sampling errors were 0.221 7, 0.302 4 and 0.047 8, respectively. The spatial stratified sampling with altitude as the stratum variable is an efficient approach of lower cost and higher precision for the snail survey.

  10. BMR in a Brazilian adult probability sample: the Nutrition, Physical Activity and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Luiz A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Tl

    2014-04-01

    To measure BMR in a probability sample of adults from an urban city of Brazil and to compare indirectly measured BMR (BMRi) with BMR predicted from different equations. BMR data were obtained by indirect calorimetry and estimated by different predictive equations (Schofield; Harris and Benedict; Henry and Rees). Anthropometric and body composition measures were also obtained. The Nutrition, Physical Activity and Health Survey (PNAFS), a household survey conducted in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Representative sample of 529 adults (aged ≥20 years; 339 females) living in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Mean BMRi values were 5839.7 (se 73.9) kJ/d and 4758.1 (se 39.5) kJ/d for men and women, respectively. Predicted BMR by all equations was significantly higher (difference between means and 95% CI did not include zero) than BMRi in both men and women of all ages. Overall bias in BMR (predicted BMR minus BMRi) using the Schofield equations (overestimation of about 20%) was higher than when using the Henry and Rees equations (13% and 16% overestimation for males and females, respectively). The percentage of individuals whose BMR predicted by the Schofield equations fell within 10% of BMRi was very low (7.8% and 14.1% of males nd females, respectively). Current available predictive equations of BMR are not adequate to estimate BMR in Brazilians living in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  11. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  12. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  13. Higher education: free tuition vs. quotas vs. targeted vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares theoretically three alternative university systems: the current one adopted in Brazil, in which students who perform better in the entering exam obtain the right to attend the public university without paying the full tuition; a system of affirmative action quotas in public universities, to benefit low income students; and a targeted vouchers system that can be used either to pay private or public university tuiton. The comparison indicates that the last system leads to: (i a higher quality of the labor force; (ii a more efficient allocation of resources; and (iii a greater social mobility.Este trabalho compara, do ponto de vista teórico, três sistemas universitários alternativos: o atual adotado pelo Brasil, no qual os alunos das universidades públicas, que são praticamente gratuitas, são escolhidos através de um processo seletivo; um sistema de quotas nas universidades públicas para beneficiar estudantes de baixa renda; e um sistema de vouchers direcionados para estudantes de baixa renda que podem ser utilizados nas universidades privadas ou públicas. A comparação destes três sistemas indica que o último é o mais eficiente, pois gera: (i maior qualidade da mão de obra; (ii alocação mais eficiente dos recursos; e (iii maior mobilidade social.

  14. Russian quota sales: Free sale of ''hot air'' is not likely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Arild

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses emission quota transactions and emission regulation measures related to the Kyoto protocol. The focus is on the problems in the Russian economy during the 1990s, the pollution aspects and their management and possible future developments in the economy. Problems with the quota management versus joint national and international action is mentioned

  15. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II and who desires to manufacture a quantity of such class shall apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota for such quantity of such class. Copies of DEA Form 189 may be obtained...

  16. 21 CFR 1303.23 - Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) In fixing individual manufacturing quotas for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, the Administrator shall allocate to each applicant who is currently manufacturing such... quotas for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, the Administrator shall...

  17. 78 FR 37237 - Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... class of controlled substance listed in schedules I and II and for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and... disposal by the registrants holding individual manufacturing quotas for the class; (2) whether any... the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Assessment of Annual...

  18. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced an increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of... INFORMATION: A quantity of 22,000 MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...

  19. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible... farm's average yield for 2001, 2002, and 2003 to get the 2004 farm base pounds total. 2 Multiply any...

  20. CO2 emissions of installations concerned by the directive quotas 2003/87/CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document provides data on the the carbon dioxide emissions: emissions of reference for the allocation (t CO 2 ), annual allocation of quotas (t CO 2 ), % of reduction for 2005-2007 against reference emissions, % of reduction for 2005-2007 against the 2002 emissions, allocation of quotas for the period 2005-2007 (t CO 2 ). (A.L.B.)

  1. 50 CFR 679.41 - Transfer of quota shares and IFQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 679.41 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Individual Fishing Quota Management Measures § 679.41 Transfer of quota shares and IFQ. (a... from the QS holder's immediate family to receive survivorship transfer privileges in the event of the...

  2. 78 FR 29331 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... before July 19, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... economies in western Alaska. CDQ and prohibited species quota (PSQ) allocations are made to CDQ groups.... Information is collected only through quota transfers in this collection. II. Method of Collection Respondents...

  3. Economic analysis of the Canada-United States softwood lumber dispute : playing the quota game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Canada-U.S. Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA) was the latest measure to restrict Canadian exports of softwood lumber to the United States. Rather than a countervail duty or export tax, SLA employed a quota that provides a large windfall (quota) rent to Canadian lumber producers in addition to

  4. Analysing the Effects of a Pigs Production Quota within a Dynamic CGE Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Philip D; Hansen, Lill Thanning; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the issue of timing and announcement within a dynamic applied general equilibrium model of the Danish economy. Specifically we analyse the introduction of a quota on the production of pigs. Two scenarios are analysed, namely the introduction of a once-off quota without any...

  5. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  6. The quest for human development and the concept of quota system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that Nigeria as a nation, in the quest to achieve human development has adopted the concept of quota system. Quota system in the tertiary education ensures that all the federating units that make up Nigeria are represented in the admission process. This is necessitated by the multi-ethnic and multi-religious ...

  7. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New... governing the bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations require annual specification of...

  8. 76 FR 74009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    .... 101228634-1149-02] RIN 0648-XA825 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... a portion of its 2011 commercial bluefish quota to New York State. By this action, NMFS adjusts the... Specialist, (978) 281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the bluefish fishery are found...

  9. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... Jersey is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New York. By this... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the bluefish fishery...

  10. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial bluefish quota to the Commonwealth of... governing the bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations require annual specification of...

  11. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... Florida is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New York. By this... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the bluefish fishery...

  12. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  13. Quota regulation as energy political tool. Feasibility study; Kvoteregulering som energipolitisk virkemiddel. Konsekevensanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The overall aim of the project was to determine what effect the energy policy introduced through the law on CO{sub 2}-quotas would have on the development the energy sector in Denmark. The energy policy is a market-based approach where the individual stakeholders choose how they will react within the boundaries of the allocated quotas. Options include the purchasing of quotas on the open market, investment in CDM/JI activities, the implementation of energy efficiency initiatives or fuel substitution. The focus of the study was on how the affected companies reacted to the implementation of a CO{sub 2}-quota. This was done by undertaking a series of interviews that resulted in a stakeholder analysis of companies encompassed by the CO2-quota law. A series of national consequences of the law on CO{sub 2}-quotas were then determined based on the stakeholder analysis. According to the results of the stakeholder analysis the following consequences were determined for the periods 2005-2007 and 2008-2012 as a result of quota regulation: 1) In the electricity sector no additional investments will be made in energy efficiency initiatives or fuel substitution projects than were already planned before quota regulation was introduced. 2) The heating sector will carry out isolated energy efficiency projects, but generally these are not socio-economically viable. 3) Industry will carry out isolated energy efficiency initiatives and renewable energy projects. Only 1.2 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} will be reduced annually through these initiatives compared to the estimated annual shortfall of 8 13 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. The shortfall will be made up through the purchase of quotas on the open market. This study indicates, therefore, that quota regulation will make a limited contribution to further initiatives in energy efficiency and renewable energy. If further energy efficiency initiatives are desired it will be necessary to implement other regulatory incentives. With regards to

  14. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva; Orlitová, Ivana; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A.; Gruyters, Pieter; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  15. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Gruyters, Pieter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Herenz, Edmund Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), innoFSPEC, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofsica, POB 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronoma, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Apdo. Postal 106, Ensenada B. C. 22800 (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-10

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  16. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Quotas and Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality. Gender theory has presented diverse arguments for gender quota: justice, resources and women’s interests. Gender quota can be understood as a means to achieve gender parity...... and gender justice in all arenas of society political and economic life. The belief in gender theory and research has been that gender quota would and should be a means to achieve equal rights and gender equality. Recently a new discourse and rhetoric of profitability of gender equality within a range...... of institutions from business to higher education has become prominent in many arenas. One example is the Report on gender equality between men and women in the EU, which argues that gender quotas are not only beneficial for women’s rights but also for industry, for society, and for men...

  17. Preferences for government enforcement of a common pool harvest quota: Theory and experimental evidence from fishing communities in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alejandra Velez; John K. Stranlund; James J. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    We examine individual harvesters’ preferences for government enforcement of a quota imposed on the exploitation of a common pool resource. We develop a model of Nash behavior by identical risk neutral harvesters to explain individual equilibrium preferences for enforcement of an efficient harvest quota. If the quota is not enforced well, we demonstrate that individual harvesters will always prefer increased enforcement—either increased monitoring or increased penalties—of the quota. We conduc...

  18. Gender quotas for women in national politics: A comparative analysis across development thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Women's share of global lower or single house parliamentary seats has increased by over 70% over the course of the 21st century. Yet these increases have not been uniform across countries. Rather countries with low levels of socioeconomic development have outpaced developed democracies in terms of the gains made in the formal political representation of women. One reasonable explanation for this trend is the adoption in many poorer countries of national gender quota legislation, that is, affirmative action laws intended to compensate for sex discrimination in the electoral process. Yet, cross-national analyses examining quotas as an explanatory factor typically use a simple binary (yes/no) variable that either conflates the diverse intra-quota variations into a single variable or includes only one part of the many quota variations. By contrast, using an originally compiled dataset that includes 167 countries from 1992 to 2012, this paper employs measures of gender quota legislation that capture the complexity and considerable diversity of existing quota legislation. These measures allow us to identify the specific factors that have helped so many less developed countries rise to the top of international rankings in recent years. The findings indicate that the effect of each type of gender quota, as well as other explanatory variables, do not operate in the same way across all countries. Specifically, voluntary political party quotas are substantially more effective in developed countries, while reserved seat quotas are only significant in least developed countries. Electoral candidate quotas, on the other hand, can be significant across all countries, however only have a positive effect when they are accompanied by placement mandates that ensure women are placed in winnable positions, sanctions for non-compliance that are significant enough to force adherence, and a minimum mandated threshold of at least 30%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  20. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2011 in-quota quantity...

  1. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2012 in-quota quantity...

  2. 78 FR 47580 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2013 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... the 2013 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2013 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3 to the... the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II period. DATES...

  3. 77 FR 52624 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2012 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the 2012 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2012 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3 to the... the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II period. DATES...

  4. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2010 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... the 2010 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2010 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3... process to allow the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II...

  5. 76 FR 47491 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2011 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... the 2011 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2011 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3... process to allow the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II...

  6. Women’s Representation in Politics in South Eastern Europe : Quotas and the Importance of Party Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashkova, E.; Zankina, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Quotas are determined to be the main and most effective tool in promoting gender equality. We examine six Southeast European countries where quotas have been either reintroduced (following the abolition of communist-era quota systems) or introduced for the first time. Presenting original data on the

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area

  8. Nested PCR detection of malaria directly using blood filter paper samples from epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhao, Zhenjun; Wang, Ying; Xing, Hua; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Baum, Elizabeth; Li, Wenli; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Li, Shuying; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Fan, Qi

    2014-05-08

    Nested PCR is considered a sensitive and specific method for detecting malaria parasites and is especially useful in epidemiological surveys. However, the preparation of DNA templates for PCR is often time-consuming and costly. A simplified PCR method was developed to directly use a small blood filter paper square (2 × 2 mm) as the DNA template after treatment with saponin. This filter paper-based nested PCR method (FP-PCR) was compared to microscopy and standard nested PCR with DNA extracted by using a Qiagen DNA mini kit from filter paper blood spots of 204 febrile cases. The FP-PCR technique was further applied to evaluate malaria infections in 1,708 participants from cross-sectional epidemiological surveys conducted in Myanmar and Thailand. The FP-PCR method had a detection limit of ~0.2 parasites/μL blood, estimated using cultured Plasmodium falciparum parasites. With 204 field samples, the sensitivity of the FP-PCR method was comparable to that of the standard nested PCR method, which was significantly higher than that of microscopy. Application of the FP-PCR method in large cross-sectional studies conducted in Myanmar and Thailand detected 1.9% (12/638) and 6.2% (66/1,070) asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, respectively, as compared to the detection rates of 1.3% (8/638) and 0.04% (4/1,070) by microscopy. This FP-PCR method was much more sensitive than microscopy in detecting Plasmodium infections. It drastically increased the detection sensitivity of asymptomatic infections in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and Myanmar, suggesting that this FP-PCR method has a potential for future applications in malaria epidemiology studies.

  9. The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124 was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  10. Penggunaan Metode Respondent Driven Sampling (Rds dalam Survey Pemasaran Beras di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herena Pudjihastuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a Free Trade Zone (FTZ, the province of Riau Islands has a different pattern of strategic commodity (such as rice marketing comparing to other regions in Indonesia. To anticipate and control the negative effects of the implementation of FTZ policy, It is necessary to study about rice marketing trade system in the Riau Islands region. The study was conducted to identify patterns of supply and marketing of food (rice and analyze the marketing margin and marketing efficiency as well as the factors that influence it. The study was conducted through desk study and field surveys. Secondary data was collected from various sources and primary data collected through interviews with selected respondents using Respondent Driven Sampling method (RDS. The study shows that the structure of the rice market in Riau Islands can be categorized as monopolistic. Most of the rice supply comes from outside the region and import, the supply chain is quite simple, the price is relatively stable and relatively efficient marketing and resilience of rice reserves are relatively high for merchants. Nevertheless, the Riau islands will be very susceptible to interference distribution. Required efforts of the provincial government of Riau Islands to provide sufficient rice reserves. This paper gives an example of the use of the RDS method in marketing surveys.

  11. Explaining health care expenditure variation: large-sample evidence using linked survey and health administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Fiebig, Denzil G; Johar, Meliyanni; Jones, Glenn; Savage, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Explaining individual, regional, and provider variation in health care spending is of enormous value to policymakers but is often hampered by the lack of individual level detail in universal public health systems because budgeted spending is often not attributable to specific individuals. Even rarer is self-reported survey information that helps explain this variation in large samples. In this paper, we link a cross-sectional survey of 267 188 Australians age 45 and over to a panel dataset of annual healthcare costs calculated from several years of hospital, medical and pharmaceutical records. We use this data to distinguish between cost variations due to health shocks and those that are intrinsic (fixed) to an individual over three years. We find that high fixed expenditures are positively associated with age, especially older males, poor health, obesity, smoking, cancer, stroke and heart conditions. Being foreign born, speaking a foreign language at home and low income are more strongly associated with higher time-varying expenditures, suggesting greater exposure to adverse health shocks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Using mark-recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Mark–recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations.

  13. The Italian national survey on radon indoors run by several different regional laboratories: Sampling strategy, realization and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Risica, S.; Piermattei, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the criteria and organization adopted by the Italian National Institutions in carrying out a representative national survey to evaluate the distribution of radon concentration and the exposure of the Italian population to natural radiation indoors. The main items of the survey - i.e. sampling design, choice of the sample size (5000 dwellings), organization, analysis of the actual sample structure, questionnaire to collect data about families and their dwellings, experimental set up and communication with the public - are discussed. Some results, concerning a first fraction of the total sample, are also presented. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  15. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Galaxy Sample for BAO Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocce, M.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    We define and characterise a sample of 1.3 million galaxies extracted from the first year of Dark Energy Survey data, optimised to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the presence of significant redshift uncertainties. The sample is dominated by luminous red galaxies located at redshifts $z \\gtrsim 0.6$. We define the exact selection using color and magnitude cuts that balance the need of high number densities and small photometric redshift uncertainties, using the corresponding forecasted BAO distance error as a figure-of-merit in the process. The typical photo-$z$ uncertainty varies from $2.3\\%$ to $3.6\\%$ (in units of 1+$z$) from $z=0.6$ to $1$, with number densities from $200$ to $130$ galaxies per deg$^2$ in tomographic bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.1$. Next we summarise the validation of the photometric redshift estimation. We characterise and mitigate observational systematics including stellar contamination, and show that the clustering on large scales is robust in front of those contaminants. We show that the clustering signal in the auto-correlations and cross-correlations is generally consistent with theoretical models, which serves as an additional test of the redshift distributions.

  16. Snowball sampling by mail: application to a survey of smokers in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, J F; Perneger, T V

    2000-02-01

    In a series of surveys intended for current and former smokers but sent to a random sample of the general population, we asked never smokers and smokers who did not wish to participate to transmit the questionnaire to any ever smoker they knew. We compared participants who received the questionnaire directly from us (original participants) to participants who received it from an addressee (secondary participants). Questionnaires on smoking were mailed to 3300 residents of Geneva (Switzerland) in 1997, and returned by 1167 people (35%). The final sample consisted of similar numbers of original participants (n = 578, primary response rate = 18% of total sample, or about 46% of ever smokers) and secondary participants (n = 566). Original participants were 1.7 years older than secondary participants (P = 0.03) and were more likely to be men (50% versus 43%, P = 0.009). Proportions of current smokers, stages of change, confidence in ability to quit smoking, cigarettes per day and attempts to quit smoking were similar in the two groups. Secondary participants had lower self-efficacy scores (-0.30 standard deviation (SD) units, P < 0.03), and they derived more pleasure from smoking (+0.25 SD units, P = 0.04). Among ex-smokers, direct participants were less active than secondary participants in coping with the temptation to smoke (-0.58 SD units, P = 0.002). Associations between smoking-related variables were similar in original and secondary participants. Allowing non-eligible addressees to transmit the questionnaire to someone else doubled the response rate, produced moderate bias on some variables only and had no detectable impact on associations between smoking-related variables.

  17. The implementing of the CO2 quotas system most of the enterprises reduced their emissions intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    In 2005, first year of its implementing, the system of the european CO 2 exchange quotas concerned 600 enterprises in France. For 20 euros the ton of CO 2 , the allocated quotas represent 1,2% of the enterprises turnover. But the repartition appears very disparate in accordance with the sectors and the enterprise size. The authors presents the system and analyze the results for the year 2005 in France showing that main of the enterprises exceed the quotas allocation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evaluating the Results of Quota Systems in Politics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Htun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the varying effects of quota systems, as they emerge from a scenario of women’s increased inroads into politics in Latin America, expressed in the increased number of women in elected offices, the implementation of quota systems and increased presence of the issue of gender equality in political agendas. The character of the electoral system, as based on “open” or “closed” lists; the absence or presence of a norm of a compulsory competitive position for women within political parties and political parties’ commitment to quota policies are the crucial factors that determine variation.

  19. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  20. A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while

  1. Differential efficiencies of dip-net sampling versus sampling surface-floating pupal exuviae in a biodiversity survey of Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Charles Ferrington Jr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative efficiencies of standard dip-net sampling (SDN versus collections of surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE were determined for detecting Chironomidae at catchment and site scales and at subfamily/tribe-, genus- and species-levels based on simultaneous, equal-effort sampling on a monthly basis for one year during a biodiversity assessment of Bear Run Nature Reserve. Results showed SFPE was more efficient than SDN at catchment scales for detecting both genera and species. At site scales, SDN sampling was more efficient for assessment of a first-order site. No consistent pattern, except for better efficiency of SFPE to detect Orthocladiinae genera, was observed at genus-level for two second-order sites. However, SFPE was consistently more efficient at detecting species of Orthocladiinae, Chironomini and Tanytarsini at the second order sites. SFPE was more efficient at detecting both genera and species at two third-order sites. The differential efficiencies of the two methods are concluded to be related to stream order and size, substrate size, flow and water velocity, depth and habitat heterogeneity, and differential ability to discriminate species among pupal exuviae specimens versus larval specimens. Although both approaches are considered necessary for comprehensive biodiversity assessments of Chironomidae, our results suggest that there is an optimal, but different, allocation of sampling effort for detecting Chironomidae across stream orders and at differing spatial and taxonomic scales.Article submitted 13. August 2014, accepted 31. October 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  2. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  3. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  4. Male Circumcision and STI Acquisition in Britain: Evidence from a National Probability Sample Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Homfray

    Full Text Available It is well-established that male circumcision reduces acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, chancroid, and syphilis. However, the effect on the acquisition of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs remains unclear. We examined the relationship between circumcision and biological measures of three STIs: human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium.A probability sample survey of 15,162 men and women aged 16-74 years (including 4,060 men aged 16-44 years was carried out in Britain between 2010 and 2012. Participants completed a computer-assisted personal interview, including a computer-assisted self-interview, which asked about experience of STI diagnoses, and circumcision. Additionally, 1,850 urine samples from sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years were collected and tested for STIs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR to quantify associations between circumcision and i self-reporting any STI diagnosis and ii presence of STIs in urine, in men aged 16-44 years, adjusting for key socio-demographic and sexual behavioural factors.The prevalence of circumcision in sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years was 17.4% (95%CI 16.0-19.0. There was no association between circumcision and reporting any previous STI diagnoses, and specifically previous chlamydia or genital warts. However, circumcised men were less likely to have any HPV type (AOR 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.50 including high-risk HPV types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and/or 68 (AOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.40 detected in urine.Circumcised men had reduced odds of HPV detection in urine. These findings have implications for improving the precision of models of STI transmission in populations with different circumcision prevalence and in designing interventions to reduce STI acquisition.

