WorldWideScience

Sample records for quota sampling surveys

  1. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  2. The interdependence of family functioning and problematic internet use in a representative quota sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kammerl, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Moritz; Hirschhäuser, Lena; Hein, Sandra; Schwinge, Christiane; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Rainer, Thomasius

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out investigating the interdependence of family structures or interactions and excessive adolescent Internet use. In this study, we surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,744 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years with standardized questionnaires. Adolescents assessed their perceived own functioning in the family with the Self-Rating Scale (FB-S) of the German version of the Family Assessment Measure III, and reported on problematic Internet use with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). To predict problematic Internet use (CIUS summary score), we conducted a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the seven FB-S scales, the FB-S overall index, and gender and age as explanatory variables. For the full sample, a model with only one predictor (FB-S overall index) that summarizes the quality of family functioning produced a corrected coefficient of determination of 0.239 and explained variance of nearly 24%. t Test results for unpaired samples showed significant differences in the mean values of the FB-S scales and the FB-S overall index for comparisons of both sexes, as well as of a lower age group and higher age group. The prediction of problematic Internet use between both sexes and both age groups showed comparable findings (males: corrected coefficient of determination=0.288; females: corrected coefficient of determination=0.183; lower age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.231; higher age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.251), each with a single predictor (FB-S overall index). The results emphasize the importance of family functioning for the occurrence of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  3. Quota Sampling as an Alternative to Probability Sampling? An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Keming; Banamah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the establishment of probability sampling methods since the 1930s, non-probability sampling methods have remained popular among many commercial and polling agents, and they have also survived the embarrassment from a few incorrect predictions in American presidential elections. The increase of costs and the decline of response rates for administering probability samples have led some survey researchers to search for a non-probability sampling method as an alternative to probabilit...

  4. Textiles Quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai launched China’s first electronic trading platform for textiles export licenses yesterday, allowing firms to easily sell or buy quotas. The platform (www.e-tj.cn) is aimed at raising efficiency and curb-

  5. CBP Quota Bulletins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Quota information is issued for the trade community by the Quota Enforcement Administration Branch within the Office of International Trade. The Quota Bulletins have...

  6. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  7. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  8. The rise of survey sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the history of survey sampling. It describes how sampling became an accepted scientific method. From the first ideas in 1895 it took some 50 years before the principles of probability sampling were widely accepted. This papers has a focus on developments in official statistics in

  9. The rise of survey sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the history of survey sampling. It describes how sampling became an accepted scientific method. From the first ideas in 1895 it took some 50 years before the principles of probability sampling were widely accepted. This papers has a focus on developments in official statistics in

  10. Cataloging Productivity Quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Eleanor R.

    The author raises some philosophical and practical objections to establishing cataloging productivity quotas. They are unlikely to have any significant impact when used as planning and evaluation tools by management. Quotas would be counterproductive in a profession that does not lend itself to quantification and places an emphasis on quality of…

  11. Board Directors' Selection Process Following a Gender Quota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    The 2008 financial crisis in Iceland was triggered by poor governance of three of the country’s major banks and resulted in new corporate governance regulations including a 40% gender quota for the boards of all state-owned enterprises, publicly traded enterprises, and public and private limited......-quota selection of new board directors as well as the attitudes of board members towards the quota and perceptions of the effect of quota on processes. We incorporate a dual qualitative and quantitative methodology with in-depth interviews with 20 board directors and chairs, and a survey of 260 directors who...

  12. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... as pure learning, i.e. quota reallocation without catching-up is as valuable as learning best practice with fixed allocations....

  13. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  14. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input and...

  15. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  16. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  17. Errors depending on costs in sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Marella, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    "This paper presents a total survey error model that simultaneously treats sampling error, nonresponse error and measurement error. The main aim for developing the model is to determine the optimal allocation of the available resources for the total survey error reduction. More precisely, the paper is concerned with obtaining the best possible accuracy in survey estimate through an overall economic balance between sampling and nonsampling error." (author's abstract)

  18. Quota Monitoring Reports Survey (Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains summarized pounds of select coastal fish species bought by selected federally permitted seafood dealers in the SE Region of the US mainland....

  19. Statistical literacy and sample survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  20. 21 CFR 1303.12 - Procurement quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement quotas. 1303.12 Section 1303.12 Food... Procurement Quotas § 1303.12 Procurement quotas. (a) In order to determine the estimated needs for, and to... Administrator shall issue procurement quotas authorizing persons to procure and use quantities of each...

  1. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  2. Application of Sampling Methods to Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@There are two kinds of research methods in geological observation study. One is the remote-sensing observation. The other is the partial sampling method extensively used in every stage of the geological work, for example, in arranging the lines and points of geologic survey, and in arranging the exploration engineering. Three problems may occur in practical application of the sampling method: (1) Though we use the partial sampling method in geological work, we must make use of many labor powers, materials and money to accomplish the geological task. Is the method we use appropriate to some special geological task? (2) How many samples or observation points should be appropriate to the geological research?

  3. Sampling approaches for extensive surveys in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, J C; Ferris, H

    1992-12-01

    Extensive surveys of the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes over large geographic areas provide useful data of unknown reliability. Time, cost, and logistical constraints may limit the sampling intensity that can be invested at any survey site. We developed a computer program to evaluate the probability of detection and the reliability of population estimates obtained by different strategies for collecting one sample of 10 cores from a field. We used data from two fields that had been sampled systematically and extensively as the basis for our analyses. Our analyses indicate that, at least for those two fields, it is possible to have a high probability of detecting the presence of nematode species and to reliably estimate abundance, with a single 10-core soil sample from a field. When species were rare or not uniformly distributed in a field, the probability of detection and reliability of the population estimate were correlated with the distance between core removal sites. Increasing the prescribed distance between cores resulted in the composite sample representing a wider range of microenvironments in the field.

  4. The Export Quotas for Next Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the 2006 export quotas for some metals commodities. According to the document, China’s export quotas for tungsten and its products will be 15,800 tons. For antimony and its products, the quotas will be

  5. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quota year. 996.17 Section 996.17 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year. Quota year means the 12-month period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of the same year for...

  6. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne Winther; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based...... on a survey of all Danish municipalities that had received quota refugees after 1 January 2007. A questionnaire was designed on the background of preliminary research. A total of 49 of the 58 includable respondents returned the questionnaire, which yielded a response rate of 84%. RESULTS: We found that 49...

  7. Quota Prices - Analysis and Reporting on Pacific Groundfish IFQ Quota Market

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The transfer of quota pounds and quota shares between participants in the Pacific Groundfish IFQ plays a critical role in facilitating fuller and more efficient...

  8. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  9. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare....

  10. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition...

  11. The Application of the Minimum Food Security Quota (MFS-Quota): Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the uses of the Minimum Food Security Quota (MFS-Quota) by Ruiz Estrada (2010). Consequently, the MFS-Quota was applied on the case of Malaysia. The main objective of the MFS-Quota is to calculate the approximate amount of annual food storage that any country needs to prepare for a potential natural disaster or social conflict. Moreover, any country is able to build its own MFS-Quota according to their agriculture production system(s) and its food national policy focus res...

  12. SAS procedures for designing and analyzing sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Complex surveys often are necessary to estimate occurrence (or distribution), density, and abundance of plants and animals for purposes of re-search and conservation. Most scientists are familiar with simple random sampling, where sample units are selected from a population of interest (sampling frame) with equal probability. However, the goal of ecological surveys often is to make inferences about populations over large or complex spatial areas where organisms are not homogeneously distributed or sampling frames are in-convenient or impossible to construct. Candidate sampling strategies for such complex surveys include stratified,multistage, and adaptive sampling (Thompson 1992, Buckland 1994).

  13. The Silver Export Quota for 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the first lot of silver export quota for 2005. According to report, the first lot of silver export quota amounts to 2,443 tons which is 252 tons more on 2004 basis. There are 37 en-

  14. A NEW METHOD FOR INCREASING PRECISIONIN SURVEY SAMPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯士雍; 邹国华

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for increasing the precision in survey sampling, i.e., a method combining sampling with prediction. The two cases where auxiliary information is or not available are considered. A numerical example is given.

  15. Practical Tools for Designing and Weighting Survey Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Richard; Dever, Jill A.; Kreuter, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least…

  16. Practical Tools for Designing and Weighting Survey Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Richard; Dever, Jill A.; Kreuter, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least…

  17. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Ming Yan; Jian-Wei Guo; Bin Wang; Xiao-Peng Zhang; Peter Wonka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  18. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  20. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  1. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  2. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year, fix...

  3. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an individual...

  4. Taxes versus quotas for a stock pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Michael [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, N-0317 OSLO (Norway); Karp, Larry [Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of Berkeley, 207 Giannini Hall, 94720 Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    We compare the effects of taxes and quotas for an environmental problem where the regulator and polluter have asymmetric information about abatement costs, and environmental damage depends on pollution stock. An increase in the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve, or a decrease in the slope of the marginal damage curve, favors taxes. An increase in the discount rate or the stock decay rate favors tax usage. Taxes dominate quotas if the length of a period during which decisions are constant is sufficiently small. An empirical illustration suggests that taxes dominate quotas for the control of greenhouse gasses.

  5. Dynamic Taxes and Quotas with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Larry

    2004-01-01

    We compare dynamic taxes and quotas in a stationary environment where a regulator and a non-strategic firm have asymmetric information. The regulator is able to learn about the unknown cost parameter either by using a tax or a quota that is slack with positive probability. With a tax, the information asymmetry is resolved in one period. Optimal learning using a quota is less transparent, though we show that this search problem has a simple solution. In particular, it is never optimal for the ...

  6. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  7. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  8. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  9. 50 CFR 622.42 - Quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., subject to the closure provisions of §§ 622.34(l) and 622.43(a)(1)(i). (ii) Deep-water groupers (DWG...) Shallow-water groupers (SWG) have a combined quota as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(A) of this... this section that was unused, will become void and will not be added to any subsequent quota. (5) Black...

  10. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. INDIRECT SAMPLING in the CONTEXT of DUAL FRAME SURVEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Maia; Paula Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Under-coverage is one of the most common problems of sampling frames. To reduce the impact of coverage error on survey estimates several frames can be combined in order to achieve a complete (or nearly complete) coverage of the target population. Multiple frame estimators have been developed to be used in the context of multiple frame surveys. Sampling frames may overlap which is the case when a single unit of the sampling frame is related with more than one element of the target population. ...

  12. Disproportionate sampling for population subgroups in telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, William D; Boyle, Walter R; Agans, Robert P; White, John E

    2007-04-15

    Population studies often seek to examine phenomena in important population subgroups or to compare results among these and other subgroups. When subgroups of interest comprise a relatively small percentage of the population and acceptable subgroup member lists are not available to serve as sampling frames, it may be prohibitively expensive even by telephone to screen through a sample of the entire population. This paper considers some statistical effects of estimation from a class of two-stratum telephone sample designs where part of the frame with a higher subgroup concentration is disproportionately sampled compared to the rest of the frame. Using proportionate sampling as a reference, the relative impact of this disproportionate design is determined for nominal and effective sample sizes, where the latter are tied to the effect of variation in sample weights that occurs in disproportionately allocated samples. Findings are illustrated using two recent telephone surveys. Whereas nominal subgroup sample sizes may be improved by disproportionate sampling, we conclude that both the survey designer and analyst should use this type of design cautiously in telephone surveys.

  13. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  14. AKRO/SF: Community Development Quota (CDQ) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program allocates a percentage of all Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands quotas for groundfish, prohibited species,...

  15. Gender Quotas on Board of Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina

    2013-01-01

    on the grounds of economic efficiency. Furthermore, in most countries a limited number of women are qualified to join boards of directors, and it is not clear from the evidence to date on the operation of quotas whether they will lead to a better pool of female candidates in the medium and long term.......Beside arguments of fairness and equal opportunities, it is often argued that gender diversity on boards of directors may improve firm performance, but the empirical results are mixed and often negative. Based on the available research, gender quotas on boards of directors cannot be justified...

  16. Incumbents’ interests, voters’ bias and gender quotas

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of gender quotas inpart y lists has beena voluntary decision by many parties in many countries, and is now a subject of discussioninman y others. The Parity Low passed inF rance in 2001 is particularly interesting because for the first time the quota was set at 50 percent, and the deputies passing the reform are elected in single member districts. In this paper we rationalize parity onthe basis of the self interest of male incumbent deputies: The existence of a voters' bias in fa...

  17. Adaptation of the methodology of sample surveys for marketing researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev Andrey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the theory of adaptation of sample survey for the purposes of marketing, that allows to answer the fundamental question of any marketing research – how many objects should be studied for drawing adequate conclusions.

  18. 7 CFR 1463.107 - Payment to eligible quota holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to eligible quota holders. 1463.107 Section... PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.107 Payment to eligible quota holders. (a) The total amount of contract payments that may be made to an eligible quota holder shall be the product obtained...

  19. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103... Transition Payment Program § 1463.103 Eligible quota holder. (a) CCC will make a payment under this subpart to a person determined by CCC to be an eligible quota holder, as defined in § 1463.102. (b)...

  20. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for ...... for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar....

  1. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  2. Dietary practices of quota and non-quota students at a Brazilian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Patrícia Maria Périco; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Franco, Amanda da Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Wolkoff, Daisy Blumenberg

    2016-02-01

    Dietary practices of college students were described and examined according to the means by which they were admitted to the university (quota and non-quota students). A cross-sectional study was conducted with undergraduates (n = 1336) at a public university using a self-administered and identified questionnaire that inquired about their habits of eating breakfast and substituting lunch and/or dinner with snacks as well as the regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy and unhealthy eating. Analysis of the association between means of admission to the university and dietary practices was done using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. It was observed that significant proportions of the students did not eat breakfast; substituted dinner with snacks; had low fruit, vegetable and bean consumption; and frequently consumed sugary beverages, sweets, cookies and packaged salty snacks. The quota students were found to more frequently consume beans, cookies and packaged salty snacks and less frequently substitute dinner with snacks and consume vegetables and fruits. Quota and non-quota students had some similarities in their dietary practices that were unhealthy. The differences observed between the two groups were largely more unfavorable for the quota students, with the exception of bean consumption.

  3. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  5. Penrose voting system and optimal quota

    CERN Document Server

    Slomczynski, W; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-01-01

    Systems of indirect voting based on the principle of qualified majority can be analysed using the methods of game theory. In particular, this applies to the voting system in the Council of the European Union, which was recently a subject of a vivid political discussion. The a priori voting power of a voter measures his potential influence over the decisions of the voting body under a given decision rule. We investigate a system based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (the voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. Here we demonstrate that for a generic distribution of the population there exists an optimal quota for which the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. The optimal quota is shown to decrease with the number of voting countries.

  6. Penrose Voting System and Optimal Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomczynski, W.; Zyczkowski, K.

    2006-11-01

    Systems of indirect voting based on the principle of qualified majority can be analysed using the methods of game theory. In particular, this applies to the voting system in the Council of the European Union, which was recently a subject of a vivid political discussion. The {ITALIC a priori} voting power of a voter measures his potential influence over the decisions of the voting body under a given decision rule. We investigate a system based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (the voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. Here we demonstrate that for a generic distribution of the population there exists an optimal quota for which the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. The optimal quota is shown to decrease with the number of voting countries.

  7. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation, bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS, and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008 during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe were the lowest (0.5–1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–8 μmol Fe:mol C, followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3–7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17–57 μmol Fe:mol C, and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8–21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–136 μmol Fe:mol C. During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272, the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate organic elements (C, N, P, Si and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277. Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  8. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. King

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation, bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS, and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008 during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe were the lowest (0.5–1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–8 μmol Fe:mol C, followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3–7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17–57 μmol Fe:mol C, and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8–21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4–136 μmol Fe:mol C. During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272, the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277. Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  9. Tradable emission quotas in Scandinavia; Omsettelige utslippskvoter i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the trading of emission quotas of greenhouse gases in Scandinavia. It begins with a study of the experience with quotas of SO{sub 2} and other emissions in U.S.A., with tradable fish quotas in Iceland and New Zealand and with tradable production quotas for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). It then sketches possible systems, structure and actors for a Scandinavian quota system. One of the motivations behind a Scandinavian quota system is that tradable quotas can be a cost-effective instrument and help reduce the costs of emission reductions in Scandinavia. Another motivation would be that it would help to solve the problems caused by the considerable weather-induced variation in the CO{sub 2} emissions from the power sector. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases is a responsibility of the national governments. If it is undesirable that individual actors should trade quotas of their own accord, then intergovernmental trade with quotas may be coupled to the use of other means within each country to keep the country`s total quota within its limit. A system including private actors must meet some basic requirements to work well: (1) it must have a sufficiently large number of actors with different measure costs, (2) it must be trusted by all depending on it, (3) it must be flexible, and (4) it must impose upon the trade as few restrictions as possible. The system should include most of the greenhouse gases, not only CO{sub 2}. It may be useful, however, to start with a simple system comprising only CO{sub 2} emission and the report is essentially restricted to CO{sub 2}. Three different quota systems are discussed, their initial distribution and time horizons. The origin of a market for quota trading, control measures and management of the quota system are also discussed. 18 refs.

  10. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  11. An optimal survey geometry of weak lensing survey: minimizing super-sample covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Ryuichi; Takada, Masahiro; Kayo, Issha

    2014-01-01

    Upcoming wide-area weak lensing surveys are expensive both in time and cost and require an optimal survey design in order to attain maximum scientific returns from a fixed amount of available telescope time. The super-sample covariance (SSC), which arises from unobservable modes that are larger than the survey size, significantly degrades the statistical precision of weak lensing power spectrum measurement even for a wide-area survey. Using the 1000 mock realizations of the log-normal model, which approximates the weak lensing field for a $\\Lambda$-dominated cold dark matter model, we study an optimal survey geometry to minimize the impact of SSC contamination. For a continuous survey geometry with a fixed survey area, a more elongated geometry such as a rectangular shape of 1:400 side-length ratio reduces the SSC effect and allows for a factor 2 improvement in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio ($S/N$) of power spectrum measurement up to $\\ell_{\\rm max}\\simeq $ a few $10^3$, compared to compact geometries ...

  12. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  13. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes) depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  14. What Board Directors Really Think of Gender Quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersema, Margarethe; Mors, Louise

    2016-01-01

    More than a decade ago, countries in Europe began to take measures to increase the gender diversity of their corporate boards. Norway was the first to adopt a quota for female board members (40%) in 2004. Other nations followed suit – adopting either mandatory quotas (Germany, France, Belgium, Ic...

  15. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  16. 19 CFR 132.2 - Enactment and administration of quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directly by Headquarters, U.S. Customs Service, and quotas administered by other agencies which are enforced by Headquarters, U.S. Customs Service, and which may require special procedures or special... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enactment and administration of quotas....

  17. Do Gender Quotas Influence Women's Representation and Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of applying gender quotas on policy decisions. I first examine the effect of gender quotas on the representation of female legislators, study the correlation between gender quotas and different types of government expenditures, and then use quotas as an instrument for the proportion of female legislators to investigate the effect of female legislators on policy outcomes. The results show that an increase in the share of female legislators by one percentage point increases the ratio of government expenditure on health and social welfare to GDP by 0.18 and 0.67 percentage points, respectively. The robustness check supports that the effect of quotas on female legislators is likely to be translated into the influence of female policymakers on social welfare

  18. A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for Radionuclide Analysis of RI Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, K. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo [FNC Tech. Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We developed a quantitative method for attaining a representative sample during sampling survey of RI waste. Considering a source, process, and type of RI waste, the method computes the number of sample, confidence interval, variance, and coefficient of variance. We also systematize the method of sampling survey logically and quantitatively. The result of this study can be applied to sampling survey of low- and intermediate-level waste generated from nuclear power plant during the transfer process to disposal facility.

  19. Spatial distribution, sampling precision and survey design optimisation with non-normal variables: The case of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) recruitment in Spanish Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugores, M. Pilar; Iglesias, Magdalena; Oñate, Dolores; Miquel, Joan

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) displays a key role in ecological and economical terms. Ensuring stock sustainability requires the provision of crucial information, such as species spatial distribution or unbiased abundance and precision estimates, so that management strategies can be defined (e.g. fishing quotas, temporal closure areas or marine protected areas MPA). Furthermore, the estimation of the precision of global abundance at different sampling intensities can be used for survey design optimisation. Geostatistics provide a priori unbiased estimations of the spatial structure, global abundance and precision for autocorrelated data. However, their application to non-Gaussian data introduces difficulties in the analysis in conjunction with low robustness or unbiasedness. The present study applied intrinsic geostatistics in two dimensions in order to (i) analyse the spatial distribution of anchovy in Spanish Western Mediterranean waters during the species' recruitment season, (ii) produce distribution maps, (iii) estimate global abundance and its precision, (iv) analyse the effect of changing the sampling intensity on the precision of global abundance estimates and, (v) evaluate the effects of several methodological options on the robustness of all the analysed parameters. The results suggested that while the spatial structure was usually non-robust to the tested methodological options when working with the original dataset, it became more robust for the transformed datasets (especially for the log-backtransformed dataset). The global abundance was always highly robust and the global precision was highly or moderately robust to most of the methodological options, except for data transformation.

  20. The hunt for the last respondent : nonresponse in sample surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, I.A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Hunt for the Last Respondent has been inspired by concerns about the possibly detrimental effect of nonresponse on the accuracy of survey outcomes, as response rates are generally considered to be the most important criterion of survey quality, and the Netherlands is notorious for its low respon

  1. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  2. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  3. An extension of the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test for complex sample survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Sundar; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; FITZMAURICE, GARRETT M.; SINHA, DEBAJYOTI; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Haas, Jennifer; Gellad, Walid

    2012-01-01

    In complex survey sampling, a fraction of a finite population is sampled. Often, the survey is conducted so that each subject in the population has a different probability of being selected into the sample. Further, many complex surveys involve stratification and clustering. For generalizability of the sample to the finite population, these features of the design are usually incorporated in the analysis. While the Wilcoxon rank sum test is commonly used to compare an ordinal variable in bivar...

  4. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  5. 21 CFR 1303.23 - Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing... QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.23 Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas. (a) In fixing individual manufacturing quotas for a basic class of controlled substance listed...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  7. 19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...

  8. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  9. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  10. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectat...

  11. The Newly Released Export Quota for Tungsten Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the second lot of export quota for tungsten products in 2005. Based on the new quota, the second lot for Ammonium Paratung-state (APT) and Ammonium Metatungstate (AMT) will be 1,232 tons. The second lot for tungsten trioxide and blue tungsten oxide will be 1,480 tons and the second lot for tungsten powder and its products will be 428 tons.

  12. [Several common biases and control measures during sampling survey of eye diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin

    2008-06-01

    Bias is a common artificial error during sampling survey in eye diseases, and is a major impact factor for validity and reliability of the survey. The causes and the control measures of several biases regarding current sampling survey of eye diseases in China were analyzed and discussed, including the sampling bias, non-respondent bias, and diagnostic bias. This review emphasizes that controlling bias is the key to ensure quality of sampling survey. Random sampling, sufficient sample quantity, careful examination and taking history, improving examination rate, accurate diagnosis, strict training and preliminary study, as well as quality control can eliminate or minimize biases and improve the sampling survey quality of eye diseases in China

  13. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  14. GridSample: an R package to generate household survey primary sampling units (PSUs) from gridded population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Dana R; Stevens, Forrest R; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Tatem, Andrew J; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-07-19

    Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data. With a gridded population dataset and geographic boundary of the study area, GridSample allows a two-step process to sample "seed" cells with probability proportionate to estimated population size, then "grows" PSUs until a minimum population is achieved in each PSU. The algorithm permits stratification and oversampling of urban or rural areas. The approximately uniform size and shape of grid cells allows for spatial oversampling, not possible in typical surveys, possibly improving small area estimates with survey results. We replicated the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in GridSample by sampling the WorldPop 2010 UN-adjusted 100 m × 100 m gridded population dataset, stratifying by Rwanda's 30 districts, and oversampling in urban areas. The 2010 Rwanda DHS had 79 urban PSUs, 413 rural PSUs, with an average PSU population of 610 people. An equivalent sample in GridSample had 75 urban PSUs, 405 rural PSUs, and a median PSU population of 612 people. The number of PSUs differed because DHS added urban PSUs from specific districts while GridSample reallocated rural-to-urban PSUs across all districts. Gridded population sampling is a promising alternative to typical census-based sampling when census data are moderately outdated or inaccurate. Four approaches to implementation have been tried: (1) using gridded PSU boundaries produced by GridSample, (2) manually segmenting gridded PSU using satellite imagery, (3) non-probability sampling (e.g. random-walk, "spin

  15. National plan of quotas allocations and territories; Plan national d'allocation des quotas et territoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, E

    2002-03-15

    The european system of quotas exchange has been developed to encourage the heavy industry to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions, as the steel industry, the refining or the chemical industry. Meanwhile, the National Plan for the Quotas Allocations (PNAQ) includes also a great number of more little installations. This document aims to present the french PNAQ in the european context, and to realize a deep study in order to more detail the territorial actors. (A.L.B.)

  16. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraité, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Jilkova, L.; Kalinova, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R. A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasquali, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Márquez Perez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal Ibero, A.; Pérez, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Tundo, E.; van de Ven, G.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Vilchez, J. V.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital

  17. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data...

  18. A methodological approach based on indirect sampling to survey the homeless people

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia De Vitiis; Stefano Falorsi; Francesca Inglese; Alessandra Masi; Nicoletta Pannuzi; Monica Russo

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Institute of Statistics carried out the first survey on homeless population. The survey aims at estimating the unknown size and some demographic and social characteristics of this population. The methodological strategy used to investigate homeless population could not follow the standard approaches of official statistics usually based on the use of population lists. The sample strategy for the homeless survey refers to the theory of indirect sampling, based on the use of...

  19. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  20. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean con

  1. Alternative sampling designs and estimators for annual surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2000-01-01

    Annual forest inventory systems in the United States have generally converged on sampling designs that: (1) measure equal proportions of the total number of plots each year; and (2) call for the plots to be systematically dispersed. However, there will inevitably be a need to deviate from the basic design to respond to special requests, natural disasters, and budgetary...

  2. Mixed Estimation for a Forest Survey Sample Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch

    1999-01-01

    Three methods of estimating the current state of forest attributes over small areas for the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station's annual forest sampling design are compared. The three methods were (I) simple moving average, (II) single imputation of plot data that had been updated by externally developed models, and (III) local application of a global...

  3. Prediction beyond the survey sample: correcting for survey effects on consumer decisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDirect extrapolation of survey results on purchase intentions may give a biased view on actual consumer behavior. This is because the purchase intentions of consumers may be affected by the survey itself. On the positive side, such effects can be incorporated in econometric models to get

  4. 1984 Nearshore Surveys and Sediment Sampling, Assateague Island, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    PEBBL I’-. GRNL IVCA~ CORS I MEIU I FINE I . IN ICORS SAMPLE I.. SAM A1-N0I477.74 I- 8 LOCATION1" ELEV./OEPTH I SA DFN89. - - - - - - w COMMENT...0 3 ia -- -’ - - CL 2 I GRNL VCAStCAS EJ FN .FN OREIMDU PEBEIRNLI.ORECOARSE IMD:U FINE I V IE COARSEI MEDIUM SILT:."-," 32ASE FINEC^SE 1SAND

  5. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

  6. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

  7. Small Particulate Contamination Survey Of Genesis Flight Sample 61423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind stop in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We continue to work with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. We continue to evaluate the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping spacecraft and terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  8. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  9. 77 FR 25669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... lead to a lower available quota relative to the current adjusted quota. This lower level of adjusted... sustainability of the stock, NMFS prefers Alternative 5 at this time. Under Alternative 6, NMFS would...

  10. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot 0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s-1 44.1 erg s-1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s-1 with respect to our data.

  11. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  12. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  13. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift

  14. Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Edwards; D. Richard Cutler; Niklaus E. Zimmermann; Linda Geiser; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by...

  15. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  16. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES anticipates that the DNA Bank will...

  17. Shorlist Masterplan Wind. Evaluation of the sampling grid of the year-round ichthyoplankton survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Beek, van J.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the research programme 'Shortlist Masterplan Wind' a year-round ichthyoplankton survey is being carried out. The sampling area is based on known spawning concentrations and prevailing currents.

  18. 21 CFR 1315.23 - Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing... Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.23 Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas. (a) In fixing individual manufacturing quotas for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, the Administrator shall...

  19. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  20. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Quotas and Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality. Gender theory has presented diverse arguments for gender quota: justice, resources and women’s interests. Gender quota can be understood as a means to achieve gender parity...

  1. Temporally adaptive sampling: a case study in rare species survey design with marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D Charney

    Full Text Available Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds.

  2. Temporally adaptive sampling: a case study in rare species survey design with marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Noah D; Kubel, Jacob E; Eiseman, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds.

  3. Practical guidebook about the market of CO{sub 2} emission quotas; Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emission de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO{sub 2} emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO{sub 2} emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO{sub 2} quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO{sub 2} they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO{sub 2} quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  4. Quota disputes and subsistence whaling in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle

    2014-01-01

    In Qeqertarsuaq (Disco Island), northwest Greenland, local disputes about the allocation of annual whaling quotas for beluga and narwhals feature as a source of conflict between state-imposed categories of occupational and non-occupational hunters. The national authorities’ co-management regime...

  5. 50 CFR 648.140 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.140 Section 648.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... exploitation rate of 23 percent (based on Fmax) in 2003 and subsequent years: Commercial, recreational,...

  6. 50 CFR 648.120 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.120 Section 648.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Committee of the MAFMC and the Commission to ensure that the exploitation rate specified in paragraph (a)...

  7. Quotas and intersectionality: ethnicity and gender in candidate selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, K.; Erzeel, S.; Mügge, L.; Damstra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality is not fully realised when it is restricted to ethnic majority men and women. This article examines how gender quotas as a form of equality policy affect ethnic minority groups, in particular, the gender balance among ethnic minority candidates for political office. Our analysis focu

  8. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  9. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  10. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  11. National plan of quotas assignment. 2005-2007 reference period; Plan national d'affectation des quotas. Periode de reference 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document described the national plan of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. Data and results presented could well be modified in particular in function of corrective demands proposed by the owners since the beginning of the public consulting to the notification of the affected quotas quantity. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byass Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based sample surveys and sentinel surveillance methods are commonly used as substitutes for more widespread health and demographic monitoring and intervention studies in resource-poor settings. Such methods have been criticised as only being worthwhile if the results can be extrapolated to the surrounding 100-fold population. With an emphasis on measuring mortality, this study explores the extent to which choice of sampling method affects the representativeness of 1% sample data in relation to various demographic and health parameters in a rural, developing-country setting. Methods Data from a large community based census and health survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso were used as a basis for modelling. Twenty 1% samples incorporating a range of health and demographic parameters were drawn at random from the overall dataset for each of seven different sampling procedures at two different levels of local administrative units. Each sample was compared with the overall 'gold standard' survey results, thus enabling comparisons between the different sampling procedures. Results All sampling methods and parameters tested performed reasonably well in representing the overall population. Nevertheless, a degree of variation could be observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters, relating to their overall distribution in the total population. Conclusion Sample surveys are able to provide useful demographic and health profiles of local populations. However, various parameters being measured and their distribution within the sampling unit of interest may not all be best represented by a particular sampling method. It is likely therefore that compromises may have to be made in choosing a sampling strategy, with costs, logistics the intended use of the data being important considerations.

  13. A framework for cut-off sampling in business survey design

    OpenAIRE

    Bee, Marco; Benedetti, Roberto; Espa, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    In sampling theory the large concentration of the population with respect to most surveyed variables constitutes a problem which is difficult to tackle by means of classical tools. One possible solution is given by cut-off sampling, which explicitly prescribes to discard part of the population; in particular, if the population is composed by firms or establishments, the method results in the exclusion of the “smallest” firms. Whereas this sampling scheme is common among practitioners, its the...

  14. Using the Indian National Sample Survey data in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal V; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Rao, Mala

    2013-01-01

    The National Sample Survey (NSS), instituted in 1950, was the brainchild of Professor Mahalanobis, widely regarded as the father of Indian statistics.1 His ambition was to obtain and quantify comprehensive information on an annual basis on the socio- economic, demographic, agricultural and other profiles of the country, both at the national and state levels. The NSS is a multi- stage, multi-subject and multi-purpose cross-sectional survey, which is conducted annually and covers topics of current interest.

  15. Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T; Rexstad, Eric A; Laake, Jeff L; Strindberg, Samantha; Hedley, Sharon L; Bishop, Jon Rb; Marques, Tiago A; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2010-02-01

    1.Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance.2.We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use.3.Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite for obtaining reliable results. Distance has a survey design engine, with a built-in geographic information system, that allows properties of different proposed designs to be examined via simulation, and survey plans to be generated.4.A first step in analysis of distance sampling data is modelling the probability of detection. Distance contains three increasingly sophisticated analysis engines for this: conventional distance sampling, which models detection probability as a function of distance from the transect and assumes all objects at zero distance are detected; multiple-covariate distance sampling, which allows covariates in addition to distance; and mark-recapture distance sampling, which relaxes the assumption of certain detection at zero distance.5.All three engines allow estimation of density or abundance, stratified if required, with associated measures of precision calculated either analytically or via the bootstrap.6.Advanced analysis topics covered include the use of multipliers to allow analysis of indirect surveys (such as dung or nest surveys), the density surface modelling analysis engine for spatial and habitat modelling, and information about accessing the analysis engines directly from other software.7.Synthesis and applications. Distance sampling is a key method for producing abundance and density estimates in challenging field conditions. The theory underlying the methods continues to expand to cope with realistic estimation situations. In step with theoretical developments, state-of-the-art software that implements these methods is described that makes the methods

  16. Sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based surveys of group-housed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Marisa L; Sun, Yaxuan; Wang, Chong; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Hoogland, Marlin; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2017-02-17

    Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs. Samples (n=972) were tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR) and the binary results analyzed using a piecewise exponential survival model for interval-censored, time-to-event data with misclassification. Thereafter, simulation studies were used to study the barn-level probability of PRRSV detection as a function of sample size, sample allocation (simple random sampling vs fixed spatial sampling), assay diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and pen-level prevalence. These studies provided estimates of the probability of detection by sample size and within-barn prevalence. Detection using fixed spatial sampling was as good as, or better than, simple random sampling. Sampling multiple barns on a site increased the probability of detection with the number of barns sampled. These results are relevant to PRRSV control or elimination projects at the herd, regional, or national levels, but the results are also broadly applicable to contagious pathogens of swine for which oral fluid tests of equivalent performance are available.

  17. [Sampling plan, weighting process and design effects of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    To present aspects of the sampling plan of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil Project). with theoretical and operational issues that should be taken into account in the primary data analyses. The studied population was composed of five demographic groups from urban areas of Brazil in 2010. Two and three stage cluster sampling was used. adopting different primary units. Sample weighting and design effects (deff) were used to evaluate sample consistency. In total. 37,519 individuals were reached. Although the majority of deff estimates were acceptable. some domains showed distortions. The majority (90%) of the samples showed results in concordance with the precision proposed in the sampling plan. The measures to prevent losses and the effects the cluster sampling process in the minimum sample sizes proved to be effective for the deff. which did not exceeded 2. even for results derived from weighting. The samples achieved in the SBBrasil 2010 survey were close to the main proposals for accuracy of the design. Some probabilities proved to be unequal among the primary units of the same domain. Users of this database should bear this in mind, introducing sample weighting in calculations of point estimates, standard errors, confidence intervals and design effects.

  18. Global Quota System and China's Textile and Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2006-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, many Chinese textile and clothing enterprises were unable to continue business. Because of the safeguard actions invoked by WTO member countries, especially the USA, the EU and some developing countries, such as Turkey and Mexico, a stable and predictable overseas market no longer exists for export-oriented Chinese firms. It had actually been predicted that China would be the big winner after the elimination of the global quota system on 1 January 2005. What has happened to China's textile and clothing industries? What are the prospects for them over the next few years? Using a partial equilibrium analysis framework, this paper finds that China was the big loser under the quota system before 2005, and that China will be the big loser once again after the ending of that system.

  19. 50 CFR 635.27 - Quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... particular category for biological sampling and monitoring of the status of the stock. (ii) The catches of... amended by revising paragraph (d), effective January 1, 2011. For the convenience of the user, the revised...

  20. USE OF NATURAL WATERS AS U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY REFERENCE SAMPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzer, Victor J.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey conducts research and collects hydrologic data relating to the Nation's water resources. Seven types of natural matrix reference water samples are prepared for use in the Survey's quality assurance program. These include samples containing major constituents, trace metals, nutrients, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals in a water and suspended-sediment mixture, and precipitation (snowmelt). To prepare these reference samples, natural water is collected in plastic drums and the sediment is allowed to settle. The water is then filtered, selected constituents are added, and if necessary the water is acidified and sterilized by ultraviolet irradiation before bottling in plastic or glass. These reference samples are distributed twice yearly to more than 100 laboratories for chemical analysis. The most probable values for each constituent are determined by evaluating the data submitted by the laboratories using statistical techniques recommended by ASTM.

  1. Guided transect sampling - a new design combining prior information and field surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Ringvall; Goran Stahl; Tomas Lamas

    2000-01-01

    Guided transect sampling is a two-stage sampling design in which prior information is used to guide the field survey in the second stage. In the first stage, broad strips are randomly selected and divided into grid-cells. For each cell a covariate value is estimated from remote sensing data, for example. The covariate is the basis for subsampling of a transect through...

  2. [Methodological Aspects of the Sampling Design for the 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nelcy; Rodríguez, Viviana Alejandra; Ramírez, Eugenia; Cediel, Sandra; Gil, Fabián; Rondón, Martín Alonso

    2016-12-01

    The WHO has encouraged the development, implementation and evaluation of policies related to mental health all over the world. In Colombia, within this framework and promoted by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, as well as being supported by Colciencias, the fourth National Mental Health Survey (NMHST) was conducted using a observational cross sectional study. According to the context and following the guidelines and sampling design, a summary of the methodology used for this sampling process is presented. The fourth NMHST used the Homes Master Sample for Studies in Health from the National System of Studies and Population Surveys for Health to calculate its sample. This Master Sample was developed and implemented in the year 2013 by the Ministry of Social Protection. This study included non-institutionalised civilian population divided into four age groups: children 7-11 years, adolescent 12-17 years, 18-44 years and 44 years old or older. The sample size calculation was based on the reported prevalences in other studies for the outcomes of mental disorders, depression, suicide, associated morbidity, and alcohol use. A probabilistic, cluster, stratified and multistage selection process was used. Expansions factors to the total population were calculated. A total of 15,351 completed surveys were collected and were distributed according to the age groups: 2727, 7-11 years, 1754, 12-17 years, 5889, 18-44 years, and 4981, ≥45 years. All the surveys were distributed in five regions: Atlantic, Oriental, Bogotá, Central and Pacific. A sufficient number of surveys were collected in this study to obtain a more precise approximation of the mental problems and disorders at the regional and national level. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Survey and Sampling Methods for Reaching Sexual Minority Individuals in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewaele Alexis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a large sexual health study, we used two different approaches to target Sexual Minority Individuals (SMIs. Firstly, we drew on a probability sample (1,832 respondents aged 14-80 of the Flemish population in Belgium. Secondly, we set up a targeted sampling design followed by an Internet survey. Our focus was to explore how two different sampling procedures and survey designs could lead to differences in sample characteristics. Results showed that for female SMIs (we excluded male SMIs from the analyses due to their low numbers the population sample differed from the Internet sample in terms of sociodemographic characteristics (the latter included younger and more highly educated respondents and scores on sexual orientation dimensions (the population sample included more respondents who didn’t identify as lesbian or bisexual but reported same-sex sexual experiences and desire. Respondents’ scores on sexual health indicators differed between the samples for two of the seven variables. We discuss implications for improving the quality and validity of nonrandom samples.

  4. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The 30×7 cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country.

  5. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraité, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Jilkova, L.; Kalinova, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R. A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasquali, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Márquez Perez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal Ibero, A.; Pérez, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Tundo, E.; van de Ven, G.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Vilchez, J. V.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 photometric catalogue to include all galaxies with an r-band isophotal major axis between 45'' and 79.2'' and with a redshift 0.005 Mr > -23.1 and over a stellar mass range between 109.7 and 1011.4 M⊙. In particular, within these ranges, the diameter selection does not lead to any significant bias against - or in favour of - intrinsically large or small galaxies. Only below luminosities of Mr = -19 (or stellar masses CSIC). Publically released data products from CALIFA are made available on the webpage http://www.caha.es/CALIFA

  6. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan. Molecular epidemiology and factors affecting adequate hairbrush sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Asako; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    At the 48th Annual Meeting of The Society for Japanese Medical Mycology, held in October, 2004, we reported our findings from a survey on Trichophyton tonsurans infections in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of Japan. The survey revealed that a few epidemics had occurred across these regions. In this article, we introduce our subsequent studies relating to 1) molecular epidemiology of isolates taken from people in many parts of Japan and 2) factors affecting adequate sampling of the scalp with hairbrushes, essential for surveying and monitoring the infection. In total, 198 isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes. The restriction enzyme Mva I indicated two molecular types of strains, implying that the causative agents of the epidemic had different origins. None of the isolates obtained from the epidemic showed the same restriction profile as that of isolates from aged and sporadic cases. The published hairbrush method suitable for obtaining samples from the scalp of Judo trainees was reevaluated by changing several factors. We found that sampling should not be done soon after the students' physical training because other fungal elements may give a false positive, samples should not be obtained from students who have recently applied topical antimycotics, and samples should be taken under the guidance of qualified instructors familiar with the sampling method.

  7. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  8. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  9. A sample of galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST spectral survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shiyin; Chen, Li; Chen, Xiaoyan; Feng, Shuai; Hou, Jinliang; Hou, Yonghui; Jiang, Peng; Jing, Yipeng; Kong, Xu; Luo, Ali; Luo, Zhijian; Shao, Zhengyi; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Yuefei; Wu, Hong; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Haifeng; Yang, Ming; Yuan, Fangting; Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Jiannan; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A small fraction($<10\\%$) of SDSS main sample galaxies(MGs) have not been targeted with spectroscopy due to the the fiber collision effect. These galaxies have been compiled into the input catalog of the LAMOST extra-galactic survey and named as the complementary galaxy sample. In this paper, we introduce the project and the status of the spectroscopies of the complementary galaxies in the first two years of the LAMOST spectral survey(till Sep. of 2014). Moreover, we present a sample of 1,102 galaxy pairs identified from the LAMOST complementary galaxies and SDSS MGs, which are defined as that the two members have a projected distance smaller than 100 kpc and the recessional velocity difference smaller than 500 $\\rm kms^{-1}$. Compared with the SDSS only selected galaxy pairs, the LAMOST-SDSS pairs take the advantages of not being biased toward large separations and therefor play as a useful supplement to the statistical studies of galaxy interaction and galaxy merging.

  10. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sara J. K.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold B.; Gibbs, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Density estimates accounting for differential animal detectability are difficult to acquire for wide-ranging and elusive species such as mammalian carnivores. Pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys may provide an efficient means of tracking changes in populations of coyotes (Canis latrans), a species of particular interest in the eastern United States. Blind field trials in rural New York State indicated 119-m linear error for triangulated coyote calls, and a 1.8-km distance threshold for call detectability, which was sufficient to estimate a detection function with precision using distance sampling. We conducted statewide road-based surveys with sampling locations spaced ≥6 km apart from June to August 2010. Each detected call (be it a single or group) counted as a single object, representing 1 territorial pair, because of uncertainty in the number of vocalizing animals. From 524 survey points and 75 detections, we estimated the probability of detecting a calling coyote to be 0.17 ± 0.02 SE, yielding a detection-corrected index of 0.75 pairs/10 km2 (95% CI: 0.52–1.1, 18.5% CV) for a minimum of 8,133 pairs across rural New York State. Importantly, we consider this an index rather than true estimate of abundance given the unknown probability of coyote availability for detection during our surveys. Even so, pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys provided a novel, efficient, and noninvasive means of monitoring populations of wide-ranging and elusive, albeit reliably vocal, mammalian carnivores. Our approach offers an effective new means of tracking species like coyotes, one that is readily extendable to other species and geographic extents, provided key assumptions of distance sampling are met.

  11. The K20 survey. III. Photometric and spectroscopic properties of the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Pozzetti, L; Fontana, A; Saracco, P; Poli, F; Renzini, A; Zamorani, G; Broadhurst, T J; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Giallongo, E; Gilmozzi, R; Menci, N

    2002-01-01

    The K20 survey is an ESO VLT optical and near-infrared spectroscopic survey aimed at obtaining spectral information and redshifts of a complete sample of about 550 objects to K_s\\leq20.0 over two independent fields with a total area of 52 arcmin^2. In this paper we discuss the scientific motivation of such a survey, we describe the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the sample, and we release the $K_s$-band photometric catalog. Extensive simulations showed that the sample is photometrically highly complete to K_s=20. The observed galaxy counts and the R-K_s color distribution are consistent with literature results. We observed spectroscopically 94% of the sample, reaching a spectroscopic redshift identification completeness of 92% to K_s\\leq20.0 for the observed targets, and of 87% for the whole sample (i.e. counting also the unobserved targets). Deep spectroscopy was complemented with multi-band deep imaging in order to derive tested and reliable photometric redshifts for the galaxies lacking spectr...

  12. Organisational capabilities for enhancing the sales quotas development process outcomes for pharmaceutical sales forces

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of the sales quotas development process in Spanish pharmaceutical organisations is challenging as the market environment becomes dramatically complex. Setting sales quotas has always been difficult, exemplified by the difficulties in quantifying future sales by sales territory. Extensive research has been conducted and several conceptual models created to facilitate the process of developing sales quotas. Effective management of this process has proved problemat...

  13. Rare Earth Export Quota in the Second Half of 2008 Promulgated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On July the 4th of 2008, in accordance with "Commodities Import and Export Statute of the People's Republic of China", rare earth export quota for ordinary trade in the second half year of 2008 was promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. Rare earth export quota in the second half of 2008 was distributed to those enterprises that were qualified for the application of rare earth export quota in 2008.

  14. Keck/Deimos Spectroscopy of a GALEX UV Selecte Sample from the Medium Imaging Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mallery, Ryan P; Salim, Samir; Small, Todd; Charlot, Stephane; Seibert, Mark; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Schiminovivich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Szalay, Alexander S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Suk Young

    2007-01-01

    We report results from a pilot program to obtain spectroscopy for objects detected in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium Imaging Survey (MIS). Our study examines the properties of galaxies detected by GALEX fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic survey. This is the first study to extend the techinques of Salim et al. 2005 to estimate stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) and the b (star formation history) parameter for star-forming galaxies out to z~0.7. We obtain redshifts for 50 GALEX MIS sources reaching NUV=23.9 (AB mag), having counterparts in the SDSS Data Release 4 (DR4). Of our sample, 43 are starforming galaxies with z<0.7, 3 have emission line ratios indicative of AGN with z<0.7, and 4 objects with z~1 are QSOs, 3 of which are not previously cataloged. We compare our sample to a much larger sample of ~50,000 matched GALEX/SDSS galaxies with SDSS spectroscopy; while our survey is shallow, the optical counterparts to our sources reach ~3 magnitudes fainter ...

  15. CT dose survey in adults: what sample size for what precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stephen [Hopital Ambroise Pare, Department of Radiology, Mons (Belgium); Muylem, Alain van [Hopital Erasme, Department of Pneumology, Brussels (Belgium); Howarth, Nigel [Clinique des Grangettes, Department of Radiology, Chene-Bougeries (Switzerland); Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Hopital Erasme, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Denis [EpiCURA, Clinique Louis Caty, Department of Radiology, Baudour (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    To determine variability of volume computed tomographic dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) data, and propose a minimum sample size to achieve an expected precision. CTDIvol and DLP values of 19,875 consecutive CT acquisitions of abdomen (7268), thorax (3805), lumbar spine (3161), cervical spine (1515) and head (4106) were collected in two centers. Their variabilities were investigated according to sample size (10 to 1000 acquisitions) and patient body weight categories (no weight selection, 67-73 kg and 60-80 kg). The 95 % confidence interval in percentage of their median (CI95/med) value was calculated for increasing sample sizes. We deduced the sample size that set a 95 % CI lower than 10 % of the median (CI95/med ≤ 10 %). Sample size ensuring CI95/med ≤ 10 %, ranged from 15 to 900 depending on the body region and the dose descriptor considered. In sample sizes recommended by regulatory authorities (i.e., from 10-20 patients), mean CTDIvol and DLP of one sample ranged from 0.50 to 2.00 times its actual value extracted from 2000 samples. The sampling error in CTDIvol and DLP means is high in dose surveys based on small samples of patients. Sample size should be increased at least tenfold to decrease this variability. (orig.)

  16. The XXL Survey III. Luminosity-temperature relation of the Bright Cluster Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, P A; Pacaud, F; Lieu, M; Clerc, N; Pierre, M; Adami, C; Chiappetti, L; Démoclés, J; Ettori, S; Févre, J P Le; Ponman, T; Sadibekova, T; Smith, G P; Willis, J P; Ziparo, F

    2015-01-01

    The XXL Survey is the largest homogeneous survey carried out with XMM-Newton. Covering an area of 50 deg$^{2}$, the survey contains several hundred galaxy clusters out to a redshift of $\\approx$2 above an X-ray flux limit of $\\sim$5$\\times10^{-15}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. This paper belongs to the first series of XXL papers focusing on the bright cluster sample. We investigate the luminosity-temperature (LT) relation for the brightest clusters detected in the XXL Survey, taking fully into account the selection biases. We investigate the form of the LT relation, placing constraints on its evolution. We have classified the 100 brightest clusters in the XXL Survey based on their measured X-ray flux. These 100 clusters have been analysed to determine their luminosity and temperature to evaluate the LT relation. We used three methods to fit the LT relation, with two of these methods providing a prescription to fully take into account the selection effects of the survey. We measure the evolution of the LT relation ...

  17. Multi-agent-based Approach for Determination of Time-quota in Integrated Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Time-quota is one of important factors in producti on system. It is affected by various factors. time-quota is studied in CAPP and p roduction schedule integration environment in this paper. An agent-based time- quota method is put forward and the structure model is established by means of i ntelligent agent in integrated environment. The method can map the influencing t ime-quota factors into part agent related to process state and machine method a gent, resorting to the function of agent rule-based reaso...

  18. Using public participation to sample trace metals in lake surface sediments: the OPAL Metals Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S D; Rose, N L; Goldsmith, B; Bearcock, J M; Scheib, C; Yang, H

    2017-05-01

    Members of the public in England were invited in 2010 to take part in a national metals survey, by collecting samples of littoral sediment from a standing water body for geochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first national sediment metals survey using public participation and reveals a snapshot of the extent of metals contamination in ponds and lakes across England. Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding sediment quality guidelines for the health of aquatic biota are ubiquitous in ponds and lakes, not just in areas with a legacy of industrial activity. To validate the public sampling approach, a calibration exercise was conducted at ten water bodies selected to represent a range of lakes found across England. Sediment concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were measured in samples of soil, stream and littoral and deep water sediment to assess inputs. Significant differences between littoral sediment metal concentrations occur due to local variability, but also organic content, especially in upland, peat soil catchments. Variability of metal concentrations between littoral samples is shown to be low in small (metal contamination in standing waters. However, the heterogeneity of geology, soils and history/extent of metal contamination in the English landscape, combined with the random nature of sample collection, shows that systematic sampling for evaluating the full extent of metal contamination in lakes is still required.