  5. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  6. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalmantza, P.; Decarli, R.; Hogg, David W.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for massive black hole binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic database. We focus on bound binaries, under the assumption that one of the black holes is active. In this framework, the broad lines associated with the accreting black hole are expected to show systematic velocity shifts with respect to the narrow lines, which trace the rest frame of the galaxy. For a sample of 54,586 quasars and 3929 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.5, we brute-force model each spectrum as a mixture of two quasars at two different redshifts. The spectral model is a data-driven dimensionality reduction of the SDSS quasar spectra based on a matrix factorization. We identified 32 objects with peculiar spectra. Nine of them can be interpreted as black hole binaries. This doubles the number of known black hole binary candidates. We also report on the discovery of a new class of extreme double-peaked emitters with exceptionally broad and faint Balmer lines. For all the interesting sources, we present detailed analysis of the spectra and discuss possible interpretations.

  7. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  8. 76 FR 78044 - Controlled Substances: Established Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... substances into the illicit market. Through the quota system, DEA limits the amount of those substances and... Betacetylmethadol 2 g Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl 2 g Beta-hydroxyfentanyl 2 g Betameprodine 2 g Betamethadol 2 g...

  9. Catch-Quota Management - an example of result based fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Eskild; Schou, Mogens; Dalskov, Jørgen

    The European Commission tabled in July 2011 a proposal for a revision of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). A central element of the revision is the introduction of a quota management system where all fish caught count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability of the catch...... is a complete change from present management where only the fish landed count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability opens for the introduction of a result based fisheries management strategy, where a fishery is regulated by clearly stated results and the fisher enjoys a maximum of freedom...... to plan and conduct the fishing operation to meet these results. Experiences from Danish trials with Catch Quota Management (CQM) conducted in 2008 to 2012 is presented and the possibilities of simplifying the current EU fisheries management and control regulations under a CQM system are evaluated...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... factors that the applicant finds relevant to the fixing of the individual manufacturing quota, including... economic and physical availability of raw materials for use in manufacturing and for inventory purposes...

  11. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, Martin-Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, Vincent; Lassnig, Mario; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Vigne, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system manages more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next generation Distributed Data Management system of the ATLAS experiment, replaced DQ2 in December 2014 and will manage the experiments data throughout Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. The previous data management system pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach to this issue is needed. Rucio was delivered with an initial quota system, but during the first months of operation it turned out to not fully satisfy the collaborations resource management needs. We consequently introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of hierarchical quotas in a dynamic way. This concept enables t...

  12. Introduction of the Quota System in Sudan and its Impact on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mars 2011 ... In the latest general election, a 25% women's quota was agreed upon and implemented. ... and its impact on women's engagement in politics both within political parties and in general. ... Bulletin de BRAS - Janvier 2018.

  13. The interaction between the energy markets and the CO2 quota market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Trond

    2006-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the results of a new power market analysis and points out that the quota trade contributes to increased costs in the fossil power production. The role of the power demanding industry is reviewed

  14. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  15. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  16. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  17. Regional allocation of carbon emission quotas in China: Evidence from the Shapley value method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Ao-Dong; Da, Ya-Bin

    2014-01-01

    It is an important task for China to allocate carbon emission quotas among regions so as to realize its carbon reduction targets and establish the national cap-and-trade carbon market. Meanwhile, it is supposed to be cost-effective to jointly reduce China's carbon emissions through some collaborative activities among regions. Then a natural question is how to allocate the quotas among regions in light of the collaboration. For this purpose, the Shapley value method is adopted and the results show that, first, the regions with higher GDP, higher carbon outflow and higher carbon reduction connection should be allocated more carbon quotas. Moreover, when the collaboration is considered, the optimal allocation of carbon quotas among regions will change significantly compared to the basic quotas by the entropy method; and the Central region is allocated the largest proportion of carbon quota among regions, which indicates its largest radiation effect. Besides, the collaboration between the Central region and Northern coast region, and that between the Central region and the Eastern region should be paid close attention. These results may provide insightful support for decision makers to promote collaborative carbon reduction and allocate carbon quotas in China. - Highlights: • The paper allocates carbon quotas given the collaboration among regions in China. • The Shapley value method coupled with the entropy and gravity models is adopted. • The regions with higher GDP, carbon outflow and reduction connection allocate more. • The Central region has the largest radiation effect on others among all regions. • The collaboration of the Central and Northern coast regions should have priority

  18. Can smartphones measure momentary quality of life and participation? A proof of concept using experience sampling surveys with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Wishink, Anna; Springfield, Liz; Gustafsson, Louise; Ireland, David; Silburn, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding quality of life and participation is a key aspect of occupational therapy research. The use of smartphones to deliver experience-sampling surveys may provide an accessible way to monitor these outcomes. This study used smartphone-based experience sampling methods (ESM) to investigate factors influencing momentary quality of life (mQOL) of university students. A convenience sample of students at an Australian university participated. Using a custom smartphone application, ESM surveys were sent six to eight times, every second day, over a week. Participants indicated their mQOL, occupational participation, occupational enjoyment, social context and location via surveys and provided demographic and health information in a single self-report questionnaire. The relationship between mQOL and variables was analysed at the survey level using logistic regression. Forty students completed 391 surveys. Higher mQOL was significantly related to participation in productive occupations (z = 3.48; P = 0.001), moderate (z = 4.00; P sample, analysing at the individual level, and using ESM in conjunction with other methodologies is recommended. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. A Systematic Mid-Infrared Survey of A Sample of Tidal Disruption Events Discovered by ZTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Van, Sjoert; Kulkarni, Shri; Kasliwal, Mansi; Gezari, Suvi; Cenko, Brad; Blagorodnova, Nadia; Hung, Tiara

    2017-12-01

    Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) saw its first light (press release on Nov 14, 2017) and is currently in the commissioning phase. The science operation is scheduled to start on Feb 1, 2018. Based on the data from Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF is expected to discover 30 new tidal disruption events (TDE) in the centers of galaxies containing supermassive blackholes. TDEs are rare transient events, and have only been discovered in recent years by large area transient surveys. Observations of optically discovered TDEs appear to show common characteristics, including blackbody temperatures of a few 10,000K, derived bolometric peak luminosities of several 10^43 - 10^44 erg/s, and photospheric radius of 10^15 - 10^16 cm. These properties are in conflict with the classic TDE model predictions, which suggest an order of magnitude higher temperature and peak luminosity. One proposed explanation is the possible existence of a reprocessing gas layer which absorbs X-ray, UV/optical photons and produces a cooler spectral energy distribution (SED). So far, there are only two published mid-IR light curves of TDEs, each with two epochal data. To solve this mystery, we require higher cadence Spitzer observations of a sample of uniformly selected TDEs. Next year is the only opportunity to obtain the critical observations because Spitzer is expected to operate only to March 2019. We request 24.1 hours of Spitzer time to observe 7 ZTF TDEs. This will produce a unique legacy dataset for many future studies of physics of TDEs.

  20. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  1. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arthuro Mota-Rolim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD, subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n=3,427; median age=25 years through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%. Dreams typically depicted actions (93%, known people (92%, sounds/voices (78%, and colored images (76%. The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%, memories of the previous day (13%, or unrelated to the dreamer (30%. Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%, being stalked (48%, or other unpleasant sensations (47%. These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue, and suggest that dreams are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever, and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 minute. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r=0.20, p<0.01, and LD control was rare (29%. LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%, a situation that increases REMS duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%, which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is a relatively ubiquitous but not frequent state, being unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD is a general phenomenon of the human

  2. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  3. THE ELM SURVEY. I. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF EXTREMELY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2010-01-01

    We analyze radial velocity observations of the 12 extremely low-mass (ELM), with ≤0.25 M sun , white dwarfs (WDs) in the MMT Hypervelocity Star Survey. Eleven of the twelve WDs are binaries with orbital periods shorter than 14 hr; the one non-variable WD is possibly a pole-on system among our non-kinematically selected targets. Our sample is unique: it is complete in a well-defined range of apparent magnitude and color. The orbital mass functions imply that the unseen companions are most likely other WDs, although neutron star companions cannot be excluded. Six of the eleven systems with orbital solutions will merge within a Hubble time due to the loss of angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation. The quickest merger is J0923+3028, a g = 15.7 ELM WD binary with a 1.08 hr orbital period and a ≤130 Myr merger time. The chance of a supernova Ia event among our ELM WDs is only 1%-7%, however. Three binary systems (J0755+4906, J1233+1602, and J2119-0018) have extreme mass ratios and will most likely form stable mass-transfer AM CVn systems. Two of these objects, SDSS J1233+1602 and J2119-0018, are the lowest surface gravity WDs ever found; both show Ca II absorption likely from accretion of circumbinary material. We predict that at least one of our WDs is an eclipsing detached double WD system, important for constraining helium core WD models.

  4. Methods used to conduct the pan-European Union survey on consumer attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, J M; Kearney, M J; McElhone, S; Gibney, M J

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of conducting this survey was to identify data on consumer attitudes towards and beliefs about physical activity, body weight and health among the 15 countries of the EU. A cross-sectional study to get a picture of the attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health in the EU. For this, it was considered important that samples be nationally representative so that inferences drawn from the data could be applied to the population in each country as well as to the EU population as a whole. Using a non-probability sampling method employing quota controls (and the national weight) we obtained large sample sizes from each country which were nationally representative in terms of the variables age, sex and regional distribution. To ensure samples were truly nationally representative a national weight was used when analysing the data using the same characteristics as those used to define quotas. When examining pooled estimates for the total EU sample a population weight was applied. In total, 15,239 subjects aged 15 years and upwards in the EU completed the survey. This article gives details on the methods used in carrying out the survey from design of the questionnaire to sample selection, questionnaire administration and analysis of the data. The methods and their limitations are discussed.

  5. Individual transferable quotas and conservation: a critical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Acheson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual transferable quotas (ITQs have become a popular management tool for fisheries. They have been promoted in some quarters and seriously criticized in others because of their social and economic impacts. A more serious problem is that ITQs provide exclusive access to public resources presumably in return for some public benefit, namely conservation; however, in a high percentage of cases they do not conserve fish stocks. In this article, we focus on the reasons that ITQs do not conserve stocks. We point to a number of phenomena identified in the literature as affecting stocks of fish, including problems with total allowable catch (TAC, ecological hierarchy theory, r and K species, the Allee effect, scale and metapopulation structure, the need to have selective gear, and the continuation of roving bandit incentives. Despite their growing popularity with managers, ITQs do not solve any of these problems. We argue there may be better ways to manage. One possibility is what we call parametric management.

  6. Spatial pattern corrections and sample sizes for forest density estimates of historical tree surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Shawn Fraver; Hong S. He; Jian Yang; Dan C. Dey; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. General Land Office land surveys document trees present during European settlement. However, use of these surveys for calculating historical forest density and other derived metrics is limited by uncertainty about the performance of plotless density estimators under a range of conditions. Therefore, we tested two plotless density estimators, developed by...

  7. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walcher, C.J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraite, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Jílková, J.; Kalinová, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R.A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasqual, A.; Sanchez, S.F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J.A.L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Fernandes, R.C.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gonzalez Delgado, R.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 569, September (2014), A1/1-A1/18 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : surveys * digital sky survey * active galactic nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  8. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  9. Manual for the Portable Handheld Neutron Counter (PHNC) for Neutron Survey and the Measurement of Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    2005-01-01

    We have designed a portable neutron detector for passive neutron scanning measurement and coincidence counting of bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for neutron survey applications as well as the measurement of plutonium samples for portable applications. The detector uses advanced design 3 He tubes to increase the efficiency and battery operated shift register electronics. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the system

  10. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  11. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    concern. Our results highlight the need to develop appropriate corrections for bias in estimates derived from roadside sampling, and the need to design surveys that sample bird communities across a more representative cross-section of the landscape, both near and far from roads.

  12. THE QUOTA RULE (AGE RESTRICTION IN THE THIRD LEAGUE IN TERMS OF ACTORS (DRAMATIS PERSONAE IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kerem Zelyurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such

  13. The outlier sample effects on multivariate statistical data processing geochemical stream sediment survey (Moghangegh region, North West of Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Y.; Habibnia, A.; Memar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In geochemical stream sediment surveys in Moghangegh Region in north west of Iran, sheet 1:50,000, 152 samples were collected and after the analyze and processing of data, it revealed that Yb, Sc, Ni, Li, Eu, Cd, Co, as contents in one sample is far higher than other samples. After detecting this sample as an outlier sample, the effect of this sample on multivariate statistical data processing for destructive effects of outlier sample in geochemical exploration was investigated. Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient methods and cluster analysis were used for multivariate studies and the scatter plot of some elements together the regression profiles are given in case of 152 and 151 samples and the results are compared. After investigation of multivariate statistical data processing results, it was realized that results of existence of outlier samples may appear as the following relations between elements: - true relation between two elements, which have no outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - false relation between two elements which one of them has outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - complete false relation between two elements which both have outlier frequency in the outlier sample

  14. Redshifts for a sample of fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Wegner, G. A.; Hamwey, R.; Boley, F.; Geller, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 93 of the 94 galaxies in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog with the value of m(B/01) between 15.5 and 15.7 and with right ascension alpha between 8(h) and 17(h) and declination delta between 29 and 30 deg. This region is within the one covered by the first slice of the CfA (Center for Astrophysics) survey. The galaxies reinforce features already visible in the earlier survey.

  15. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO2 emissions quotas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  16. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.M.; Stein, A.; Rasch, D.; Leeuw, de J.; Georgiadis, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution, sampling and estimation of abundance for two animal species in an African ecosystem by means of an intensive simulation of the sampling process under a geographical information system (GIS) environment. It focuses on systematic and random sampling designs,

  17. Sampling in health geography: reconciling geographical objectives and probabilistic methods. An example of a health survey in Vientiane (Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochaton Audrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics and health outcomes. A sample selected from a small number of specific areas creates statistical challenges: the observations are not independent at the local level, and this results in poor statistical validity at the global level. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a sample that is appropriate for both geographical and probability methods. Methods We used a two-stage selection procedure with a first non-random stage of selection of clusters. Instead of randomly selecting clusters, we deliberately chose a group of clusters, which as a whole would contain all the variation in health measures in the population. As there was no health information available before the survey, we selected a priori determinants that can influence the spatial homogeneity of the health characteristics. This method yields a distribution of variables in the sample that closely resembles that in the overall population, something that cannot be guaranteed with randomly-selected clusters, especially if the number of selected clusters is small. In this way, we were able to survey specific areas while minimising design effects and maximising statistical precision. Application We applied this strategy in a health survey carried out in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. We selected well-known health determinants with unequal spatial distribution within the city: nationality and literacy. We deliberately selected a combination of clusters whose distribution of nationality and literacy is similar to the distribution in the general population. Conclusion This paper describes the conceptual reasoning behind

  18. Sampling in health geography: reconciling geographical objectives and probabilistic methods. An example of a health survey in Vientiane (Lao PDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Julie; Souris, Marc; Fournet, Florence; Bochaton, Audrey; Mobillion, Virginie; Peyronnie, Karine; Salem, Gérard

    2007-06-01

    Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics and health outcomes. A sample selected from a small number of specific areas creates statistical challenges: the observations are not independent at the local level, and this results in poor statistical validity at the global level. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a sample that is appropriate for both geographical and probability methods. We used a two-stage selection procedure with a first non-random stage of selection of clusters. Instead of randomly selecting clusters, we deliberately chose a group of clusters, which as a whole would contain all the variation in health measures in the population. As there was no health information available before the survey, we selected a priori determinants that can influence the spatial homogeneity of the health characteristics. This method yields a distribution of variables in the sample that closely resembles that in the overall population, something that cannot be guaranteed with randomly-selected clusters, especially if the number of selected clusters is small. In this way, we were able to survey specific areas while minimising design effects and maximising statistical precision. We applied this strategy in a health survey carried out in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. We selected well-known health determinants with unequal spatial distribution within the city: nationality and literacy. We deliberately selected a combination of clusters whose distribution of nationality and literacy is similar to the distribution in the general population. This paper describes the conceptual reasoning behind the construction of the survey sample and shows that it can be

  19. Use of methods for specifying the target difference in randomised controlled trial sample size calculations: Two surveys of trialists' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Hislop, Jennifer M; Altman, Doug G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter M; Norrie, John D; Ramsay, Craig R; Harvey, Ian M; Vale, Luke D

    2014-06-01

    the most recent trial, the target difference was usually one viewed as important by a stakeholder group, mostly also viewed as a realistic difference given the interventions under evaluation, and sometimes one that led to an achievable sample size. The response rates achieved were relatively low despite the surveys being short, well presented, and having utilised reminders. Substantial variations in practice exist with awareness, use, and willingness to recommend methods varying substantially. The findings support the view that sample size calculation is a more complex process than would appear to be the case from trial reports and protocols. Guidance on approaches for sample size estimation may increase both awareness and use of appropriate formal methods. © The Author(s), 2014.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  1. Attitudes Toward e-Mental Health Services in a Community Sample of Adults: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Sonja; Day, Jamin; Ritchie, Gabrielle; Rowe, Arlen; Gough, Jeffrey; Hall, Tanya; Yuen, Chin Yan Jackie; Donovan, Caroline Leanne; Ireland, Michael

    2018-02-19

    Despite evidence that e-mental health services are effective, consumer preferences still appear to be in favor of face-to-face services. However, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) suggests that cognitive intentions are more proximal to behavior and thus may have a more direct influence on service use. Investigating individual characteristics that influence both preferences and intentions to use e-mental health services is important for better understanding factors that might impede or facilitate the use of these services. This study explores predictors of preferences and intentions to access e-mental health services relative to face-to-face services. Five domains were investigated (demographics, technology factors, personality, psychopathology, and beliefs), identified from previous studies and informed by the Internet interventions model. We expected that more participants would report intentions to use e-mental health services relative to reported preferences for this type of support and that these 5 domains would be significantly associated with both intentions and preferences toward online services. A mixed sample of 308 community members and university students was recruited through social media and the host institution in Australia. Ages ranged between 17 and 68 years, and 82.5% (254/308) were female. Respondents completed an online survey. Chi-square analysis and t tests were used to explore group differences, and logistic regression models were employed to explore factors predicting preferences and intentions. Most respondents (85.7%, 264/308) preferred face-to-face services over e-mental health services. Relative to preferences, a larger proportion of respondents (39.6%, 122/308) endorsed intentions to use e-mental health services if experiencing mental health difficulties in the future. In terms of the 5 predictor domains, 95% CIs of odds ratios (OR) derived from bootstrapped standard errors suggested that prior experience with online services

  2. Impact of Carbon Quota Allocation Mechanism on Emissions Trading: An Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an agent-based simulation system of the carbon emissions trading in accordance with the complex feature of the trading process. This system analyzes the impact of the carbon quota allocation mechanism on emissions trading for three different aspects including the amount of emissions reduction, the economic effect on the emitters, and the emissions reduction cost. Based on the data of the carbon emissions of different industries in China, several simulations were made. The results indicate that the emissions trading policy can effectively reduce carbon emissions in a perfectly competitive market. Moreover, by comparing separate quota allocation mechanisms, we obtain the result that the scheme with a small extent quota decrease in a comprehensive allocation mechanism can minimize the unit carbon emission cost. Implementing this scheme can also achieve minimal effects of carbon emissions limitation on the economy on the basis that the environment is not destroyed. However, excessive quota decrease cannot promote the emitters to reduce emission. Taking into account that several developing countries have the dual task of limiting carbon emissions and developing the economy, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive allocation mechanism of the carbon quota and increase the initial proportion of free allocation.

  3. Quota election system as a way of achieving descriptive and substantive representation of women in parliaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In ten chapters of the text are analyzed issues of under representation of women in legislative bodies (descriptive representation matched with possibilities of their substantive representation. The substantive representation means contribution of women MPs in development and promotion of "women's politics" and politics of representing specific interest of women's part of population. In chapters under the titles, Underrepresented sex, Quota term, and Myths on quotas, are presented the main characteristics of the issues of women's under representation from political mainstream and decision-making bodies. There is also analyzed quota preferential electoral system as a solution. The gist of the text is comprised in the chapter Why Quotas where are presented the classical arguments for quotas as a specific measure of affirmative action. The way from increasing quantitative presence of women in legislative bodies to increasing the qualitative level of their activities in there is elaborated in the chapters Increasing numbers and achieving quality, Issues of women's political efficiency, Criteria of changes, and Inter parliamentarian activities of women. In the chapter Women's issues and women's perspectives is defined difference between these two aspects of women's MPs activities. Women's issues are those issues influencing directly women on physical or social way (e.g. breast cancer, reproductive rights, gender based discrimination, politics of child's care. The women's perspectives are specific women's interest and views of all other political issues.

  4. Radiometric survey in sampling areas of Itataia mine ore and radiometric monitoring in Itataia project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This radiometric survey was done by CDTN, in Itataia sites, on July/82 and it aimed fundamentally to evaluate local radiological conditions, as for aspect of occupational radiation protection. Besides of results obtained, this report has informations of general aspects that ought to serve as subsidies for elaboration of radiological protection program of local. (author) [pt

  5. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  6. Molecular Biological Characterization of Air Samples: A Survey of Four Strategically Important Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesconi, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    .... In support of this requirement, the Joint Program Office for Biological Defense initiated an aggressive program incorporating the development of air-sampling and agent detecting devices, coined...

  7. Use of Language Sample Analysis by School-Based SLPs: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…

  8. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  9. Alcohol Brand Preferences of Underage Youth: Results from a Pilot Survey among a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first investigation to explore the alcohol brand preferences of underage youth via a national survey. We conducted a pilot study of a new, internet-based alcohol brand survey with 108 youth ages 16–20 years who were recruited from an existing panel and had consumed alcohol in the past month. We ascertained respondents’ consumption of each of 380 alcohol brands during the past 30 days, including which brands of alcohol were consumed during heavy drinking episodes. Our findings suggest that, despite the wide variety of alcohol brands consumed by older adolescents in this study, alcohol preferences are concentrated among a relatively small number of brands. Accurate measurements of alcohol brand preferences will enable important new research into the factors that influence youth drinking behavior. This study establishes the feasibility and validity of a new methodology to determine patterns of brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage drinkers. PMID:22014249

  10. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  11. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. IV. SMOOTH LENS MODELS FOR THE BELLS GALLERY SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yiping [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Bolton, Adam S.; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Cornachione, Matthew A.; Zheng, Zheng; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Mao, Shude [Physics Department and Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Marques-Chaves, Rui [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Oguri, Masamune [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ménard, Brice, E-mail: yiping.shu@nao.cas.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope F606W-band imaging observations of 21 galaxy-Ly α emitter lens candidates in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) for the GALaxy-Ly α EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) survey. Seventeen systems are confirmed to be definite lenses with unambiguous evidence of multiple imaging. The lenses are primarily massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts of approximately 0.55, while the lensed sources are Ly α emitters (LAEs) at redshifts from two to three. Although most of the lens systems are well fit by smooth lens models consisting of singular isothermal ellipsoids in an external shear field, a thorough exploration of dark substructures in the lens galaxies is required. The Einstein radii of the BELLS GALLERY lenses are, on average, 60% larger than those of the BELLS lenses because of the much higher source redshifts. This will allow for a detailed investigation of the radius evolution of the mass profile in ETGs. With the aid of the average ∼13× lensing magnification, the LAEs are frequently resolved into individual star-forming knots with a wide range of properties. They have characteristic sizes from less than 100 pc to several kiloparsecs, rest-frame far-UV apparent AB magnitudes from 29.6 to 24.2, and typical projected separations of 500 pc to 2 kpc.

  12. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistine, Angela Van; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M ⊙ yr −1 Mpc −3 ]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Oguri, Masamune; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shin, Min-Su; /Michigan U. /Princeton U. Observ.; Kayo, Issha; /Tokyo U., ICRR; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; /UC, Berkeley /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Morokuma, Tomoki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Becker, Robert H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; White, Richard L.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; /Ohio State U.; Gregg, Michael D.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Exeter U.

    2010-05-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1 < {theta} < 20 and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, 3 have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sub -0.08}{sup +0.06}(stat.){sub -0.07}{sup + 0.09}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of 7 binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.1 to 16.6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  14. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistine, Angela Van [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Sugden, Arthur [Department of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} Mpc{sup −3}]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  15. The SCPRI (Central Service of Protection against Ionizing Radiation) in France: its sampling and surveying network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The SCPRI, organism placed under tutelage of Ministers in charge of Health and Work, has the mission to practice every measurement, analysis or dosage of radioactivity or ionizing radiation in media where their presence is a risk for health. This mission involves radioactivity measurement on sampling like waters, air, vegetables, food chain. There is an important network of sampling on the whole national territory with a distribution in different climatic areas and also near the nuclear sites. It makes about 50 000 sampling by year with, for each one, different analysis and measurement

  16. Survey of aflatoxins in retail samples of whole and ground black and white peppercorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzahan, N; Jalili, M; Jinap, S

    2009-01-01

    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers.

  17. Micronekton sampling gear Intercalibration Experiment Survey #1 (MIE-1) (SE0413L2, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the cruise was to collect micronekton samples using three different type of midwater trawl: Cobb trawl, Isaacs Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT), and a Hokkaido...

  18. Amostra mestra e geoprocessamento: tecnologias para inquéritos domiciliares Master sample and geoprocessing: technologies for household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Nunes da Silva

    2003-08-01

    census enumeration areas in several epidemiological surveys using updated information from the National Survey of Households (PNAD. METHODS: Address data file comprising 72 census enumeration areas was kept as primary sampling units for the city of São Paulo. During the period 1995-2000, three distinct household samples were drawn using the two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Geographic Information System (GIS technology allowed delimiting boundaries, blocks and streets for any primary sampling unit and printing updated maps for selected sub-samples. RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand dwellings made up the permanent address data file of the master sample. A cheaper and quicker selection of each sample, plus gathering information on demographic and topographical profiles of census enumeration areas were the main contribution of the study results. CONCLUSIONS: The master sample concept, integrated with GIS technology, is an advantageous alternative sampling design for household surveys in urban areas. Using the list of addresses from the PNAD updated yearly, although limiting its application to the most populated Brazilian cities, avoids the need of creating an independent sampling procedure for each individual survey carried out in the period between demographic censuses, and it is an important contribution for planning sampling surveys in public health.

  19. Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westskog, Hege

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementary cap in the Kyoto agreement can be operationalized. I discuss economic arguments for restricting quota trade with a focus on the market power issue, transaction costs, and ancillary benefits of reducing emissions of climate gases. I also address the problem of hot air as an important argument to restrict quota trade, and arguments for restrictions connected to technological innovation. Finally, I look into the ethical considerations of restrictions. (author)

  20. Are individual transferable quotas an adequate solution to overfishing and overcapacity? Evidence from Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo Garcia, Eugenia; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hoff, Ayoe

    2018-01-01

    Individual Transferable Quotas stand in large parts of the fisheries economic literature as the panacea that solves all problems of overfishing and overcapacity of world´s fisheries. However, they are also criticized by a number of authors based on their negative social effects. Individual...... in local fishing communities compared to the national average was found. The Danish experience proves that Individual Transferable Quotas can be an adequate solution with regards to overfishing and overcapacity with also positive effects on the environment due to reduced fuel consumption and fishing...

  1. Environmental taxes and quotas in the presence of distorting taxes in factor markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Ian W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental quotas tend to compound the welfare cost of pre-existing tax distortions in the labor market. Under plausible parameters, this source of welfare loss can easily be large enough to outweigh the entire partial equilibrium welfare gain from the quota. Environmental taxes induce the same interaction effect, however they also raise government revenues. If the revenues are used to reduce distortionary taxes, then most of this interaction effect can be offset. Therefore, revenue-raising can be a necessary condition for environmental policies to increase welfare

  2. Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westskog, Hege

    2001-07-01

    In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementarity cap in the Kyoto agreement can be operationalized. I discuss economic arguments for restricting quota trade with a focus on the market power issue, transaction costs, and ancillary benefits of reducing emissions of climate gases. I also address the problem of hot air as an important argument to restrict quota trade, and arguments for restrictions connected to technological innovation. Finally, I look into the ethical considerations of restrictions. (author)

  3. Evidence from the 1920s U.S.Immigration Quota Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm

    2017-01-01

    in population growth in areas with larger pre-existing immigrant communities of affected nationalities. This effect was largely driven by the policy-restricted supply of immigrants from quota-affected nationalities and lower fertility of first- and second-generation immigrant women. In the more affected areas...... labor productivity growth in manufacturing declined substantially and native workers were pushed into lower-wage occupations. While native white workers faced sizable earnings losses, black workers benefited from the quota system and improved their relative economic status within the more affected areas....

  4. Quotas and women's substantive representation: Evidence from a content analysis of Ugandan plenary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Amanda; Josefsson, Cecilia; Wang, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of electoral gender quotas, the substantive impact of quotas on the plenary behavior of members of parliament (MPs) has yet to be thoroughly empirically explored, and in particular, there is a dearth of evidence from non-Western cases. Here we create a unique content analysis dataset from 14 years (1998–2011) of plenary debates, including the contents of more than 150,000 unique MP speeches recorded in some 40,000 pages of the Ugandan parliamentary Hansard to test how M...

  5. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  6. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010... cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  7. 75 FR 60067 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports... New 12-Month Cap on Duty- and Quota-Free Benefits. DATES: Effective Date: October 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER... 2004, Pub. L. 108-274; Division D, Title VI, section 6002 of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006...

  8. A survey of natural terrestrial and airborne radionuclides in moss samples from the peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavatee, Komrit; Krmar, Miodrag; Bhongsuwan, Tripob

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural terrestrial radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) and airborne radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Pb ex and 7 Be) in natural terrestrial mosses. The collected moss samples (46) representing 17 species were collected from 17 sampling localities in the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Thailand, situated in the mountainous areas between the northern and the southern ends of peninsular Thailand (∼7-12 °N, 99-102 °E). Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the samples were measured using a low background gamma spectrometer. The results revealed non-uniform spatial distributions of all the radionuclides in the study area. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed two distinct origins for the studied radionuclides, and furthermore, the Pearson correlations were strong within 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K as well as within 210 Pb and 210 Pb ex , but there was no significant correlation between these two groups. Also 7 Be was uncorrelated to the others, as expected due to different origins of the airborne and terrestrial radionuclides. The radionuclide activities of moss samples varied by moss species, topography, geology, and meteorology of each sampling area. The observed abnormally high concentrations of some radionuclides probably indicate that the concentrations of airborne and terrestrial radionuclides in moss samples were directly related to local geological features of the sampling site, or that high levels of 7 Be were most probably linked with topography and regional NE monsoonal winds from mainland China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Sallaberry, C.J.; Storlie, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (i) definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs (ii) generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs (iii) propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis (iv) presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (v) determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition

  10. Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .); Storlie, Curt B. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)

    2006-06-01

    Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (1) Definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs, (2) Generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs, (3) Propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis, (4) Presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (5) Determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition.

  11. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. IV. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Fukugita, Masataka; Strauss, Michael A.; Gott, J. Richard; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Chiu, Kuenley; Johnston, David E.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i Λ = 0.84 +0.06 -0.08 (stat.) +0.09 -0.07 (syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of seven binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.''1 to 16.''6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  12. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  13. Survey of elemental concentrations in lichen samples collected from Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Horimoto, L.K.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of the lichen Canoparmelia texana collected in seven different sites of Sao Paulo State and one site of the Parana State were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for the evaluation of baseline level of elements in lichen species. Concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, U, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined and a preliminary comparisons was made between the results obtained for samples collected in different sites. (author)

  14. Analyse multi-échelle du comouvement entre les prix du quota carbone, du crédit carbone, et des produits énergétiques

    OpenAIRE

    Nsouadi, Clarda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the carbon price quota structure, the analysis of its fluctuation, and the interactions that may exist between on the one hand the EU system of emission quota exchange (ETS) and the mechanism for clean development (CDM) and on the other hand between carbon quota market and the quota in the energy sector. For this study, we introduced the hypothesis of heterogeneity of agents' behavior on the carbon market where coexist multip...

  15. A study on the representative sampling survey for the inspection of the clearance level for the radioisotope waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Joo Ahn; Se Chul Sohn; Kwang Yong Jee; Ju Youl Kim; In Koo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Utilization facilities for radioisotope (RI) are increasing annually in South Korea, and the total number was 2,723, as of December 31, 2005. The inspection of a clearance level is a very important problem in order to ensure a social reliance for releasing radioactive materials to the environment. Korean regulations for such a clearance are described in Notice No. 2001-30 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Notice No. 2002-67 of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE). Most unsealed sources in RI waste drums at a storage facility are low-level beta-emitters with short half-lives, so it is impossible to measure their inventories by a nondestructive analysis. Furthermore, RI wastes generated from hospital, educational and research institutes and industry have a heterogeneous, multiple, irregular, and a small quantity of a waste stream. This study addresses a representative (master) sampling survey and analysis plan for RI wastes because a complete enumeration of waste drums is impossible and not desirable in terms of a cost and efficiency. The existing approaches to a representative sampling include a judgmental, simple random, stratified random, systematic grid, systematic random, composite, and adaptive sampling. A representative sampling plan may combine two or more of the above sampling approaches depending on the type and distribution of a waste stream. Stratified random sampling (constrained randomization) is proven to be adequate for a sampling design of a RI waste regarding a half-life, surface dose, undertaking time to a storage facility, and type of waste. The developed sampling protocol includes estimating the number of drums within a waste stream, estimating the number of samples, and a confirmation of the required number of samples. The statistical process control for a quality assurance plan includes control charts and an upper control limit (UCL) of 95% to determine whether a clearance level is met or not. (authors)

  16. Gathering Opinions on Depression Information Needs and Preferences: Samples and Opinions in Clinic Versus Web-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Matthew T; Walker, John R; Sexton, Kathryn A; Katz, Alan; Beatie, Brooke E

    2017-04-24

    There has been limited research on the information needs and preferences of the public concerning treatment for depression. Very little research is available comparing samples and opinions when recruitment for surveys is done over the Web as opposed to a personal invitation to complete a paper survey. This study aimed to (1) to explore information needs and preferences among members of the public and (2) compare Clinic and Web samples on sample characteristics and survey findings. Web survey participants were recruited with a notice on three self-help association websites (N=280). Clinic survey participants were recruited by a research assistant in the waiting rooms of a family medicine clinic and a walk-in medical clinic (N=238) and completed a paper version of the survey. The Clinic and Web samples were similar in age (39.0 years, SD 13.9 vs 40.2 years, SD 12.5, respectively), education, and proportion in full time employment. The Clinic sample was more diverse in demographic characteristics and closer to the demographic characteristics of the region (Winnipeg, Canada) with a higher proportion of males (102/238 [42.9%] vs 45/280 [16.1%]) and nonwhites (Aboriginal, Asian, and black) (69/238 [29.0%] vs 39/280 [13.9%]). The Web sample reported a higher level of emotional distress and had more previous psychological (224/280 [80.0%] vs 83/238 [34.9%]) and pharmacological (202/280 [72.1%] vs 57/238 [23.9%]) treatment. In terms of opinions, most respondents in both settings saw information on a wide range of topics around depression treatment as very important including information about treatment choices, effectiveness of treatment, how long it takes treatment to work, how long treatment continues, what happens when treatment stops, advantages and disadvantages of treatments, and potential side effects. Females, respondents with a white background, and those who had received or felt they would have benefited from therapy in the past saw more information topics as very

  17. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions

  18. Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming approach in multi-response stratified sample surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we applied an Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming (IFGP approach with linear, exponential and hyperbolic membership functions, which focuses on maximizing the minimum membership values to determine the preferred compromise solution for the multi-response stratified surveys problem, formulated as a Multi- Objective Non Linear Programming Problem (MONLPP, and by linearizing the nonlinear objective functions at their individual optimum solution, the problem is approximated to an Integer Linear Programming Problem (ILPP. A numerical example based on real data is given, and comparison with some existing allocations viz. Cochran’s compromise allocation, Chatterjee’s compromise allocation and Khowaja’s compromise allocation is made to demonstrate the utility of the approach.

  19. MANAGERIAL DECISION IN INNOVATIVE EDUCATION SYSTEMS STATISTICAL SURVEY BASED ON SAMPLE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before formulating the statistical hypotheses and the econometrictesting itself, a breakdown of some of the technical issues is required, which are related to managerial decision in innovative educational systems, the educational managerial phenomenon tested through statistical and mathematical methods, respectively the significant difference in perceiving the current qualities, knowledge, experience, behaviour and desirable health, obtained through a questionnaire applied to a stratified population at the end,in the educational environment, either with educational activities, or with simultaneously managerial and educational activities. The details having to do with research focused on the survey theory, turning into a working tool the questionnaires and statistical data that are processed from those questionnaires, are summarized below.

  20. The role of public relations for image creating in health services: a sample patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, YalçIn

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the role of public relations for image creating in health services. Hospitals require public relations activities to distinguish them from competitors, provide bidirectional communication between the society and the hospital, and assist to create of a strong hospital image and culture. A satisfaction survey was conducted on 264 patients who have received health services at Maltepe University Hospital. The research focused on how the Hospital's examination, care, catering and physical services; doctor and nurse politeness towards patients and patient relatives, their attitudes and behaviors; examination, check-in, bedding and discharge operations; public relations activities in and out of the hospital were perceived. Another subject of the study was the degree of recommendation of patients who have been served by the hospital's health services to prospective patients seeking treatment.

  1. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Tonsina area, Valdez Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 128 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Tonsina area in the Chugach Mountains, Valdez quadrangle, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies

  2. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Zane Hills, Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential.The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska.For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 105 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Zane Hills area in the Hughes and Shungnak quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical databases of both agencies.

  3. Effort versus Reward: Preparing Samples for Fungal Community Characterization in High-Throughput Sequencing Surveys of Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewei Song

    Full Text Available Next generation fungal amplicon sequencing is being used with increasing frequency to study fungal diversity in various ecosystems; however, the influence of sample preparation on the characterization of fungal community is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of four procedural modifications to library preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS. The following treatments were considered: 1 the amount of soil used in DNA extraction, 2 the inclusion of additional steps (freeze/thaw cycles, sonication, or hot water bath incubation in the extraction procedure, 3 the amount of DNA template used in PCR, and 4 the effect of sample pooling, either physically or computationally. Soils from two different ecosystems in Minnesota, USA, one prairie and one forest site, were used to assess the generality of our results. The first three treatments did not significantly influence observed fungal OTU richness or community structure at either site. Physical pooling captured more OTU richness compared to individual samples, but total OTU richness at each site was highest when individual samples were computationally combined. We conclude that standard extraction kit protocols are well optimized for fungal HTS surveys, but because sample pooling can significantly influence OTU richness estimates, it is important to carefully consider the study aims when planning sampling procedures.

  4. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. III. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Sugiyama, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D.; Zahid, J.; Kewley, L. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova, Italy, EU (Italy); Rodighiero, G.; Baronchelli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Juneau, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Hα emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6–1.8 μm) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with 1.4 < z < 1.7 and M{sub stellar} ≳ 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. With the high multiplex capability of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over 1000 galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R ∼ 2600) effectively separates Hα and [N ii]λ6585, thus enabling studies of the gas-phase metallicity and photoionization state of the interstellar medium. The primary aim of our program is to establish how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection places priority on those detected in the far-infrared by Herschel/PACS to assess the level of obscured star formation and investigate, in detail, outliers from the star formation rate (SFR)—stellar mass relation. Galaxies with Hα detections are followed up with FMOS observations at shorter wavelengths using the J-long (1.11–1.35 μm) grating to detect Hβ and [O iii]λ5008 which provides an assessment of the extinction required to measure SFRs not hampered by dust, and an indication of embedded active galactic nuclei. With 460 redshifts measured from 1153 spectra, we assess the performance of the instrument with respect to achieving our goals, discuss inherent biases in the sample, and detail the emission-line properties. Our higher-level data products, including catalogs and spectra, are available to the community.

  5. Metagenomic survey of bacterial diversity in the atmosphere of Mexico City using different sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Silva, N; Calderón-Ezquerro, M C

    2018-04-01

    The identification of airborne bacteria has traditionally been performed by retrieval in culture media, but the bacterial diversity in the air is underestimated using this method because many bacteria are not readily cultured. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have produced a broad knowledge of genomics and metagenomics, which can greatly improve our ability to identify and study the diversity of airborne bacteria. However, researchers are facing several challenges, particularly the efficient retrieval of low-density microorganisms from the air and the lack of standardized protocols for sample collection and processing. In this study, we tested three methods for sampling bioaerosols - a Durham-type spore trap (Durham), a seven-day recording volumetric spore trap (HST), and a high-throughput 'Jet' spore and particle sampler (Jet) - and recovered metagenomic DNA for 16S rDNA sequencing. Samples were simultaneously collected with the three devices during one week, and the sequencing libraries were analyzed. A simple and efficient method for collecting bioaerosols and extracting good quality DNA for high-throughput sequencing was standardized. The Durham sampler collected preferentially Cyanobacteria, the HST Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and the Jet mainly Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The HST sampler collected the largest amount of airborne bacterial diversity. More experiments are necessary to select the right sampler, depending on study objectives, which may require monitoring and collecting specific airborne bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sampling and monitoring of carbon-14 in gaseous effluents from nuclear facilities - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.