  19. Sampling effects on the identification of roadkill hotspots: Implications for survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Marques, J Tiago; Lourenço, André; Medinas, Denis; Barbosa, A Márcia; Beja, Pedro; Mira, António

    2015-10-01

    Although locating wildlife roadkill hotspots is essential to mitigate road impacts, the influence of study design on hotspot identification remains uncertain. We evaluated how sampling frequency affects the accuracy of hotspot identification, using a dataset of vertebrate roadkills (n = 4427) recorded over a year of daily surveys along 37 km of roads. "True" hotspots were identified using this baseline dataset, as the 500-m segments where the number of road-killed vertebrates exceeded the upper 95% confidence limit of the mean, assuming a Poisson distribution of road-kills per segment. "Estimated" hotspots were identified likewise, using datasets representing progressively lower sampling frequencies, which were produced by extracting data from the baseline dataset at appropriate time intervals (1-30 days). Overall, 24.3% of segments were "true" hotspots, concentrating 40.4% of roadkills. For different groups, "true" hotspots accounted from 6.8% (bats) to 29.7% (small birds) of road segments, concentrating from 60% (lizards, lagomorphs, carnivores) of roadkills. Spatial congruence between "true" and "estimated" hotspots declined rapidly with increasing time interval between surveys, due primarily to increasing false negatives (i.e., missing "true" hotspots). There were also false positives (i.e., wrong "estimated" hotspots), particularly at low sampling frequencies. Spatial accuracy decay with increasing time interval between surveys was higher for smaller-bodied (amphibians, reptiles, small birds, small mammals) than for larger-bodied species (birds of prey, hedgehogs, lagomorphs, carnivores). Results suggest that widely used surveys at weekly or longer intervals may produce poor estimates of roadkill hotspots, particularly for small-bodied species. Surveying daily or at two-day intervals may be required to achieve high accuracy in hotspot identification for multiple species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.-C.; Dellink, R. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group; Finus, M. [Univ. of Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    Casual empirical evidence has already shown that existing international environmental agreements (IEAs) depart from a globally optimal solution typically in three respects. Firstly, not all countries that are responsible for negative transboundary spillovers participate in IEAs. A typical example is the Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Neither the USA, a major current emitter of greenhouse gases, nor major future emitters such as China and India, have accepted quantified emission reductions under this agreement. Secondly, total abatement of the coalition is below coalitional optimal levels. For framework conventions (such as the Vienna Convention preceding the Montreal Protocol on CFC-reductions, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) preceding the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases reduction or the Convention Long Range Transboundary Pollution (LRTAP) preceding the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on sulfur reductions) this is evident as they are mere declarations of intentions without abatement obligations. However, this suboptimality is also true for other conventions which is supported by empirical studies, suggesting that emission reduction targets are not much higher than in the absence of these agreements. Thirdly, emission reduction efforts are not cost-effectively allocated. Abatement obligations are often specified as uniform emission reduction quotas, even though countries face different marginal abatement costs. In the non-cooperative game theoretical literature on IEAs, the first type of deficiency has received much attention. A common assumption in many of these studies is that total abatement within a coalition is chosen optimally. The first papers shwoing that only small coalitions are self-enforcing go back to Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993), which has recently been confirmed by Breton et al. (2006). Later papers have addressed the problem of heterogeneous payoff functions and

  1. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  2. Caesium-137 soil sampling and inventory variability in reference locations: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ross A.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sampling design, the number of samples collected and the lateral variation of caesium-137 (137Cs) in uneroded reference locations were extracted from previously published work. The focus was on published work which used 137Cs reference inventory (Bq m-2) for qualitative or quantitative estimation of sediment redistribution (SRD) within the landscape. The objective of this study was to address one of the methodological concerns facing the 137Cs technique - that is, the lack of a rigorous statistical treatment of reference locations. The limited attention paid to the reference location is not justified as true estimates of SRD are based on the assumption of an unbiased, independent, random probability sample estimate, commonly the arithmetic mean. Results from the literature survey indicated that only 11% of the reference locations sampled for 137Cs expressly stated that a probability sampling design was used (transect or systematic-aligned grid). The remaining locations were generally sampled using a non-probability based design, more commonly known as haphazard sampling. Of the 75 reference study areas identified only 40 provided enough information to determine the dispersion around the mean, and from this the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all available data. The median CV was 19·3%, with 95% confidence limits of 13·0-23.4%, indicating that approximately 11 random, independent samples would generally be necessary to adequately quantify the reference 137Cs area activity with an allowable error of 10% at 90% confidence. Further analysis indicated that only one-third of the studies sampled a sufficient number of 137Cs reference locations. This value would actually be lower as sampling frameworks were based on non-probability sampling procedures. For 137Cs reference locations it is recommended that a probability sampling design be utilized, preferably the systematic-aligned grid method, and as a minimum first-order estimate about 11 samples

  3. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  4. The Starfish Diagram: Visualising Data Within the Context of Survey Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S

    2014-01-01

    As astronomy becomes increasingly invested in large surveys, the ample representation of an individual target becomes a significant challenge. Tabulations of basic properties can convey the message in an absolute sense, but not within the context of the sample from which the individual is drawn. We present a novel but simple plot that simultaneously visualises the properties of the sample and the individual. Numbers and characters are kept at an absolute minimum to enable the stacking of such plots without introducing too much verbal information. Once the user becomes accustomed to their appearance, a set of 'starfish diagrams' provide a direct representation of the individual within a sample, or between various samples. The utility and versatility of the plot is demonstrated through its application to astrophysical data and sports statistics. We provide a brief description of the concept and the source code, which is simple to adapt to any statistical dataset, be it descriptive of physics, demographics, fina...

  5. New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

    CERN Document Server

    Verdery, Ashton M; Siripong, Nalyn; Abdesselam, Kahina; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a popular method for sampling hard-to-survey populations that leverages social network connections through peer recruitment. While RDS is most frequently applied to estimate the prevalence of infections and risk behaviors of interest to public health, like HIV/AIDS or condom use, it is rarely used to draw inferences about the structural properties of social networks among such populations because it does not typically collect the necessary data. Drawing on recent advances in computer science, we introduce a set of data collection instruments and RDS estimators for network clustering, an important topological property that has been linked to a network's potential for diffusion of information, disease, and health behaviors. We use simulations to explore how these estimators, originally developed for random walk samples of computer networks, perform when applied to RDS samples with characteristics encountered in realistic field settings that depart from random walks. In partic...

  6. Sampling design for an integrated socioeconomic and ecological survey by using satellite remote sensing and ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Michael W; Lee, Tae Jeong; Townsend, Robert M

    2004-08-03

    Environmental variability is an important risk factor in rural agricultural communities. Testing models requires empirical sampling that generates data that are representative in both economic and ecological domains. Detrended correspondence analysis of satellite remote sensing data were used to design an effective low-cost sampling protocol for a field study to create an integrated socioeconomic and ecological database when no prior information on ecology of the survey area existed. We stratified the sample for the selection of tambons from various preselected provinces in Thailand based on factor analysis of spectral land-cover classes derived from satellite data. We conducted the survey for the sampled villages in the chosen tambons. The resulting data capture interesting variations in soil productivity and in the timing of good and bad years, which a purely random sample would likely have missed. Thus, this database will allow tests of hypotheses concerning the effect of credit on productivity, the sharing of idiosyncratic risks, and the economic influence of environmental variability.

  7. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, C J; Bekeraité, S; Husemann, B; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Backsmann, N; Ballesteros, J Barrera; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Cortijo, C; del Olmo, A; Lorenzo, B Garcia; Falcón-Barroso, J; Jilkova, L; Kalinova, V; Mast, D; Marino, R A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Pasquali, A; Sánchez, S F; Trager, S; Zibetti, S; Aguerri, J A L; Alves, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Boselli, A; Morales, A Castillo; Fernandes, R Cid; Flores, H; Galbany, L; Gallazzi, A; García-Benito, R; de Paz, A Gil; González-Delgado, R M; Jahnke, K; Jungwiert, B; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; Perez, I Márquez; Masegosa, J; Ibero, A Monreal; Pérez, E; Quirrenbach, A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Roth, M M; Sanchez-Blazquez, P; Spekkens, K; Tundo, E; van de Ven, G; Verheijen, M A W; Vilchez, J V; Ziegler, B

    2014-01-01

    We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA), a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 photometric catalogue to include all galaxies with an r-band isophotal major axis between 45" and 79.2" and with a redshift 0.005 Mr > -23.1 and over a stellar mass range between 10^9.7 and 10^11.4Msun. In particular, within these ranges, the diameter selection does not lead to any significant bias against - or in favour of - intrinsically large or small galaxies. Only below luminosities of Mr = -19 (or stellar masses < 10^9.7Msun) is there a prevalence of galaxies with larger isophotal sizes, especially of nearly edge-on late-type galaxies, but such galaxies form < 10% of the full sample. We estimate volume-corrected distribution functions in luminosities and sizes and show that these ...

  8. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Distance sampling to estimate abundance of biological populations : protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA). Line transects are used to estimate the density of...

  10. Why does Brazil need racial quotas? An analysis of the admission of quota students at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense / UENF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Gonçalves da Matta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about the quota system at the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF. Quotas at UENF cover the following beneficiaries, after low-income verification: public school students, blacks, indigenous, people with physical disabilities, and children of police officers killed or disabled in the line of duty. The study focused on the comparative analysis of the 2008 and 2009 entrance examinations. The relationship between supply and demand for vacancies as well as the passing grades were analyzed. The analysis revealed that there is a greater demand for quotas in the courses in which the candidate/vacancy ratio is higher, and that quotas are unnecessary for approval in many courses.

  11. The End of the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) and the Heterogeneous Performance of Quota-Constrained Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreeyesus, M.

    2013-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, the international trade in textile and clothing was freed from the quota restrictions that had persisted for more than four decades. This study tests one of the predictions that countries effectively constrained by quotas in the major world markets will increase their exports at t

  12. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  13. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  14. China’s Ministry of Commerce Set the Tungsten Export Quota for 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>China’s ministry of commerce recently set the export quota for tungsten in 2007. According to the ministry’s report, China’s total tungsten export quota will be 15,400 tons metal content, which is 2.53 per cent less compared to that in 2006.

  15. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC). Volume 1. Introductory General Information and Quota Control Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    submitted on CNET- GEN Form 1500/19. Purpose. A concise statement of the training objectives of the course. Scope. A description of the content of the course...NAVJIJSTSCOL (Head Paralegal Dept) AIITOVON: 9118 3808/21;08 Quota Administlration Coordirial onn and admiriistration of student quotas is the responsibi1ity of

  16. The End of the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) and the Heterogeneous Performance of Quota-Constrained Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreeyesus, M.

    2013-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, the international trade in textile and clothing was freed from the quota restrictions that had persisted for more than four decades. This study tests one of the predictions that countries effectively constrained by quotas in the major world markets will increase their exports at

  17. Analysing the Effects of a Pigs Production Quota within a Dynamic CGE Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Philip D; Hansen, Lill Thanning; Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2001-01-01

    in prices and rental rates when making their investment decisions. Hence, the capital stock starts to adjust from the start of the simulation. When the quota is implemented without warning investors adjusts fully when the quota is implemented. In the long run, however, we find that the alternative timing...

  18. An Evaluation of Incentive Experiments in a Two-Phase Address-Based Sample Mail Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifeng Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Address-based sampling (ABS with a two-phase data collection approach has emerged as a promising alternative to random digit dial (RDD surveys for studying specific subpopulations in the United States. In 2011, the National Household Education Surveys Program Field Test used a two-phase ABS design with a postal or mail screener to identify households with eligible children and a mail topical questionnaire administered to parents of sampled children to collect measures of interest. Experiments with prepaid cash incentives and special mail delivery methods were applied in both phases. For the screener, sampled addresses were randomly designated to receive either $2 or $5 in the initial mailing. During the topical phase, incentives (ranging from $0 to $20 and delivery methods (First Class Mail or Priority Mail were assigned randomly but depended on how quickly the household had responded to the screener. The paper first evaluates the effects of incentives on response rates, and then examines incentive levels for attracting the hard-to-reach groups and improving sample composition. The impact of incentive on data collection cost is also examined.

  19. Survey-Based Cross-Country Comparisons Where Countries Vary in Sample Design: Issues and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In multi-national surveys, different countries usually implement different sample designs. The sample designs affect the variance of estimates of differences between countries. When making such estimates, analysts often fail to take sufficient account of sample design. This failure occurs sometimes because variables indicating stratification, clustering, or weighting are unavailable, partially available, or in a form that is unsuitable for cross-national analysis. In this article, we demonstrate how complex sample design should be taken into account when estimating differences between countries, and we provide practical guidance to analysts and to data producers on how to deal with partial or inappropriately-coded sample design indicator variables. Using EU-SILC as a case study, we evaluate the inverse misspecification effect (imeff that results from ignoring clustering or stratification, or both in a between-country comparison where countries’ sample designs differ. We present imeff for estimates of between-country differences in a number of demographic and economic variables for 19 European Union Member States. We assess the magnitude of imeff and the associated impact on standard error estimates. Our empirical findings illustrate that it is important for data producers to supply appropriate sample design indicators and for analysts to use them.

  20. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  1. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  3. Gender quotas for women in national politics: A comparative analysis across development thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Women's share of global lower or single house parliamentary seats has increased by over 70% over the course of the 21st century. Yet these increases have not been uniform across countries. Rather countries with low levels of socioeconomic development have outpaced developed democracies in terms of the gains made in the formal political representation of women. One reasonable explanation for this trend is the adoption in many poorer countries of national gender quota legislation, that is, affirmative action laws intended to compensate for sex discrimination in the electoral process. Yet, cross-national analyses examining quotas as an explanatory factor typically use a simple binary (yes/no) variable that either conflates the diverse intra-quota variations into a single variable or includes only one part of the many quota variations. By contrast, using an originally compiled dataset that includes 167 countries from 1992 to 2012, this paper employs measures of gender quota legislation that capture the complexity and considerable diversity of existing quota legislation. These measures allow us to identify the specific factors that have helped so many less developed countries rise to the top of international rankings in recent years. The findings indicate that the effect of each type of gender quota, as well as other explanatory variables, do not operate in the same way across all countries. Specifically, voluntary political party quotas are substantially more effective in developed countries, while reserved seat quotas are only significant in least developed countries. Electoral candidate quotas, on the other hand, can be significant across all countries, however only have a positive effect when they are accompanied by placement mandates that ensure women are placed in winnable positions, sanctions for non-compliance that are significant enough to force adherence, and a minimum mandated threshold of at least 30%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar...

  5. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  6. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  7. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  8. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  9. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.17 Export...), the importer must possess a valid export certificate in order to claim the in-quota tariff rate...

  10. Use of Multi-Media Sampling as Integrated Approach to Surficial Geochemical Sampling for Gold in Regional Reconnaissance Surveys in Parts of the Ashanti Belt, Southwest Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper M. Nude

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the conventional method used in surficial geochemical sampling to multimedia sampling method during reconnaissance surveys in gold exploration. The use of the conventional method in regional reconnaissance exploration surveys whereby surficial geochemical sampling is done step-wise, first by sampling stream sediments followed by rock chips then soils and other regolith materials in the search and defining of prospective targets of gold mineralization appears inefficient in geological environments characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. However, multi-media geochemical sampling which involves the simultaneous sampling of different geochemical samples appears a better alternative and eliminates false and erratic anomalies often associated with the sampling of a single medium. Multi-media samples comprising rock chips, scree, termite mounds and lateritic lags, were collected simultaneously to support stream sediments in parts of the Ashanti belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana, which is characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. The most prospective targets among the three anomalous zones defined by the stream survey were better pronounced with the support of the other media, based on the consistency in significant gold contents in those samples. Gold assay values from the multi-media samples ranked the Manso East target as the most prospective and the Manso Northwest target being least prospective due to the inconsistent gold assay values in the different media. Thus the integration of the gold assay values from the various media defined real and prospective geochemical gold targets better than in the conventional method in which sampling of different media was done in stages. Unlike the conventional method, the multi-media survey provided gold results that showed regional, proximal and in-situ anomalies simultaneously. Multi-media geochemical survey therefore, appears to be a

  11. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  12. Using the Superpopulation Model for Imputations and Variance Computation in Survey Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Novák

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at variance computation techniques for estimates of population characteristics based on survey sampling and imputation. We use the superpopulation regression model, which means that the target variable values for each statistical unit are treated as random realizations of a linear regression model with weighted variance. We focus on regression models with one auxiliary variable and no intercept, which have many applications and straightforward interpretation in business statistics. Furthermore, we deal with caseswhere the estimates are not independent and thus the covariance must be computed. We also consider chained regression models with auxiliary variables as random variables instead of constants.

  13. GOYA survey: mergers up to z = 1 in B- and Ks-selected samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López-Sanjuan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present merger fractions from galaxy samples selected by either Ks- luminosity, or B-band luminosity, from the GOYA photometric survey of the Groth strip using asymmetry indices to identify merging galaxies. The merger fractio n in B-band can be approximated by the func- tion F mg(z = 0:006(1 + z3:2. The merger fraction in Ks-band has a minimum at z = 0.6 and is slightly higher in more massive galaxies.

  14. 163 years of refinement: the British Geological Survey sample registration scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    The British Geological Survey manages the largest UK geoscience samples collection, including: - 15,000 onshore boreholes, including over 250 km of drillcore - Vibrocores, gravity cores and grab samples from over 32,000 UK marine sample stations. 640 boreholes - Over 3 million UK fossils, including a "type and stratigraphic" reference collection of 250,000 fossils, 30,000 of which are "type, figured or cited" - Comprehensive microfossil collection, including many borehole samples - 290km of drillcore and 4.5 million cuttings samples from over 8000 UK continental shelf hydrocarbon wells - Over one million mineralogical and petrological samples, including 200,00 thin sections The current registration scheme was introduced in 1848 and is similar to that used by Charles Darwin on the Beagle. Every Survey collector or geologist has been issue with a unique prefix code of one or more letters and these were handwritten on preprinted numbers, arranged in books of 1 - 5,000 and 5,001 to 10,000. Similar labels are now computer printed. Other prefix codes are used for corporate collections, such as borehole samples, thin sections, microfossils, macrofossil sections, museum reference fossils, display quality rock samples and fossil casts. Such numbers infer significant immediate information to the curator, without the need to consult detailed registers. The registration numbers have been recorded in a series of over 1,000 registers, complete with metadata including sample ID, locality, horizon, collector and date. Citations are added as appropriate. Parent-child relationships are noted when re-registering subsubsamples. For example, a borehole sample BDA1001 could have been subsampled for a petrological thin section and off-cut (E14159), a fossil thin section (PF365), micropalynological slides (MPA273), one of which included a new holotype (MPK111), and a figured macrofossil (GSE1314). All main corporate collection now have publically-available online databases, such as Palaeo

  15. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  16. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Herrero Sergio

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%. 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7% or good (39.3%, without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators, and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety.

  17. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended.

  18. The Australia Telescope 20GHz (AT20G) Survey: analysis of the extragalactic source sample

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; end_of_the_skype_highlighting, Tara Murphy begin_of_the_skype_highlighting end_of_the_skype_highlighting begin_of_the_skype_highlighting; Mahony, Elizabeth; Hancock, Paul J; Chhetri, Rajan; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Sadler, Elaine M; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Calabretta, Mark; Edwards, Philip G; Ekers, Jennifer A; Jackson, Carole A; Kesteven, Michael J; Newton-McGee, Katherine; Phillips, Chris; Ricci, Roberto; Roberts, Paul; Sault, Robert J; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Walker, Mark A; Wilson, Warwick E

    2010-01-01

    The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey is a blind survey of the whole Southern sky at 20 GHz with follow-up observations at 4.8, 8.6, and 20 GHz carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). In this paper we present an analysis of radio spectral properties in total intensity and polarisation, sizes, optical identifications, and redshifts of the sample of the 5808 extragalactic sources in the survey catalogue of confirmed sources over the whole Southern sky excluding the strip at Galactic latitude |b|500mJy, to 60% for S<100mJy. There is also a clear spectral steepening at higher frequencies with the median spectral index decreasing from -0.16 between 4.8 and 8.6GHz to -0.28 between 8.6 and 20GHz. Simultaneous observations in polarisation are available for all the sources at all the frequencies. 768 sources have a good quality detection of polarised flux density at 20GHz; 467 of them were also detected in polarisation at 4.8 and/or at 8.6GHz so that it has been possible to compare th...

  19. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey II: Further results and analysis of the full sample

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, R; Giacintucci, S; Dallacasa, D; Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Cuciti, V; Macario, G; Athreya, R

    2015-01-01

    The intra-cluster medium contains cosmic rays and magnetic fields that are manifested through the large scale synchrotron sources, termed as radio halos, relics and mini-halos. The Extended Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS) is an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS) designed to search for radio halos using GMRT 610/235 MHz observations. The GRHS+EGRHS consists of 64 clusters in the redshift range 0.2 -- 0.4 that have an X-ray luminosity larger than 5x10^44 erg/s in the 0.1 -- 2.4 keV band and with declinations > -31 deg in the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray cluster catalogues. In this second paper in the series, GMRT 610/235 MHz data on the last batch of 11 galaxy clusters and the statistical analysis of the full sample are presented. A new mini-halo in RXJ2129.6+0005 and candidate diffuse sources in Z5247, A2552 and Z1953 are discovered. A unique feature of this survey are the upper limits on the detections of 1 Mpc sized radio halos; 4 new are presented here making a total of...

  20. EDisCS -- the ESO Distant Cluster Survey -- Sample Definition and Optical Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    White, S D M; Simard, L; Rudnick, G; De Lucia, G; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Bender, R; Best, P; Bremer, M; Charlot, S; Dalcanton, J; Dantel, M; Desai, V; Fort, B; Halliday, C; Jablonka, P; Kauffmann, G; Mellier, Y; Milvang-Jensen, B; Pellò, R; Poggianti, B M; Poirier, S; Rottgering, H; Saglia, R; Schneider, P; Zaritsky, D

    2005-01-01

    We present the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) a survey of 20 fields containing distant galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.4 to almost 1.0. Candidate clusters were chosen from among the brightest objects identified in the Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey, half with estimated redshift z_est~0.5 and half with z_est~0.8. They were confirmed by identifying red sequences in moderately deep two colour data from VLT/FORS2. For confirmed candidates we have assembled deep three-band optical photometry using VLT/FORS2, deep near-infrared photometry in one or two bands using NTT/SOFI, deep optical spectroscopy using VLT/FORS2, wide field imaging in two or three bands using the ESO Wide Field Imager, and HST/ACS mosaic images for 10 of the most distant clusters. This first paper presents our sample and the VLT photometry we have obtained. We present images, colour-magnitude diagrams and richness estimates for our clusters, as well as giving redshifts and positions for the brightest cluster members. Subs...

  1. The XXL Survey. II. The bright cluster sample: catalogue and luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacaud, F.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P. A.; Adami, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Pierre, M.; Maughan, B. J.; Lieu, M.; Le Fèvre, J. P.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Ardila, F.; Baldry, I.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Démoclès, J.; Eckert, D.; Evrard, A. E.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Guennou, L.; Horellou, C.; Iovino, A.; Koulouridis, E.; Le Brun, V.; Lidman, C.; Liske, J.; Maurogordato, S.; Menanteau, F.; Owers, M.; Poggianti, B.; Pomarède, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Rapetti, D.; Reiprich, T. H.; Smith, G. P.; Tuffs, R.; Valageas, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ~2 at a sensitivity of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims: This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods: The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results: The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ~ 1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters. Based on

  2. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  3. The XXL Survey. II. The bright cluster sample: catalogue and luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Pacaud, F; Giles, P A; Adami, C; Sadibekova, T; Pierre, M; Maughan, B J; Lieu, M; Fèvre, J -P Le; Alis, S; Altieri, B; Ardila, F; Baldry, I; Benoist, C; Birkinshaw, M; Chiappetti, L; Démoclès, J; Eckert, D; Evrard, A E; Faccioli, L; Gastaldello, F; Guennou, L; Horellou, C; Iovino, A; Koulouridis, E; Brun, V Le; Lidman, C; Liske, J; Maurogordato, S; Menanteau, F; Owers, M; Poggianti, B; Pomarède, D; Pompei, E; Ponman, T J; Rapetti, D; Reiprich, T H; Smith, G P; Tuffs, R; Valageas, P; Valtchanov, I; Willis, J P; Ziparo, F

    2015-01-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of $3\\times 10^{-14}\\,\\mathrm{erg \\,s^{-1}cm^{-2}}$ on the source flux within a 1$^{\\prime}$ aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On th...

  4. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  5. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  6. The Lyman-alpha Reference Sample: I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    CERN Document Server

    Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thoger; Marquart, Thomas; Orlitova, Ivana; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M; Gruyters, Pieter; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Micheva, Genoveva; Pardy, Hector Oti-Floranes Stephen A; Roth, Martin M; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha reference sample (LARS) is a program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyman-alpha (Lya) line of hydrogen. This article presents an overview of the survey, its selection function and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the GALEX+SDSS catalogue at z=0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lya to be captured with combinations of long pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of HST/ACS. In addition, LARS utilises Halpha and Hbeta narrow, and U, B, i broad-band imaging with ACS and WFC3. In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lya photons are produced we demanded an Halpha equivalent width > 100{\\AA}. The sample of 14 galaxies covers far UV (FUV) luminosities that overlaps with those of high-z Lya emitters and Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lya images, including our LARS eXtraction softwa...

  7. Mass assembly of galaxies from the MASSIV survey and the MIRAGE simulation sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The MIRAGE (Merging & isolated high-redshift AMR galaxies, Perret et al. 2014) sample has been built in order to understand the contribution of the merger processes to the mass assembly in the MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS, Contini et al. 2012) sample. It consists of a sample of idealized simulations based on the RAMSES code; the initial conditions were designed to reproduce the physical properties of the most gas-rich young galaxies. It is composed of simulations of mergers exploring the initial parameters of mass and orientation of the disks with a spatial resolution reaching 7 parsecs. We carry out a comparative study of the MASSIV kinematical data to a set of more than 4000 pseudo-observations at z=1.7 built from simulations of the MIRAGE sample to determine the ability to detect galaxy merger signatures under the observational conditions of the SINFONI instrument. The MIRAGE simulations show (i) an absence of star formation bursts in mergers of fragmented and turbulent disks, suggesting a saturation mechanism; (ii) that the gas rich clump merging mechanism is able to control the bulge mass growth, to erode the central profile of the dark matter halo and to drive massive gas outflows into the disk plane; (iii) irrespectively of the orbital configuration and of the mass ratio between the disks a new disk of gas is reconstructed quickly after the merger.

  8. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Gruyters, Pieter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Herenz, Edmund Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), innoFSPEC, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofsica, POB 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronoma, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Apdo. Postal 106, Ensenada B. C. 22800 (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-10

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  9. See Change: the Supernova Sample from the Supernova Cosmology Project High Redshift Cluster Supernova Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Brian; Perlmutter, Saul; Boone, Kyle; Nordin, Jakob; Rubin, David; Lidman, Chris; Deustua, Susana E.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Aldering, Greg Scott; Brodwin, Mark; Cunha, Carlos E.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jee, James; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Santos, Joana; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Fassbender, Rene; Richard, Johan; Rosati, Piero; Wechsler, Risa H.; Muzzin, Adam; Willis, Jon; Boehringer, Hans; Gladders, Michael; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman; Hook, Isobel; Huterer, Dragan; Huang, Xiaosheng; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric; Pain, Reynald; Saunders, Clare; Suzuki, Nao; Barbary, Kyle H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Meyers, Joshua; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Sofiatti, Caroline; Wilson, Gillian; Rozo, Eduardo; Hilton, Matt; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Luther, Kyle; Yen, Mike; Fagrelius, Parker; Dixon, Samantha; Williams, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The Supernova Cosmology Project has finished executing a large (174 orbits, cycles 22-23) Hubble Space Telescope program, which has measured ~30 type Ia Supernovae above z~1 in the highest-redshift, most massive galaxy clusters known to date. Our SN Ia sample closely matches our pre-survey predictions; this sample will improve the constraint by a factor of 3 on the Dark Energy equation of state above z~1, allowing an unprecedented probe of Dark Energy time variation. When combined with the improved cluster mass calibration from gravitational lensing provided by the deep WFC3-IR observations of the clusters, See Change will triple the Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit. With the primary observing campaign completed, we present the preliminary supernova sample and our path forward to the supernova cosmology results. We also compare the number of SNe Ia discovered in each cluster with our pre-survey expectations based on cluster mass and SFR estimates. Our extensive HST and ground-based campaign has already produced unique results; we have confirmed several of the highest redshift cluster members known to date, confirmed the redshift of one of the most massive galaxy clusters at z~1.2 expected across the entire sky, and characterized one of the most extreme starburst environments yet known in a z~1.7 cluster. We have also discovered a lensed SN Ia at z=2.22 magnified by a factor of ~2.7, which is the highest spectroscopic redshift SN Ia currently known.

  10. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East....../hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation...

  11. Catch-Quota Management - an example of result based fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Eskild; Schou, Mogens; Dalskov, Jørgen

    The European Commission tabled in July 2011 a proposal for a revision of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). A central element of the revision is the introduction of a quota management system where all fish caught count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability of the catch...... is a complete change from present management where only the fish landed count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability opens for the introduction of a result based fisheries management strategy, where a fishery is regulated by clearly stated results and the fisher enjoys a maximum of freedom...

  12. The Effects of Survey Administration on Disclosure Rates to Sensitive Items Among Men: A Comparison of an Internet Panel Sample with a RDD Telephone Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M; Mahmood, Sehar

    2010-11-01

    Research using Internet surveys is an emerging field, yet research on the legitimacy of using Internet studies, particularly those targeting sensitive topics, remains under-investigated. The current study builds on the existing literature by exploring the demographic differences between Internet panel and RDD telephone survey samples, as well as differences in responses with regard to experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, alcohol and substance use/abuse, PTSD symptomatology, and social support. Analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic differences, there were few differences between the samples in their disclosure of sensitive information, and that the online sample was more socially isolated than the phone sample. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for using Internet samples in research on sensitive topics.