    1988-12-01

    C-14 compounds produced in the coolant may be released mainly together with off-gas and waste water from the coolant purification and treatment system. In reactors the release of C-14 will occur mainly in gaseous effluents and only a few percent in liquid effluents. Reported releases from BWRs range from 260 to 670 GBq/GW(e) x year and from 90 to 430 GBq/GW(e) x year for PWRs. At BWRs the condenser air ejector contributes the main inplant release pathway, whereas in PWRs the off-gas treatment vents are the main pathway for C-14 release. C-14 sampling methods depend generally on the C-14 being in the form of CO 2 . The off-gas discharges from BWRs are mainly in the form of CO 2 whereas in PWRs a major fraction of the released C-14 is in the form of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide (generally 80-100%). Sampling systems in PWRs should therefore be equipped with a catalytic oxidizer to convert all C-14 to CO 2 before trapping. The purpose of this study is to provide information on the techniques available for sampling and monitoring C-14

  7. Satellite-aided survey sampling and implementation in low- and middle-income contexts: a low-cost/low-tech alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenssgen, Marco J

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of online maps, satellite imagery, and digital technology can ease common constraints of survey sampling in low- and middle-income countries. However, existing approaches require specialised software and user skills, professional GPS equipment, and/or commercial data sources; they tend to neglect spatial sampling considerations when using satellite maps; and they continue to face implementation challenges analogous to conventional survey implementation methods. This paper presents an alternative way of utilising satellite maps and digital aides that aims to address these challenges. The case studies of two rural household surveys in Rajasthan (India) and Gansu (China) compare conventional survey sampling and implementation techniques with the use of online map services such as Google, Bing, and HERE maps. Modern yet basic digital technology can be integrated into the processes of preparing, implementing, and monitoring a rural household survey. Satellite-aided systematic random sampling enhanced the spatial representativeness of the village samples and entailed savings of approximately £4000 compared to conventional household listing, while reducing the duration of the main survey by at least 25 %. This low-cost/low-tech satellite-aided survey sampling approach can be useful for student researchers and resource-constrained research projects operating in low- and middle-income contexts with high survey implementation costs. While achieving transparent and efficient survey implementation at low costs, researchers aiming to adopt a similar process should be aware of the locational, technical, and logistical requirements as well as the methodological challenges of this strategy.

  8. Large Scale Management of Physicists Personal Analysis Data Without Employing User and Group Quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Diesbug, M.; Gheith, M.; Illingworth, R.; Lyon, A.; Mengel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of modern HEP experiments to acquire and process unprecedented amounts of data and simulation have lead to an explosion in the volume of information that individual scientists deal with on a daily basis. Explosion has resulted in a need for individuals to generate and keep large personal analysis data sets which represent the skimmed portions of official data collections, pertaining to their specific analysis. While a significant reduction in size compared to the original data, these personal analysis and simulation sets can be many terabytes or 10s of TB in size and consist of 10s of thousands of files. When this personal data is aggregated across the many physicists in a single analysis group or experiment it can represent data volumes on par or exceeding the official production samples which require special data handling techniques to deal with effectively.In this paper we explore the changes to the Fermilab computing infrastructure and computing models which have been developed to allow experimenters to effectively manage their personal analysis data and other data that falls outside of the typically centrally managed production chains. In particular we describe the models and tools that are being used to provide the modern neutrino experiments like NOvA with storage resources that are sufficient to meet their analysis needs, without imposing specific quotas on users or groups of users. We discuss the storage mechanisms and the caching algorithms that are being used as well as the toolkits are have been developed to allow the users to easily operate with terascale+ datasets. (paper)

  9. Survey of natural and artificial radionuclide contents in soil samples from some areas of the AP Kosovo (Serbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, Feriz; Kosanovic, Katica; Jakupi, Bajram; Krstic, Gordana; Filipovic, Radmila

    2008-01-01

    After the war conflict in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Serbia), NATO published data on locations where they used ammunition with depleted uranium. In these regions there were localized points of concentrated contamination, so called 'contamination points'. Taking into consideration the amounts of depleted uranium ammunition used by the NATO, obviously the number of these points in the area of Kosovo and Metohija is not negligible. Within the past 7 years there have been conducted various radiological and other surveys in this area. Majority of these surveys were focused around contamination points. The fact is that so far there has been surveyed only a small percentage of the contaminated area in this region, and apparently there are more contamination points outside the surveyed area. Taking into account the mobility of depleted uranium from contaminated areas by various transportation processes (underground waters, winds and diverse mechanical contacts of people, animals, and other activities), the idea of this work was to investigate possible contamination from depleted uranium not only at the locations indicated and published by the NATO in their reports, but also in the wider area around the zones of NATO strikes. In this paper we presented results of gamma spectrometry analysis of soil samples from wider area of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. We used semiconductor HpGe detector with 30% relative efficiency and the resolution FWHM(1332 keV)=1,78 keV. Spectral analysis were made on the basis of the present gamma lines, using a software package. The activity concentrations of the investigated radionuclides in the soil samples were ranged in the following intervals: 226 Ra from 19 to 55 Bq/kg, 235 U from 1,2 to 4,6 Bq/kg, 238 U from 26 to 95 Bq/kg, 40 K from 83 to 648 Bq/kg, 137 Cs from 1 to 176 Bq/kg. (author)

  10. Point process models for spatio-temporal distance sampling data from a large-scale survey of blue whales

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Yuan; Bachl, Fabian E.; Lindgren, Finn; Borchers, David L.; Illian, Janine B.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Rue, Haavard; Gerrodette, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Distance sampling is a widely used method for estimating wildlife population abundance. The fact that conventional distance sampling methods are partly design-based constrains the spatial resolution at which animal density can be estimated using these methods. Estimates are usually obtained at survey stratum level. For an endangered species such as the blue whale, it is desirable to estimate density and abundance at a finer spatial scale than stratum. Temporal variation in the spatial structure is also important. We formulate the process generating distance sampling data as a thinned spatial point process and propose model-based inference using a spatial log-Gaussian Cox process. The method adopts a flexible stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach to model spatial structure in density that is not accounted for by explanatory variables, and integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) for Bayesian inference. It allows simultaneous fitting of detection and density models and permits prediction of density at an arbitrarily fine scale. We estimate blue whale density in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean from thirteen shipboard surveys conducted over 22 years. We find that higher blue whale density is associated with colder sea surface temperatures in space, and although there is some positive association between density and mean annual temperature, our estimates are consistent with no trend in density across years. Our analysis also indicates that there is substantial spatially structured variation in density that is not explained by available covariates.

  11. Point process models for spatio-temporal distance sampling data from a large-scale survey of blue whales

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Yuan

    2017-12-28

    Distance sampling is a widely used method for estimating wildlife population abundance. The fact that conventional distance sampling methods are partly design-based constrains the spatial resolution at which animal density can be estimated using these methods. Estimates are usually obtained at survey stratum level. For an endangered species such as the blue whale, it is desirable to estimate density and abundance at a finer spatial scale than stratum. Temporal variation in the spatial structure is also important. We formulate the process generating distance sampling data as a thinned spatial point process and propose model-based inference using a spatial log-Gaussian Cox process. The method adopts a flexible stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach to model spatial structure in density that is not accounted for by explanatory variables, and integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) for Bayesian inference. It allows simultaneous fitting of detection and density models and permits prediction of density at an arbitrarily fine scale. We estimate blue whale density in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean from thirteen shipboard surveys conducted over 22 years. We find that higher blue whale density is associated with colder sea surface temperatures in space, and although there is some positive association between density and mean annual temperature, our estimates are consistent with no trend in density across years. Our analysis also indicates that there is substantial spatially structured variation in density that is not explained by available covariates.

  12. [The methodology and sample description of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary 2015 (NSAPH 2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksi, Borbala; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Magi, Anna; Felvinczi, Katalin

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS). The paper describes the applied measurement techniques, sample selection, recruitment of respondents and the data collection strategy as well. Methodological results of the survey including reliability and validity of the measures are reported. The NSAPH 2015 research was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian adult population aged 16-64 yrs (gross sample 2477, net sample 2274 persons) with the age group of 18-34 being overrepresented. Statistical analysis of the weight-distribution suggests that weighting did not create any artificial distortion in the database leaving the representativeness of the sample unaffected. The size of the weighted sample of the 18-64 years old adult population is 1490 persons. The extent of the theoretical margin of error in the weighted sample is ±2,5%, at a reliability level of 95% which is in line with the original data collection plans. Based on the analysis of reliability and the extent of errors beyond sampling within the context of the database we conclude that inconsistencies create relatively minor distortions in cumulative prevalence rates; consequently the database makes possible the reliable estimation of risk factors related to different substance use behaviours. The reliability indexes of measurements used for prevalence estimates of behavioural addictions proved to be appropriate, though the psychometric features in some cases suggest the presence of redundant items. The comparison of

  13. 78 FR 21584 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and for 2012, inclusive of dead discards (ICCAT Recommendation 10-03--Supplemental Recommendation by... 858.4 mt, which is 185.2 mt less than the amount of quota (inclusive of dead discards) allowed under... locations will be physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language...

  14. Looking back and moving forward: A closer look at the Dutch gender quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Galle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch Civil Code stipulates that, for balanced gender representation, 30% of seats on the boards of large corporations should be occupied by women. If a company does not meet this requirement, the company is compelled to be transparent in its annual report by means of the ‘comply or explain’ principle. This article analyses the application of this rule through content analysis of the annual reports of 52 listed companies in 2012 and 49 in 2013. The article discusses whether this rule has the desired effect of creating transparency on the gender quota. The conclusion is that ‘the comply or explain’ mechanism is inadequate without further measures, including sanctions. For 2012, 21% of the companies researched made no mention in their annual report of the application of the gender quota. In 2013, 18% of the companies made no mention of it. The companies that did indicate that they did not meet the quota failed to provide the required transparency. The reasons cited for not meeting the quota are nothing more than clichéd phrases, lacking any specificity. If the Netherlands wants to achieve the European and Dutch targets with the aid of the ’comply or explain’ mechanism, the government will have to introduce additional mechanisms, including sanctions - or, alternatively, steer an entirely different course.

  15. 78 FR 30865 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ holder cap form, and... before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation holders are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and...

  16. 77 FR 16209 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ ownership cap form... before May 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation owners are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and for...

  17. 77 FR 16210 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Northeastern U.S. EEZ. II. Method of Collection The IFQ Allocation permit application, IFQ ownership cap form... before May 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork... applications to ensure that IFQ allocation owners are provided a statement of their annual catch quota, and for...

  18. 75 FR 5760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... before April 5, 2010. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Diana Hynek, Departmental Paperwork... and diversified local economies in western Alaska. CDQ and prohibited species quota (PSQ) allocations... collection. II. Method of Collection Respondents have a choice of either electronic or paper forms. Methods...

  19. 77 FR 44161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... order to stay within the ICCAT-recommended U.S. quota, close directed BFT fisheries in the event that... 5, 2011) to consider information about the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and alleged illegal... and use the best available science on the effects of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and the...

  20. 76 FR 39019 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... for the more selective, directed fishing categories, and be a de facto reallocation of quota shares... of post-release mortality received substantial attention at the 2010 ICCAT meeting and NMFS... would not help for giant BFT that may not fit in the hold. NMFS should allow the tail to be cut but...

  1. [Work quota setting and man-hour productivity estimation in pathologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistunov, V V; Makarov, S V; Makarova, A E

    The paper considers the development and current state of the regulation of work quota setting and remuneration in pathologists. Reasoning from the current staff standards for morbid anatomy departments (units), the authors present a method to calculate the load of pathologists. The essence of the proposed method is demonstrated using a specific example.

  2. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .... 100204079-0199-02] RIN 0648-XA084 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery... the Commonwealth of Virginia is transferring commercial bluefish quota to the State of North Carolina... INFORMATION: Regulations governing the Atlantic bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations...

  3. 77 FR 58051 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC236 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Commercial...: NMFS announces that the 2012 bluefish commercial quota allocated to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has been harvested. Vessels issued a commercial Federal fisheries permit for the bluefish fishery may...

  4. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... any agricultural product among supplying countries or customs areas. The President delegated this... Agriculture established the FY 2011 (October 1, 2010--September 30, 2011) refined sugar TRQ at an aggregate... 35,300 MTRV. The remaining 111,078 MTRV of the increased in-quota quantity may be supplied by any...

  5. VLA radio-continuum survey of a sample of confirmed and marginal barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Simon, T.; Linsky, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a 6-cm VLA survey of five confirmed Ba II stars and eight mild Ba II stars, undertaken to search for evidence of gyrosynchrotron emission or thermal emission from the primary star's wind that is enhanced or photoionized by a white dwarf companion. Of these 13 stars, only Beta UMi was detected as a possible radio source at a flux level of 0.11 mJy (3sigma). The 6-cm radio luminosities (L6) of the other stars are as small as log L6 less than or equal to 14.0 and are an order of magnitude or more lower than the average levels found in RS CVn systems, but are consistent with the L6 upper limits previously found for stars of spectral type similar to the Ba II stars and normal elemental abundances. The upper limit to the radio luminosity for the possible mild Ba II star 56 Peg, when combined with its previously known X-ray luminosity, may provide useful constraints on the various models that have been proposed for this interesting object, once its orbital period is known. 28 references

  6. Engagement with HIV prevention treatment and care among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: a respondent driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Frances M; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Ndikudze, Theresa; Chidiya, Samson; Benedikt, Clemens; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R

    2013-01-01

    To determine the HIV prevalence and extent of engagement with HIV prevention and care among a representative sample of Zimbabwean sex workers working in Victoria Falls, Hwange and Mutare. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys conducted at each site. Sex workers were recruited using respondent driven sampling with each respondent limited to recruiting 2 peers. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a finger prick blood sample for HIV antibody testing. Statistical analysis took account of sampling method. 870 women were recruited from the three sites. HIV prevalence was between 50 and 70%. Around half of those confirmed HIV positive were aware of their HIV status and of those 50-70% reported being enrolled in HIV care programmes. Overall only 25-35% of those with laboratory-confirmed HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy. Among those reporting they were HIV negative, 21-28% reported having an HIV test in the last 6 months. Of those tested HIV negative, most (65-82%) were unaware of their status. Around two-thirds of sex workers reported consistent condom use with their clients. As in other settings, sex workers reported high rates of gender based violence and police harassment. This survey suggests that prevalence of HIV is high among sex workers in Zimbabwe and that their engagement with prevention, treatment and care is sub-optimal. Intensifying prevention and care interventions for sex workers has the potential to markedly reduce HIV and social risks for sex workers, their clients and the general population in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region.

  7. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  8. Cluster-sample surveys and lot quality assurance sampling to evaluate yellow fever immunisation coverage following a national campaign, Bolivia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Pineda, Silvia; Halkyer, Percy; Crespo, Gladys; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    To estimate the yellow fever (YF) vaccine coverage for the endemic and non-endemic areas of Bolivia and to determine whether selected districts had acceptable levels of coverage (>70%). We conducted two surveys of 600 individuals (25 x 12 clusters) to estimate coverage in the endemic and non-endemic areas. We assessed 11 districts using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). The lot (district) sample was 35 individuals with six as decision value (alpha error 6% if true coverage 70%; beta error 6% if true coverage 90%). To increase feasibility, we divided the lots into five clusters of seven individuals; to investigate the effect of clustering, we calculated alpha and beta by conducting simulations where each cluster's true coverage was sampled from a normal distribution with a mean of 70% or 90% and standard deviations of 5% or 10%. Estimated coverage was 84.3% (95% CI: 78.9-89.7) in endemic areas, 86.8% (82.5-91.0) in non-endemic and 86.0% (82.8-89.1) nationally. LQAS showed that four lots had unacceptable coverage levels. In six lots, results were inconsistent with the estimated administrative coverage. The simulations suggested that the effect of clustering the lots is unlikely to have significantly increased the risk of making incorrect accept/reject decisions. Estimated YF coverage was high. Discrepancies between administrative coverage and LQAS results may be due to incorrect population data. Even allowing for clustering in LQAS, the statistical errors would remain low. Catch-up campaigns are recommended in districts with unacceptable coverage.

  9. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  10. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Fuel demand elasticities for energy and environmental policies: Indian sample survey evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundimeda, Haripriya; Koehlin, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    India has been running large-scale interventions in the energy sector over the last decades. Still, there is a dearth of reliable and readily available price and income elasticities of demand to base these on, especially for domestic use of traditional fuels. This study uses the linear approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA-AIDS) using micro data of more than 100,000 households sampled across India. The LA-AIDS model is expanded by specifying the intercept as a linear function of household characteristics. Marshallian and Hicksian price and expenditure elasticities of demand for four main fuels are estimated for both urban and rural areas by different income groups. These can be used to evaluate recent and current energy policies. The results can also be used for energy projections and carbon dioxide simulations given different growth rates for different segments of the Indian population. (author)

  12. Decision Tree and Survey Development for Support in Agricultural Sampling Strategies during Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Amelia Lee Zhi; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear or radiological accident, the release of radionuclides results in contamination of land surfaces affecting agricultural and food resources. Speedy accumulation of information and guidance on decision making is essential in enhancing the ability of stakeholders to strategize for immediate countermeasure strategies. Support tools such as decision trees and sampling protocols allow for swift response by governmental bodies and assist in proper management of the situation. While such tools exist, they focus mainly on protecting public well-being and not food safety management strategies. Consideration of the latter is necessary as it has long-term implications especially to agriculturally dependent Member States. However, it is a research gap that remains to be filled.

  13. X-ray microanalytical surveys of minor element concentrations in unsectioned biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, R. M. S.; Lefevre, H. W.; Overley, J. C.; Macdonald, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Approximate concentration maps of small unsectioned biological samples are made using the pixel by pixel ratio of PIXE images to areal density images. Areal density images are derived from scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) proton energy-loss images. Corrections for X-ray production cross section variations, X-ray attenuation, and depth averaging are approximated or ignored. Estimates of the magnitude of the resulting error are made. Approximate calcium concentrations within the head of a fruit fly are reported. Concentrations in the retinula cell region of the eye average about 1 mg/g dry weight. Concentrations of zinc in the mandible of several ant species average about 40 mg/g. Zinc concentrations in the stomachs of these ants are at least 1 mg/g.

  14. Distinguishing values from science in decision making: Setting harvest quotas for mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Cooley, Hilary; Gude, Justin A.; Kolbe, Jay; Nowak, J. Joshua; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Sells, Sarah N.; Thompson, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of science and human values can be difficult to distinguish when informal processes are used to make complex and contentious decisions in wildlife management. Structured Decision Making (SDM) offers a formal process for making such decisions, where scientific results and concepts can be disentangled from the values of differing stakeholders. We used SDM to formally integrate science and human values for a citizen working group of ungulate hunting advocates, lion hunting advocates, and outfitters convened to address the contentious allocation of harvest quotas for mountain lions (Puma concolor) in west‐central Montana, USA, during 2014. A science team consisting of mountain lion biologists and population ecologists convened to support the working group. The science team used integrated population models that incorporated 4 estimates of mountain lion density to estimate population trajectories for 5 alternative harvest quotas developed by the working group. Results of the modeling predicted that effects of each harvest quota were consistent across the 4 density estimates; harvest quotas affected predicted population trajectories for 5 years after implementation but differences were not strong. Based on these results, the focus of the working group changed to differences in values among stakeholders that were the true impediment to allocating harvest quotas. By distinguishing roles of science and human values in this process, the working group was able to collaboratively recommend a compromise solution. This solution differed little from the status quo that had been the focus of debate, but the SDM process produced understanding and buy‐in among stakeholders involved, reducing disagreements, misunderstanding, and unproductive arguments founded on informal application of scientific data and concepts. Whereas investments involved in conducting SDM may be unnecessary for many decisions in wildlife management, the investment may be beneficial for

  15. How serious a problem is subsoil compaction in the Netherlands? A survey based on probability sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Dick J.; van den Akker, Jan J. H.