  13. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease...

  14. Watersheds for U.S Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sampling sites 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital representation of the watersheds of 43 sites on large river systems sampled by the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) of the U. S....

  15. A distance limited sample of massive star forming cores from the RMS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Maud, L T; Moore, T J T; Mottram, J C; Urquhart, J S; Cicchini, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyse C$^{18}$O ($J=3-$2) data from a sample of 99 infrared-bright massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact HII regions that were identified as potential molecular-outflow sources in the Red MSX source (RMS) survey. We extract a distance limited (D $<$ 6 kpc) sample shown to be representative of star formation covering the transition between the source types. At the spatial resolution probed, Larson-like relationships are found for these cores, though the alternative explanation, that Larson's relations arise where surface-density-limited samples are considered, is also consistent with our data. There are no significant differences found between source properties for the MYSOs and HII regions, suggesting that the core properties are established prior to the formation of massive stars, which subsequently have little impact at the later evolutionary stages investigated. There is a strong correlation between dust-continuum and C$^{18}$O-gas masses, supporting the interpretation that both trace t...

  16. Penggunaan Metode Respondent Driven Sampling (Rds dalam Survey Pemasaran Beras di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herena Pudjihastuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a Free Trade Zone (FTZ, the province of Riau Islands has a different pattern of strategic commodity (such as rice marketing comparing to other regions in Indonesia. To anticipate and control the negative effects of the implementation of FTZ policy, It is necessary to study about rice marketing trade system in the Riau Islands region. The study was conducted to identify patterns of supply and marketing of food (rice and analyze the marketing margin and marketing efficiency as well as the factors that influence it. The study was conducted through desk study and field surveys. Secondary data was collected from various sources and primary data collected through interviews with selected respondents using Respondent Driven Sampling method (RDS. The study shows that the structure of the rice market in Riau Islands can be categorized as monopolistic. Most of the rice supply comes from outside the region and import, the supply chain is quite simple, the price is relatively stable and relatively efficient marketing and resilience of rice reserves are relatively high for merchants. Nevertheless, the Riau islands will be very susceptible to interference distribution. Required efforts of the provincial government of Riau Islands to provide sufficient rice reserves. This paper gives an example of the use of the RDS method in marketing surveys.

  17. Using mark–recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Mark–recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations.

  18. [HIV prevention and adolescents: a sample survey on Italian high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Rudi; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bianconi, Mara; Camoni, Laura; Colucci, Anna; Frati, Annarosa; Gallo, Pietro; Rosa, Enrica; D'Agostini, Anna

    2002-01-01

    This article resulted from a survey carried out by some researchers of the Telefono Verde AIDS (TVA-National AIDS Help-Line) of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, with the collaboration of some colleagues of the Segreteria per le Attività Culturali. It is also a summary of strategies of intervention against HIV/AIDS for young people implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health. The study was developed within the context of the workshops on HIV/AIDS education carried out since 1995 by some researchers of TVA. These workshops fall within some other initiatives arranged by the Segreteria per le Attività Culturali for the diffusion of scientific and technological information. Our study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS among some different high-school students. Data processing points out a widespread and quite good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS in general and particularly on ways of transmission and prevention measures. Results obtained could not be generalized because the sample involved in the survey represented a privileged target, already sensitive to the issues concerning HIV infection and AIDS dealt with in the context of specific teaching programmes.

  19. The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124 was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  20. Water-quality sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey-Standard protocols and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2010-01-01

    Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (1.0 MB) The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops the sampling procedures and collects the data necessary for the accurate assessment and wise management of our Nation's surface-water and groundwater resources. Federal and State agencies, water-resource regulators and managers, and many organizations and interested parties in the public and private sectors depend on the reliability, timeliness, and integrity of the data we collect and the scientific soundness and impartiality of our data assessments and analysis. The standard data-collection methods uniformly used by USGS water-quality personnel are peer reviewed, kept up-to-date, and published in the National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/).

  1. Towards an optimal sampling of peculiar velocity surveys for Wiener Filter reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The Wiener Filter (WF) technique enables the reconstruction of density and velocity fields from observed radial peculiar velocities. This paper aims at identifying the optimal design of peculiar velocity surveys within the WF framework. The prime goal is to test the dependence of the reconstruction quality on the distribution and nature of data points. Mock data sets, extending to 250 h-1 Mpc, are drawn from a constrained simulation that mimics the local Universe to produce realistic mock catalogues. Reconstructed fields obtained with these mocks are compared to the reference simulation. Comparisons, including residual distributions, cell-to-cell and bulk velocities, imply that the presence of field data points is essential to properly measure the flows. The fields reconstructed from mocks that consist only of galaxy cluster data points exhibit poor-quality bulk velocities. In addition, the reconstruction quality depends strongly on the grouping of individual data points into single points to suppress virial motions in high-density regions. Conversely, the presence of a Zone of Avoidance hardly affects the reconstruction. For a given number of data points, a uniform sample does not score any better than a sample with decreasing number of data points with the distance. The best reconstructions are obtained with a grouped survey containing field galaxies: assuming no error, they differ from the simulated field by less than 100 km s-1 up to the extreme edge of the catalogues or up to a distance of three times the mean distance of data points for non-uniform catalogues. The overall conclusions hold when errors are added.

  2. Do public health surveys provide representative data? Comparison of three different sampling approaches in the adult population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the sample representativeness in three different types of population-based public health surveys in Croatia. Responses from the household sampling based Croatian Adult Health Survey (CAHS), health insurance register based Croatian Health Survey (CHS) and a telephone survey (TPS) were analysed and compared to gender, age and education composition of the Croatian adult population, based on the 2001 Census. The raw (unweighted) survey data were used and analysed with Spearman's rank test and distance analysis. The results indicated that TPS had the most similar gender composition compared to the Census data. TPS also had the most similar age composition in men, while CHS had the most similar age composition in women. Finally, CAHS had the most similar education composition to the Census data. Three population subgroups were substantially under-sampled in all three surveys--men, younger people, and elderly from the lowest educational classes. For these sub-groups, advanced sampling methods should be employed in order to obtain more precise estimates from public health surveys.

  3. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  4. 76 FR 74009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA825 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  5. 77 FR 4997 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery Program Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections,...

  6. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  7. European Union Import Quotas on Chinese Textile and Clothing Exports in 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Based upon a narrative policy analysis, the aim of this paper is to answer two questions: (1) Why did the EU re-introduce import quotas on Chinese textile and clothing exports in 2005 after promising to lift them? (2) Why did the EU (partly) abolish these quotas a couple of months later? The rati......Based upon a narrative policy analysis, the aim of this paper is to answer two questions: (1) Why did the EU re-introduce import quotas on Chinese textile and clothing exports in 2005 after promising to lift them? (2) Why did the EU (partly) abolish these quotas a couple of months later...... and clothing exports to WTO members on 1 January, 2005 and the political situation surrounding the French referendum on the Constitutional Treaty on 29 May, 2005, constitute key events in the decision making process....

  8. 77 FR 55500 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... that the proposed adjusted 2012 aggregate production quotas for 3,4- Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV... 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) 30 g 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) 20 g 3,4,5...

  9. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... practical effect on the legal supply chain. Swordfish are monitored for compliance with minimum size... the supply chain and limit NOAA's ability to enforce minimum size requirements. Miscellaneous Comment... Atlantic swordfish quotas and implement the management measures contained in Recommendation...

  10. MOFCOM announced supplement to the first batch of 2012 export quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce of China supplemented the first batch of rare earth export quotas, which were assigned to the companies that had passed the inspection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  11. 76 FR 78044 - Controlled Substances: Established Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... controlled substances. Several comments discussed the national prescription drug abuse epidemic and urged DEA to reduce quotas for prescription painkillers and opioids. Addressing prescription drug abuse..., methadone, methadone intermediate, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, morphine (for conversion),...

  12. 78 FR 21584 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... not necessary to prepare an EA for quota specifications alone (in accordance with the approach... category. This constitutes the best available information regarding the universe of permits and permit...

  13. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, Martin-Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, Vincent; Lassnig, Mario; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Vigne, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system manages more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next generation Distributed Data Management system of the ATLAS experiment, replaced DQ2 in December 2014 and will manage the experiments data throughout Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. The previous data management system pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach to this issue is needed. Rucio was delivered with an initial quota system, but during the first months of operation it turned out to not fully satisfy the collaborations resource management needs. We consequently introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of hierarchical quotas in a dynamic way. This concept enables t...

  14. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  15. MASSIV: Mass Assemby Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. I. Survey description and global properties of the 0.9 < z < 1.8 galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, T; Fevre, O Le; Kissler-Patig, M; Amram, P; Epinat, B; Moultaka, J; Paioro, L; Queyrel, J; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Perez-Montero, E

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies evolve and assemble their mass across cosmic time is still a fundamental unsolved issue. To get insight into the various processes of galaxy mass assembly, the Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS (MASSIV) aims at probing the kinematical and chemical properties of a significant and representative sample of high-redshift (0.9 5 Msun/yr. Together with the size of the sample, the spatially-resolved SINFONI data therefore enables us to discuss global, volume averaged, galaxy kinematic and chemical properties all accross the mass and SFR range of the survey to derive robust conclusions on galaxy mass assembly over cosmological timescales.

  16. A survey of sports injuries among a convenience sample of Israeli athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, R; Kaplan, G; Barell, V

    2001-07-01

    Israel lacks a systematic surveillance of sports injuries, and knowledge of risk factors and specific patterns of injury is inadequate. In order to promote prevention of sports-related injuries, the magnitude of the problem must first be identified and the incidence and severity of sports injuries described. To conduct a survey on previous sports injuries among a sample of Israeli athletes. A convenience sample of Israeli amateur athletes participating in the 1997 15th Maccabiah Games was randomly selected. The study group answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, and information regarding their sports activity and sports-related injuries that had occurred during the previous 2 years. The study group, aged 12-73 years (median age 21), comprised 301 consenting athletes in 28 different sports. Of these athletes 56.1% reported having had at least one injury. Most injuries (75.6%) involved the upper and lower extremities, and 37.8% of the injured sportsmen had received medical attention from a physician. Half of the athletes participated in contact sports--both collision and limited impact. This group had a much greater proportion of reported injuries in all age groups. Surveillance of sports injuries should be expanded in order to develop appropriate prevention programs in Israel.

  17. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IX. The 90-mu m luminosity function from the Final Analysis sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serjeant, S; Carraminana, A; Gonzales-Solares, E; Heraudeau, P; Mujica, R; Perez-Fournon, [No Value; Sedgwick, N; Rowan-Robinson, M; Franceschini, A; Babbedge, T; del Burgo, C; Ciliegi, P; Efstathiou, A; La Franca, F; Gruppioni, C; Hughes, D; Lari, C; Oliver, S; Pozzi, F; Stickel, M; Vaccari, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the 90-mum luminosity function of the Final Analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending the sample size of our previous analysis (Paper IV) by about a factor of 4. Our sample extends to z = 1.1, similar to50 times the comoving volume of Paper IV, and 10(7.7)

  18. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  19. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  20. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  1. Individual transferable quotas and conservation: a critical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Acheson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual transferable quotas (ITQs have become a popular management tool for fisheries. They have been promoted in some quarters and seriously criticized in others because of their social and economic impacts. A more serious problem is that ITQs provide exclusive access to public resources presumably in return for some public benefit, namely conservation; however, in a high percentage of cases they do not conserve fish stocks. In this article, we focus on the reasons that ITQs do not conserve stocks. We point to a number of phenomena identified in the literature as affecting stocks of fish, including problems with total allowable catch (TAC, ecological hierarchy theory, r and K species, the Allee effect, scale and metapopulation structure, the need to have selective gear, and the continuation of roving bandit incentives. Despite their growing popularity with managers, ITQs do not solve any of these problems. We argue there may be better ways to manage. One possibility is what we call parametric management.

  2. Male Circumcision and STI Acquisition in Britain: Evidence from a National Probability Sample Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Homfray

    Full Text Available It is well-established that male circumcision reduces acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, chancroid, and syphilis. However, the effect on the acquisition of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs remains unclear. We examined the relationship between circumcision and biological measures of three STIs: human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium.A probability sample survey of 15,162 men and women aged 16-74 years (including 4,060 men aged 16-44 years was carried out in Britain between 2010 and 2012. Participants completed a computer-assisted personal interview, including a computer-assisted self-interview, which asked about experience of STI diagnoses, and circumcision. Additionally, 1,850 urine samples from sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years were collected and tested for STIs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR to quantify associations between circumcision and i self-reporting any STI diagnosis and ii presence of STIs in urine, in men aged 16-44 years, adjusting for key socio-demographic and sexual behavioural factors.The prevalence of circumcision in sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years was 17.4% (95%CI 16.0-19.0. There was no association between circumcision and reporting any previous STI diagnoses, and specifically previous chlamydia or genital warts. However, circumcised men were less likely to have any HPV type (AOR 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.50 including high-risk HPV types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and/or 68 (AOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.40 detected in urine.Circumcised men had reduced odds of HPV detection in urine. These findings have implications for improving the precision of models of STI transmission in populations with different circumcision prevalence and in designing interventions to reduce STI acquisition.

  3. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  4. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  5. The XXL Survey. XIII. Baryon content of the bright cluster sample

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, D; Coupon, J; Gastaldello, F; Pierre, M; Melin, J -B; Brun, A M C Le; McCarthy, I G; Adami, C; Chiappetti, L; Faccioli, L; Giles, P; Lavoie, S; Lefevre, J P; Lieu, M; Mantz, A; Maughan, B; McGee, S; Pacaud, F; Paltani, S; Sadibekova, T; Smith, G P; Ziparo, F

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, galaxy clusters have been expected to retain all the material accreted since their formation epoch. For this reason, their matter content should be representative of the Universe as a whole, and thus their baryon fraction should be close to the Universal baryon fraction. We make use of the sample of the 100 brightest galaxy clusters discovered in the XXL Survey to investigate the fraction of baryons in the form of hot gas and stars in the cluster population. We measure the gas masses of the detected halos and use a mass--temperature relation directly calibrated using weak-lensing measurements for a subset of XXL clusters to estimate the halo mass. We find that the weak-lensing calibrated gas fraction of XXL-100-GC clusters is substantially lower than was found in previous studies using hydrostatic masses. Our best-fit relation between gas fraction and mass reads $f_{\\rm gas,500}=0.055_{-0.006}^{+0.007}\\left(M_{\\rm 500}/10^{14}M_\\odot\\right)^{0.21_{-0.10}^{+0.11}}$. The baryon budget of galaxy c...

  6. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-03-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors-essentially the converse of the protective factors above.

  7. Differential efficiencies of dip-net sampling versus sampling surface-floating pupal exuviae in a biodiversity survey of Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Charles Ferrington Jr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative efficiencies of standard dip-net sampling (SDN versus collections of surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE were determined for detecting Chironomidae at catchment and site scales and at subfamily/tribe-, genus- and species-levels based on simultaneous, equal-effort sampling on a monthly basis for one year during a biodiversity assessment of Bear Run Nature Reserve. Results showed SFPE was more efficient than SDN at catchment scales for detecting both genera and species. At site scales, SDN sampling was more efficient for assessment of a first-order site. No consistent pattern, except for better efficiency of SFPE to detect Orthocladiinae genera, was observed at genus-level for two second-order sites. However, SFPE was consistently more efficient at detecting species of Orthocladiinae, Chironomini and Tanytarsini at the second order sites. SFPE was more efficient at detecting both genera and species at two third-order sites. The differential efficiencies of the two methods are concluded to be related to stream order and size, substrate size, flow and water velocity, depth and habitat heterogeneity, and differential ability to discriminate species among pupal exuviae specimens versus larval specimens. Although both approaches are considered necessary for comprehensive biodiversity assessments of Chironomidae, our results suggest that there is an optimal, but different, allocation of sampling effort for detecting Chironomidae across stream orders and at differing spatial and taxonomic scales.Article submitted 13. August 2014, accepted 31. October 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  8. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  9. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, Michael G.; McCann, Robert S.; Phiri, Kamija S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Takken, Willem; Diggle, Peter; Terlouw, Anja D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD) improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design. Methods We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area. Findings We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6–59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots—where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Conclusions Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the

  10. Can smartphones measure momentary quality of life and participation? A proof of concept using experience sampling surveys with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Wishink, Anna; Springfield, Liz; Gustafsson, Louise; Ireland, David; Silburn, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding quality of life and participation is a key aspect of occupational therapy research. The use of smartphones to deliver experience-sampling surveys may provide an accessible way to monitor these outcomes. This study used smartphone-based experience sampling methods (ESM) to investigate factors influencing momentary quality of life (mQOL) of university students. A convenience sample of students at an Australian university participated. Using a custom smartphone application, ESM surveys were sent six to eight times, every second day, over a week. Participants indicated their mQOL, occupational participation, occupational enjoyment, social context and location via surveys and provided demographic and health information in a single self-report questionnaire. The relationship between mQOL and variables was analysed at the survey level using logistic regression. Forty students completed 391 surveys. Higher mQOL was significantly related to participation in productive occupations (z = 3.48; P = 0.001), moderate (z = 4.00; P sample, analysing at the individual level, and using ESM in conjunction with other methodologies is recommended. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  12. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arthuro Mota-Rolim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD, subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n=3,427; median age=25 years through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%. Dreams typically depicted actions (93%, known people (92%, sounds/voices (78%, and colored images (76%. The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%, memories of the previous day (13%, or unrelated to the dreamer (30%. Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%, being stalked (48%, or other unpleasant sensations (47%. These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue, and suggest that dreams are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever, and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 minute. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r=0.20, p<0.01, and LD control was rare (29%. LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%, a situation that increases REMS duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%, which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is a relatively ubiquitous but not frequent state, being unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD is a general phenomenon of the human

  13. Low vaccination coverage of Greek Roma children amid economic crisis: national survey using stratified cluster sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Ioanna; Arkoudis, Chrisoula; Terzidis, Agis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Benos, Alexis; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research on Roma health is fragmentary as major methodological obstacles often exist. Reliable estimates on vaccination coverage of Roma children at a national level and identification of risk factors for low coverage could play an instrumental role in developing evidence-based policies to promote vaccination in this marginalized population group. Methods: We carried out a national vaccination coverage survey of Roma children. Thirty Roma settlements, stratified by geographical region and settlement type, were included; 7–10 children aged 24–77 months were selected from each settlement using systematic sampling. Information on children’s vaccination coverage was collected from multiple sources. In the analysis we applied weights for each stratum, identified through a consensus process. Results: A total of 251 Roma children participated in the study. A vaccination document was presented for the large majority (86%). We found very low vaccination coverage for all vaccines. In 35–39% of children ‘minimum vaccination’ (DTP3 and IPV2 and MMR1) was administered, while 34–38% had received HepB3 and 31–35% Hib3; no child was vaccinated against tuberculosis in the first year of life. Better living conditions and primary care services close to Roma settlements were associated with higher vaccination indices. Conclusions: Our study showed inadequate vaccination coverage of Roma children in Greece, much lower than that of the non-minority child population. This serious public health challenge should be systematically addressed, or, amid continuing economic recession, the gap may widen. Valid national estimates on important characteristics of the Roma population can contribute to planning inclusion policies. PMID:27694159

  14. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  15. The RMS Survey: Resolving kinematic distance ambiguities towards a sample of compact HII regions using HI absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Lumsden, S L; Oudmaijer, R D; Moore, T J T; Mottram, J C; Cooper, H D B; Mottram, M; Rogers, H C

    2011-01-01

    We present high-resolution HI data obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to resolve the near/far distance ambiguities towards a sample of compact HII regions from the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey. The high resolution data are complemented with lower resolution archival HI data extracted from the Southern and VLA Galactic Plane surveys. We resolve the distance ambiguity for nearly all of the 105 sources where the continuum was strong enough to allow analysis of the HI absorption line structure. This represents another step in the determination of distances to the total RMS sample, which with over 1,000 massive young stellar objects and compact HII regions, is the largest and most complete sample of its kind. The full sample will allow the distribution of massive star formation in the Galaxy to be examined.

  16. A Critical Assessment of Bias in Survey Studies Using Location-Based Sampling to Recruit Patrons in Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Lee, Juliet P; Gruenewald, Paul J; Marzell, Miesha

    2015-01-01

    Location-based sampling is a method to obtain samples of people within ecological contexts relevant to specific public health outcomes. Random selection increases generalizability; however, in some circumstances (such as surveying bar patrons), recruitment conditions increase risks of sample bias. We attempted to recruit representative samples of bars and patrons in six California cities, but low response rates precluded meaningful analysis. A systematic review of 24 similar studies revealed that none addressed the key shortcomings of our study. We recommend steps to improve studies that use location-based sampling: (i) purposively sample places of interest, (ii) use recruitment strategies appropriate to the environment, and (iii) provide full information on response rates at all levels of sampling.

  17. Can we gain precision by sampling with probabilities proportional to size in surveying recent landscape changes in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.; Koomen, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-two squares of 100 ha were selected by stratified random sampling with probabilities proportional to size (pps) to survey landscape changes in the period 1996-2003. The area of the plots times the urbanization pressure was used as a size measure. The central question of this study is whether

  18. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  19. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    concern. Our results highlight the need to develop appropriate corrections for bias in estimates derived from roadside sampling, and the need to design surveys that sample bird communities across a more representative cross-section of the landscape, both near and far from roads.

  20. From the quota stock exchange to the petroleum markets; Fra kvoteboersen til petroleumsmarkedene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart J.

    1999-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol gives numerical limits for effluents of climatic gases from each industrial country in the period of 2008 to 2012 but opens for a certain level of transfer of obligations between the countries. In a few years time there may come a new market for right to climatic gas effluent quotas. Much indicates that the market will be influenced by the previous commanding economies in the East selling quotas to the Western counties. The US seems to be a prospective and domineering buyer. This publication outlines how an international market of quotas may appear and shows how this market will be mutually connected to the energy markets. 2 figs., 1 tab. 11 refs

  1. From the quota stock exchange to the petroleum markets; Fra kvoteboersen til petroleumsmarkedene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart J.

    1999-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol gives numerical limits for effluents of climatic gases from each industrial country in the period of 2008 to 2012 but opens for a certain level of transfer of obligations between the countries. In a few years time there may come a new market for right to climatic gas effluent quotas. Much indicates that the market will be influenced by the previous commanding economies in the East selling quotas to the Western counties. The US seems to be a prospective and domineering buyer. This publication outlines how an international market of quotas may appear and shows how this market will be mutually connected to the energy markets. 2 figs., 1 tab. 11 refs

  2. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  3. Geophysical Surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September 2002 - Grab Sample Data (GRABS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake is a tectonic lake that has existed for at least several hundred thousand years. The lake basin is a relatively simple half graben, a spoon-shaped...

  4. Geophysical Surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September 2002 - JPEG Images of Grab Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake is a tectonic lake that has existed for at least several hundred thousand years. The lake basin is a relatively simple half graben, a spoon-shaped...

  5. GRABS - Geophysical Surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September 2002 - Grab Sample Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake is a tectonic lake that has existed for at least several hundred thousand years. The lake basin is a relatively simple half graben, a spoon-shaped...

  6. Geophysical Surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September 2002 - Grab Sample Data (GRABS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake is a tectonic lake that has existed for at least several hundred thousand years. The lake basin is a relatively simple half graben, a spoon-shaped...

  7. Redshifts for a sample of fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Wegner, G. A.; Hamwey, R.; Boley, F.; Geller, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 93 of the 94 galaxies in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog with the value of m(B/01) between 15.5 and 15.7 and with right ascension alpha between 8(h) and 17(h) and declination delta between 29 and 30 deg. This region is within the one covered by the first slice of the CfA (Center for Astrophysics) survey. The galaxies reinforce features already visible in the earlier survey.

  8. Factors Impacting Transgender Patients' Discomfort with Their Family Physicians: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta R Bauer

    Full Text Available Representing approximately 0.5% of the population, transgender (trans persons in Canada depend on family physicians for both general and transition-related care. However, physicians receive little to no training on this patient population, and trans patients are often profoundly uncomfortable and may avoid health care. This study examined factors associated with patient discomfort discussing trans health issues with a family physician in Ontario, Canada.433 trans people age 16 and over were surveyed using respondent-driven sampling for the Trans PULSE Project; 356 had a family physician. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to produce prevalence risk ratios (PRRs via average marginal predictions, for transmasculine (n = 184 and transfeminine (n = 172 trans persons.Among the 83.1% (95% CI = 77.4, 88.9 of trans Ontarians who had a family physician, approximately half reported discomfort discussing trans health issues. 37.2% of transmasculine and 38.1% of transfeminine persons reported at least one trans-specific negative experience. In unadjusted analysis, sociodemographics did not predict discomfort, but those who planned to medically transition sex, but had not begun, were more likely to report discomfort (transmasculine: PRR = 2.62 (95% CI = 1.44, 4.77; transfeminine: PRR = 1.85 (95% CI = 1.08, 3.15. Adjusted for other factors, greater perceived physician knowledge about trans issues was associated with reduced likelihood of discomfort, and previous trans-specific negative experiences with a family physician with increased discomfort. Transfeminine persons who reported three or more types of negative experiences were 2.26 times as likely, and transmasculine persons 1.61 times as likely, to report discomfort. In adjusted analyses, sociodemographic associations differed by gender, with being previously married or having higher education associated with increased risk of discomfort among transfeminine persons, but decreased risk among

  9. A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  10. A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  11. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  12. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195 metric...

  13. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  14. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane...

  15. 76 FR 464 - Notification of U.S. Fish Quotas and an Effort Allocation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... (see ADDRESSES). Transfer and Chartering of U.S. Quota Allocations In the event that no adequate... chartering arrangements to fish the 2011 U.S. quota allocation for 3L shrimp. Under NAFO rules in effect... chartering operation through a mail notification process. A NAFO Contracting Party wishing to enter into a...

  16. 76 FR 66915 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty and Quota Free...

  17. 77 FR 59913 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-month cap on duty and quota free...

  18. 76 FR 1137 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... lines listed in the Annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty and Quota Free...

  19. 75 FR 1589 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-month cap on duty- and quota-free...

  20. 76 FR 66914 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty and Quota Free...

  1. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Quillet, E.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to

  2. 78 FR 38286 - Notice of Change to the CCC Sugar Purchase and Exchange To Include Certificates of Quota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... of Quota Eligibility Issued Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement and... Eligibility (CQEs) issued under the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (U.S.-Colombia TPA) and... sugar tariff-rate quotas established under the U.S.- Colombia TPA and U.S.-Panama TPA, and thus each...

  3. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., 2012. The second, third, fourth, and fifth tranches will be reserved for organic sugar and other... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups...

  4. Will a Quota Plan for Asylum Seekers Plan Work —and Why Not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the recent situation in the Mediterranean, where the number of asylum seekers arriving from countries south and east of the Mediterranean Sea is increasing significantly. The European Commission has suggested a plan, “A European Agenda on Migration”, which will redistribute...... the EU-Commission of a mandatory quota plan for asylum seekers will not work, because too many states will pretend, that the problem does not really belong to them. They fear that accepting a system according to which each state has to accept a fixed quota of asylum seekers in a recent context might...

  5. Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westskog, Hege

    2001-07-01

    In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementarity cap in the Kyoto agreement can be operationalized. I discuss economic arguments for restricting quota trade with a focus on the market power issue, transaction costs, and ancillary benefits of reducing emissions of climate gases. I also address the problem of hot air as an important argument to restrict quota trade, and arguments for restrictions connected to technological innovation. Finally, I look into the ethical considerations of restrictions. (author)

  6. Will a Quota Plan for Asylum Seekers Plan Work —and Why Not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the recent situation in the Mediterranean, where the number of asylum seekers arriving from countries south and east of the Mediterranean Sea is increasing significantly. The European Commission has suggested a plan, “A European Agenda on Migration”, which will redistribute...... the EU-Commission of a mandatory quota plan for asylum seekers will not work, because too many states will pretend, that the problem does not really belong to them. They fear that accepting a system according to which each state has to accept a fixed quota of asylum seekers in a recent context might...

  7. Catch-Quota Management - an example of result based fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Eskild; Schou, Mogens; Dalskov, Jørgen

    is a complete change from present management where only the fish landed count against the quotas. The principle of full accountability opens for the introduction of a result based fisheries management strategy, where a fishery is regulated by clearly stated results and the fisher enjoys a maximum of freedom...... to plan and conduct the fishing operation to meet these results. Experiences from Danish trials with Catch Quota Management (CQM) conducted in 2008 to 2012 is presented and the possibilities of simplifying the current EU fisheries management and control regulations under a CQM system are evaluated...

  8. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf; Klimagasskvoter paa sokkelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  9. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales.

  10. Sampling in health geography: reconciling geographical objectives and probabilistic methods. An example of a health survey in Vientiane (Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochaton Audrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics and health outcomes. A sample selected from a small number of specific areas creates statistical challenges: the observations are not independent at the local level, and this results in poor statistical validity at the global level. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a sample that is appropriate for both geographical and probability methods. Methods We used a two-stage selection procedure with a first non-random stage of selection of clusters. Instead of randomly selecting clusters, we deliberately chose a group of clusters, which as a whole would contain all the variation in health measures in the population. As there was no health information available before the survey, we selected a priori determinants that can influence the spatial homogeneity of the health characteristics. This method yields a distribution of variables in the sample that closely resembles that in the overall population, something that cannot be guaranteed with randomly-selected clusters, especially if the number of selected clusters is small. In this way, we were able to survey specific areas while minimising design effects and maximising statistical precision. Application We applied this strategy in a health survey carried out in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. We selected well-known health determinants with unequal spatial distribution within the city: nationality and literacy. We deliberately selected a combination of clusters whose distribution of nationality and literacy is similar to the distribution in the general population. Conclusion This paper describes the conceptual reasoning behind

  11. Optimal decision-making model of spatial sampling for survey of China's land with remotely sensed data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng; LIU Jiyuan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In the remote sensing survey of the country land, cost and accuracy are a pair of conflicts, for which spatial sampling is a preferable solution with the aim of an optimal balance between economic input and accuracy of results, or in other words, acquirement of higher accuracy at less cost. Counter to drawbacks of previous application models, e.g. lack of comprehensive and quantitative-comparison, the optimal decision-making model of spatial sampling is proposed. This model first acquires the possible accuracy-cost diagrams of multiple schemes through initial spatial exploration, then regresses them and standardizes them into a unified reference frame, and finally produces the relatively optimal sampling scheme by using the discrete decision-making function (built by this paper) and comparing them in combination with the diagrams. According to the test result in the survey of the arable land using remotely sensed data, the Sandwich model, while applied in the survey of the thin-feature and cultivated land areas with aerial photos, can better realize the goal of the best balance between investment and accuracy. With this case and other cases, it is shown that the optimal decision-making model of spatial sampling is a good choice in the survey of the farm areas using remote sensing, with its distinguished benefit of higher precision at less cost or vice versa. In order to extensively apply the model in the surveys of natural resources, including arable farm areas, this paper proposes the prototype of development using the component technology, that could considerably improve the analysis efficiency by insetting program components within the software environment of GIS and RS.

  12. Investigating probabilistic sampling approaches for large-scale surveys in software engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Mello, Rafael Maiani; da Silva, Pedro Corrêa; Travassos, Guilherme Horta

    2015-01-01

    .... Specialized literature often presents limitations on interpreting surveys’ results, mainly due to the use of sampling frames established by convenience and non-probabilistic criteria for sampling from them...

  13. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.M.; Stein, A.; Rasch, D.; Leeuw, de J.; Georgiadis, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution, sampling and estimation of abundance for two animal species in an African ecosystem by means of an intensive simulation of the sampling process under a geographical information system (GIS) environment. It focuses on systematic and random sampling designs, commo

  14. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.M.; Stein, A.; Rasch, D.; Leeuw, de J.; Georgiadis, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution, sampling and estimation of abundance for two animal species in an African ecosystem by means of an intensive simulation of the sampling process under a geographical information system (GIS) environment. It focuses on systematic and random sampling designs,

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  16. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and...

  17. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  18. A nonparametric approach to the sample selection problem in survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Alvarez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Responses to economic surveys are usually noisy. Item non-response, as a particular type of censored data, is a common problem for key economic variables such as income and earnings, consumption or accumulated assets. If such non-response is non-random, the consequence can be a bias in the results o

  19. Community College Fundraising: The Voluntary Support of Education Survey as a Sampling Tool for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Richard L.; Besikof, Rudolph J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Voluntary Support for Education (VSE) Survey, an instrument created by the Council for Aid to Education. Our objective is to explain VSE's potential value as a tool to inform both institutional and academic research regarding fund-raising activities at community colleges. Of particular interest is how the data available…

  20. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  1. The use of summary statistics for sample size allocation for food composition surveys and an application to the potato group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Yasui, Akemi

    2011-11-01

    To give a quantitative guide to sample size allocation for developing sampling designs for a food composition survey, we discuss sampling strategies that consider the importance of each food; namely, consumption or production, variability of composition, and the restrictions within the available resources for sample collection and analysis are considered., Here we consider two strategies: 'proportional' and 'Neyman' are discussed. Both of these incorporate consumed quantity of foods, and we review some available statistics for allocation issues. The Neyman optimal strategy allocates less sample size for starch than proportional, because the former incorporates variability in the composition. Those strategies improved accuracy in dietary nutrient intake more than equal sample size allocation. Those strategies will be useful as we often face sample size allocation problems, wherein we decide whether to sample 'five white potatoes and five taros or nine white and one taros'. Allocating sufficient sample size for important foodstuffs is essential in assuring data quality. Nevertheless, the food composition table should be as comprehensive as possible.

  2. CENSORS: A Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources. I. Sample definition, radio data and optical identifications

    CERN Document Server

    Best, P N; Röttgering, H J A; Rengelink, R B; Brookes, M H; Wall, J

    2003-01-01

    A new sample of radio sources, with the designated name CENSORS (A Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources), has been defined by combining the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) at 1.4 GHz with the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) Patch D, a 3 by 2 degree region of sky centred at 09 51 36.0, -21 00 00 (J2000). New radio observations of 199 NVSS radio sources with NVSS flux densities S(1.4GHz) > 7.8mJy are presented, and compared with the EIS I-band imaging observations which reach a depth of I~23; optical identifications are obtained for over two-thirds of the ~150 confirmed radio sources within the EIS field. The radio sources have a median linear size of 6 arcseconds, consistent with the trend for lower flux density radio sources to be less extended. Other radio source properties, such as the lobe flux density ratios, are consistent with those of brighter radio source samples. From the optical information, 30-40% of the sources are expected to lie at redshifts z >~ 1.5. One of the key goals of this survey is to accuratel...

  3. Intimate partner violence reported by two samples of deaf adults via a computerized American sign language survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed.

  4. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  5. Reproducibility of Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in Repeat Surveys of Men Who have Sex with Men, Unguja, Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Ahmed; Haji, Shaaban; Khamis, Maryam; Said, Christen; Khalid, Farhat; Dahoma, Mohammed; Ali, Ameir; Othman, Asha; Welty, Susie; McFarland, Willi

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reproducibility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in obtaining comparable samples across two survey rounds, we conducted integrated bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (IBBSS) using RDS in 2007 and 2011 among men who have sex with men (MSM) on Unguja island in Zanzibar. Differences in the two rounds were assessed by comparing RDS-adjusted population estimates, stratified estimates, and bottleneck plots. Participants in the 2011 survey round were younger (31.4 vs. 9.9% under 19 years old, p < 0.001), more likely to have tested for HIV in the last year (53.7 vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), and less likely to have injected drugs in the last 3 months (1.0 vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001) compared to participants in the 2007 round. HIV prevalence was 12.3% in 2007 compared to 2.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). The difference in HIV prevalence persisted after stratifying and adjusting for known differences in the two surveys rounds. Bottleneck plots suggest that recruitment chains were "trapped" in the social networks of MSM who injected drugs to a greater extent in 2007 than in 2011. We conclude that the two rounds of RDS sampled different subsets of the MSM population on Unguja, particularly with respect to inclusion of MSM within the social networks of people who inject drugs. Findings underscore the need to evaluate the reproducibility of RDS in repeated rounds of IBBSS and to develop new sampling methods for key populations at high risk for HIV in order to track the epidemic, develop evidence-based prevention and care programs, and assess their impact.

  6. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisits, M.; Serfon, C.; Garonne, V.; Lassnig, M.; Beermann, T.; Vigne, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system manages more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next generation Distributed Data Management system of the ATLAS experiment, replaced DQ2 in December 2014 and will manage the experiment's data throughout Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. The previous data management system pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach is needed. Rucio was delivered with an initial quota system, but during the first months of operation it turned out to not fully satisfy the collaboration's resource management needs. We consequently introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of hierarchical quotas in a dynamic way. This concept enables the operators of the data management system to implement very specific policies for users, physics groups and production systems while, at the same time, lowering the operational burden. This contribution describes the concept, architecture and workflow of the system and includes an evaluation measuring the performance of the system.

  7. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... December 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  8. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  9. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 648 [Docket No. 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  10. 78 FR 43141 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... applicant, by an employee, officer or agent, with ] personal knowledge of the matters set out in the... the applicant. Production data, including the following: the quantity and value of the Worsted Wool... Quota allocation. (3) Worsted Wool Fabric. Data indicating the quantity and value of the Worsted Wool...

  11. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  12. 75 FR 56137 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... the establishment and maintenance of reserve stocks. These quotas do not include imports of controlled... Benzylmorphine 2 Betacetylmethadol 2 Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl 2 Beta-hydroxyfentanyl 2 Betameprodine 2... the United States, for export requirements and the establishment and maintenance of reserve stocks...

  13. 53 Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    cocoa offered for sale in the sub-region at a fixed price per annum. ... exports and a system of quotas in produce purchase—appear to have ... ensure that the products did not eventually find ..... The original intention was that no obstacle was.

  14. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export Reporting...

  15. What comes after the quota went? Effects of and responses to the ATC expiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nasim (Atif); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The global environment after the expiry of the quota system in textiles and clothing (T&C) trade poses formidable challenges to human development in Pakistan. Increased quality and price competition in the post-ATC scenario provides an opportunity for some segments of the T&C

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Oguri, Masamune; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shin, Min-Su; /Michigan U. /Princeton U. Observ.; Kayo, Issha; /Tokyo U., ICRR; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; /UC, Berkeley /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Morokuma, Tomoki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Becker, Robert H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; White, Richard L.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; /Ohio State U.; Gregg, Michael D.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Exeter U.

    2010-05-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1 < {theta} < 20 and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, 3 have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sub -0.08}{sup +0.06}(stat.){sub -0.07}{sup + 0.09}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of 7 binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.1 to 16.6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  17. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3]) = -1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  18. Designing efficient surveys: spatial arrangement of sample points for detection of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludek Berec; John M. Kean; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold; Robert G. Haight

    2015-01-01

    Effective surveillance is critical to managing biological invasions via early detection and eradication. The efficiency of surveillance systems may be affected by the spatial arrangement of sample locations. We investigate how the spatial arrangement of sample points, ranging from random to fixed grid arrangements, affects the probability of detecting a target...

  19. An Archaeological Sample Survey of the Whitlow Ranch Reservoir, Pinal County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    project area . ... 15 3. The presence of cultural resources in relation to environmental zones .... ................ ... 18 4. Significance values of...survey was also undertaken in order to assess present and future project impacts upon cultural resources and thus was primarily oriented to inventory ...systems were enlarged. Red-on-buff pottery declined in importance, giving way to polychrone and polished redwares. Inhumation became the dominant means for

  20. The BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey. IV. : Smooth Lens Models for the BELLS GALLERY Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Yiping; Mao, Shude; Kochanek, Christopher S; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Oguri, Masamune; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D; Cornachione, Matthew A; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Zheng, Zheng; Brownstein, Joel R; Ménard, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We present \\textsl{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textsl{HST}) F606W-band imaging observations of 21 galaxy-Ly$\\alpha$ emitter lens candidates in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) for GALaxy-Ly$\\alpha$ EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) survey. 17 systems are confirmed to be definite lenses with unambiguous evidence of multiple imaging. The lenses are primarily massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts of approximately $0.55$, while the lensed sources are Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) at redshifts from 2 to 3. Although the \\textsl{HST} imaging data are well fit by smooth lens models consisting of singular isothermal ellipsoids in an external shear field, a thorough exploration of dark substructures in the lens galaxies is required. The Einstein radii of the BELLS GALLERY lenses are on average $60\\%$ larger than those of the BELLS lenses because of the much higher source redshifts which will allow a detailed investigation of the radius evolution of the mass profile...

  1. Amostra mestra e geoprocessamento: tecnologias para inquéritos domiciliares Master sample and geoprocessing: technologies for household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Nunes da Silva

    2003-08-01

    census enumeration areas in several epidemiological surveys using updated information from the National Survey of Households (PNAD. METHODS: Address data file comprising 72 census enumeration areas was kept as primary sampling units for the city of São Paulo. During the period 1995-2000, three distinct household samples were drawn using the two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Geographic Information System (GIS technology allowed delimiting boundaries, blocks and streets for any primary sampling unit and printing updated maps for selected sub-samples. RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand dwellings made up the permanent address data file of the master sample. A cheaper and quicker selection of each sample, plus gathering information on demographic and topographical profiles of census enumeration areas were the main contribution of the study results. CONCLUSIONS: The master sample concept, integrated with GIS technology, is an advantageous alternative sampling design for household surveys in urban areas. Using the list of addresses from the PNAD updated yearly, although limiting its application to the most populated Brazilian cities, avoids the need of creating an independent sampling procedure for each individual survey carried out in the period between demographic censuses, and it is an important contribution for planning sampling surveys in public health.

  2. A Survey on wheat samples for mycotoxin zearalenone from Mazandaran Province 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Hedayati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In Iran, wheat is one of the main cereals for human consumption. Wheat grains containing zearalenone can cause genital problems and reproductive disorders in domestic animals. In human, episodes of breast enlargement in young boys and sexual precocity have been reported. This toxin may therefore have a role in hormonal balance and mammary cancer in regions with high zearalenone ingestion. In this study the incidence of zearalenone in wheat samples from Mazandaran warehouses were investigated.Material and methods: A total of 118 wheat samples (1 kg each were randomly collected from all 12 warehouses of Mazandaran province. Competitive microtitre plate enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of zearalenone was used according the manufacturer instructions (Riedel-de Haen Sigma-Aldrich Laborchemikalien GmbH. Results: Zearalenone was found in 81% of samples and 64.4% of samples contained >200 μg/kg of this toxin. The minimum levels of zearalenone were 29 μg/kg. All of the warehouses were positive for the presence of zearalenone. 50-100% of samples in each of the warehouses had >200 μg/kg contamination of zearalenoneConclusion: Our results showed a high percentage and levels of contamination of wheat samples with zearalenone. With regard to proposed standards given by the Standard Administration of Iran, under which the content of zearalenone should not exceed 200 ppb in food products, 64.4% of samples meet these criteria.

  3. Refugee Quota Trading within the Context of EU-ENP Cooperation: Rational, Bounded Rational and Ethical Critiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie Gerver

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Peter Schuck proposed a ‘refugee quota trading’ mechanism, whereby countries voluntarily form a union, each country accepting a quota of refugees and able to buy and sell the quota to other states within and even outside of the union. Today, the EU arguably has a de facto cash transfer mechanism both within the EU and between the EU and European Neighbourhood Policy countries. This article explores the question of refugee quota trading, explaining why current EU policy fails to increase refugee protection. Throughout the critique, states are treated either as rational actors or actors with present-preference bias, the latter largely ignored in current discussions on international refugee ‘burden sharing’. In addition, the ethics of refugee quota trading is presented using arguments distinct from that of Anker et al. (1998 who argue that refugee quota trading creates a ‘commodification’ of refugees. One could argue that refugees’ protection is being commodified, not refugees themselves. However, when states are provided funds not to deport refugees, this can be a type of reward for not taking an action that states ought to follow regardless of the reward. Just as there are non-utilitarian reasons not to rely on rewards alone for lowering the crime rates for heinous crimes within states, there may be non-utilitarian arguments against refugee quota trading.

  4. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  5. Micronekton sampling gear Intercalibration Experiment Survey #1 (MIE-1) (SE0413L2, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the cruise was to collect micronekton samples using three different type of midwater trawl: Cobb trawl, Isaacs Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT), and a Hokkaido...

  6. Sampling and analytical techniques for an interim survey in the South Carolina lowcountry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Welch; Robert A. Cathey

    1976-01-01

    Remeasurement of 675 permanent sample locations in the South Carolina Lowcountry using modified sampling techniques showed that net growth of pine for the 6 years 1968-1974 was 637.0 million cubic feet while removals were slightly over 390.6 million cubic feet. In 1974, there were 1,533.5 million cubic feet of pine in the area with that portion in sawtimber size...

  7. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey : VIII. CO data and the LCO(3-2)-LFIR correlation in the SINGS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C. D.; Warren, B. E.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Attewell, D.; Bendo, G. J.; Butner, H. M.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Golding, J.; Heesen, V.; Irwin, J.; Leech, J.; Matthews, H. E.; Mühle, S.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Sinukoff, E.; Shorten, K.; Tan, B. K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A.; Vaccari, M.; Wiegert, T.; Zhu, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Alexander, P.; Azimlu, M.; Barmby, P.; Brar, R.; Bridge, C.; Brinks, E.; Brooks, S.; Coppin, K.; Côté, S.; Côté, P.; Courteau, S.; Davies, J.; Eales, S.; Fich, M.; Hudson, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Knapen, J. H.; Page, M.; Parkin, T. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Seaquist, E. R.; Spekkens, K.; Tanvir, N.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van der Werf, P.; Vlahakis, C.; Webb, T. M.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an H I-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection and the observing strategy. We also present a

  8. Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White

  9. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  10. HI Content and Optical Properties of Field Galaxies from the ALFALFA Survey. I.Selection of a Control Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Toribio, M C; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Masters, K L

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a study of the HI content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21-cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in two declination strips covering a total area of 9 hr X 16 deg. Our analysis seeks to assemble a control sample of galaxies suitable for providing absolute measures of the HI content of gaseous objects. From a database of ~15,000 HI detections, we have assembled three samples of gas-rich galaxies expected to show little or no evidence of interaction with their surroundings that could provide adequate HI standards. The most reliable results are obtained with a sample of 5647 sources found in low density environments, as defined by a nearest neighbor approach. The other two samples contain several hundred relatively isolated galaxies each, as determined from standard isolation algorithms. We find that isolated objects are not particularly gas-rich compared to their low-density-environment counterparts, while they suffer fro...

  11. Quota Restrictions on Land Use for Decelerating Urban Sprawl of Mega City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mega cities of China are faced with great pressure from conflict between huge land demand for construction use and limited resources. To improve this situation, it is necessary to slow the increasing rate of built-up land and even reduce the existing built-up land by improving land use efficiency. Herein, land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration is proposed. Land quotas are important tools for the control of land use planning in China, but the current quotas are mainly in the form of increment, thus cannot support land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration. To address these issues, we developed a model named “current-plan-requirement response (CPRR”, to optimize the land quotas. With this model, we investigated the current status of land use, the process of land use planning, and the requirements of land use planning with urban sprawl deceleration in Shanghai. It was found that the current land quotas have provided somewhat inhabited conversion of arable land to built-up land, but scarcely any regulation of land use efficiency or protection of natural environment. Then, the land quotas were optimized and quota management recommendations were made. The optimized land quotas included four aspects of quotas: arable land protection, ecological conservation, scale constraint on built-up land and economical and intensive land use. These new land quotas could be used to guide reduction of built-up land and increase ecological land in China’s mega cities. It might also be beneficial for easing conflict between supply and demand of built-up land, for building an eco-friendly city land-use structure.

  12. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z~1.6 III. Survey design, performance, and sample characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Arimoto, N; Renzini, A; Rodighiero, G; Daddi, E; Sanders, D; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, J; Nagao, T; Kewley, L J; Lilly, S J; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Fevre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Taniguchi, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Halpha emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6-1.8 micron) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with M_stellar>10^10 Msolar and 1.4 < z < 1.7. With the high multiplex capabilities of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over one thousand galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R~2600) is implemented to effectively separate Halpha and [NII] emission lines thus enabling studies of gas-phase metallicity and photoionization conditions of the interstellar medium. The broad goals of our program are concerned with how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection...

  13. The Brera Multi-scale Wavelet HRI Cluster Survey: I Selection of the Sample and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Campana, S; Lazzati, D; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Arena, S; Braglia, F; Dell'Antonio, I; Longhetti, M

    2004-01-01

    We describe the construction of the Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW) HRI Cluster Survey, a deep sample of serendipitous X-ray selected clusters of galaxies based on the ROSAT HRI archive. This is the first cluster catalog exploiting the high angular resolution of this instrument. Cluster candidates are selected on the basis of their X-ray extension only, a parameter which is well measured by the BMW wavelet detection algorithm. The survey includes 154 candidates over a total solid angle of ~160 deg2 at 10^{-12}erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} and ~80 deg^2 at 1.8*10^{-13} erg s^{-1}$ cm^{-2}. At the same time, a fairly good sky coverage in the faintest flux bins (3-5*10^{-14}erg s^{-1} cm^{-2}) gives this survey the capability to detect a few clusters with z\\sim 1-1.2, depending on evolution. We present the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations, providing a complete statistical characterization of the survey selection function and contamination level. We also present a new estimate of the surface density of clusters ...

  14. The Canada-France redshift survey; 5, global properties of the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Crampton, D S; Lilly, S J; Hammer, F; Crampton, David

    1995-01-01

    The photometric and spectroscopic data of the CFRS survey of objects with 17.5 1 The distributions of magnitudes and colors demonstrate that galaxies at these high redshifts have very similar colors to those observed locally. The survey thus represents a major improvement in our knowledge of field galaxies at large look-back times. Only ~1% of the galaxies are as compact as stars (on images with FWHM ~ 0.9") and comparisons of the photometric and spectroscopic data show that only one galaxy was initially incorrectly classified spectroscopically as a star, and only two stars were misclassified as galaxies. It is demonstrated that the redshift distributions in the five fields are statistically consistent with each other, once the reduction in the effective number of independent galaxies due to small-scale clustering in redshift is taken into account. The photometric properties of the spectroscopically-unidentified objects indicate that most are likely to be galaxies rather than stars. At least half of these mu...

  15. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Schreiber, M R; Gansicke, B T; Zorotovic, M; Ren, J J

    2016-01-01

    The number of white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ~30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one ...

  16. Genetic Association Analysis under Complex Survey Sampling: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Tao, Ran; Kalsbeek, William D.; Zeng, Donglin; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Graff, Mariaelisa; Koch, Gary G.; North, Kari E.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The cohort design allows investigators to explore the genetic basis of a variety of diseases and traits in a single study while avoiding major weaknesses of the case-control design. Most cohort studies employ multistage cluster sampling with unequal probabilities to conveniently select participants with desired characteristics, and participants from different clusters might be genetically related. Analysis that ignores the complex sampling design can yield biased estimation of the genetic association and inflation of the type I error. Herein, we develop weighted estimators that reflect unequal selection probabilities and differential nonresponse rates, and we derive variance estimators that properly account for the sampling design and the potential relatedness of participants in different sampling units. We compare, both analytically and numerically, the performance of the proposed weighted estimators with unweighted estimators that disregard the sampling design. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods through analysis of MetaboChip data in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which is the largest health study of the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States aimed at identifying risk factors for various diseases and determining the role of genes and environment in the occurrence of diseases. We provide guidelines on the use of weighted and unweighted estimators, as well as the relevant software. PMID:25480034

  17. Interexaminer agreement dental caries epidemiological surveys: the importance of disease prevalence in the sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sampieri Tonello

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To identify desirable characteristics, including different sample sizes and dental caries prevalences, in virtual samples that allow, at the same time, higher values of general agreement percentage (GPA and Kappa coefficient (κ, under a low confidence interval (CI, in reproducibility studies. Method: A total of 384 statistical simulations of inter-examiner calibration, varying sample size (12, 15, 20, 60, 200 and 500 individuals, caries prevalence (30, 50, 60 and 90% and percentages of positive (PA and negative (NA agreement (30, 50, 60 and 90% were undertaken. GPA and κ were used to measure reproducibility and define deviation between them. Results: The sample of 60 individuals, under caries prevalence of 50%, PA and NA of 90%, presented a GPA and Kappa values of 90 and 80%, respectively, a relative small confidence interval (95%CI 0.65 - 0.95 and a GPA/Kappa deviation of 10.00. Conclusion: A virtual sample of 60 individuals, under caries prevalence of 50%, seems feasible to produce a satisfactory interexaminer agreement at epidemiological conditions. However, epidemiological studies to corroborate or refute this assertion are necessary.

  18. Survey of Hygienic quality of honey samples collected form Qazvin province during 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Consumption of honey has remarkably increased in the last years all over the world. Factors such as plant species, environmental, processing, and storing condition are affecting honey quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluation of Hygienic quality of honey samples produced from Qazvin province. Materials and Methods: 34 fresh honey Samples were obtained from beekeepers from different regions of the alamut area in the period between June and November 2011. The microbial contamination (bacteria and fungi was determined using conventional microbiological methods and the total aflatoxin was detected by “high performance liquid chromatography” (HPLC. Results: The results of microbial analysis showed that the aerobic mesophil bacteria count (50 cfu/g and fungal count (1.5*10 2 cfu/g were in low levels. However, coliforms were not detected in any of the honey sample. The most prevalent bacteria and fungi were Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Based on the HPLC method analysis, all of honey samples were contaminated whit aflatoxin and the mean concentration of aflatoxin was 3.67 ppb. Also the aflatoxin levels in 35% honey samples were higher than the maximum allowable amount of Europe ::::union:::: (4 µg/kg. Conclusion : According to the results, should have more control on the Hygienic quality of honey over the production, storage and supply periods in this area.  