    2018-02-01

    Although soil compaction is widely recognized as a soil threat to soil resources, reliable estimates of the acreage of overcompacted soil and of the level of soil compaction parameters are not available. In the Netherlands data on subsoil compaction were collected at 128 locations selected by stratified random sampling. A map showing the risk of subsoil compaction in five classes was used for stratification. Measurements of bulk density, porosity, clay content and organic matter content were used to compute the relative bulk density and relative porosity, both expressed as a fraction of a threshold value. A subsoil was classified as overcompacted if either the relative bulk density exceeded 1 or the relative porosity was below 1. The sample data were used to estimate the means of the two subsoil compaction parameters and the overcompacted areal fraction. The estimated global means of relative bulk density and relative porosity were 0.946 and 1.090, respectively. The estimated areal fraction of the Netherlands with overcompacted subsoils was 43 %. The estimates per risk map unit showed two groups of map units: a low-risk group (units 1 and 2, covering only 4.6 % of the total area) and a high-risk group (units 3, 4 and 5). The estimated areal fraction of overcompacted subsoil was 0 % in the low-risk unit and 47 % in the high-risk unit. The map contains no information about where overcompacted subsoils occur. This was caused by the poor association of the risk map units 3, 4 and 5 with the subsoil compaction parameters and subsoil overcompaction. This can be explained by the lack of time for recuperation.

  16. Design-based Sample and Probability Law-Assumed Sample: Their Role in Scientific Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Mario Miguel; Sahai, Hardeo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some key statistical concepts in probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling to provide an overview for understanding the inference process. Suggests a statistical model constituting the basis of statistical inference and provides a brief review of the finite population descriptive inference and a quota sampling inferential theory.…

  17. Refugee Quota Trading within the Context of EU-ENP Cooperation: Rational, Bounded Rational and Ethical Critiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie Gerver

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Peter Schuck proposed a ‘refugee quota trading’ mechanism, whereby countries voluntarily form a union, each country accepting a quota of refugees and able to buy and sell the quota to other states within and even outside of the union. Today, the EU arguably has a de facto cash transfer mechanism both within the EU and between the EU and European Neighbourhood Policy countries. This article explores the question of refugee quota trading, explaining why current EU policy fails to increase refugee protection. Throughout the critique, states are treated either as rational actors or actors with present-preference bias, the latter largely ignored in current discussions on international refugee ‘burden sharing’. In addition, the ethics of refugee quota trading is presented using arguments distinct from that of Anker et al. (1998 who argue that refugee quota trading creates a ‘commodification’ of refugees. One could argue that refugees’ protection is being commodified, not refugees themselves. However, when states are provided funds not to deport refugees, this can be a type of reward for not taking an action that states ought to follow regardless of the reward. Just as there are non-utilitarian reasons not to rely on rewards alone for lowering the crime rates for heinous crimes within states, there may be non-utilitarian arguments against refugee quota trading.

  18. Using Social Media and Targeted Snowball Sampling to Survey a Hard-to-reach Population: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Dusek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response rates to the academic surveys used in quantitative research are decreasing and have been for several decades among both individuals and organizations. Given this trend, providing doctoral students an opportunity to complete their dissertations in a timely and cost effective manner may necessitate identifying more innovative and relevant ways to collect data while maintaining appropriate research standards and rigor. The case of a research study is presented which describes the data collection process used to survey a hard-to-reach population. It details the use of social media, in this case LinkedIn, to facilitate the distribution of the web-based survey. A roadmap to illustrate how this data collection process unfolded is presented, as well as several “lessons learned” during this journey. An explanation of the considerations that impacted the sampling design is provided. The goal of this case study is to provide researchers, including doctoral students, with realistic expectations and an awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of this method of data collection.

  19. [A respondent-driven sampling survey on HIV and risk factors among men who have sex with men in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lin; Feng, Lian-gui; Ding, Xian-bin; Zhao, Jin-kou; Xu, Jing; Han, Mei; Zhou, Chao

    2009-10-01

    To examine HIV prevalence and related risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, and to explore the feasibility of using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in the survey. Based on results from formative research, a RDS survey was designed and conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and serologic data. RDSAT was used to calculate point estimation and confidence intervals. SPSS was used for bi-variate analysis using RDSAT exported weighed data. NETDRAW was used to draw network diagram. Among 617 subjects recruited, the adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence rates were 16.8% and 10.9%, respectively. 73.0% of the subjects were 20 to 29 years old and 72.9% were officially registered residents of Chongqing. 83.4% were single, with the proportion of students the highest, accounting for 24.6%. During the last six months, 83.4% of them reported ever having anal sex, and 54.0% reported having unprotected anal sex. This survey confirmed that Chongqing had a higher reported HIV prevalence among MSM than from other Chinese cities. Comprehensive intervention services were required to address this alarmingly high prevalence, with focus on intervention through internet and those having syphilis infection. RDS seemed one of the effective ways of recruiting hidden MSM populations in Chongqing which had a large population of active MSM who did not frequently visit MSM venues as compared with snowball method.

  20. New cosmological constraints with extended-Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lu; Wang, Ke [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha (China)

    2017-11-15

    We update the constraints on the cosmological parameters by adopting the Planck data released in 2015 and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements including the new DR14 quasar sample measurement at redshift z = 1.52, and we conclude that the six-parameter ΛCDM model is preferred. Exploring some extensions to the ΛCDM model, we find that the equation of state of dark energy reads w = -1.036 ± 0.056 in the wCDM model, the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom in the Universe is N{sub eff} = 3.09{sub -0.20}{sup +0.18} in the N{sub eff} + ΛCDM model and the spatial curvature parameter is Ω{sub k} = (1.8 ± 1.9) x 10{sup -3} in the Ω{sub k} + ΛCDM model at 68% confidence level (C.L.), and the 95% C.L. upper bounds on the sum of three active neutrinos masses are sum m{sub ν} < 0.16 eV for the normal hierarchy (NH) and sum m{sub ν} < 0.19 eV for the inverted hierarchy (IH) with Δχ{sup 2} ≡ χ{sup 2}{sub NH} - χ{sup 2}{sub IH} = -1.25. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan will support the preoperational environmental monitoring for construction, development, and operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities, which have been designed for the conditioning and storage of spent nuclear fuels; particularly the fuel elements associated with the operation of N-Reactor. The SNF consists principally of irradiated metallic uranium, and therefore includes plutonium and mixed fission products. The primary effort will consist of removing the SNF from the storage basins in K East and K West Areas, placing in multicanister overpacks, vacuum drying, conditioning, and subsequent dry vault storage in the 200 East Area. The primary purpose and need for this action is to reduce the risks to public health and safety and to the environment. Specifically these include prevention of the release of radioactive materials into the air or to the soil surrounding the K Basins, prevention of the potential migration of radionuclides through the soil column to the nearby Columbia River, reduction of occupational radiation exposure, and elimination of the risks to the public and to workers from the deterioration of SNF in the K Basins

  3. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  4. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  5. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on observations (programs GS-2003B-Q-8, GN-2003B-Q-9, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004B-Q-31, GN-2004B-Q-16, GS-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GN-2006B-Q-10) obtained at

  6. Sample substitution can be an acceptable data-collection strategy: the case of the Belgian Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, Stefaan; Molenberghs, Geert; Van der Heyden, Johan; Gisle, Lydia; Van Oyen, Herman; de Waleffe, Sandrine; Van Hal, Guido

    2017-11-01

    Substitution of non-participating households is used in the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS) as a method to obtain the predefined net sample size. Yet, possible effects of applying substitution on response rates and health estimates remain uncertain. In this article, the process of substitution with its impact on response rates and health estimates is assessed. The response rates (RR)-both at household and individual level-according to the sampling criteria were calculated for each stage of the substitution process, together with the individual accrual rate (AR). Unweighted and weighted health estimates were calculated before and after applying substitution. Of the 10,468 members of 4878 initial households, 5904 members (RRind: 56.4%) of 2707 households (RRhh: 55.5%) participated. For the three successive (matched) substitutes, the RR dropped to 45%. The composition of the net sample resembles the one of the initial samples. Applying substitution did not produce any important distorting effects on the estimates. Applying substitution leads to an increase in non-participation, but does not impact the estimations.

  7. Multiple surveys employing a new sample-processing protocol reveal the genetic diversity of placozoans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Hideyuki; Nakano, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, "ethanol-treated substrate sampling," for collecting placozoans from natural environments. We also report the collection of placozoans from three new locations, the islands of Shikine-jima, Chichi-jima, and Haha-jima, and we present the distribution of the 16S haplotypes of placozoans in Japan. Multiple surveys conducted at multiple locations yielded five haplotypes that were not reported previously, revealing high genetic diversity in Japan, especially at Shimoda and Shikine-jima Island. The observed geographic distribution patterns were different among haplotypes; some were widely distributed, while others were sampled only from a single location. However, samplings conducted on different dates at the same sites yielded different haplotypes, suggesting that placozoans of a given haplotype do not inhabit the same site constantly throughout the year. Continued sampling efforts conducted during all seasons at multiple locations worldwide and the development of molecular markers within the haplotypes are needed to reveal the geographic distribution pattern and dispersal history of placozoans in greater detail.

  8. Cross-cultural differences for adapting overactive bladder symptoms: results of an epidemiologic survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Myung-Soo; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Jong Bok; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Joon Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jee; Lee, Jeong Ju; Park, Won-Hee

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Korean national community sample of adults aged 40-89 years. A national Korean telephone survey using quota sampling methods was conducted. A clinically validated computer-assisted telephone interview approach was used in the survey. In 2,005 subjects (1,005 women and 1,000 men) interviewed, the prevalence of OAB(wet) increased with age in both men and women but OAB(dry) did not. OAB(dry) of men and women was not different in each age decade but OAB(wet) was more common among women than men aged cross-cultural differences for adapting OAB symptoms.

  9. Infall and outflow motions towards a sample of massive star-forming regions from the RMS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Maud, L. T.; Mendigutía, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of an outflow and infall survey towards a distance-limited sample of 31 massive star-forming regions drawn from the Red MSX source (RMS) survey. The presence of young, active outflows is identified from SiO (8-7) emission and the infall dynamics are explored using HCO+/H13CO+ (4-3) emission. We investigate if the infall and outflow parameters vary with source properties, exploring whether regions hosting potentially young active outflows show similarities or differences with regions harbouring more evolved, possibly momentum-driven, `fossil' outflows. SiO emission is detected towards approximately 46 per cent of the sources. When considering sources with and without an SiO detection (i.e. potentially active and fossil outflows, respectively), only the 12CO outflow velocity shows a significant difference between samples, indicating SiO is more prevalent towards sources with higher outflow velocities. Furthermore, we find the SiO luminosity increases as a function of the Herschel 70 μm to WISE 22 μm flux ratio, suggesting the production of SiO is prevalent in younger, more embedded regions. Similarly, we find tentative evidence that sources with an SiO detection have a smaller bolometric luminosity-to-mass ratio, indicating SiO (8-7) emission is associated with potentially younger regions. We do not find a prevalence towards sources displaying signatures of infall in our sample. However, the higher energy HCO+ transitions may not be the best suited tracer of infall at this spatial resolution in these regions.

  10. Enantioselective analysis of chloramphenicol residues in honey samples by chiral LC-MS/MS and results of a honey survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Gerhard G; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medication. Since 1994, CAP has not been authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) of 0.3 µg kg - 1 was established in 2003. The CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres, thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive, having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC-MS/MS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples. The method was validated at two concentration levels. The decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCß) were well below 0.3 µg kg - 1 , with limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.08 and 0.12 µg kg - 1 for all four enantiomers. The method provides a sensitive and reliable analysis of CAP enantiomers in honey, and proved its robustness during the daily routine analyses of numerous honey samples. In an internal honey survey, in total 40 honey samples from different geographical regions with identified CAP residues at or above the MRPL were reanalysed by chiral LC-MS/MS. In nine honey samples only the bioactive RR-CAP was detected as anticipated. However, in all other 31 honey samples the non-bioactive SS-CAP was also identified and quantified unambiguously. In 10 of these samples, mixtures of RR- and SS-CAP were analysed, and in 21 samples only the SS-CAP enantiomer, with concentrations up to 2.2 µg kg - 1 . Most of these samples are honeys from Ukraine and Eastern Europe. This is the first report of SS-CAP residues in food samples. The potential sources for these findings are discussed and the need of further systematic studies emphasised. It is recommended to examine in more depth the toxicological profile of the individual CAP stereoisomers.

  11. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  12. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  13. A within-sample investigation of test–retest reliability in choice experiment surveys with real economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of agreement between respondents' choices in identical choice sets in a test-retest choice experiment for a market good with real economic incentives, thus investigating whether the incentivised CE method can be reliable and stable over time. Besides...... comparing choices, we also test for differences in preferences and error variance when a sample of respondents is given the exact same questionnaire twice, with a time lag of 2 weeks in between. Finally, we examine potential reasons and covariates explaining the level of agreement in choices across the 2...... weeks. Across four different tests, we find very good agreement between the two choice experiments - both with respect to overall choices and with respect to preferences. Furthermore, error variances do not differ significantly between the two surveys. The results also show that the larger the utility...

  14. [Trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil: the National Household Sample Survey, 2004, 2009, and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Taíse Gama Dos; Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso da; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito de

    2018-03-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends and factors associated with food insecurity in Brazil in 2004, 2009, and 2013, using microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). Food insecurity was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Independent variables were selected from a conceptual model of determination of food insecurity, which was also used in the elaboration of multiple generalized linear models. The results show a downward trend in food insecurity prevalence from 2004 to 2013, especially for moderate and severe food insecurity, from 17% in 2004 (95%CI: 15.7-18.4) to 7.9% in 2013 (95%CI: 7.2-8.7). Despite important decreases in the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, regardless of the level of determination, the population strata with the lowest prevalence in 2004 showed the largest relative reduction. As for factors associated with moderate and severe food insecurity, they remained the same in the ten years covered by the PNAD survey, namely: the North and Northeast regions, urban areas with inadequate sanitation, household density > 2 persons per bedroom, ≤ 4 household durable consumer goods, and households headed by females, individuals insecurity dropped by half, but from the perspective of equity the advances occurred unequally and were lower in strata with greater social, economic, and demographic vulnerability.

  15. Surface radiation survey and soil sampling of the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, southeastern Washington: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teel, S.S.; Olsen, K.B.

    1990-10-01

    The methods used for conducting a radiological characterization of the soil surface for the Phase I Remedial Investigation of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site is presented via a case study. The study site is an operable unit (300-FF-1) located in and adjacent to the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operable unit contains liquid and solid waste disposal facilities associated with nuclear fuels fabrication. Continuous surface radiation surveying and soil sampling of selected locations were conducted. Contamination was found in several locations within the operable unit including areas near the liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Instruments used during surveying included portable beta/gamma (P-11) detectors, and the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System using an NaI (Tl) detector. Laboratory analyses results indicate that above-background radiation levels were primarily due to the presence of uranium. Both types of field instruments used in the study were effective in detecting surface contamination from radionuclides; however, each had specific advantages. Guidelines are presented for the optimum use of these instruments when performing a radiological characterization of the soil surface. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous zvalues.

  17. Environmental policy in Norway: emission quotas to the processing industries, taxation of the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In a white paper on the climate policy, the Norwegian Government proposes a variety of political instruments. In the years 2005 to 2007, the Government will give priority to a quota system for the industrial sectors that are currently exempt from the CO 2 tax. At the same time, the tax on oil- and gas extraction and on traffic will be continued. In addition, a series of measures are evaluated against specific emission sources such as waste management and oil heating. For the years 2008 to 2012, which is the period of commitment under the Kyoto protocol, the CO 2 will be replaced by a broad quota system that will apply to all sources that can be technically included

  18. [The law of quotas for people with disabilities in Brazilian companies: the impact and possible alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanitelli, Leandro Martins

    2013-07-01

    This paper consists of a theoretical analysis of the impact of the Brazilian law establishing quotas for people with disabilities in companies with one hundred or more employees, as well as the possible impact of some alternative legal measures: incentives (fiscal incentives and tradable rights) and information disclosure policies. The analysis is based on work regarding the efficacy of legal norms in general, and particularly the literature concerning the cost and cognitive effects of those norms. Given its exclusively theoretical character, the paper does not affirm the superiority of any regulatory strategy over the current law, but draws attention to the likely reasons for the failure of the quota system and for the potential and inconveniences of its proposed alternatives.

  19. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, Martin-Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system stores more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next-generation data management system of ATLAS has been introduced to cope with the anticipated workload of the coming decade. The previous data management system DQ2 pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach to this issue is needed. This document describes how resources, like storage, accounts and replication requests, are accounted in Rucio. Especially the measurement of used logical storage space is fundamentally different in Rucio than it’s predecessor DQ2. We introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of account limits in a dynamic way. This concept enables the opera...

  20. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  1. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  2. Survey of Participants in the Gulf of Mexico Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data includes qualitative responses regarding participant satisfaction with the IFQ, changes in fishing operations due to IFQ, hiring crew, and availability of...

  3. 77 FR 15712 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... annual meeting, ICCAT recommended a TAC of 1,750 mt annually for 2011 and for 2012, inclusive of dead... 868.6 mt, which is 175 mt less than the amount of quota (inclusive of dead discards) allowed under... 182.0 SUBQUOTAS: SUBQUOTAS: School 94.9 School 94.9 Reserve 17.6 Reserve 17.6 North 36.5 North 36.5...

  4. Protecting Marine Biodiversity: A Comparison of Individual Habitat Quotas (IHQs) and Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Schnier; Dan Holland

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries managers in the United States are required to identify and mitigate the adverse impacts of fishing activity on essential fish habitat (EFH). There are additional concerns that the viability of noncommercial species, animals that are habitat dependent and/or are themselves constituents of fishery habitat may still be threatened. We consider a cap-and-trade system for habitat conservation, individual habitat quotas for fisheries, to achieve habitat conservation and species protection ...

  5. The Quota-Based Compensation Plan in Fashion Retailing Industry under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a compensation plan problem in the fashion retailing industry, which involves a risk-neutral fashion retailer and a risk-neutral salesperson, in a two-stage game framework with asymmetric information. In the first stage, the fashion retailer provides a menu of compensation plans to the salesperson who decides which plan to sign based on his superior market demand information. Confronted with the asymmetric demand information, the fashion retailer could observe market information from the salesperson's response by designing a menu of compensation plans rather than a single one to the salesperson. In the second stage, the fashion retailer then makes production decision and the salesperson determines his selling effort. We consider both adverse selection and moral hazard. We adopt the quota-based plan to derive the fashion retailer’s optimal compensation plan design and the salesperson's best response. We emphasize the impact of the quota level on the system outcomes. The results reveal that a higher quota level is disadvantageous to the fashion retailer but advantageous to the salespersons.

  6. Sex and gender diversity among transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n=433) in 2009-2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status.

  7. Sex and Gender Diversity Among Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada: Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I.; Bauer, Greta R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n = 433) in 2009–2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status. PMID:24750105

  8. Development and enrolee satisfaction with basic medical insurance in China: A systematic review and stratified cluster sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Limei; Chen, Ru; Jing, Lisa; Qiao, Yun; Lou, Jiquan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Junwei; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Basic Medical Insurance (BMI) has changed remarkably over time in China because of health reforms that aim to achieve universal coverage and better health care with adequate efforts by increasing subsidies, reimbursement, and benefits. In this paper, we present the development of BMI, including financing and operation, with a systematic review. Meanwhile, Pudong New Area in Shanghai was chosen as a typical BMI sample for its coverage and management; a stratified cluster sampling survey together with an ordinary logistic regression model was used for the analysis. Enrolee satisfaction and the factors associated with enrolee satisfaction with BMI were analysed. We found that the reenrolling rate superficially improved the BMI coverage and nearly achieved universal coverage. However, BMI funds still faced dual contradictions of fund deficit and insured under compensation, and a long-term strategy is needed to realize the integration of BMI schemes with more homogeneous coverage and benefits. Moreover, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance participants reported a higher rate of dissatisfaction than other participants. The key predictors of the enrolees' satisfaction were awareness of the premium and compensation, affordability of out-of-pocket costs, and the proportion of reimbursement. These results highlight the importance that the Chinese government takes measures, such as strengthening BMI fund management, exploring mixed payment methods, and regulating sequential medical orders, to develop an integrated medical insurance system of universal coverage and vertical equity while simultaneously improving enrolee satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. IX. The Clustering Environments of an Unbiased Sample of Local AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. C.; Cappelluti, N.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Ricci, C.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Ajello, M.; Oh, K.; Schawinski, K.; Secrest, N.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the environments of local accreting supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGNs in the Swift/BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.01 2MASS galaxies, and interpreting it via halo occupation distribution and subhalo-based models, we constrain the occupation statistics of the full sample, as well as in bins of absorbing column density and black hole mass. We find that AGNs tend to reside in galaxy group environments, in agreement with previous studies of AGNs throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift, and that on average they occupy their dark matter halos similar to inactive galaxies of comparable stellar mass. We also find evidence that obscured AGNs tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGNs, even when samples were matched in luminosity, redshift, stellar mass, and Eddington ratio. We show that this can be explained either by significantly different halo occupation distributions or statistically different host halo assembly histories. Lastly, we see that massive black holes are slightly more likely to reside in central galaxies than black holes of smaller mass.

  10. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.

  11. A large sample of Kohonen selected E+A (post-starburst) galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Brünecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der Au, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The galaxy population in the contemporary Universe is characterised by a clear bimodality, blue galaxies with significant ongoing star formation and red galaxies with only a little. The migration between the blue and the red cloud of galaxies is an issue of active research. Post starburst (PSB) galaxies are thought to be observed in the short-lived transition phase. Aims: We aim to create a large sample of local PSB galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study their characteristic properties, particularly morphological features indicative of gravitational distortions and indications for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Another aim is to present a tool set for an efficient search in a large database of SDSS spectra based on Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs). Methods: We computed a huge Kohonen SOM for ∼106 spectra from SDSS data release 7. The SOM is made fully available, in combination with an interactive user interface, for the astronomical community. We selected a large sample of PSB galaxies taking advantage of the clustering behaviour of the SOM. The morphologies of both PSB galaxies and randomly selected galaxies from a comparison sample in SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) were inspected on deep co-added SDSS images to search for indications of gravitational distortions. We used the Portsmouth galaxy property computations to study the evolutionary stage of the PSB galaxies and archival multi-wavelength data to search for hidden AGNs. Results: We compiled a catalogue of 2665 PSB galaxies with redshifts z 3 Å and z cloud, in agreement with the idea that PSB galaxies represent the transitioning phase between actively and passively evolving galaxies. The relative frequency of distorted PSB galaxies is at least 57% for EW(Hδ) > 5 Å, significantly higher than in the comparison sample. The search for AGNs based on conventional selection criteria in the radio and MIR results in a low AGN fraction of ∼2-3%. We confirm an MIR excess in the mean SED of

  12. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  13. Survey of maternal sleep practices in late pregnancy in a multi-ethnic sample in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robin S; Chelimo, Carol; Mitchell, Edwin A; Okesene-Gafa, Kara; Thompson, John M D; Taylor, Rennae S; Hutchison, B Lynne; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2017-06-17

    The Auckland Stillbirth study demonstrated a two-fold increased risk of late stillbirth for women who did not go to sleep on their left side. Two further studies have confirmed an increased risk of late stillbirth with supine sleep position. As sleep position is modifiable, we surveyed self-reported late pregnancy sleep position, knowledge about sleep position, and views about changing going-to-sleep position. Participants in this 2014 survey were pregnant women (n = 377) in their third trimester from South Auckland, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic and predominantly low socio-economic population. An ethnically-representative sample was obtained using random sampling. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with non-left sided going-to-sleep position in late pregnancy. Respondents were 28 to 42 weeks' gestation. Reported going-to-sleep position in the last week was left side (30%), right side (22%), supine (3%), either side (39%) and other (6%). Two thirds (68%) reported they had received advice about sleep position. Non-left sleepers were asked if they would be able to change to their left side if it was better for their baby; 87% reported they would have little or no difficulty changing. Women who reported a non-left going-to-sleep position were more likely to be of Maori (aOR 2.64 95% CI 1.23-5.66) or Pacific (aOR 2.91 95% CI 1.46-5.78) ethnicity; had a lower body mass index (BMI) (aOR 0.93 95% CI 0.89-0.96); and were less likely to sleep on the left-hand side of the bed (aOR 3.29 95% CI 2.03-5.32). Maternal going-to-sleep position in the last week was side-lying in 91% of participants. The majority had received advice to sleep on their side or avoid supine sleep position. Sleeping on the left-hand side of the bed was associated with going-to-sleep on the left side. Most non-left sleepers reported their sleeping position could be modified to the left side suggesting a public health intervention about sleep

  14. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  15. THE RISE AND DECLINE OF RENT-SEEKING ACTIVITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COFFEE SECTOR: LESSONS FROM THE IMPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF COFFEE EXPORT QUOTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...

  16. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofu; Chen, Mengyan; Hao, Zhichao; Bi, Wenfen

    2018-01-01

    Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them. PMID:29375434

  17. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofu; Chen, Mengyan; Hao, Zhichao; Bi, Wenfen

    2017-01-01

    Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them.

  18. An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) is an additive flame retardant marketed as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). The structures of the two chemicals are similar, and hence deBDethane may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. Environmental data on deBDethane are scarce. Since sewage sludge is an early indicator of leakage of these chemicals into the environment, an international survey of deBDethane and decaBDE levels in sludge was conducted. Samples were collected from 42 WWTPs in 12 different countries and analyzed with GC/LRMS. DeBDethane was present in sludge from all countries and may therefore be a worldwide concern. The levels of deBDethane in sludge samples from the Ruhr area of Germany were the highest so far reported in the literature (216 ng g(-1)d.wt.). The [deBDethane]/[decaBDE] quotient for the whole data set ranged from 0.0018 to 0.83. High ratios were found in and around Germany where deBDethane imports are known to have been high and substitution of decaBDE with deBDethane is likely to have occurred. Low ratios were found in the USA and the UK, countries that have traditionally been large users of decaBDE. An estimate of the flux of deBDEthane from the technosphere via WWTPs to the environment within the European Union gave 1.7+/-0.34 mg annually per person. The corresponding value for decaBDE was 41+/-22 mg annually per person.

  19. Use of linear and areal habitat models to establish and distribute beaver Castor fiber harvest quotas in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Parker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Norway the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber harvest is quota-regulated. Once the annual quota for each municipality has been determined it is distributed to landowner-organized beaver management units. Municipal wildlife managers can choose between two distributional models: the traditional “areal model” whereby each management unit receives its portion of the municipal quota based on the relative area of beaver habitat within the township that it contains, or the more recently developed “linear model” based on the relative length of beaver-utilized shoreline it contains. The linear model was developed in an attempt to increase the precision of the quota distribution process and is based on the fact that beaver occupy landscapes in a linear fashion along strips of shoreline rather than exploiting extensive areas. The assumption was that the linear model would provide a more precise and just method of distributing the municipal quota among landowners. Here we test the hypothesis that the length of beaverutilized shoreline is a better predictor of beaver colony density than the area of beaver habitat on 13 beaver management units of typical size (794 – 2200 hectares in Bø Township, Norway, during 2 years. As hypothesized, the number of beaver occupied sites on management units correlated significantly (p≤ 0.001 with the length of beaver-utilized shoreline, but not with the area of beaver habitat. Therefore municipalities should employ the linear model when a precise distribution of quotas is necessary. The density of Eurasian beaver colonies at the landscape scale (>100 km2 in south-central Scandinavia averages approximately 1 occupied site per 4 km2. This figure can be employed by municipal wildlife managers to estimate the colony density in their townships, and to calculate municipal quotas, when more precise census information is lacking.

  20. Re-evaluation and extension of the scope of elements in US Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, D.B.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Roth, D.A.; Brinton, T.I.

    1998-01-01

    More than 100 US Geological Survey (USGS) Standard Reference Water Samples (SRWSs) were analyzed for numerous trace constituents, including Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, I, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, U, V, Zn and major elements (Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2, SO4, Cl) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In addition, 15 USGS SRWSs and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 1641b were analyzed for mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Also USGS SRWS Hg-7 was analyzed using isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results were compared with the reported certified values of the following standard reference materials: NIST SRM 1643a, 1643b, 1643c and 1643d and National Research Council of Canada Riverine Water Reference Materials for Trace Metals SLRS-1, SLRS-2 and SLRS-3. New concentration values for trace and major elements in the SRWSs, traceable to the certified standards, are reported. Additional concentration values are reported for elements that were neither previously published for the SRWSs nor traceable to the certified reference materials. Robust statistical procedures were used that were insensitive to outliers. These data can be used for quality assurance/quality control purposes in analytical laboratories.

  1. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  2. Mental Health Impact of Hosting Disaster Refugees: Analyses from a Random Sample Survey Among Haitians Living in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Lacoste, Jérôme; Gokalsing, Erick; Shultz, James M; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Acuna, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the mental health of families hosting disaster refugees are lacking. This study compares participants in households that hosted 2010 Haitian earthquake disaster refugees with their nonhost counterparts. A random sample survey was conducted from October 2011 through December 2012 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Haitian participants were assessed regarding their 2010 earthquake exposure and impact on family and friends and whether they hosted earthquake refugees. Using standardized scores and thresholds, they were evaluated for symptoms of three common mental disorders (CMDs): posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants who hosted refugees (n = 51) had significantly higher percentages of scores beyond thresholds for MDD than those who did not host refugees (n = 365) and for at least one CMD, after adjusting for participants' earthquake exposures and effects on family and friends. Hosting refugees from a natural disaster appears to elevate the risk for MDD and possibly other CMDs, independent of risks posed by exposure to the disaster itself. Families hosting refugees deserve special attention.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  4. Cotas para negros no Ensino Superior e formas de classificação racial Quotas for blacks in higher education and forms of racial classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Brandão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute dados referentes à aplicação de um questionário voltado para variáveis de classificação racial e opinião sobre a política de cotas para negros em uma amostra de 476 alunos do último ano do Ensino Médio da rede pública de um município periférico da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Buscamos compreender os elementos que informam as classificações de cor ou raça, bem como o posicionamento que esses alunos tomavam frente à política de cotas que poderia beneficiá-los no acesso a uma universidade pública. Deve-se ressaltar que os alunos entrevistados estariam em breve frente à possibilidade de disputar uma vaga no Ensino Superior em um vestibular com cotas raciais numa universidade pública que mantém um campus no próprio município onde estudam e residem. Essa problemática e esse tipo de investigação nos parecem fundamentais na atualidade, pois as cotas para negros que vêm sendo implantadas desde 2003 em várias instituições de Ensino Superior têm sofrido críticas e atravessado controvérsias jurídicas também por conta das formas de classificação propostas. Na pesquisa realizada, foi possível avançar na discussão de como as opções de classificação racial até o momento utilizadas nessas políticas se relacionam com os formatos de auto-identificação e de identificação do outro, comumente presentes no cotidiano das escolas pesquisadas, bem como verificar como a idéia de cota racial é avaliada pelos seus possíveis beneficiários.This article presents and discusses data obtained with the application of a questionnaire focused on variables for racial classification and opinion about the policy of quotas for blacks; the questionnaire was applied to a sample of 476 pupils from the last year of secondary education of the public school system of a peripheral town in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. We have tried to understand the elements that shape the

  5. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Braun de Torrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys (‘mobile transects’ have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park: (1 mobile transects, (2 stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3 stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm. Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  6. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth C; Wallrichs, Megan A; Ober, Holly K; McCleery, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys ('mobile transects') have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park): (1) mobile transects, (2) stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3) stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm). Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  7. British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) guidance on sampling for surveys of child dental health. A BASCD coordinated dental epidemiology programme quality standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, C M; Pitts, N B; Nugent, Z J

    1997-03-01

    The British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) is responsible for the coordination of locally based surveys of child dental health which permit local and national comparisons between health authorities and regions. These surveys began in 1985/86 in England and Wales, 1987/88 in Scotland and 1993/94 in Northern Ireland. BASCD has taken an increasing lead in setting quality standards in discussion with the NHS Epidemiology Coordinators of the Dental Epidemiology Programme. This paper comprises guidance on the sampling for these surveys.

  8. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  9. Pricing in quota obligation schemes for renewable energy. A stochastic model with reference to the Swedish quota obligation; Preisbildung in Quotenmodellen zur Foerderung Erneuerbarer Energien. Modellierung mit stochastischem Ansatz am Beispiel des schwedischen Quotenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Philipp

    2013-12-11

    The PhD thesis develops a stochastic model to explain pricing in Quota Obligation schemes for renewable energy (RE). It is based on the fact that electricity production from RE is depending on weather and other conditions, which leads to a random fluctuation. In the developed model the price for RE is depending on the probability of a lack of certificates at the end of an obligation period. In contrast to deterministic models, the stochastic model has a direct link between the price for RE and their high investment costs. Moreover, the stochastic model can be used to describe the development of prices over an obligation period. The model is adopted to the Swedish quota obligation. It is shown that the real RE prices there are much higher than the estimated prices derived from the model. This result is consistent to the fact that installed RE capacity in Sweden is much higher than necessary to fulfill the quota obligation.

  10. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. ©Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 30.06.2017.

  11. Position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 CMASS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the three-point function with the position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 10 CMASS sample. This new observable measures the correlation between two-point functions of galaxy pairs within different subvolumes, ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L ), where ř L is the location of a subvolume, and the corresponding mean overdensities, δ-bar (ř L ). This correlation, which we call the 'integrated three-point function', iζ(r)≡(ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L )δ-bar (ř L )), measures a three-point function of two short- and one long-wavelength modes, and is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution and possibly also by the physics of inflation. The iζ(r) measured from the BOSS data lies within the scatter of those from the mock galaxy catalogs in redshift space, yielding a ten-percent-level determination of the amplitude of iζ(r). The tree-level perturbation theory in redshift space predicts how this amplitude depends on the linear and quadratic nonlinear galaxy bias parameters (b 1 and b 2 ), as well as on the amplitude and linear growth rate of matter fluctuations (σ 8 and f). Combining iζ(r) with the constraints on b 1σ 8 and fσ 8 from the global two-point correlation function and that on σ 8 from the weak lensing signal of BOSS galaxies, we measure b 2 =0.41±0.41 (68% C.L.) assuming standard perturbation theory at the tree level and the local bias model

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dengue Infection in Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam: A Stratified Cluster Sampling Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Vien Quang; Mai, Trịnh Thị Xuan; Tam, Ngo Le Minh; Nghia, Le Trung; Komada, Kenichi; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-05-19

    Dengue is a clinically important arthropod-borne viral disease with increasing global incidence. Here we aimed to estimate the prevalence of dengue infections in Khanh Hoa Province, central Viet Nam, and to identify risk factors for infection. We performed a stratified cluster sampling survey including residents of 3-60 years of age in Nha Trang City, Ninh Hoa District and Dien Khanh District, Khanh Hoa Province, in October 2011. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) against dengue were analyzed using a rapid test kit. Participants completed a questionnaire exploring clinical dengue incidence, socio-economic status, and individual behavior. A household checklist was used to examine environment, mosquito larvae presence, and exposure to public health interventions. IgG positivity was 20.5% (urban, 16.3%; rural, 23.0%), IgM positivity was 6.7% (urban, 6.4%; rural, 6.9%), and incidence of clinically compatible dengue during the prior 3 months was 2.8 per 1,000 persons (urban, 1.7; rural, 3.4). For IgG positivity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-5.81) for mosquito larvae presence in water pooled in old tires and was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.75-5.46) for proximity to a densely inhabited area. For IgM positivity, the AOR was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.50-6.23) for proximity to a densely inhabited area. Our results indicated rural penetration of dengue infections. Control measures should target densely inhabited areas, and may include clean-up of discarded tires and water-collecting waste.

  13. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L. [Department of Astronomy And Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ogle, P. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Balog, Z., E-mail: yshipku@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE Rh=ct UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R h = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R h = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R h = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R h = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R h = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely

  15. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Avi; Gelkopf, Marc; Melamed, Yuval; Solomon, Zahava

    2006-01-01

    Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002), however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate). In total, 501 people (60.5%) agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS), percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic stress (TS) resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2%) were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2%) had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9%) met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4%) were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5%) who felt depressed, 50 (10.4%) felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47%) felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7%) felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity. This study

  16. European Union Import Quotas on Chinese Textile and Clothing Exports in 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ? The rational choice inspired model put forward in this paper assumes that the EU's political system is a partial asymmetrical political equilibrium in which decisions taken by decision makers are a product of a supply and demand. By using this model, it is explained how the lifting of quotas on Chinese textile...... and clothing exports to WTO members on 1 January, 2005 and the political situation surrounding the French referendum on the Constitutional Treaty on 29 May, 2005, constitute key events in the decision making process....

  17. [Sampling and measurement methods of the protocol design of the China Nine-Province Survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-liang; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng; Ellwein, Leon B; Liu, Hu

    2011-09-01

    To design the protocol of the China nine-province survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery. The protocol design was began after accepting the task for the national survey for blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgery from the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China, in November, 2005. The protocol in Beijing Shunyi Eye Study in 1996 and Guangdong Doumen County Eye Study in 1997, both supported by World Health Organization, was taken as the basis for the protocol design. The relative experts were invited to discuss and prove the draft protocol. An international advisor committee was established to examine and approve the draft protocol. Finally, the survey protocol was checked and approved by the Department of Medicine, Ministry of Health, China and Prevention Program of Blindness and Deafness, WHO. The survey protocol was designed according to the characteristics and the scale of the survey. The contents of the protocol included determination of target population and survey sites, calculation of the sample size, design of the random sampling, composition and organization of the survey teams, determination of the examinee, the flowchart of the field work, survey items and methods, diagnostic criteria of blindness and moderate and sever visual impairment, the measures of the quality control, the methods of the data management. The designed protocol became the standard and practical protocol for the survey to evaluate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment, and the prevalence and outcomes of the cataract surgery.

  18. Um modelo de otimização para alíquotas do IPTU socialmente mais justas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Delfino Sá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de otimização matemática não linear que determina novas alíquotas para o Imposto sobre a Propriedade Predial e Territorial Urbana (IPTU incidente sobre os apartamentos residenciais no município do Salvador (BA. São considerados a progressividade das alíquotas, os valores venais dos imóveis, as rendas médias dos contribuintes e as usuais metodologias de cálculo do valor do imposto. Os resultados obtidos na aplicação desse modelo demonstram ser possível tratar de forma objetiva e socialmente mais justa a definição das alíquotas de IPTU para todos os tipos de imóveis de um município.

  19. Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection among Children in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly M; Lopez, Maria R; Paniagua-Avila, Maria A; Zacarias, Alma; Samayoa-Reyes, Gabriela; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin J

    2017-09-01

    We examined burden and factors associated with norovirus (NoV) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in rural Guatemala. Children age 6 weeks to 17 years were enrolled into three AGE surveillance groups, using two-stage cluster sampling: a prospective participatory syndromic surveillance (PSS) cohort and two cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys, conducted from April 2015 to February 2016. Epidemiologic and NoV testing data were used to identify factors associated with NoV infection, AGE, and NoV+ AGE. The three cross-sectional surveys (PSS enrollment visit, RAS Survey 1, and RAS Survey 2) enrolled 1,239 children, who reported 134 (11%) AGE cases, with 20% of AGE and 11% of non-AGE samples positive for NoV. Adjusted analyses identified several modifiable factors associated with AGE and NoV infection. The cross-sectional RAS surveys were practical and cost-effective in identifying population-level risk factors for AGE and NoV, supporting their use as a tool to direct limited public health resources toward high-risk populations.

  20. A spectroscopic survey of the youngest field stars in the solar neighborhood . II. The optically faint sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Guillout, P.; Klutsch, A.; Ferrero, R. Freire; Marilli, E.; Biazzo, K.; Gandolfi, D.; Montes, D.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Star formation in the solar neighborhood is mainly traced by young stars in open clusters, associations, and in the field, which can be identified, for example, by their X-ray emission. The determination of stellar parameters for the optical counterparts of X-ray sources is crucial for a full characterization of these stars. Aims: This work extends the spectroscopic study of the RasTyc sample, obtained by the cross-correlation of the Tycho and ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalogs, to stars fainter than V = 9.5 mag and aims to identify sparse populations of young stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods: We acquired 625 high-resolution spectra for 443 presumably young stars with four different instruments in the northern hemisphere. The radial and rotational velocity (vsini) of our targets were measured by means of the cross-correlation technique, which is also helpful to discover single-lined (SB1), double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), and multiple systems. We used the code ROTFIT to perform an MK spectral classification and to determine the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) and vsini of the single stars and SB1 systems. For these objects, we used the spectral subtraction of slowly rotating templates to measure the equivalent widths of the Hα and Li I 6708 Å lines, which enabled us to derive their chromospheric activity level and lithium abundance. We made use of Gaia DR1 parallaxes and proper motions to locate the targets in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and to compute the space velocity components of the youngest objects. Results: We find a remarkable percentage (at least 35%) of binaries and multiple systems. On the basis of the lithium abundance, the sample of single stars and SB1 systems appears to be mostly ( 60%) composed of stars younger than the members of the UMa cluster. The remaining sources are in the age range between the UMa and Hyades clusters ( 20%) or older ( 20%). In total, we identify 42 very young (PMS-like) stars

  1. Obscured AGN at z similar to 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey : I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    Aims. The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z similar to 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods. A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN

  2. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB.