  19. Survey of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in environmental samples from Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Polić, P; Bartolomei, P; Benzi, V; Martellini V; Cvetković, O; Damjanov, V; Simić, M; Zunić, Z; Zivancević, B; Simić, S; Jovanović, V

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in sediments, soil, turf and honey from Serbia and Kosovo (Yugoslavia) was measured using gamma and alpha spectrometry in order to estimate the radiation hazard from natural and man-made sources, as well as to compile a database for radioactivity levels in those regions. One sample, collected in the vicinity of a "depleted uranium" (DU) shell of the recent Balkan war, revealed a high 238U activity and a non-natural 235U/238U activity ratio, confirming therefore its anthropogenic origin. However, some other soil samples coming from characteristic DU craters did not show any characteristic level of radioactivity. The other sediment and turf samples taken all around the country show low radioactivity levels for all the isotopes here considered. With the aim of obtaining some indication about radioactivity migration in the food chain, several honey samples have been examined too. All samples show very low radioactivity content, often indistinguishable from natural background.

  20. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  1. The Subaru Ly-alpha blob survey: A sample of 100 kpc Ly-alpha blobs at z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Y; Hayashino, T; Yamauchi, R; Nakamura, Y; Morimoto, N; Ouchi, M; Ono, Y; Kousai, K; Nakamura, E; Horie, M; Fujii, T; Umemura, M; Mori, M

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a survey for giant Ly-alpha nebulae (LABs) at z=3 with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. We obtained Ly-alpha imaging at z=3.09+-0.03 around the SSA22 protocluster and in several blank fields. The total survey area is 2.1 square degrees, corresponding to a comoving volume of 1.6 x 10^6 Mpc^3. Using a uniform detection threshold of 1.4 x 10^{-18} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2} for the Ly-alpha images, we construct a sample of 14 LAB candidates with major-axis diameters larger than 100 kpc, including five previously known blobs and two known quasars. This survey triples the number of known LABs over 100 kpc. The giant LAB sample shows a possible "morphology-density relation": filamentary LABs reside in average density environments as derived from compact Ly-alpha emitters, while circular LABs reside in both average density and overdense environments. Although it is hard to examine the formation mechanisms of LABs only from the Ly-alpha morphologies, more filamentary LABs may relate to cold gas accretion...

  2. The (w)hole survey: an unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; van Terwisga, Sierk; Merin, Bruno; Herczeg, Gregory; Ligterink, Niels F W; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen SED-selected candidates have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased towards the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Using color criteria we have selected a sample of ~150 candidates, and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC...

  3. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  4. Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .); Storlie, Curt B. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)

    2006-06-01

    Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (1) Definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs, (2) Generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs, (3) Propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis, (4) Presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (5) Determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition.

  5. A biogeochemical and genetic survey of acetylene fermentation by environmental samples and bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary A.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Anoxic samples (sediment and groundwater) from 13 chemically diverse field sites were assayed for their ability to consume acetylene (C2H2). Over incubation periods ranging from ˜ 10 to 80 days, selected samples from 7 of the 13 tested sites displayed significant C2H2 removal. No significant formation of ethylene was noted in these incubations; therefore, C2H2 consumption could be attributed to acetylene hydratase (AH) rather than nitrogenase activity. This putative AH (PAH) activity was observed in only 21% of the total of assayed samples, while amplification of AH genes from extracted DNA using degenerate primers derived from Pelobacter acetylenicus occurred in even fewer (9.8%) samples. Acetylene-fermenting bacteria were isolated as a pure culture from the sediments of a tidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay (SFB93) and as an enrichment culture from freshwater Searsville Lake (SV7). Comparison of 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed that SFB93 was closely related to P. carbolinicus, while SV7 consisted of several unrelated bacteria. AH gene was amplified from SFB93 but not SV7. The inability of the primers to generate amplicons in the SV7 enrichment, as well as from several of the environmental samples that displayed PAH activity, implied that either the primers were too highly constrained in their specificity or that there was a different type of AH gene in these environmental samples than occurs in P. acetylenicus. The significance of this work with regard to the search for life in the outer Solar System, where C2HL2 is abundant, is discussed.

  6. Design-based Sample and Probability Law-Assumed Sample: Their Role in Scientific Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Mario Miguel; Sahai, Hardeo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some key statistical concepts in probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling to provide an overview for understanding the inference process. Suggests a statistical model constituting the basis of statistical inference and provides a brief review of the finite population descriptive inference and a quota sampling inferential theory.…

  7. Implications of the field sampling procedure of the LUCAS Topsoil Survey for uncertainty in soil organic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    The LUCAS Topsoil survey is a pan-European Union initiative in which soil data were collected according to standard protocols from 19 967 sites. Any inference about soil variables is subject to uncertainty due to different sources of variability in the data. In this study we examine the likely magnitude of uncertainty due to the field-sampling protocol. The published sampling protocol (LUCAS, 2009) describes a procedure to form a composite soil sample from aliquots collected to a depth of between approximately 15-20. A v-shaped hole to the target depth is cut with a spade, then a slice is cut from one of the exposed surfaces. This methodology gives rather less control of the sampling depth than protocols used in other soil and geochemical surveys, this may be a substantial source of variation in uncultivated soils with strong contrasts between an organic-rich A-horizon and an underlying B-horizon. We extracted all representative profile descriptions from soil series recorded in the memoir of the 1:250 000-scale map of Northern England (Soil Survey of England and Wales, 1984) where the base of the A-horizon is less than 20 cm below the surface. The Soil Associations in which these 14 series are significant members cover approximately 17% of the area of Northern England, and are expected to be the mineral soils with the largest organic content. Soil Organic Carbon content and bulk density were extracted for the A- and B-horizons, along with the thickness of the horizons. Recorded bulk density, or prediction by a pedotransfer function, were also recorded. For any proposed angle of the v-shaped hole, the proportions of A- and B-horizon in the resulting sample may be computed by trigonometry. From the bulk density and SOC concentration of the horizons, the SOC concentration of the sample can be computed. For each Soil Series we drew 1000 random samples from a trapezoidal distribution of angles, with uniform density over the range corresponding to depths 15-20 cm and

  8. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. III. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Sugiyama, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D.; Zahid, J.; Kewley, L. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova, Italy, EU (Italy); Rodighiero, G.; Baronchelli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Juneau, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Hα emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6–1.8 μm) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with 1.4 < z < 1.7 and M{sub stellar} ≳ 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. With the high multiplex capability of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over 1000 galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R ∼ 2600) effectively separates Hα and [N ii]λ6585, thus enabling studies of the gas-phase metallicity and photoionization state of the interstellar medium. The primary aim of our program is to establish how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection places priority on those detected in the far-infrared by Herschel/PACS to assess the level of obscured star formation and investigate, in detail, outliers from the star formation rate (SFR)—stellar mass relation. Galaxies with Hα detections are followed up with FMOS observations at shorter wavelengths using the J-long (1.11–1.35 μm) grating to detect Hβ and [O iii]λ5008 which provides an assessment of the extinction required to measure SFRs not hampered by dust, and an indication of embedded active galactic nuclei. With 460 redshifts measured from 1153 spectra, we assess the performance of the instrument with respect to achieving our goals, discuss inherent biases in the sample, and detail the emission-line properties. Our higher-level data products, including catalogs and spectra, are available to the community.

  9. The role of public relations for image creating in health services: a sample patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, YalçIn

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the role of public relations for image creating in health services. Hospitals require public relations activities to distinguish them from competitors, provide bidirectional communication between the society and the hospital, and assist to create of a strong hospital image and culture. A satisfaction survey was conducted on 264 patients who have received health services at Maltepe University Hospital. The research focused on how the Hospital's examination, care, catering and physical services; doctor and nurse politeness towards patients and patient relatives, their attitudes and behaviors; examination, check-in, bedding and discharge operations; public relations activities in and out of the hospital were perceived. Another subject of the study was the degree of recommendation of patients who have been served by the hospital's health services to prospective patients seeking treatment.

  10. A molecular line survey of a sample of AGB stars and planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    A millimeter molecular line survey of three carbon-rich AGB stars and two oxygen-rich planetary nebulae has been carried out over the frequency range 80.5-115.5 GHz. Sixty eight different transitions were detected in the data from 27 different molecular species. The hyperfine structure of C2H and C13CH has been fitted to constrain the optical depth of their transitions. All other transitions have been constrained on the basis of their line profile shapes. Rotation temperatures and column densities have been calculated for all possible species, with adaptations to the methods applied in order to account for the hyperfine structure of various transitions. From the column densities, carbon, silicon and sulphur isotopic ratios have been determined. The results corroborate IRAS 15194-5115 as a J-type star, whilst excluding IRAS 15082-4808 and IRAS 07454-7112 as such.

  11. MANAGERIAL DECISION IN INNOVATIVE EDUCATION SYSTEMS STATISTICAL SURVEY BASED ON SAMPLE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before formulating the statistical hypotheses and the econometrictesting itself, a breakdown of some of the technical issues is required, which are related to managerial decision in innovative educational systems, the educational managerial phenomenon tested through statistical and mathematical methods, respectively the significant difference in perceiving the current qualities, knowledge, experience, behaviour and desirable health, obtained through a questionnaire applied to a stratified population at the end,in the educational environment, either with educational activities, or with simultaneously managerial and educational activities. The details having to do with research focused on the survey theory, turning into a working tool the questionnaires and statistical data that are processed from those questionnaires, are summarized below.

  12. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  13. SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR GEOCHEMICAL SURVEY OF DISSOLVED GASES IN BRACKISH THERMAL WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Liotta, Marcello; Martelli, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved gases are often utilized in geochemical studies for investigating hydrothermal and/or magmatic contributions to shallow aquifers. Between the several methods applied for analyzing dissolved gases in water, the head space equilibration technique is probably the most used because it does not require any strain before or during the water sampling in the field and can be adapted to various aims in the laboratory, with multispecies analysis by common gas chromatography. This type of tech...

  14. A survey on the pathogenic fungi in soil samples of potted plants from Sari hospitals, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, M T; Mohseni-Bandpi, A; Moradi, S

    2004-09-01

    A total of 23 soil samples of potted plants was collected from hospitals in Sari, Iran. Each sample contained approximately 200 g soil, taken from a depth of 0-10 cm of the pots. Samples were analysed by two different methods. (1) Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol (SC); cultured fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic characterization. (2) The hair-baiting technique (HBT) was used to isolate the keratinophilic fungi. After culture on SC medium, 100% of plates were positive for fungal growth, and in total 1150 colonies with 13 different types of fungi were isolated. Penicillium spp. (52%), Acremonium spp. (20%), Paecilomyces spp. (11.9%), Cladsporium spp. (3.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (3.1%) were the predominant fungal species. Rhizopus spp. (0.1%) were less frequent. Keratinophilic fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei and Chrysosporium spp. were isolated using HBT. The presence of pathogenic fungi such as Cladosporium spp, Aspergillus spp, M. gypseum, and M. cookei in potted plants in hospitals represents a potential source of nosocomial infection.

  15. [Disposal of waste glass in sanitary departments: a sample survey in the Lazio region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sole, A; Fonda, A

    2004-01-01

    As a result of Italian law, DPR 15/7/2003 n. 254, about hospital waste, and given that little has been written about recycling waste glass in hospitals, a survey of 28 health departments in Lazio was performed. The objectives were: to estimate the mean quantity of clear vitreous waste in one year, to estimate how vitreous waste is administered, to estimate the extent of the use of plastic instead of glass, to analyse the costs and benefits of glass use and/or plastic use and to evaluate staff training about hospital waste disposal. The average production of clear vitreous waste was 0.28 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied. (This would be the theoretical maximum quantity of glass to be recycled). Among the 28 departments studied, 82% separated waste products but only 36% disposed of glass in accordance with the law. The estimated possible savings on glass phleboclysis in 2002 year were 35,000 euro. Staff training could avoid this conspicuous waste of money. Fifteen departments also used plastic phleboclysis; of these, in 2 departments plastic waste is separated in the wards, but unfortunately this material is later disposed of in the bins for general solid urban waste. The other thirteen hospitals dispose of waste plastic as infectious material. Using glass phleboclysis instead of plastic phleboclysis would save about 680,000 euros per year. The disposal of glass waste material in practice was not found to follow the principles taught in the training courses. Theoretic data about glass production, estimated in this survey, refers only to clear glass and it is an underestimate of that of all glass used in departments. The quantity of glass actually recycled has been about 0.14 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied and thus only 50% of the theoretical quantity (0.28 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied). This percentage could be improved by effective training. Ideally, the disposal of waste glass would follow the legal requirements and be monitored

  16. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  17. A survey on the experience with dental tourism in a sample of Italian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, D; Filippucci, L; Celestino, S; Carrassi, A; Delia, S; Lodi, G

    2012-01-01

    Dentistry in Italy is mainly private and therefore perceived as forcedly expensive. Dental tourism is becoming popular in order to get cheap dental care. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey aimed at investigating the perception of dental tourism by Italian patients who have recently received such dental care abroad. A questionnaire was posted on the web site of an Italian consumers association (Altroconsumo) and members were invited to fill in the questionnaire in case they had experienced dental treatment abroad. Eighty-one complete forms were included in the study. The main motivation for turning to dental tourism was saving money. Another frequent reason for choosing dental tourism was that full rehabilitation was offered in a short time span, usually one week. Patients have often underlined that they appreciated different aspects of the foreign dentists, like speed, kindness, humanity, interest in the course of the treatment, the feeling of ease conveyed by the environment and the personnel. Past negative experiences with Italian dentists were in some cases advocated as reasons for searching dental care abroad. Such negative experiences resulted in a lack of trust in Italian dentists. Some patients reported that while the overall treatment abroad was carried out in a short time, single prosthetic sessions were very long, up to 6 hours. Most patients were satisfied with dental tourism.

  18. The Keck+Magellan Survey for Lyman Limit Absorption III: Sample Definition and Column Density Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele; Bernstein, Rebecca A; Burles, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    We present an absorption-line survey of optically thick gas clouds -- Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) -- observed at high dispersion with spectrometers on the Keck and Magellan telescopes. We measure column densities of neutral hydrogen NHI and associated metal-line transitions for 157 LLSs at z=1.76-4.39 restricted to 10^17.3 < NHI < 10^20.3. An empirical analysis of ionic ratios indicates an increasing ionization state of the gas with decreasing NHI and that the majority of LLSs are highly ionized, confirming previous expectations. The Si^+/H^0 ratio spans nearly four orders-of-magnitude, implying a large dispersion in the gas metallicity. Fewer than 5% of these LLSs have no positive detection of a metal transition; by z~3, nearly all gas that is dense enough to exhibit a very high Lyman limit opacity has previously been polluted by heavy elements. We add new measurements to the small subset of LLS (~5-10) that may have super-solar abundances. High Si^+/Fe^+ ratios suggest an alpha-enhanced medium whereas ...

  19. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia Supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, J; Conley, A; Regnault, N; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Balam, D; Baumont, S; Ellis, R S; Fabbro, S; Fakhouri, H K; Fourmanoit, N; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Graham, M L; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidman, C; Mourao, A M; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Suzuki, N; Walker, E S

    2010-01-01

    We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. A flat LambdaCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift Type Ia supernovae alone gives Omega_M = 0.211 +/- 0.034(stat) +/- 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometri...

  20. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Gian Luca; Castillo, Guillermo Andres Rodriguez; Sidoli, Lara

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 years of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190,000 lightcurves out of about 430,000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS@BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above about 2,000s resembles that of...

  1. The Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) of an X-ray Luminosity Selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Böhringer, H; Pratt, G W; Arnaud, M; Ponman, T J; Croston, J H; Borgani, S; Bower, R G; Briel, U G; Collins, C A; Donahue, M; Forman, W R; Finoguenov, A; Geller, M J; Guzzo, L; Henry, J P; Kneissl, R; Mohr, J J; Matsushita, K; Mullis, C R; Ohashi, T; Pedersen, K; Pierini, D; Quintana, H; Raychaudhuri, S; Reiprich, T H; Romer, A K; Rosati, P; Sabirli, K; Temple, R F; Viana, P T P; Vikhlinin, A; Voit, G M; Zhang, Y Y

    2007-01-01

    The largest uncertainty for cosmological studies using clusters of galaxies is introduced by our limited knowledge of the statistics of galaxy cluster structure, and of the scaling relations between observables and cluster mass. To improve on this situation we have started an XMM-Newton Large Programme for the in-depth study of a representative sample of 33 galaxy clusters, selected in the redshift range z=0.055 to 0.183 from the REFLEX Cluster Survey, having X-ray luminosities above 0.4 X 10^44 h_70^-2 erg s^-1 in the 0.1 - 2.4 keV band. This paper introduces the sample, compiles properties of the clusters, and provides detailed information on the sample selection function. We describe the selection of a nearby galaxy cluster sample that makes optimal use of the XMM-Newton field-of-view, and provides nearly homogeneous X-ray luminosity coverage for the full range from poor clusters to the most massive objects in the Universe. For the clusters in the sample, X-ray fluxes are derived and compared to the previo...

  2. A NEW DYNAMIC QUOTA-BASED ADMISSION CONTROL WITH SUB NEGOTIATION FOR SOFTSWITCH-BASED CLUSTERED MEDIA SERVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Naixing; Liao Jianxin; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the demand of the admission control of softswitch-based clustered media server, this paper proposed a new dynamic quota-based admission control algorithm that has a sub-negotiation process. The strongpoint of quota-based algorithm had been inherited in the algorithm and at the same time some new ideas had also been introduced into it. Simulations of the algorithm had been conducted on the Petri net model and the results show that this algorithm has excellent performance. In order to find the optimal resource quota setting in real time, the paper proposed two approximation analysis methods. It can be seen from analysis results that these two methods can be used to get sub-optimal quota values quickly and effectively. These two approximation analysis methods will play important roles in implementation of the algorithm in system.

  3. National plan of allocation of CO{sub 2} emission quotas; Le plan national d'affectation des quotas d'emission de CO{sub 2} (PNAQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The directive 2003/87/CE of the European parliament and council from October 13, 2003 establishes a trading system of CO{sub 2} emission quotas for some companies of the energy generation industry, of the manufacturing industry and of services. These quotas are tradable and negotiable and an initial amount of quotas is allocated to these companies according to their facilities in concern. The national plan of quotas allocation must precise the total amount of tradable emissions and its share among the different sectors of activity and facilities. The first project of allocation plan was transmitted to the European Commission on July 6, 2004 after its public consultation between June 8 and June 29 2004. Modifications have been added to meet the requests of the Commission and the French plan was finally approved on December 17, 2004 for an annual amount of 156.51 Mt of CO{sub 2} quotas during the 2005-2007 period. This paper precises the modifications requested by the commission, the modifications of the French juridical system necessary to complete the implementation of the French part of the European quotas trading system, the elaboration of the next allocation plan for the 2008-2012 period, and the link between the European emissions trading system and the 'joint implementation' and 'clean development ' mechanisms implemented by the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  4. Survey and Rapid detection of Bordetella pertussis in clinical samples targeting the BP485 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eLiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis is an important human respiratory pathogen. Here, we describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of B. pertussis in clinical samples based on a visual test. The LAMP assay detected the BP485 target sequence within 60 min with a detection limit of 1.3 pg/µl, a 10-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 31 non-pertussis respiratory pathogens tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the primers for B. pertussis. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 105 sputum and nasopharyngeal samples collected from the patients with suspected respiratory infections in China, a total of 12 Bordetella pertussis isolates were identified from 33 positive samples detected by LAMP-based surveillance targeting BP485. Strikingly, a 4.5 months old baby and her mother were found to be infected with B. pertussis at the same time. All isolates belonged to different B. pertussis multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups with different alleles of the virulence-related genes including 4 alleles of ptxA, 6 of prn, 4 of tcfA, 2 of fim2 and 3 of fim3. The diversity of B. pertussis carrying toxin genes in clinical strains indicates a rapid and continuing evolution of B. pertussis. This combined with its high prevalence will make it difficult to control. In conclusion, we have developed a visual detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for rapid B. pertussis detection, especially in situations where resources are poor and in point-of-care tests.

  5. China's human resources for maternal and child health: a national sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenghong; Song, Peige; Theodoratou, Evropi; Guo, Sufang; An, Lin

    2015-12-16

    In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5, the Chinese Government has invested greatly in improving maternal and child health (MCH) with impressive results. However, one of the most important barriers for further improvement is the uneven distribution of MCH human resources. There is little information about the distribution, quantity and capacity of the Chinese MCH human resources and we sought to investigate this. Cities at prefectural level were selected by random cluster sampling. All medical and health institutions providing MCH-related services in the sampled areas were investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data were weighted based on the proportion of the sampled districts/cities. Amount, proportions and numbers per 10,000 population of MCH human resources were estimated in order to reveal the quantity of the Chinese MCH human resources. The capacity of MCH human resources was evaluated by analyzing data on the education level and professional skills of the staff. There were 77,248 MCH workers in China in 2010. In general, 67.6% and 71.9% of the women's and children's health care professionals had an associate degree or higher, whereas around 30% had only high-school or lower degrees. More than 40% of the women's health workers were capable of providing skilled birth attendance, but these proportions varied between different institutions and locations. Evidence from this study highlights that Chinese MCH human resources are not in shortage in the national level. However, the quantity and capacity of MCH human resources are not evenly distributed among different institutions and locations. Finally there is a need in the improvement of the MCH services by improving the quality of MCH human resources.

  6. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Spittal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. Methods We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio. We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms and a binary outcome (smoking status. Results Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. Conclusions The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure

  7. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittal, Matthew J; Carlin, John B; Currier, Dianne; Downes, Marnie; English, Dallas R; Gordon, Ian; Pirkis, Jane; Gurrin, Lyle

    2016-10-31

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men) used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence) or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio). We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms) and a binary outcome (smoking status). Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively) and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered) structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios) are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure-outcome association, our advice is to adopt an analysis that respects the

  8. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  9. A New Sample of Obscured AGNs Selected from the XMM-Newton and AKARI Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Terashima, Yuichi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Toba, Yoshiki; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We report a new sample of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the XMM serendipitous source and AKARI point-source catalogs. We match X-ray sources with infrared (18 and 90 micron) sources located at |b|>10 deg to create a sample consisting of 173 objects. Their optical classifications and absorption column densities measured by X-ray spectra are compiled and study efficient selection criteria to find obscured AGNs. We apply the criteria (1) X-ray hardness ratio defined by using the 2-4.5 keV and 4.5-12 keV bands >-0.1 and (2) EPIC-PN count rate (CR) in the 0.2-12 keV to infrared flux ratio CR/F90700 eV is found in 26 objects. Six among them are classified as Compton-thick AGNs, and four are represented by either Compton-thin or Compton-thick spectral models. The success rate of finding obscured AGNs combining our analysis and the literature is 92% if the 18 micron condition is used. Of the 26 objects, 4 are optically classified as an HII nucleus and are new "elusive AGNs" in which star format...

  10. Using Social Media and Targeted Snowball Sampling to Survey a Hard-to-reach Population: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Dusek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response rates to the academic surveys used in quantitative research are decreasing and have been for several decades among both individuals and organizations. Given this trend, providing doctoral students an opportunity to complete their dissertations in a timely and cost effective manner may necessitate identifying more innovative and relevant ways to collect data while maintaining appropriate research standards and rigor. The case of a research study is presented which describes the data collection process used to survey a hard-to-reach population. It details the use of social media, in this case LinkedIn, to facilitate the distribution of the web-based survey. A roadmap to illustrate how this data collection process unfolded is presented, as well as several “lessons learned” during this journey. An explanation of the considerations that impacted the sampling design is provided. The goal of this case study is to provide researchers, including doctoral students, with realistic expectations and an awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of this method of data collection.

  11. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, C; Prybylski, D; Subhachaturas, W; Tanpradech, S; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Johnston, L G; Akarasewi, P; Anand, A; Fox, K K; Whitehead, S J

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of sex work in Thailand has shifted substantially over the last two decades from direct commercial establishments to indirect venues and non-venue-based settings. This respondent-driven sampling survey was conducted in Bangkok in 2007 among female sex workers (FSW) in non-venue-based settings to pilot a new approach to surveillance among this hidden population. Fifteen initial participants recruited 707 consenting participants who completed a behavioural questionnaire, and provided oral fluid for HIV testing, and urine for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Overall HIV prevalence was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3-24.7). Three-quarters of women were street-based (75.8%, 95% CI 69.9-81.1) who had an especially high HIV prevalence (22.7%, 95% CI 18.2-28.4); about 10 times higher than that found in routine sentinel surveillance among venue-based FSW (2.5%). STI prevalence (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-10.8) and 1.0% (95% CI 0.2-1.9), respectively. Lower price per sex act and a current STI infection were independently associated with HIV infection (P < 0.05). High HIV prevalence found among FSW participating in the survey, particularly non-venue-based FSW, identifies need for further prevention efforts. In addition, it identifies a higher-risk segment of FSW not reached through routine sentinel surveillance but accessible through this survey method.

  12. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. The Chandra ACIS Timing Survey Project: glimpsing a sample of faint X-ray pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.; Sidoli, L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the discovery of 41 new pulsating sources in the data of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which is sensitive to X-ray photons in the 0.3-10 keV band. The archival data of the first 15 yr of Chandra observations were retrieved and analysed by means of fast Fourier transforms, employing a peak-detection algorithm able to screen candidate signals in an automatic fashion. We carried out the search for new X-ray pulsators in light curves with more than 50 photons, for a total of about 190 000 light curves out of about 430 000 extracted. With these numbers, the ChAndra Timing Survey at Brera And Roma astronomical observatories (CATS @ BAR) - as we called the project - represents the largest ever systematic search for coherent signals in the classic X-ray band. More than 50 per cent of the signals were confirmed by further Chandra (for those sources with two or more pointings), XMM-Newton or ROSAT data. The period distribution of the new X-ray pulsators above ˜2000 s resembles that of cataclysmic variables, while there is a paucity of sources with shorter period and low fluxes. Since there is not an obvious bias against these detections, a possible interpretation is in terms of a magnetic gating mechanism in accreting neutron stars. Finally, we note that CATS @ BAR is a living project and the detection algorithm will continue to be routinely applied to the new Chandra data as they become public. Based on the results obtained so far, we expect to discover about three new pulsators every year.

  14. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M.; de Boer, I. J. M.; Vandeputte, M.; van Arendonk, J. A. M.; Quillet, E.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR. PMID:28288179

  15. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  16. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  17. Locations and analysis of sediment samples collected in the Duxbury to Hull Massachusetts survey area (DH_SedimentSamples shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  18. Quota implementation of the maximum sustainable yield for age-structured fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, Zafer; Kucuksenel, Serkan

    2016-06-01

    One of the main goals stated in the proposals for the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform was achieving maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for all European fisheries. In this paper, we propose a fishing rights allocation mechanism or management system, which specifies catch limits for individual fishing fleets to implement MSY harvesting conditions in an age-structured bioeconomic model. An age-structured model in a single species fishery with two fleets having perfect or imperfect fishing selectivity is studied. If fishing technology or gear selectivity depends on the relative age composition of the mature fish stock, fixed harvest proportions, derived from catchability and bycatch coefficients, is not valid anymore. As a result, not only the age-structure and fishing technology but also the estimated level of MSY is steering the allocation of quota shares. The results also show that allocation of quota shares based on historical catches or auctioning may not provide viable solutions to achieve MSY.