  3. Racial quotas in letters from readers of the “Caros Amigos” magazine: a dialogic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene de Lima Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we intend to demonstrate some results obtained in our dissertation, which was presented in the second semester of 2011. In the research, we analyzed texts from printed media inserted in a discursive chain of conflicts and clashes, a real platform for polemicconcerning the system of quotas in Brazil. Our purpose is to analyze the way in which the dialogic interactions are generated among the participants of the discursive event: how the author dialogues with the object of discourse and with the addressee, having as the basis for our work the Bakhtin Circle’s dialogical theory of discourse. The results highlight the fact that the positioning assumed by the interlocutors is built from the value attributed to its construction by the other; the clash among the interlocutors is constitutive of the utterances; and the dialogic analysis of the media utterances contributes to a better understanding of the social nature of discourse and of the themes which are relevant to society, in this case, the quotas.

  4. OPEC abandons quotas, more violence in Nigeria and British give away gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna on 11th September agreed to leave the production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd. The cartel, however, is to move away from formal quotas to a system of adjusting total production to world demand. The change recognizes the fact that many OPEC countries cannot produce their full quota allowances. The new policy is described by OPEC as trying ''to ensure that supply and demand (remain) in balance with prices at reasonable levels''. ''Reasonable levels'' were not defined in the communique, but most ministers agreed they should be in the region to $60-65/bbl. The oil markets were sceptical and prices fell below $60, reaching a seven-month low at the start of October. Nigeria announced a production cut of 120,000 bpd, though this may be a recognition of the difficulty of producing oil there at present. During September, the country was plagued by further violence in the Niger Delta, including attacks on oil workers, kidnappings and sabotage to oil installations. Oil workers went on strike for two days, threatening further walk-outs. By late September, nearly 875,000 bpd of production was estimated shut-in as a result of the current unrest. Shell said it had suspended plans to repair damaged facilities in the Niger Delta because of the continuing high level of violence. (author)

  5. Improving the collection of knowledge, attitude and practice data with community surveys: a comparison of two second-stage sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rosemary H; Valadez, Joseph J

    2014-12-01

    Second-stage sampling techniques, including spatial segmentation, are widely used in community health surveys when reliable household sampling frames are not available. In India, an unresearched technique for household selection is used in eight states, which samples the house with the last marriage or birth as the starting point. Users question whether this last-birth or last-marriage (LBLM) approach introduces bias affecting survey results. We conducted two simultaneous population-based surveys. One used segmentation sampling; the other used LBLM. LBLM sampling required modification before assessment was possible and a more systematic approach was tested using last birth only. We compared coverage proportions produced by the two independent samples for six malaria indicators and demographic variables (education, wealth and caste). We then measured the level of agreement between the caste of the selected participant and the caste of the health worker making the selection. No significant difference between methods was found for the point estimates of six malaria indicators, education, caste or wealth of the survey participants (range of P: 0.06 to >0.99). A poor level of agreement occurred between the caste of the health worker used in household selection and the caste of the final participant, (Κ = 0.185), revealing little association between the two, and thereby indicating that caste was not a source of bias. Although LBLM was not testable, a systematic last-birth approach was tested. If documented concerns of last-birth sampling are addressed, this new method could offer an acceptable alternative to segmentation in India. However, inter-state caste variation could affect this result. Therefore, additional assessment of last birth is required before wider implementation is recommended. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  7. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's. It was released for unrestricted use in 1968 following a radiological survey by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now a reserve training center for the U.S. Marine Sixth Motor Transport Battalion. The present survey was undertaken to determine whether the existing radiological status of the property is consistent with current health guidelines and radiation protection practices. The radiological survey included measurement of residual alpha and beta-gamma contamination levels, radon and radon daughter concentrations in buildings, external gamma radiation levels on the site and on adjacent property, and radium concentrations in soil on the site and on adjacent property. Surface contamination levels exceeded U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines and 222 Rn concentration levels exceeded the non-occupational maximum permissible concentration MPC/sub a/ of 3 pCi/liter in some structures. These results indicate the possible need for extensive radon and radon daughter measurements in structures both onsite and offsite over periods as suggested by the U.S. Surgeon General

  9. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; March, Marisa C.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Smith, Mathew; Kessler, Rick; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  10. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY (BELLS). I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED SAMPLE OF LENS GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Pandey, Parul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Seitz, Stella [University Observatory Munich, Scheinstrasse 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Center for Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology (PITT-PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a catalog of 25 definite and 11 probable strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens systems with lens redshifts 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.7, discovered spectroscopically by the presence of higher-redshift emission lines within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of luminous galaxies, and confirmed with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of 44 candidates. Our survey extends the methodology of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys survey (SLACS) to higher redshift. We describe the details of the BOSS spectroscopic candidate detections, our HST ACS image processing and analysis methods, and our strong gravitational lens modeling procedure. We report BOSS spectroscopic parameters and ACS photometric parameters for all candidates, and mass-distribution parameters for the best-fit singular isothermal ellipsoid models of definite lenses. Our sample to date was selected using only the first six months of BOSS survey-quality spectroscopic data. The full five-year BOSS database should produce a sample of several hundred strong galaxy-galaxy lenses and in combination with SLACS lenses at lower redshift, strongly constrain the redshift evolution of the structure of elliptical, bulge-dominated galaxies as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and rest-frame color, thereby providing a powerful test for competing theories of galaxy formation and evolution.

  11. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Fournier, Amanda P. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason, E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO{sub 2} emissions quotas market; Prevention des risques et lutte contre les pollutions. Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emissions de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  13. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  14. Sistema de cotas: um debate. Dos dados à manutenção de privilégios e de poder Quota system: a debate. From data to the conservation of privileges and power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcele Mascarenhas Queiroz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o impacto da implantação do sistema de cotas em uma universidade federal, a UFBA. Inicialmente, compara os resultados de duas pesquisas realizadas pelo DataFolha, em distintos momentos, para apontar a mudança ocorrida na percepção dos brasileiros sobre as relações raciais no país e, conseqüentemente, no debate sobre a questão. Num segundo momento, se detém no debate ocorrido na própria Instituição, no contexto da discussão sobre o sistema de cotas, para evidenciar os argumentos que aí emergiram. Examina os dados de desempenho dos estudantes nos vestibulares de 2005 e 2006, e também do seu desempenho durante o curso, nos dois primeiros semestres de 2005, comparando os cotistas e os não-cotistas, para argumentar em favor do sistema de cotas, evidenciando seu efeito para ampliar o acesso de estudantes negros oriundos do sistema público de ensino à Universidade.This article examines the implementation of quotas system in Federal University of Bahia. Initially, it compares the results of two surveys of DataFolha Institute in 2005 and 2006 to reflect the changes of perception of Brazilian people about affirmative action to blacks. Secondly, the authors emphasize the debate on quotas system between teachers in the Federal University of Bahia. The text points out the performance of students who were admitted by the quotas system during two semesters. The goal is to show how the affirmative action provoked the access of blacks students who is originating from public schools.

  15. The effect of sampling scheme in the survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania by using moss biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Bekteshi, Lirim; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania was investigated by using a carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicator. Sampling was done in the dry seasons of autumn 2010 and summer 2011. Two different sampling schemes are discussed in this paper: a random sampling scheme with 62 sampling sites distributed over the whole territory of Albania and systematic sampling scheme with 44 sampling sites distributed over the same territory. Unwashed, dried samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion, and the concentrations of metal elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and AAS (Cd and As). Twelve elements, such as conservative and trace elements (Al and Fe and As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, and Li), were measured in moss samples. Li as typical lithogenic element is also included. The results reflect local emission points. The median concentrations and statistical parameters of elements were discussed by comparing two sampling schemes. The results of both sampling schemes are compared with the results of other European countries. Different levels of the contamination valuated by the respective contamination factor (CF) of each element are obtained for both sampling schemes, while the local emitters identified like iron-chromium metallurgy and cement industry, oil refinery, mining industry, and transport have been the same for both sampling schemes. In addition, the natural sources, from the accumulation of these metals in mosses caused by metal-enriched soil, associated with wind blowing soils were pointed as another possibility of local emitting factors.

  16. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of the unused original FY 2011 TRQ... imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C...

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  18. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  19. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  20. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  1. Estimating the Costs to Consumers of the U.S. Sugar Quota: An Exercise for Introductory Economics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a classroom exercise using the restrictive tariffs on sugar to examine issues of protectionism and international trade. Discusses related issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the formation of large regional trading blocks. Includes a hands-on calculation of the economic impact of the quota on consumers. (MJP)

  2. 76 FR 59663 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub-Saharan African Countries From Regional and Third... Acceleration Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108-274; Division D, Title VI, section 6002 of the Tax Relief and Health Care... beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries. Section 112(b)(3) of TDA 2000 provides duty- and quota-free...

  3. 75 FR 1589 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... on duty- and quota-free benefits. DATES: Effective Date: January 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Stetson, International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3400. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority: Section 3103 of the Trade Act of...

  4. 77 FR 59913 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... the new 12-month cap on duty- and quota-free benefits. DATES: Effective October 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Don Niewiaroski, Jr., International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S... the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (TDA 2000), Public Law 106-200, as amended by Division B, Title...

  5. 76 FR 66915 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... on Duty and Quota Free Benefits. DATES: Effective Date: February 13, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Stetson, International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3400. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority: Section 3103 of the Trade Act of...

  6. 76 FR 66914 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Cap on Duty and Quota Free Benefits. DATES: Effective Date: October 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Stetson, International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3400. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority: Section 3103 of the Trade Act of...

  7. Quota regime for renewable energy sources and Green Labels trading in the electricity market of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillisch, J.

    1998-01-01

    The renewables quota regime combined with a ''green electricity'' labelling and trading system, implemented by the Dutch association of distribution undertakings, is the first of its kind in Europe. The distribution undertakings are bound by a commitment to take and distribute ''green label'' electricity from renewables amounting to approx. 3% of their total sales to contractual customers. This is a modest percentage, but the quota regime already proved to be a promoter of close-to-the-market generation technologies. It would be too early now to make a final statement on the quota regime's influence on enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Practice so far also revealed the need for some modifications in the design of the pricing system for''green electricity''. Current debates consider integration of renewable energy sources abroad. The first accounting date for giving evidence of compliance with the commitment to green label quotas is late in the year 2000. This will be the test for the system and the efficiency of sanctions provided for in case of non-compliance. It will be a task of the future to examine whether it might be appropriate to establish a similar system for the heat market. (RHM/CB) [de

  8. 7 CFR 718.206 - Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transferring owner and transferee shall file a signed written memorandum of understanding of the designation... allotments, quotas, and bases shall be apportioned in the manner agreed to in writing by all interested heirs... totals of the parent farm than the cropland method would; and (ii) Obtains written consent of all owners...

  9. 76 FR 1137 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion... COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA Countries From Regional Country Fabric...

  10. 75 FR 60066 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... set of Harmonized System lines listed in the Annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement on... COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA Countries From Regional Country Fabric AGENCY...

  11. Inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia: design, methods, call outcomes, costs and sample representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; van Ritten, Jason J; Steel, David G; Thackway, Sarah V

    2012-11-22

    In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-only phone users, the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into these existing landline population health surveys has not occurred. This paper describes the methods used for the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an existing ongoing landline random digit dialling (RDD) health survey in an Australian state, the New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS). This paper also compares the call outcomes, costs and the representativeness of the resultant sample to that of the previous landline sample. After examining several mobile phone pilot studies conducted in Australia and possible sample designs (screening dual-frame and overlapping dual-frame), mobile phone numbers were included into the NSWPHS using an overlapping dual-frame design. Data collection was consistent, where possible, with the previous years' landline RDD phone surveys and between frames. Survey operational data for the frames were compared and combined. Demographic information from the interview data for mobile-only phone users, both, and total were compared to the landline frame using χ2 tests. Demographic information for each frame, landline and the mobile-only (equivalent to a screening dual frame design), and the frames combined (with appropriate overlap adjustment) were compared to the NSW demographic profile from the 2011 census using χ2 tests. In the first quarter of 2012, 3395 interviews were completed with 2171 respondents (63.9%) from the landline frame (17.6% landline only) and 1224 (36.1%) from the mobile frame (25.8% mobile only). Overall combined response, contact and cooperation rates were 33.1%, 65.1% and 72.2% respectively. As expected from previous research, the demographic profile of the mobile-only phone respondents differed most (more that were young, males, Aboriginal

  12. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  13. Problemi dei contingenti all'importazione (The problem with import quotas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BARATTIERI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today trade policy and the politics of protectionism in Italy, for the most part carried out within the EEC, essentially rely on the Community system of customs duties on imported products and variable taxes on agricultural imports. However, there is also a set of domestic trade policy instruments, among which the system of quantitative import restrictions. The present article analyzes the economic, legal and practical aspects of the complex problem of the allocation of import licenses between national operators. In the first part the authors summarize the main differences between quotas and customs duties. The formulas adopted to date in Italy are then re-examined and the criteria used by the other CEE countries are referred to. Finally, the objectives identified as priorities in the field of Public Administration are specified, the main shortcomings of the current system highlighted and some changes proposed.  JEL: F13, F15

  14. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  15. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey's water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, August through September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality and water-level program between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in August 1997 to (1) collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE monitor wells, and (2) make five water-level measurements during a 2-month period from the 19 USDOE monitor wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Data from these wells are presented

  16. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the “well below 2°C” warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work’s primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2. PMID:28628676

  17. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alberto; Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the "well below 2°C" warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work's primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2.

  18. Hepatitis C bio-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs-a systematic review of sensitivity to the theoretical assumptions of respondent driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ryan; Khakoo, Salim I; Coad, Jonathan; Grellier, Leonie; Parkes, Julie

    2017-07-11

    New, more effective and better-tolerated therapies for hepatitis C (HCV) have made the elimination of HCV a feasible objective. However, for this to be achieved, it is necessary to have a detailed understanding of HCV epidemiology in people who inject drugs (PWID). Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) can provide prevalence estimates in hidden populations such as PWID. The aims of this systematic review are to identify published studies that use RDS in PWID to measure the prevalence of HCV, and compare each study against the STROBE-RDS checklist to assess their sensitivity to the theoretical assumptions underlying RDS. Searches were undertaken in accordance with PRISMA systematic review guidelines. Included studies were English language publications in peer-reviewed journals, which reported the use of RDS to recruit PWID to an HCV bio-behavioural survey. Data was extracted under three headings: (1) survey overview, (2) survey outcomes, and (3) reporting against selected STROBE-RDS criteria. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. They varied in scale (range 1-15 survey sites) and the sample sizes achieved (range 81-1000 per survey site) but were consistent in describing the use of standard RDS methods including: seeds, coupons and recruitment incentives. Twenty-seven studies (87%) either calculated or reported the intention to calculate population prevalence estimates for HCV and two used RDS data to calculate the total population size of PWID. Detailed operational and analytical procedures and reporting against selected criteria from the STROBE-RDS checklist varied between studies. There were widespread indications that sampling did not meet the assumptions underlying RDS, which led to two studies being unable to report an estimated HCV population prevalence in at least one survey location. RDS can be used to estimate a population prevalence of HCV in PWID and estimate the PWID population size. Accordingly, as a single instrument, it is a useful tool for

  19. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  20. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  1. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Sabrina; Risi, Giulia; Guerrini, Marco; Carrick, Kevin; Szajek, Anita Y; Mulloy, Barbara

    2017-07-19

    In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP's broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  2. Analysis of low birth weight and its co-variants in Bangladesh based on a sub-sample from nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Islam, Md Mazharul; Awan, Nabil; Muurlink, Olav

    2018-03-06

    Low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading global cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. This study leverages a large national survey to determine current prevalence and socioeconomic, demographic and heath related factors associated with LBW in Bangladesh. Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012-13 of Bangladesh were analyzed. A total of 2319 women for whom contemporaneous birth weight data was available and who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey were sampled for this study. However, this analysis only was able to take advantage of 29% of the total sample with 71% missing birth weight for newborns. The indicator, LBW (rates observed in Rajshahi (11%) and highest rates in Rangpur (28%). Education of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.68 for secondary or higher educated mother) and poor antenatal care (ANC) (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.90) were associated with LBW after adjusting for mother's age, parity and cluster effects. Mothers from wealthier families were less likely to give birth to an LBW infant. Further indicators that wealth continues to play a role in LBW were that place of delivery, ANC and delivery assistance by quality health workers were significantly associated with LBW. However there has been a notable fall in LBW prevalence in Bangladesh since the last comparable survey (prevalence 36%), and an evidence of possible elimination of rural/urban disparities. Low birth weight remains associated with key indicators not just of maternal poverty (notably adequate maternal education) but also markers of structural poverty in health care (notably quality ANC). Results based on this sub-sample indicate LBW is still a public health concern in Bangladesh and an integrated effort from all stakeholders should be continued and interventions based on the study findings should be devised to further reduce the risk of LBW.

  3. Ethical Considerations in HIV/AIDS Biobehavioral Surveys That Use Respondent-Driven Sampling: Illustrations From Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Khoury, Danielle; Barbir, Farah

    2009-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is especially useful for reaching hidden populations and is increasingly used internationally in public health research, particularly on HIV. Respondent-driven sampling involves peer recruitment and has a dual-incentive structure: both recruiters and their peer recruits are paid. Recent literature focusing on the ethical dimensions of this method in the US context has identified integral safeguards that protect against ethical violations. We analyzed a study of 3 groups in Lebanon who are at risk for HIV (injection drug users, men who have sex with men, female sex workers) and the ethical issues that arose. More explicit attention should be given to ethical issues involved in research implementing respondent-driven sampling of at-risk populations in developing countries, where ethical review mechanisms may be weak. PMID:19608961

  4. Nonmelanoma skin cancer visits and procedure patterns in a nationally representative sample: national ambulatory medical care survey 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysong, Ashley; Linos, Eleni; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Arron, Sarah T; Gladstone, Hayes; Tang, Jean Y

    2013-04-01

    The rising incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is well documented, but data are limited on the number of visits and treatment patterns of NMSC in the outpatient setting. To evaluate practice and treatment patterns of NMSC in the United States over the last decade and to characterize differences according to sex, age, race, insurance type, and physician specialty. Adults with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis of NMSC were included in this cross-sectional survey study of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 1995 and 2007. Primary outcomes included population-adjusted NMSC visit rates and odds ratios of receiving a procedure for NMSC using logistic regression. Rates of NMSC visits increased between 1995 and 2007. The number of visits was significantly higher in men, particularly those aged 65 and older. Fifty-nine percent of NMSC visits were associated with a procedure, and the individuals associated with that visit were more likely to be male, to be seen by a dermatologist, and to have private-pay insurance. Nonmelanoma skin cancer visit rates increased from 1995 to 2007 and were higher in men than women. Visits to a dermatologist are more likely to be associated with a procedure for NMSC, and there may be discrepancies in treatment patterns based on insurance type and sex. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An international comparison of the Ohio department of aging-resident satisfaction survey: applicability in a U.S. and Canadian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Heather A; Yamashita, Takashi; Brown, J Scott; Straker, Jane K; Baiton Wilkinson, Susan

    2013-12-01

    The majority of resident satisfaction surveys available for use in assisted living settings have been developed in the United States; however, empirical assessment of their measurement properties remains limited and sporadic, as does knowledge regarding their applicability for use in settings outside of the United States. This study further examines the psychometric properties of the Ohio Department of Aging-Resident Satisfaction Survey (ODA-RSS) and explores its applicability within a sample of Canadian assisted living facilities. Data were collected from 9,739 residential care facility (RCF) residents in Ohio, United States and 938 assisted-living residents in British Columbia, Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the instrument's psychometric properties within the 2 samples. Although the ODA-RSS appears well suited for assessing resident satisfaction in Ohio RCFs, it is less so in British Columbia assisted living settings. Adequate reliability and validity were observed for all 8 measurable instrument domains in the Ohio sample, but only 4 (Care and Services, Employee Relations, Employee Responsiveness, and Communications) in the British Columbia sample. The ODA-RSS performs best in an environment that encompasses a wide range of RCF types. In settings where greater uniformity and standardization exist, more nuanced questions may be required to detect variation between facilities. It is not sufficient to assume that rigorous development and empirical testing of a tool ensures its applicability in states or countries other than that in which it was initially developed.