  19. Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential gains from changing the existing regulatory framework for fresh water aquaculture production in Denmark. The regulatory framework is changed from an input regulation based on farm-specific feed quotas, to an individual transferable quota...... behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control...... system to an incentive based system. The estimated results suggest that the changed regulation could increase Danish aquaculture production by 16 to 55%, whilst actual profitability could be increased 5 to 10 times....

  20. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, Martin-Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system stores more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next-generation data management system of ATLAS has been introduced to cope with the anticipated workload of the coming decade. The previous data management system DQ2 pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach to this issue is needed. This document describes how resources, like storage, accounts and replication requests, are accounted in Rucio. Especially the measurement of used logical storage space is fundamentally different in Rucio than it’s predecessor DQ2. We introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of account limits in a dynamic way. This concept enables the opera...

  1. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  2. A sample of metal-poor galaxies identified from the LAMOST spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Long; Lian, Jian-Hui; Kong, Xu; Lin, Ze-Sen; Hu, Ning; Liu, Hai-Yang; Wang, En-Ci; Cao, Zi-Huang; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    We present a sample of 48 metal-poor galaxies at zinternal dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method. With electron temperature derived from [{{O}} {\\small{{III}}}]λ λ 4959,5007/[{{O}} {\\small{{III}}}]λ 4363 and electron density from [{{S}} {\\small{{II}}}]λ 6731/[{{S}} {\\small{{II}}}]λ 6717, we obtain the oxygen abundances in our sample which range from 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.63(0.09 {Z}⊙ ) to 8.46 (0.6 {Z}⊙ ). We find an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.63+/- 0.01. With multiband photometric data from FUV to NIR and {{H}}α measurements, we also determine the stellar masses and star formation rates, based on the spectral energy distribution fitting and {{H}}α luminosity, respectively. We find that our galaxies have low and intermediate stellar masses with 6.39≤ {log}(M/{M}⊙ )≤ 9.27, and high star formation rates (SFRs) with -2.18≤ {log}({SFR}/{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1)≤ 1.95. We also find that the metallicities of our galaxies are consistent with the local {T}{{e}}-based mass-metallicity relation, while the scatter is about 0.28 dex. Additionally, assuming the coefficient of α =0.66, we find most of our galaxies follow the local mass-metallicity-SFR relation, but a scatter of about 0.24 dex exists, suggesting the mass-metallicity relation is weakly dependent on SFR for those metal-poor galaxies.

  3. The Kyoto Protocol as a framework for a Norwegian system for purchasable quotas; Kyotoprotokollen som rammeverk for et norsk system for omsettelige kvoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1999-11-01

    The report deals with problems related to a Norwegian quota market connected to an international market regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. A national market has advantages compared to climatic gas taxes. Macro economically it will be more expensive to ratify the Protocol. The underdeveloped countries are not included in the quota market in the period 2008 to 2012 which gives their discharge intensive industry a competitive advantage. However, quotas may be imposed within a foreseeable future. International regulations are important to Norway. If many countries have systems with competitive free quotas the result would be rise in prices. As Norway probably would import relatively many quotas an international prohibition of competitive free quota systems would be advantageous to Norway even if possibilities for such systems have benefits from a national, district political viewpoint. Connections between allotment of free quotas and shutdowns and shaping of allotment criteria are studied. Free quotas allotted based on historical discharges and without additional conditions for maintaining activity would neither prevent shut downs nor give competitive advantages. The report has chapters on: 1) International negotiations after the conference in Kyoto and the success in making international laws as foundation for a functioning quota market. 2) Some essential advantages of a well functioning quota market are pointed out and their influence on production and consumption patterns including the danger of industry in countries with discharge limitations moving to underdeveloped countries without discharge obligations. 3) A brief discussion on quota trade before an international market is established. 4) Analysis of allotments of free quotas as a possible means for reducing the negative effects on Norwegian industry. 5) Conclusions. In an appendix the consequences of loosening some of the simplified conditions such as the quota price being unaltered through time is studied

  4. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  5. 75 FR 35838 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... reserve stocks. These quotas do not include imports of controlled substances for use in industrial... (AMT) 2 g 2 g Aminorex 2 g 2 g Benzylmorphine 2 g 2 g Betacetylmethadol 2 g 2 g Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl 2 g 2 g Beta-hydroxyfentanyl 2 g 2 g Betameprodine 2 g 2 g Betamethadol 2 g 2 g Betaprodine 2 g 2...

  6. Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    system on nitrogen pollution. The regulatory change is analyzed using Data Envelopment Analysis to model the underlying production structure. The effect of allowing trading of nitrogen quotas on production and profitability is analyzed in a joint production model with good and bad output under different...... system to an incentive based system. The estimated results suggest that the changed regulation could increase Danish aquaculture production by 16 to 55%, whilst actual profitability could be increased 5 to 10 times....

  7. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC). Volume 1. Introductory, General Information and Quota Control Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    AFSC, it may be noted in the special information segment of that course. (NECs and NOBCs will be explai:aed further in paragraph 5). Provided thru NITRAS...Quotas. Personnel Report To. A description of specific reporting instructions. Special Information . Any necessary user information not contained...tour of Norfolk. 8. SPECIAL INFORMATION : a. STUDENT ARR/DEP INFO: Preferred airport is Norfolk, VA, International Airport. Point of contact is

  8. Biological parameters used in setting captive-breeding quotas for Indonesia's breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jordi; Chng, Serene C L

    2017-07-03

    The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure on wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive bred can seriously undermine conservation efforts and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia is at the center of such controversy; therefore, we examined Indonesia's captive-breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. We compared the biological parameters used in the CBPP with parameters in the literature and with parameters suggested by experts on each species and identified shortcomings of the CBPP. Production quotas for 99 out of 129 species were based on inaccurate or unrealistic biological parameters and production quotas deviated more than 10% from what parameters in the literature allow for. For 38 species, the quota exceeded the number of animals that can be bred based on the biological parameters (range 100-540%) calculated with equations in the CBPP. We calculated a lower reproductive output for 88 species based on published biological parameters compared with the parameters used in the CBPP. The equations used in the production plan did not appear to account for other factors (e.g., different survival rate for juveniles compared to adult animals) involved in breeding the proposed large numbers of specimens. We recommend the CBPP be adjusted so that realistic published biological parameters are applied and captive-breeding quotas are not allocated to species if their captive breeding is unlikely to be successful or no breeding stock is available. The shortcomings in the current CBPP create loopholes that mean mammals, reptiles, and amphibians from Indonesia declared captive bred may have been sourced from the wild. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Star Formation in a Stellar Mass Selected Sample of Galaxies to z=3 from the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS)

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Amanda E; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Bluck, Asa F L; Buitrago, Fernando; Mortlock, Alice

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the star-forming properties of a stellar mass-selected sample of galaxies in the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS), based on deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the GOODS North and South fields. Using a stellar mass selected sample, combined with HST/ACS and Spitzer data to measure both UV and infrared derived star formation rates (SFR), we investigate the star forming properties of a complete sample of ~1300 galaxies down to log M*=9.5 at redshifts 1.510^11 Msun. We derive optical colours, dust extinctions, and ultraviolet and infrared SFR to determine how the star formation rate changes as a function of both stellar mass and time. Our results show that SFR increases at higher stellar mass such that massive galaxies nearly double their stellar mass from star formation alone over the redshift range studied, but the average value of SFR for a given stellar mass remains constant over this 2 Gyr period. Furthermore, we find no strong evolution in the SFR for our sample as a function of mass over...

  10. A multi--wavelength study of the IRAS Deep Survey galaxy sample II. The far-IR properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzei, P; Bettoni, D

    2006-01-01

    We derive the 60\\mu local LF to sensitivity levels 10 times deeper than before, to investigate evolutionary effects up to a redshift of 0.37, and, using the 60/15\\mu bi-variate method, the poorly known 15\\mu local LF of galaxies. We exploited our ISOCAM observations of the IRAS Deep Survey (IDS) fields (Hacking and Houck 1987), to correct the $60mu fluxes for confusion effects and observational biases. We find indications of a significant incompleteness of the IDS sample, still one of the deepest far-IR selected galaxy samples, below \\simeq 80mJy (Mazzei et al. 2001). We have reliable identifications and spectroscopic redshifts for 100% of a complete subsample comprising 56 sources with S(60mu(m))> 80mJy. With our spectroscopic coverage we construct the 60mu LF for a sample complete down to 80 mJy. This LF extends over three orders of magnitude in luminosity, from 9 up to more than 12 in log(L_(60)/L_(\\odot)). Despite the fact that the redshift range of our sample exceeds z=0.3, the V/V_{max} test gives =0.51...

  11. The Quota-Based Compensation Plan in Fashion Retailing Industry under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a compensation plan problem in the fashion retailing industry, which involves a risk-neutral fashion retailer and a risk-neutral salesperson, in a two-stage game framework with asymmetric information. In the first stage, the fashion retailer provides a menu of compensation plans to the salesperson who decides which plan to sign based on his superior market demand information. Confronted with the asymmetric demand information, the fashion retailer could observe market information from the salesperson's response by designing a menu of compensation plans rather than a single one to the salesperson. In the second stage, the fashion retailer then makes production decision and the salesperson determines his selling effort. We consider both adverse selection and moral hazard. We adopt the quota-based plan to derive the fashion retailer’s optimal compensation plan design and the salesperson's best response. We emphasize the impact of the quota level on the system outcomes. The results reveal that a higher quota level is disadvantageous to the fashion retailer but advantageous to the salespersons.

  12. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  13. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  14. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.maziero@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey of the spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    This sampling and analysis plan will support the preoperational environmental monitoring for construction, development, and operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities, which have been designed for the conditioning and storage of spent nuclear fuels; particularly the fuel elements associated with the operation of N-Reactor. The SNF consists principally of irradiated metallic uranium, and therefore includes plutonium and mixed fission products. The primary effort will consist of removing the SNF from the storage basins in K East and K West Areas, placing in multicanister overpacks, vacuum drying, conditioning, and subsequent dry vault storage in the 200 East Area. The primary purpose and need for this action is to reduce the risks to public health and safety and to the environment. Specifically these include prevention of the release of radioactive materials into the air or to the soil surrounding the K Basins, prevention of the potential migration of radionuclides through the soil column to the nearby Columbia River, reduction of occupational radiation exposure, and elimination of the risks to the public and to workers from the deterioration of SNF in the K Basins.

  16. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on observations (programs GS-2003B-Q-8, GN-2003B-Q-9, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004B-Q-31, GN-2004B-Q-16, GS-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GN-2006B

  17. Survey of Participants in the Gulf of Mexico Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data includes qualitative responses regarding participant satisfaction with the IFQ, changes in fishing operations due to IFQ, hiring crew, and availability of...

  18. Enantioselective analysis of chloramphenicol residues in honey samples by chiral LC-MS/MS and results of a honey survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Gerhard G; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medication. Since 1994, CAP has not been authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) of 0.3 µg kg(-)(1) was established in 2003. The CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres, thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive, having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC-MS/MS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples. The method was validated at two concentration levels. The decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCß) were well below 0.3 µg kg(-)(1), with limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.08 and 0.12 µg kg(-)(1) for all four enantiomers. The method provides a sensitive and reliable analysis of CAP enantiomers in honey, and proved its robustness during the daily routine analyses of numerous honey samples. In an internal honey survey, in total 40 honey samples from different geographical regions with identified CAP residues at or above the MRPL were reanalysed by chiral LC-MS/MS. In nine honey samples only the bioactive RR-CAP was detected as anticipated. However, in all other 31 honey samples the non-bioactive SS-CAP was also identified and quantified unambiguously. In 10 of these samples, mixtures of RR- and SS-CAP were analysed, and in 21 samples only the SS-CAP enantiomer, with concentrations up to 2.2 µg kg(-)(1). Most of these samples are honeys from Ukraine and Eastern Europe. This is the first report of SS-CAP residues in food samples. The potential sources for these findings are discussed and the need of further systematic studies emphasised. It is recommended to examine in more depth the toxicological profile of the individual CAP stereoisomers.

  19. The HST snapshot survey of the B2 sample of low luminosity radio-galaxies a picture gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Capetti, A; Fanti, R; Morganti, R; Parma, P; Ulrich, M H

    2000-01-01

    A Hubble Space Telescope snapshot survey of the B2 sample of low luminosity radio galaxies has, at present, produced V and I images of 41 objects. Together with 16 images of B2 sources taken from the HST archive, there are now high resolution optical data for 57 % of the sample. All host galaxies are luminous ellipticals, except one which is a spiral galaxy, while another one turns out to be a misidentification. We present an album of the images of the B2 radio galaxies observed so far, and give a brief description of the optical morphology of the galaxies. Dust features (in the form of disks, lanes or irregular patches) are seen in most of the galaxies of the sample, 58 %. Compact optical cores are also very common (18/57). A preliminary analysis has revealed the presence of an optical jet in three objects, indicating they can be detected in a sizeable percentage in these low luminosity radio sources. Brightness profiles of dust-free galaxies are well represented by a Nuker law and all shows the existence of...

  20. Benthic habitat characterisation of soft-bottom continental shelves: Integration of acoustic surveys, benthic samples and trawling disturbance intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Demestre, M.

    2013-01-01

    Eleven sites were located on Mediterranean continental shelves to explore the link between the physical characteristics and epibenthic fauna from soft-sediment habitats. These sites, at 32-82 m in depth, were associated with fishing grounds and the trawling intensity was estimated at the site scale to assess the effects of trawling on benthic communities. Each site was surveyed with Multi-Beam (bathymetry and backscatter), side-scan sonar, benthic grabs and a surface dredge. The sites were clustered in three habitat types. Habitat 1, with moderate trawling disturbance, was characterised by homogeneous mud and associated epifauna that was also highly homogeneous across sites. Habitat 2, with sandy mud and scattered gravel and rocks, had a high abundance of sessile suspension feeders that probably attach to the coarser substratum and benefit from the low fishing disturbance in these sites. Habitat 3 included sites with heterogeneous sediments with maërl as the prevailing biocenosis and having the highest species richness, despite being subjected to variable trawling intensity. Statistical models were used to relate environmental parameters and the species abundance. More than 3 physical variables were necessary to explain the epifaunal patterns across sites, including the percentage of mud, sediment heterogeneity and fishing effort. These analyses are an essential step for extrapolating information from benthic samples to the larger scale of habitats, mapped through acoustic surveys. Despite this, a good integration is required between the mapping of physical habitat distribution and the ecological knowledge of communities.

  1. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  2. Use of linear and areal habitat models to establish and distribute beaver Castor fiber harvest quotas in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Parker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Norway the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber harvest is quota-regulated. Once the annual quota for each municipality has been determined it is distributed to landowner-organized beaver management units. Municipal wildlife managers can choose between two distributional models: the traditional “areal model” whereby each management unit receives its portion of the municipal quota based on the relative area of beaver habitat within the township that it contains, or the more recently developed “linear model” based on the relative length of beaver-utilized shoreline it contains. The linear model was developed in an attempt to increase the precision of the quota distribution process and is based on the fact that beaver occupy landscapes in a linear fashion along strips of shoreline rather than exploiting extensive areas. The assumption was that the linear model would provide a more precise and just method of distributing the municipal quota among landowners. Here we test the hypothesis that the length of beaverutilized shoreline is a better predictor of beaver colony density than the area of beaver habitat on 13 beaver management units of typical size (794 – 2200 hectares in Bø Township, Norway, during 2 years. As hypothesized, the number of beaver occupied sites on management units correlated significantly (p≤ 0.001 with the length of beaver-utilized shoreline, but not with the area of beaver habitat. Therefore municipalities should employ the linear model when a precise distribution of quotas is necessary. The density of Eurasian beaver colonies at the landscape scale (>100 km2 in south-central Scandinavia averages approximately 1 occupied site per 4 km2. This figure can be employed by municipal wildlife managers to estimate the colony density in their townships, and to calculate municipal quotas, when more precise census information is lacking.

  3. Cotas para negros no Ensino Superior e formas de classificação racial Quotas for blacks in higher education and forms of racial classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Brandão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute dados referentes à aplicação de um questionário voltado para variáveis de classificação racial e opinião sobre a política de cotas para negros em uma amostra de 476 alunos do último ano do Ensino Médio da rede pública de um município periférico da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Buscamos compreender os elementos que informam as classificações de cor ou raça, bem como o posicionamento que esses alunos tomavam frente à política de cotas que poderia beneficiá-los no acesso a uma universidade pública. Deve-se ressaltar que os alunos entrevistados estariam em breve frente à possibilidade de disputar uma vaga no Ensino Superior em um vestibular com cotas raciais numa universidade pública que mantém um campus no próprio município onde estudam e residem. Essa problemática e esse tipo de investigação nos parecem fundamentais na atualidade, pois as cotas para negros que vêm sendo implantadas desde 2003 em várias instituições de Ensino Superior têm sofrido críticas e atravessado controvérsias jurídicas também por conta das formas de classificação propostas. Na pesquisa realizada, foi possível avançar na discussão de como as opções de classificação racial até o momento utilizadas nessas políticas se relacionam com os formatos de auto-identificação e de identificação do outro, comumente presentes no cotidiano das escolas pesquisadas, bem como verificar como a idéia de cota racial é avaliada pelos seus possíveis beneficiários.This article presents and discusses data obtained with the application of a questionnaire focused on variables for racial classification and opinion about the policy of quotas for blacks; the questionnaire was applied to a sample of 476 pupils from the last year of secondary education of the public school system of a peripheral town in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. We have tried to understand the elements that shape the

  4. Text files of the navigation logged with Microsoft HyperTerminal during sampling survey 07003 conducted aboard the R/V Connecticut by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts between Duxbury and Hull (DH_SAMPLING_NAV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  5. Multiwavelength survey of a sample of flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foschini, L; Caccianiga, A; Ciroi, S; Cracco, V; Peterson, B M; Angelakis, E; Braito, V; Fuhrmann, L; Gallo, L; Grupe, D; Järvelä, E; Kaufmann, S; Komossa, S; Kovalev, Y Y; Lähteenmäki, A; Lisakov, M M; Lister, M L; Mathur, S; Richards, J L; Romano, P; Sievers, A; Tagliaferri, G; Tammi, J; Tibolla, O; Tornikoski, M; Vercellone, S; La Mura, G; Maraschi, L; Rafanelli, P

    2015-01-01

    We report on a multiwavelength survey of a sample of 42 flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s). This is the largest known sample of this type of active galactic nucleus (AGN) to date. We found that 17% of sources were detected at high-energy gamma rays (E>100 MeV), and 90% at X-rays (0.3-10 keV). The masses of the central black holes are in the range $\\sim 10^{6-8}M_{\\odot}$, smaller than the values of blazars. The disk luminosities are about 1-49% of the Eddington value, with one outlier at 0.3%, comparable with the luminosities observed in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The jet powers are $\\sim 10^{42-46}$ erg s$^{-1}$, comparable with BL Lac Objects, yet relatively smaller than FSRQs. However, once renormalized by the mass of the central black hole, the jet powers of RLNLS1s, BL Lacs, and FSRQs are consistent each other, indicating the scalability of the jets. We found episodes of extreme variability at high energies on time scales of hours. In some cases, dramatic spectral...

  6. A spectroscopic analysis of a sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracco, V.; Ciroi, S.; Berton, M.; Di Mille, F.; Foschini, L.; La Mura, G.; Rafanelli, P.

    2016-10-01

    We revisited the spectroscopic characteristics of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by analysing a homogeneous sample of 296 NLS1s at redshift between 0.028 and 0.345, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7) public archive. We confirm that NLS1s are mostly characterized by Balmer lines with Lorentzian profiles, lower black hole masses and higher Eddington ratios than classic broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s), but they also appear to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contiguous with BLS1s and sharing with them common properties. Strong Fe II emission does not seem to be a distinctive property of NLS1s, as low values of Fe II/Hβ are equally observed in these AGNs. Our data indicate that Fe II and Ca II kinematics are consistent with the one of Hβ. On the contrary, O I λ8446 seems to be systematically narrower and it is likely emitted by gas of the broad-line region more distant from the ionizing source and showing different physical properties. Finally, almost all NLS1s of our sample show radial motions of the narrow-line region highly ionized gas. The mechanism responsible for this effect is not yet clear, but there are hints that very fast outflows require high continuum luminosities (>1044 erg s-1) or high Eddington ratios (log (Lbol/LEdd) > -0.1).

  7. Sex and Gender Diversity Among Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada: Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I.; Bauer, Greta R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n = 433) in 2009–2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status. PMID:24750105

  8. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGN in the COSMOS Survey I - The XMM-COSMOS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Civano, F; Brusa, M; Salvato, M; Bongiorno, A; Capak, P; Zamorani, G; Comastri, A; Jahnke, K; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Trump, J R; Ho, L; Aussel, H; Cappelluti, N; Cisternas, M; Frayer, D; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Huchra, J P; Impey, C D; Koekemoer, A M; Lanzuisi, G; Floc'h, E Le; Lilly, S J; Liu, Y; McCarthy, P; McCracken, H J; Merloni, A; Roeser, H J; Sanders, D B; Sargent, M; Scoville, N; Schinnerer, E; Schiminovich, D; Silverman, J; Taniguchi, Y; Vignali, C; Urry, C M; Zamojski, M A; Zatloukal, M

    2012-01-01

    The "Cosmic Evolution Survey" (COSMOS) enables the study of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present a SED catalog of 413 X-ray (\\xmm) selected type 1 (emission line FWHM$>2000$ km s$^{-1}$) AGN with Magellan, SDSS or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for the Galactic extinction, for broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and for host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame $\\sim 8\\mu m$-- 4000\\AA), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available on-line.

  9. Sex and gender diversity among transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n=433) in 2009-2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status.

  10. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY. I. THE XMM-COSMOS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Civano, F. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Jahnke, K.; Lusso, E.; Cisternas, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Trump, J. R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute for Science, Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Aussel, H. [AIM Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA CNRS, Universite Paris VII UMR n158, Paris (France); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hasinger, G., E-mail: elvis@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hhao@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The 'Cosmic Evolution Survey' (COSMOS) enables the study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present an SED catalog of 413 X-ray (XMM-Newton)-selected type 1 (emission line FWHM > 2000 km s{sup -1}) AGNs with Magellan, SDSS, or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for Galactic extinction, broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest-frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame {approx}8 {mu}m-4000 A), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available online.

  11. Assessing the feasibility and sample quality of a national random-digit dialing cellular phone survey of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Daniel A; ZuWallack, Randal S; Dayton, James; Echeverría, Sandra E; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adults aged 18-34 years have only cellular phones, making random-digit dialing of landline telephones an obsolete methodology for surveillance of this population. However, 95% of this group has cellular phones. This article reports on the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS), a pilot study conducted in the 50 US states and Washington, DC, that used random-digit dialing of cellular phones and benchmarked this methodology against that of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Comparisons of the demographic distributions of subjects in the NYAHS and BRFSS (aged 18-34 years) with US Census data revealed adequate reach for all demographic subgroups. After adjustment for design factors, the mean absolute deviations across demographic groups were 3 percentage points for the NYAHS and 2.8 percentage points for the BRFSS, nationally, and were comparable for each census region. Two-sided z tests comparing cigarette smoking prevalence revealed no significant differences between NYAHS and BRFSS participants overall or by subgroups. The design effects of the sampling weight were 2.09 for the NYAHS and 3.26 for the BRFSS. Response rates for the NYAHS and BRFSS cellular phone sampling frames were comparable. Our assessment of the NYAHS methodology found that random-digit dialing of cellular phones is a feasible methodology for surveillance of young adults.

  12. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  13. A large sample of Kohonen selected E+A (post-starburst) galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Brünecke, J.; Schalldach, P.; in der Au, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The galaxy population in the contemporary Universe is characterised by a clear bimodality, blue galaxies with significant ongoing star formation and red galaxies with only a little. The migration between the blue and the red cloud of galaxies is an issue of active research. Post starburst (PSB) galaxies are thought to be observed in the short-lived transition phase. Aims: We aim to create a large sample of local PSB galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study their characteristic properties, particularly morphological features indicative of gravitational distortions and indications for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Another aim is to present a tool set for an efficient search in a large database of SDSS spectra based on Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs). Methods: We computed a huge Kohonen SOM for 106 spectra from SDSS data release 7. The SOM is made fully available, in combination with an interactive user interface, for the astronomical community. We selected a large sample of PSB galaxies taking advantage of the clustering behaviour of the SOM. The morphologies of both PSB galaxies and randomly selected galaxies from a comparison sample in SDSS Stripe 82 (S82) were inspected on deep co-added SDSS images to search for indications of gravitational distortions. We used the Portsmouth galaxy property computations to study the evolutionary stage of the PSB galaxies and archival multi-wavelength data to search for hidden AGNs. Results: We compiled a catalogue of 2665 PSB galaxies with redshifts z 3 Å and z 5 Å, significantly higher than in the comparison sample. The search for AGNs based on conventional selection criteria in the radio and MIR results in a low AGN fraction of 2-3%. We confirm an MIR excess in the mean SED of the E+A sample that may indicate hidden AGNs, though other sources are also possible. The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  14. Locations of sediment samples collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (SEDIMENTSAMPLES - Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  15. Locations of sediment samples collected in the Cape Ann - Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (SEDIMENTSAMPLES - Shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and...

  16. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ABOLITION OF THE MILK QUOTA REGIME ON THE ROMANIAN DAIRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal breeding for milk represents a basic occupation of the Romanian population, ensuring the best utilization of fodder obtained from natural pastures, steady incomes and local workforce stability. Since 2015 the restrictions imposed to producers from the European Union by the Milk Quota System ceased. The implementation of government strategies to support the national level of production and to efficiently capitalize raw milk and consumption could ensure a healthy nutrition to the population and substantial income. Romanian producers are affected by the quota’s elimination, which overlapped with a decrease in sales by increasing the milk supply on the domestic market due to Russia’s embargo.

  17. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  18. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  19. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  20. Discussion on the compilation of construction enterprise quota%谈施工企业定额的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳现杰

    2012-01-01

    结合施工企业定额编制的原则,总结出定额编制的主要方法,阐述了编制流程及编制与应用过程中需注意的影响因素,以期制定出先进的企业定额,提高企业竞争力。%Combining with the compiling principles of construction enterprise quota, the thesis summarizes main quota compiling methods, de- scribes compiling procedure and compilation and influential factors needing attention in the application, with a view to formulate advanced enter- prise quota and improve the competitiveness of the construction enterprises.

  1. Outflows, infall and evolution of a sample of embedded low-mass protostars. The William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Karska, A.; San José-García, I.; Khanna, S.; Herczeg, G. J.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Cabrit, S.; Carney, M. T.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J.; Fedele, D.; Green, J. D.; Harsono, D.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Könyves, V.; Nisini, B.; Persson, M. V.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Herschel observations of water and highly excited CO (J > 9) have allowed the physical and chemical conditions in the more active parts of protostellar outflows to be quantified in detail for the first time. However, to date, the studied samples of Class 0/I protostars in nearby star-forming regions have been selected from bright, well-known sources and have not been large enough for statistically significant trends to be firmly established. Aims: We aim to explore the relationships between the outflow, envelope and physical properties of a flux-limited sample of embedded low-mass Class 0/I protostars. Methods: We present spectroscopic observations in H2O, CO and related species with Herschel HIFI and PACS, as well as ground-based follow-up with the JCMT and APEX in CO, HCO+ and isotopologues, of a sample of 49 nearby (d < 500 pc) candidate protostars selected from Spitzer and Herschel photometric surveys of the Gould Belt. This more than doubles the sample of sources observed by the WISH and DIGIT surveys. These data are used to study the outflow and envelope properties of these sources. We also compile their continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the near-IR to mm wavelengths in order to constrain their physical properties (e.g. Lbol, Tbol and Menv). Results: Water emission is dominated by shocks associated with the outflow, rather than the cooler, slower entrained outflowing gas probed by ground-based CO observations. These shocks become less energetic as sources evolve from Class 0 to Class I. Outflow force, measured from low-J CO, also decreases with source evolutionary stage, while the fraction of mass in the outflow relative to the total envelope (i.e. Mout/Menv) remains broadly constant between Class 0 and I. The median value of 1% is consistent with a core to star formation efficiency on the order of 50% and an outflow duty cycle on the order of 5%. Entrainment efficiency, as probed by FCO/Ṁacc, is also invariant with source

  2. Work stress and satisfaction in relation to personality profiles in a sample of Dutch anaesthesiologists: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Bucx, Martin J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Prins, Judith B

    2016-11-01

    Working in anaesthesia is stressful, but also satisfying. Work-related stress can have a negative impact on mental health, whereas work-related satisfaction protects against these harmful effects. How work stress and satisfaction are experienced may be related to personality. Our aim was to study the relationship between personality and perception of work in a sample of Dutch anaesthesiologists. Questionnaire survey. Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. We sent electronic questionnaires to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of those, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. The questionnaires assessed general work-related stress and satisfaction and anaesthesia-specific stress. A factor analysis was performed on the stress and satisfaction questionnaires. Personality traits were assessed using the Big Five Inventory. To identify personality profiles, a cluster analysis was performed on the Big Five Inventory. Scores of the extracted factors contributing to job stress and satisfaction were compared between the profiles we identified. Our analysis extracted six factors concerning general job stress. Of those, the emotionally difficult caseload contributed the most to job stress. The analysis also extracted four factors concerning general job satisfaction. Good relationships with patients and their families and being appreciated by colleagues contributed the most to satisfaction. The cluster analysis resulted in two distinct personality profiles: a distressed profile (n = 215) and a resilient profile (n = 440). General and anaesthesia-specific job stress was significantly higher and job satisfaction was significantly lower in the distressed profile, compared with the resilient profile. Experience of the emotionally difficult caseload did not differ between the two profiles CONCLUSION: Personality profiles were found to be related to anaesthesiologists

  3. An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) is an additive flame retardant marketed as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). The structures of the two chemicals are similar, and hence deBDethane may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. Environmental data on deBDethane are scarce. Since sewage sludge is an early indicator of leakage of these chemicals into the environment, an international survey of deBDethane and decaBDE levels in sludge was conducted. Samples were collected from 42 WWTPs in 12 different countries and analyzed with GC/LRMS. DeBDethane was present in sludge from all countries and may therefore be a worldwide concern. The levels of deBDethane in sludge samples from the Ruhr area of Germany were the highest so far reported in the literature (216 ng g(-1)d.wt.). The [deBDethane]/[decaBDE] quotient for the whole data set ranged from 0.0018 to 0.83. High ratios were found in and around Germany where deBDethane imports are known to have been high and substitution of decaBDE with deBDethane is likely to have occurred. Low ratios were found in the USA and the UK, countries that have traditionally been large users of decaBDE. An estimate of the flux of deBDEthane from the technosphere via WWTPs to the environment within the European Union gave 1.7+/-0.34 mg annually per person. The corresponding value for decaBDE was 41+/-22 mg annually per person.

  4. Position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 CMASS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Sánchez, Ariel G; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 10 CMASS sample. This new observable measures the correlation between two-point functions of galaxy pairs within different subvolumes, $\\hat{\\xi}({\\rm r},{\\rm r}_L)$, where ${\\rm r}_L$ is the location of a subvolume, and the corresponding mean overdensities, $\\bar{\\delta}({\\rm r}_L)$. This correlation, which we call the "integrated three-point function", $i\\zeta(r)=\\langle\\hat{\\xi}({\\rm r},{\\rm r}_L)\\bar{\\delta}({\\rm r}_L)\\rangle$, measures a three-point function of two short- and one long-wavelength modes, and is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution and possibly also by the physics of inflation. The $i\\zeta(r)$ measured from the BOSS data lies within the scatter of those from the mock galaxy catalogs in redshift space, yielding a ten-percent-level determination of the amplitude of $i\\zeta(r)$. The tree-level perturbation theory in redshift s...

  5. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  6. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: I. Sample, data analysis, and correlation to star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Sánchez, S F; Badenes, C; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Falcón-Barroso, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Gomes, J M; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; López-Sánchez, A R; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Marino, R A; Meidt, S; Mollá, M; Papaderos, P; Pérez-Torres, M A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; van de Ven, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We use optical IFS of nearby SN host galaxies provided by the CALIFA Survey with the goal of finding correlations in the environmental parameters at the location of different SN types. We recover the sequence in association of different SN types to the star-forming regions by using several indicators of the ongoing and recent SF related to both the ionized gas and the stellar populations. While the total ongoing SF is on average the same for the three SN types, SNe Ibc/IIb tend to happen closer to star-forming regions and occur in higher SF density locations compared to SNe II and SNe~Ia, the latter showing the weakest correlation. SNe~Ia host galaxies have on average masses that are $\\sim$0.3-0.8~dex higher than CC SNe hosts due to a larger fraction of old stellar populations in the SNe~Ia hosts. Using the recent SN~Ia delay-time distribution and the SFHs of the galaxies, we show that the SN~Ia hosts in our sample should presently produce a factor 2 more SNe~Ia than the CC~SN hosts. Since both typ...

  7. Exploration of Domestic Tourism Sampling Survey System%国内旅游抽样调查系统初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹弘坚

    2011-01-01

    江苏省旅游抽样调查系统是为科学、系统地反映江苏省旅游接待和收入情况而设计的一个Mis应用系统。本系统实现了数据的录入、查询、汇总、报表打印、数据导入、数据导出等功能,重点阐述旅游接待人数和旅游收入的推导和计算,并给出了系统的整体结构设计和数据库设计。%Jiangsu Tourism Sampling Survey System is a Mis application system designed for estimating tourists and tourism revenu of Jiangsu Province. The system implements data entry, query, sum, report printing, data import, data export functions, focusing on the tourist number and tourism revenue derivation and calculation, and gives the overall structure of the system design and database design.

  8. Trajectories of HIV Risk Behavior from Age 15 to 25 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David

    2008-01-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) consistently higher sexual risk levels, increasing to early adulthood followed by some decrease (“high”); (2) a short period of increase to late teens, followed by a longer period of decrease (“decreased”); (3) an initially slow increase, with the increase accelerating by late teens, and a slight decline beginning in early adulthood (“increased”); and (4) consistently lowest levels of sexual risk (“low”). More African Americans were found among the decreased trajectory group; among the low risk group a higher number of youth came from families with parents who spoke a language other than English. The high-risk group had a higher percentage of subjects in non-metropolitan areas and highest alcohol use. Among males, being employed and being in the military were associated with inclusion in the high-risk group. Results have implications for specializing prevention strategies for youth with different patterns of sexual risk. PMID:19669902

  9. A spectroscopic analysis of a sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cracco, V; Berton, M; Di Mille, F; Foschini, L; La Mura, G; Rafanelli, P

    2016-01-01

    We revisited the spectroscopic characteristics of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by analysing a homogeneous sample of 296 NLS1s at redshift between 0.028 and 0.345, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7) public archive. We confirm that NLS1s are mostly characterized by Balmer lines with Lorentzian profiles, lower black hole masses and higher Eddington ratios than classic broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s), but they also appear to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contiguous with BLS1s and sharing with them common properties. Strong Fe II emission does not seem to be a distinctive property of NLS1s, as low values of Fe II/H$\\beta$ are equally observed in these AGNs. Our data indicate that Fe II and Ca II kinematics are consistent with the one of H$\\beta$. On the contrary, O I $\\lambda$8446 seems to be systematically narrower and it is likely emitted by gas of the broad-line region more distant from the ionizing source and showing different physical properties. Finally, almost all NLS1s of our ...

  10. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  11. Influence of trends in fishing power on bioeconomics in the North Sea flatfish fishery regulated by catches or by effort quotas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, C.; Pascoe, S.; Sparre, P.J.; Wilde, de J.W.; Marchal, P.

    2002-01-01

    Total allowable effort quotas (TAEs) are often considered as promising alternatives to single-species total allowable catch quotas (TACs) in fisheries management. However, implementing TAEs would primarily require converting nominal effort into fishing mortality rate, i.e., developing a relevant

  12. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  13. Growth rate and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B

    2017-03-01

    The effects of resource stoichiometry and growth rate on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how growth rate and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution rates and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum growth rate, P availability and dilution rate had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration rate, and growth efficiency. In contrast, at faster growth rates, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both growth rate and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and growth rates are high, but at low growth rates resource imbalance is relatively more important than growth rate in controlling bacterial biomass composition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. IMPROVING MARKET ACCESS: THE ROLE OF AUCTIONS IN CONVERTING TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS INTO SINGLE TARIFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joerin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the conversion of TRQs into single tariffs under perfect and imperfect competition. Based on experiences from Switzerland, auctions allow the determination of the equivalent tariffs. Results from auctions of TRQs of dried meat products under perfect competition show that the observed auction prices would lead to tariffs which are below the equivalent tariffs. Hence, if the ‘new tariffs’ would be determined through auctions, market access would be improved, but also farm prices would lower. However, under imperfect competition, based on Bhagwati’s theorem of the non-equivalence of tariffs and quotas, market access could be improved by converting TRQs into single tariffs even if farm prices are held constant. In order to ensure that auctions are competitive and collusion among bidders is prevented, the ‘variable supply’ auction format which re¬sists collusion needs to be adopted in the event of high buyer’s concentration. Despite the various benefits of auctions, quota holders’ persisting rent-seeking behaviour hinders that auctions are mainstreamed in allocating TRQs.

  15. A stochastic simulation model to determine the sample size of repeated national surveys to document freedom from bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwermer Heinzpeter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International trade regulations require that countries document their livestock's sanitary status in general and freedom from specific infective agents in detail provided that import restrictions should be applied. The latter is generally achieved by large national serological surveys and risk assessments. The paper describes the basic structure and application of a generic stochastic model for risk-based sample size calculation of consecutive national surveys to document freedom from contagious disease agents in livestock. Methods In the model, disease spread during the time period between two consecutive surveys was considered, either from undetected infections within the domestic population or from imported infected animals. The @Risk model consists of the domestic spread in-between two national surveys; the infection of domestic herds from animals imported from countries with a sanitary status comparable to Switzerland or lower sanitary status and the summary sheet which summed up the numbers of resulting infected herds of all infection pathways to derive the pre-survey prevalence in the domestic population. Thereof the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and required survey sample sizes were calculated. A scenario for detection of infected herds by general surveillance was included optionally. Results The model highlights the importance of residual domestic infection spread and characteristics of different import pathways. The sensitivity analysis revealed that number of infected, but undetected domestic herds and the multiplicative between-survey-spread factor were most correlated with the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and the resulting sample size, respectively. Compared to the deterministic pre-cursor model, the stochastic model was therefore more sensitive to the previous survey's results. Undetected spread of infection in the domestic population between two surveys gained more

  16. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  17. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO{sub 2} emissions quotas market; Prevention des risques et lutte contre les pollutions. Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emissions de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  18. Sistema de cotas: um debate. Dos dados à manutenção de privilégios e de poder Quota system: a debate. From data to the conservation of privileges and power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcele Mascarenhas Queiroz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o impacto da implantação do sistema de cotas em uma universidade federal, a UFBA. Inicialmente, compara os resultados de duas pesquisas realizadas pelo DataFolha, em distintos momentos, para apontar a mudança ocorrida na percepção dos brasileiros sobre as relações raciais no país e, conseqüentemente, no debate sobre a questão. Num segundo momento, se detém no debate ocorrido na própria Instituição, no contexto da discussão sobre o sistema de cotas, para evidenciar os argumentos que aí emergiram. Examina os dados de desempenho dos estudantes nos vestibulares de 2005 e 2006, e também do seu desempenho durante o curso, nos dois primeiros semestres de 2005, comparando os cotistas e os não-cotistas, para argumentar em favor do sistema de cotas, evidenciando seu efeito para ampliar o acesso de estudantes negros oriundos do sistema público de ensino à Universidade.This article examines the implementation of quotas system in Federal University of Bahia. Initially, it compares the results of two surveys of DataFolha Institute in 2005 and 2006 to reflect the changes of perception of Brazilian people about affirmative action to blacks. Secondly, the authors emphasize the debate on quotas system between teachers in the Federal University of Bahia. The text points out the performance of students who were admitted by the quotas system during two semesters. The goal is to show how the affirmative action provoked the access of blacks students who is originating from public schools.

  19. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Yuval

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002, however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate. In total, 501 people (60.5% agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS, percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, traumatic stress (TS resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2% were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2% had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9% met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4% were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5% who felt depressed, 50 (10.4% felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47% felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7% felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity

  20. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L(-1) for D3G and 8.4 µg L(-1) in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L(-1) for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L(-1) for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L(-1) D3G and 12.4 µg L(-1) DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L(-1) D3G, 89 µg L(-1) DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.

  1. A sample of ultra steep spectrum sources selected from the Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuck, C de; Tang, Y.; Bruyn, A. G. de; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Breugel, W.van

    2002-01-01

    The 352 MHz Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey is the southern extension of the WENSS, covering 1.60 sr between -9degrees <δ <-26degrees to a limiting flux density of similar to18 mJy (5sigma). Due to the very low elevation of the observations, the survey has a much lower resolution

  2. A Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of a Representative Sample of Gravitationally-Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies: High Spatial Resolution Studies of Kinematics and Metallicity Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel P; Richard, Johan; Zitrin, Adi; Auger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of $z\\simeq2$ based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently-improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L$^{\\ast}$ galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2-D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offers a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. We demonstrate how serious errors of interpretation can only be revealed through better sampling. Although we include four sources from our earlier work, the present study provides a more representative sample unbiased with respect to emission line strength. Contrary t...

  3. Sediment sample locations and grain size results from samples collected in Barnegat Bay, NJ by the U.S. Geological Survey during 3 surveys in 2012 and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the...

  4. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; in-bottle acid digestion of whole-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G.L.; Fishman, M. J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples for trace-metal determinations routinely have been prepared in open laboratories. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey method I-3485-85 (Extraction Procedure, for Water- Suspended Sediment) is performed in a laboratory hood on a laboratory bench without any special precautions to control airborne contamination. This method tends to be contamination prone for several trace metals primarily because the samples are transferred, acidified, digested, and filtered in an open laboratory environment. To reduce trace-metal contamination of digested water samples, procedures were established that rely on minimizing sample-transfer steps and using a class-100 clean bench during sample filtration. This new procedure involves the following steps: 1. The sample is acidified with HCl directly in the original water-sample bottle. 2. The water-sample bottle with the cap secured is heated in a laboratory oven. 3. The digestate is filtered in a class-100 laminar-flow clean bench. The exact conditions used (that is, oven temperature, time of heating, and filtration methods) for this digestion procedure are described. Comparisons between the previous U.S Geological Survey open-beaker method I-3485-85 and the new in-bottle procedure for synthetic and field-collected water samples are given. When the new procedure is used, blank concentrations for most trace metals determined are reduced significantly.

  5. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Resu

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: V. Improving the Dark Energy Constraints Above z>1 and Building an Early-Type-Hosted Supernova Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, N; Lidman, C; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Barbary, K; Barrientos, L F; Botyanszki, J; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Dey, A; Doi, M; Donahue, M; Deustua, S; Eisenhardt, P; Ellingson, E; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Gonzalez, A H; Goobar, A; Gude, A; Hattori, T; Hoekstra, H; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Jee, M J; Johnston, D; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Linder, E V; Lubin, L; Melbourne, J; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Munshi, F; Mullis, C; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Pritchard, T; Rhodes, J; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A; Stanford, S A; Stanishev, V; Stern, D; Strovink, M; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Wagner, M; Wang, L; Yasuda, N; Yee, H K C

    2011-01-01

    We present ACS, NICMOS, and Keck AO-assisted photometry of 20 Type Ia supernovae SNe Ia from the HST Cluster Supernova Survey. The SNe Ia were discovered over the redshift interval 0.623 1 SNe Ia. We describe how such a sample could be efficiently obtained by targeting cluster fields with WFC3 on HST.

  7. 19 CFR 132.18 - License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption (Customs Form 7501, column 34), or its electronic equivalent (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.18 Section 132.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...

  9. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  10. 75 FR 60066 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA Countries From Regional Country Fabric AGENCY: Committee for the Implementation of...

  11. 77 FR 64798 - Correction to the Amendment of the Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for ] units of... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Correction to the Amendment of the Limitation of Duty- and Quota- Free...: Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty...

  12. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development... INFORMATION: Background: Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, as amended by the Trade Act of 2002...--New York, NY Saint Laurie Ltd.--New York, NY Tom James Co.--Franklin, TN Warren Sewell Clothing Co...

  13. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  14. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  15. Survey lines along which SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey within the Northern Cape Cod Bay survey area (CCB_SeabossTrackline Esri shapefile, Geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  16. Improving the collection of knowledge, attitude and practice data with community surveys: a comparison of two second-stage sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rosemary H; Valadez, Joseph J

    2014-12-01

    Second-stage sampling techniques, including spatial segmentation, are widely used in community health surveys when reliable household sampling frames are not available. In India, an unresearched technique for household selection is used in eight states, which samples the house with the last marriage or birth as the starting point. Users question whether this last-birth or last-marriage (LBLM) approach introduces bias affecting survey results. We conducted two simultaneous population-based surveys. One used segmentation sampling; the other used LBLM. LBLM sampling required modification before assessment was possible and a more systematic approach was tested using last birth only. We compared coverage proportions produced by the two independent samples for six malaria indicators and demographic variables (education, wealth and caste). We then measured the level of agreement between the caste of the selected participant and the caste of the health worker making the selection. No significant difference between methods was found for the point estimates of six malaria indicators, education, caste or wealth of the survey participants (range of P: 0.06 to >0.99). A poor level of agreement occurred between the caste of the health worker used in household selection and the caste of the final participant, (Κ = 0.185), revealing little association between the two, and thereby indicating that caste was not a source of bias. Although LBLM was not testable, a systematic last-birth approach was tested. If documented concerns of last-birth sampling are addressed, this new method could offer an acceptable alternative to segmentation in India. However, inter-state caste variation could affect this result. Therefore, additional assessment of last birth is required before wider implementation is recommended. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  17. Cultural Resources Sample Survey of the Bayou Cocodrie and Tributaries Project, St. Landry, Evangeline and Avoyelles Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-06

    construction of networks of underground pipelines and above ground pumping facilities. While most of the construction activities are finished, these activities...Pipeline Company’s pipeline right-of-way from East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, to Orange County, Texas; Neitzel’s (1976) survey of an underground waterline...Louisiana. Gagliano, Sherwood M., Richard A. Weinstein, Bert Rader , Benjamin A. Small, and Kathleen McCloskey 1978 Cultural Resources Survey of the

  18. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. SDSS-II Supernova survey. An analysis of the largest sample of type IA supernovae and correlations with host-galaxy spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; Kessler, Rick; Jha, Saurabh W.; March, Marisa C.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopicallyconfirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric hostgalaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6σ significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and hostgalaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star-formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large dataset, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically-confirmed and photometrically-classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined datasets for future surveys.

  20. Stoichiometric flexibility in diverse aquatic heterotrophic bacteria is coupled to differences in cellular phosphorus quotas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Michael Godwin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is frequently presumed that heterotrophic bacteria from aquatic environments have low carbon (C content, high phosphorus (P content, and maintain homeostasis at low C:P in their biomass. Dissolved and particulate organic matter from primary producers in terrestrial and aquatic environments typically has high C:P ratios, suggesting that heterotrophic bacteria consuming this resource experience stoichiometric imbalance in C and P. The strength of elemental homeostasis is important for understanding how heterotrophic bacteria couple C and P cycles in response to environmental change, yet these generalizations are based upon data from only a few species that might not represent the physiology of bacteria in freshwaters. However, recent research has indicated that some strains of bacteria isolated from freshwaters have flexible C:P stoichiometry and can acclimate to changes in resource C:P. Although it is apparent that strains differ in their biomass C:P and flexibility, the basis for these characteristics has not been explained. We evaluated biomass C:P homeostasis in 24 strains of bacteria isolated from temperate lakes using a uniform relative growth rate in chemostats. Overall, the strains exhibited a range of homeostatic regulation from strong homeostasis to highly flexible biomass stoichiometry, but strains that were isolated using P-rich media formulations were more homeostatic than strains isolated using P-poor media. Strains exhibiting homeostatic biomass C:P had high cellular C and P content and showed little morphological change between C and P limitation. In contrast, stoichiometrically flexible strains had low P quotas and increased their C quotas and cell size under P limitation. Because stoichiometric flexibility is closely coupled to absolute P content in bacteria, anthropogenic inputs of P could lead to prevalence of more homeostatic bacteria, reducing the ability of natural assemblages to buffer changes in the availability of P

  1. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alberto; Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the "well below 2°C" warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work's primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2.

  2. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the “well below 2°C” warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work’s primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2. PMID:28628676

  3. The National Hospital Discharge Survey and Nationwide Inpatient Sample: the databases used affect results in THA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Stijn; Bot, Arjan G J; Makarawung, Dennis; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ring, David

    2014-11-01

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) collect sample data and publish annual estimates of inpatient care in the United States, and both are commonly used in orthopaedic research. However, there are important differences between the databases, and because of these differences, asking these two databases the same question may result in different answers. The degree to which this is true for arthroplasty-related research has, to our knowledge, not been characterized. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no differences between the NHDS and NIS in patient characteristics, comorbidities, and adverse events in patients with hip osteoarthritis treated with THA, and (2) there are no differences between databases in factors associated with inpatient mortality, adverse events, and length of hospital stay after THA. The NHDS and NIS databases use different methods of data collection and weighting to provide data representative of all nonfederal hospital discharges in the United States. In 2006 the NHDS database contained 203,149 patients with hip arthritis treated with hip arthroplasty, and the NIS database included 193,879 patients. Multivariable analyses for factors associated with inpatient mortality, adverse events, and days of care were constructed for each database. We found that 26 of 42 of the factors in demographics, comorbidities, and adverse events after THA in the NIS and NHDS databases differed more than 10%. Age and days of care were associated with inpatient mortality with the NHDS and the NIS although the effect rates differ more than 10%. The NIS identified seven other factors not identified by the NHDS: wound complications, congestive heart failure, new mental disorder, chronic pulmonary disease, dementia, geographic region Northeast, acute postoperative anemia, and sex, that were associated with inpatient mortality even after controlling for potentially confounding variables. For inpatient

  4. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Fournier, Amanda P. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason, E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  5. Sediment sample locations and grain size results from samples collected in Barnegat Bay, NJ by the U.S. Geological Survey during 3 surveys in 2012 and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  6. Sediment sample locations and grain size results from samples collected in Barnegat Bay, NJ by the U.S. Geological Survey during 3 surveys in 2012 and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  7. Sampling algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Tillé, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Important progresses in the methods of sampling have been achieved. This book draws up an inventory of methods that can be useful for selecting samples. Forty-six sampling methods are described in the framework of general theory. This book is suitable for experienced statisticians who are familiar with the theory of survey sampling.

  8. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  9. Sample Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  10. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  11. Sediment sample and textural properties at 40 sample locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri point shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SAMPLES.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  12. 2005-004-FA_SAMPLES.SHP: Sediment sample and textural properties at 40 sample locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once...

  13. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Data Release 9 Spectroscopic Galaxy Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Lauren; Bailey, Stephen; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael; Bolton, Adam S; Brinkmann, J; Brownstein, Joel R; Burden, Angela; Cuesta, Antonio J; da Costa, Luiz N A; Dawson, Kyle S; de Putter, Roland; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gunn, James E; Guo, Hong; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harding, Paul; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Kazin, Eyal; Kirkby, D; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Labatie, Antione; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K; Mehta, Kushal T; Mena, Olga; Montesano, Francesco; Muna, Demetri; Nichol, Robert C; Nuza, Sebastian E; Olmstead, Matthew D; Oravetz, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Paris, Isabelle; Percival, Will J; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Reid, Beth; Roe, Natalie A; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Ariel G; Schneider, David J Schlegel Donald P; Scoccola, Claudia G; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin S; Simmons, Audrey; Skibba, Ramin A; Strauss, Michael A; Swanson, Molly E C; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Magana, Mariana Vargas; Verde, Licia; Wagner, Christian; Wake, David A; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weinberg, David H; White, Martin; Xu, Xiaoying; Yeche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of galaxy clustering from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). These use the Data Release 9 (DR9) CMASS sample, which contains 264,283 massive galaxies covering 3275 square degrees with an effective redshift z=0.57 and redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. Assuming a concordance Lambda-CDM cosmological model, this sample covers an effective volume of 2.2 Gpc^3, and represents the largest sample of the Universe ever surveyed at this density, n = 3 x 10^-4 h^-3 Mpc^3. We measure the angle-averaged galaxy correlation function and power spectrum, including density-field reconstruction of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature. The acoustic features are detected at a significance of 5\\sigma in both the correlation function and power spectrum. Combining with the SDSS-II Luminous Red Galaxy Sample, the detection significance increases to 6.7\\sigma. Fitting for the position of the acoustic features measures the ...

  14. Improving the sampling strategy of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (2013) by means of multivariate statistical techniques applied on selected physico-chemical and biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamchevici, Carmen; Udrea, Ion

    2013-11-01

    The concept of basin-wide Joint Danube Survey (JDS) was launched by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) as a tool for investigative monitoring under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with a frequency of 6 years. The first JDS was carried out in 2001 and its success in providing key information for characterisation of the Danube River Basin District as required by WFD lead to the organisation of the second JDS in 2007, which was the world's biggest river research expedition in that year. The present paper presents an approach for improving the survey strategy for the next planned survey JDS3 (2013) by means of several multivariate statistical techniques. In order to design the optimum structure in terms of parameters and sampling sites, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis were applied on JDS2 data for 13 selected physico-chemical and one biological element measured in 78 sampling sites located on the main course of the Danube. Results from PCA/FA showed that most of the dataset variance (above 75%) was explained by five varifactors loaded with 8 out of 14 variables: physical (transparency and total suspended solids), relevant nutrients (N-nitrates and P-orthophosphates), feedback effects of primary production (pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen) and algal biomass. Taking into account the representation of the factor scores given by FA versus sampling sites and the major groups