  6. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the northeastern Alaska Range, Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 670 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the northeastern Alaska Range, in the Healy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, and Tanacross quadrangles, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated into the statewide geochemical

  7. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Kougarok area, Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 302 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Kougarok River drainage as well as smaller adjacent drainages in the Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated

  8. Where on earth to publish? A sample survey comparing traditional and open access publishing in the oncological field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Bravo, Elena; Camerini, Tiziana; Ferri, Maurizio; Rizzo, Roberto; Solimini, Renata; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2013-01-22

    The paper intends to help scientific authors to make the best choice of journals in which to publish, by describing and comparing journal features in the area of oncology. For this purpose, the authors identified impact factor (IF) ranking, cost options and copyright conditions offered to authors wishing to publish in full open access (OA), subscription-based or hybrid journals. Data referring to articles published in 2010 by three Italian research institutions (National Institute of Health - Rome (ISS), Regina Elena National Cancer Institute - Rome (IRE), National Cancer Institute - Milan (INT) in journals (78) managed according to different business models, all listed in the Journal Citation Reports, subject category Oncology, were collected and analysed. The journals surveyed were ranked according to IF, position in quartiles, publication charges, usage rights in published articles, self-archiving conditions in OAI-compliant repositories digital archives. Almost half (34) the journals surveyed were included in the first quartile, thus revealing authors' preference for journals with a high IF. The prevalent journal business model was the hybrid formula (based on subscriptions but also offering a paid OA option) with 51 journals, followed by subscription-based only journals accounting for 22, while just 5 full OA journals were identified. In general, no relationship was found between IF and article publication charges, in terms of correspondence between more expensive fees and higher IF. The issue of OA journals as compared with traditional subscription-based journals is highly debated among stakeholders: library administrators facing financial restrictions, authors seeking to locate the best outlet for their research, publishers wishing to increase their revenues by offering journals with wider appeal. Against this background, factors such as the quest for alternatives to high-cost business models, investments in setting up institutional repositories hosting the

  9. The association between smoking and subsequent suicide-related outcomes in the National Comorbidity Survey panel sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R C; Borges, G; Sampson, N; Miller, M; Nock, M K

    2009-12-01

    Controversy exists about whether the repeatedly documented associations between smoking and subsequent suicide-related outcomes (SROs; ideation, plans, gestures and attempts) are due to unmeasured common causes or to causal effects of smoking on SROs. We address this issue by examining associations of smoking with subsequent SROs with and without controls for potential explanatory variables in the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) panel. The latter consists of 5001 people who participated in both the 1990-2002 NCS and the 2001-2003 NCS follow-up survey. Explanatory variables include sociodemographics, potential common causes (parental history of mental-substance disorders; other respondent childhood adversities) and potential mediators (respondent history of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn, revised mental-substance disorders). Small gross (that is, without controls) prospective associations are found between history of early-onset nicotine dependence and both subsequent suicide ideation and, among ideators, subsequent suicide plans. None of the baseline smoking measures, though, predicts subsequent suicide gestures or attempts among ideators. The smoking-ideation association largely disappear, but the association of early-onset nicotine dependence with subsequent suicide plans persists (odds ratio=3.0), after adjustment for control variables. However, the latter association is as strong with remitted as active nicotine dependence, arguing against a direct causal effect of nicotine dependence on suicide plans. Decomposition of the control variable effects, furthermore, suggests that these effects are due to common causes more than to mediators. These results refine our understanding of the ways in which smoking is associated with later SROs and for the most part argue against the view that these associations are due to causal effects of smoking.

  10. Methodology of the fasting sub-sample from the Mexican Health Survey, 2000 Metodología de la submuestra de suero de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Barquera; Citlalli Carrión; Ismael Campos; Juan Espinosa; Juan Rivera; Gustavo Olaiz-Fernández

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the comparative results of the sub-sample of fasting adults selected for the biochemical measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and the rest of the Mexican Health Survey (MHS) (2000) participants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The nationally representative, cross-sectional Mexican Health Survey (2000) was analyzed. Survey participants reporting a fasting state period of 9- to 12-h were included in a sub-sample (n= 2 535) and compared with all other participants (n= 41 126). P...

  11. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  12. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults: a cross-cultural survey of Israeli Jewish and Arab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari; Siam, Ihab; Odlaug, Brian L; Mandelkorn, Uri; Feldman-Weisz, Vera; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-04-01

    We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis. Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings. The lifetime prevalence of SPD was 5.4% in the total sample; it did not differ between genders or within Jewish and Arab subsamples. Severity of depression (pcross-cultural variation in the correlates of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality differences between users of wine, beer and spirits in a community sample: the Winnipeg Health and Drinking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Darcy; Murray, Robert P; Barnes, Gordon E

    2003-09-01

    To date there are many studies describing the protective and risk factors associated with alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health (the U- or J-shaped curve). These studies have only accounted for part of the effects. One hypothesis is that personality differences may account for some of the unexplained variance. It is also unclear if wine, beer and distilled spirits have equivalent effects on health. The purpose of this study is to describe the differences in personality among users of wine, beer and spirits. Data were from a community sample of 1,257 men and women in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, that was first enrolled in 1989-90. We examined and compared the demographic and personality characteristics of wine, beer and spirits drinkers in this sample. The groups differed significantly on the dimensions of extraversion, psychoticism and reducer-augmenter in univariate tests. In multivariate models, for the total sample and for females, predominant drinking of wine was associated with low scores on the Vando scale (augmenters). Higher consumption of beer among males was associated with higher levels of neuroticism. In these instances, personality does contribute to the characterization of groups.

  14. Estimating 137Cs ingestion doses to Saamis in Kautokeino (Norway) using whole body counting vs. dietary survey results and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Bergan, T.; Mehli, H.

    2002-01-01

    From 1965 to 1990 whole body measurements were carried out on an annual basis. Since then, 3-year cycles have been followed. In most years, the reindeer keepers have provided samples of reindeer meat for radiocaesium analysis. In 1989-1990 and 1999 dietary surveys were performed in conjunction with the whole-body monitoring. Earlier diet information is available from a separate study in 1963. Rough estimates of the radiocaesium intake by the studied population in Kautokeino have indicated that the dietary surveys have overestimated the radiocaesium intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the available information from Kautokeino, and to derive some conclusions regarding the reindeer meat consumption by today's reindeer keepers, and what 137 Cs ingestion doses they are exposed to. (LN)

  15. A Survey of occurrence of toxogenic fungi and mycotoxins in pig feed samples-Use in evaluation of risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milicevic

    Full Text Available In order to assess of risk assessment, the aim of this paper was to provide good and detailed insight into the level of contamination of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine from mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins (n=18. Isolation and quantitative enumeration of fungal propagules were done on solid media using the standard microbiological procedure. These plates were incubated the number of colonies was determined and thent on the basis of characteristic colonies and microscopic analysis was performed to identify genera and species of moulds. Isolates identified as Aspergillus and Penicillium species were subjected to molecular characterization of the presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of OTA (polyketide synthase gene-PKS. Total fungal counts (CFU/g ranged from 0,5x105 do 4x106. From a total samples analysed, seven samples had fungal counts higher than the limit established by Serbian regulations (3x105. During a mycological analysis of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine, a total of six genera and 14 species of moulds were identified of which the most frequent one was of the genus Penicillium (94,4% while the moulds from Fusarium genere isolated in 55,5% and Paecilomyces in 44,4% of the samples from investigated localities. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus (22%, Mycor (11,1% and Alternaria (5,5% were represented in a less amount. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a set of 18 isolates of the DNA belonging to families Penicillium and Aspergillus. The sequences of PCR reaction products in three samples were compared with nucleotide sequences of genes for poliketid synthase (PKS from Penicillium species and found that the samples possess PKS sequence. The traditional methods for identification of ochratoxin-producing fungi are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Rapid and specific detection of ochratoxinproducing fungi is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of feed and food

  16. Paid employment and common mental disorders in 50-64-year olds: analysis of three cross-sectional nationally representative survey samples in 1993, 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, G; Di Gessa, G; Corna, L M; Glaser, K; Stewart, R

    2017-08-24

    Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome - both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.

  17. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kelleci, Meral; Dogan, Selma

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the job satisfaction, coping strategies, personal and organizational characteristics among nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey design study, 186 nurses from Cumhuriyet University Hospital completed Personal Data Form, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ways of Coping Inventory. Response rate was 74.4%. In this study, it was found that job satisfaction score of nurses showed moderate (mean: 3.46+/-0.56) was found. While nurses mostly used to employ self-confident and optimistic approaches that had already being considered as positive coping strategies with stress, yielding and helpless approaches were employed less than that. While a statistically significant positive relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of Ways of Coping Inventory "self-confident approach" and "optimistic approach", negative relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of the "helpless approach". Organizational and individual nurse characteristics were not found to be associated with job satisfaction. But, job satisfaction of the nurses who is bounded by a contract was found higher than that of permanent staff nurses (pjob satisfaction of Turkish hospital nurses was at a moderate and that of the nurses who succeeded to coping with the stress was heightened. Higher levels of job satisfaction were associated with positive coping strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of coping strategies to nurses' job satisfaction.

  18. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yu Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  19. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  20. Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. Objective Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. Methods Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. Results The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. Conclusions The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes. PMID:27261155

  1. Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas; Mackey, Sean

    2016-06-03

    We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes.

  2. Public and private in italian health care: trends and market quotas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Michela Gianino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The Italian healthcare system has two components: public and private healthcare providers. Both deliver services on behalf of and payable by the national health care service. This study explores therelationships between public and private healthcare providers.

    Methods: The number of hospital admissions and length of stay or number of times the service was accessed stratified by year 2000, 2001, 2002; DRG; type of hospital admission (ordinary or day hospital/surgery; health provider category: public institutions without a specific reference territory, public institutions with a specific reference territory and accredited private institutions and medical or surgery DRGs. A distinction is made between those DRGs defined as belonging to the private sector and those falling within the public sector, assuming there is a majority market portion for services primarily supplied by the private sector. Case-mix index was utelised as the indicator for the complexity of the cases treated and the comparative performance index was used as the indicator for efficiency. Lastly in order to evaluate the services delivered with an inappropriate organizational profile reference is made the rulings defining Essential Level of assistance.

    Results: The results showed a shift in the reallocation of service volumes for ordinary admissions towards the private sector; the reallocation relates to the volumes but not to the types of cases treated, since the DRG mix remained substantially unchanged over the 3-year period and those DRG that absorb 51% of services were essentially constant. The private sector never achieved a market majority quota but rather controlled market niches with minority quotas. The private institutions treated less complex cases and worked with lower efficiency levels than the public sector. There was also a shift in the distribution of admissions from ordinary admissions to

  3. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  4. Incentivising selective fishing under catch quotas: using an FCube modelling approach to evaluate management options for North Sea mixed fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condie, Harriet M.; Dolder, Paul J.; Catchpole, Thomas L.

    Reforms of EU Common Fisheries Policy will make fundamental changes to European fisheries management, including a discard ban with catch quotas for regulated species and management to achieve MSY. We evaluate the impact of these changes on revenue of North Sea demersal finfish fleets and fish...... stocks. With no change in behaviour, revenue is reduced by a mean of 31% compared to current management in the first year, but partly recovers by year 3, as fishing mortality is reduced and stocks increase. There are large differences in revenue changes between fleets, varying from -99% to +36...... in revenue create a strong incentive to avoid catching the limiting species, particularly if it is not a primary target. Selectivity changes that avoid 30% cod catch reduced the economic impact for some fleets in moving to catch quotas. Increased flexibility will therefore be important in maintaining...

  5. Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.; Bout, J. van-den; Bootsma, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

  6. Survey and visual detection of Zaire ebolavirus in clinical samples targeting the nucleoprotein gene in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever with a high risk of death in humans and other primates. To guide treatment and prevent spread of the viral infection, a rapid and sensitive detection method is required for clinical samples. Here, we described and evaluated a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP method to detect Zaire ebolavirus using the nucleoprotein gene (NP as a target sequence. Two different techniques were used, a calcein/Mn2+ complex chromogenic method and real-time turbidity monitoring. The RT-LAMP assay detected the NP target sequence with a limit of 4.56 copies/μL within 45 min under 61°C, a similar even or increase in sensitivity than that of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Additionally, all pseudoviral particles or non- Zaire EBOV genomes were negative for LAMP detection, indicating that the assay was highly specific for EBOV. To appraise the availability of the RT-LAMP method for use in clinical diagnosis of EBOV, of 417 blood or swab samples collected from patients with clinically suspected infections in Sierra Leone, 307 were identified for RT-LAMP-based surveillance of EBOV. Therefore, the highly specific and sensitive RT-LAMP method allows the rapid detection of EBOV, and is a suitable tool for clinical screening, diagnosis, and primary quarantine purposes.

  7. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda - a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Wolfgang; Baughman, Andrew L; Serwadda, David; Tappero, Jordan W; Kwezi, Rachel; Nakato, Namakula D; Barker, Joseph

    2017-06-10

    Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37%) and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two thirds (65%) of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19%) FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  8. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent-driven sampling survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW. Methods We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. Results A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37% and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI. Two thirds (65% of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19% FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. Conclusions One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  9. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey's water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, June through September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality and water-level program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in June 1996 to develop six new USDOE observation wells, collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE observation wells, and take monthly water-level measurements for a 3-month period in all 19 USDOE observation wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Thirteen of the observation wells were installed by HWS Consulting Group, Inc., in June 1993 and the remaining six were installed by Applied Research Associates in August 1995

  10. Use of Lot quality assurance sampling surveys to evaluate community health worker performance in rural Zambia: a case of Luangwa district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Moses; Zulu, Japhet; Topp, Stephanie M; Musonda, Patrick; Mutale, Wilbroad; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-04-17

    The Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at reducing age-standardized mortality rates in three rural districts through involvement of Community Health Workers (CHWs), Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs), and Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs). CHWs conduct quarterly surveys on all households using a questionnaire that captures key health events occurring within their catchment population. In order to validate contact with households, we utilize the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology. In this study, we report experiences of applying the LQAS approach to monitor performance of CHWs in Luangwa District. Between April 2011 and December 2013, seven health facilities in Luangwa district were enrolled into the BHOMA project. The health facility catchment areas were divided into 33 geographic zones. Quality assurance was performed each quarter by randomly selecting zones representing about 90% of enrolled catchment areas from which 19 households per zone where also randomly identified. The surveys were conducted by CHW supervisors who had been trained on using the LQAS questionnaire. Information collected included household identity number (ID), whether the CHW visited the household, duration of the most recent visit, and what health information was discussed during the CHW visit. The threshold for success was set at 75% household outreach by CHWs in each zone. There are 4,616 total households in the 33 zones. This yielded a target of 32,212 household visits by community health workers during the 7 survey rounds. Based on the set cutoff point for passing the surveys (at least 75% households confirmed as visited), only one team of CHWs at Luangwa high school failed to reach the target during round 1 of the surveys; all the teams otherwise registered successful visits in all the surveys. We have employed the LQAS methodology for assurance that quarterly surveys were

  11. Structuring a Multiproduct Sales Quota-Bonus Plan for a Heterogeneous Sales Force: A Practical Model-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Murali K. Mantrala; Prabhakant Sinha; Andris A. Zoltners

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an agency theoretic model-based approach that assists sales managers in determining the profit-maximizing structure of a common multiproduct sales quota-bonus plan for a geographically specialized heterogeneous sales force operating in a repetitive buying environment. This approach involves estimating each salesperson's utility function for income and effort and using these models to predict individual sales achievements and the associated aggregate profit for the firm und...

  12. Gender balance on company boards: a summary from a research project about the impact of the Norwegian gender quota legislation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes main findings from the research project: Effects of gender balance in corporate boards. The project is financed by the Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion. The report consists of nine chapters. The introductory chapter will provide key information about the gender quota legislation, as well as describe the policy process that led to the gender balance legislation; the second chapter will present some of the existing research on the gender balance regulat...

  13. Reexamining the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey for Parents of Young Children in a Sample of Children Using Insulin Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susana R; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Dolan, Lawrence M; Powers, Scott W

    2017-02-01

    We update the psychometric properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-Parents of Young Children (HFS-PYC), a 26-item measure of parents' hypoglycemia fear for young children using an insulin pump. We combined three similar datasets for the analyses. The data analyzed included parents' responses to the HFS-PYC and a demographic form. For a subset of children (n = 91), we also analyzed self-monitoring of blood glucose data. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the measure's original factor structure. Additional analyses examined reliability and validity of a revised HFS-PYC for parents of young children using pumps. We analyzed data from 116 parents (93% mothers). Mean child age and HbA1c were 5.2 ± 1.3 years and 8.2% ± 1.1%, respectively. CFA identified a 22-item two-factor solution (χ 2 (208, n = 116) = 368.688, P 0.65). Correlations revealed significant negative associations between current HFS-PYC worry scores and children's mean daily blood glucose and percent of very high glucose levels per day, suggesting less fear among parents of young children with elevated glycemic levels. In addition, there was a positive association with the percent of glucose levels in target, suggesting greater hypoglycemia fear among parents of children who have better control. Results provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a reduced 22-item HFS-PYC for parents of children using insulin pumps.

  14. Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%, who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ≥ 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month. Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2 of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358

  15. Implementing a system of emissions trading to manage GHGs; La mise en oeuvre des systemes de quotas d'emission echangeables dans la gestion des emissions de GES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, A. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    The exact geographical location of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has no bearing on climate change. In this context the Kyoto Protocol recognizes mechanisms of flexibility for countries to attain their GHG emissions reductions. Emission trading takes advantage of this flexibility, allowing GHGs to be sold, traded, or stockpiled. An emission quota allows the owner of an energy facility to emit a certain amount of GHGs throughout the year. If this quota is not used, it can be stockpiled for the following year or it could be traded to another enterprise and owner. If the amount of emissions exceeds the initial quotas, facilities can adopt different strategies, such as reducing their GHG purchasing quotas from national enterprises that have reduced their emissions or purchase quotas from international markets. The initial allocation of quotas is an important political decision since it determines the initial distribution of the GHG reduction effort. The establishment of a quota system can contribute to economical competition and can be used to fulfill environmental objectives regarding energy source development. It is also the most effective way to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and the associated environmental impacts. This paper reviewed the regulations regarding the design of the quota system; how the ceiling of emission levels was determined; the criteria for allocating the quotas and the rules for the exchange of emission quotas. Canada and the European countries have expressed interest in this system of emissions trading. 7 refs.

  16. Quick survey for detection, identification and characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes from some selected soil and water samples in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Tanveer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen which is widely distributed in nature and plays a pivotal role in ecosystem. Acanthamoeba species may cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba in soil and water resources of Pakistan. Here, Acanthamoeba were recovered on non-nutrient agar plate lawn with E.coli and identified by morphological characteristics of the cyst. Furthermore PCR was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Overall our PCR and sequencing results confirmed pathogenic genotypes including T4 and T15 from both soil and water samples. This is our first report of Acanthamoeba isolation from both soil and water resources of Pakistan which may serve as a potential treat to human health across the country.

  17. A prospective survey of Aspergillus spp. in respiratory tract samples: prevalence, clinical impact and antifungal susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K L; Johansen, H K; Fuursted, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    for routine microbiologic investigation were examined for Aspergillus following routine procedures and with extended incubation (5 days). Identification was done by morphologic criteria and susceptibility testing using EUCAST method for azoles and amphotericin B E-test. Invasive aspergillosis (IA......) was evaluated using modified EORTC/MSG criteria. A total of 11,368 airway samples were received. Growth of Aspergillus spp. was found in 129 and 151 patients using routine and extended incubation, respectively. Three patients had proven IA (2%), 11 probable (7%), four had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis...... μg/ml (3/112 A. fumigatus, 1/2 A. terreus). In conclusion, Aspergillus appears to be an important pathogen in Denmark. Elevated itraconazole MICs were detected in 4% of the isolates including a multi-azole resistant isolate....

  18. Novel approach to systematic random sampling in population surveys: Lessons from the United Arab Emirates National Diabetes Study (UAEDIAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Fikri, Mahmoud; Madani, Abdulrazzag; Mairghani, Maisoon; Alawadi, Fatheya; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has risen rapidly in the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf Region. However, some prevalence estimates have not fully accounted for large migrant worker populations and have focused on minority indigenous populations. The objectives of the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study are to: (i) define the prevalence of, and risk factors for, T2DM; (ii) describe the distribution and determinants of T2DM risk factors; (iii) study health knowledge, attitudes, and (iv) identify gene-environment interactions; and (v) develop baseline data for evaluation of future intervention programs. Given the high burden of diabetes in the region and the absence of accurate data on non-UAE nationals in the UAE, a representative sample of the non-UAE nationals was essential. We used an innovative methodology in which non-UAE nationals were sampled when attending the mandatory biannual health check that is required for visa renewal. Such an approach could also be used in other countries in the region. Complete data were available for 2719 eligible non-UAE nationals (25.9% Arabs, 70.7% Asian non-Arabs, 1.1% African non-Arabs, and 2.3% Westerners). Most were men < 65 years of age. The response rate was 68%, and the non-response was greater among women than men; 26.9% earned less than UAE Dirham (AED) 24 000 (US$6500) and the most common areas of employment were as managers or professionals, in service and sales, and unskilled occupations. Most (37.4%) had completed high school and 4.1% had a postgraduate degree. This novel methodology could provide insights for epidemiological studies in the UAE and other Gulf States, particularly for expatriates. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  20. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Haines area, Juneau and Skagway quadrangles, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 212 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Chilkat, Klehini, Tsirku, and Takhin river drainages, as well as smaller drainages flowing into Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets near Haines, Skagway Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska. Additionally some samples were also chosen from the Juneau gold belt, Juneau Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical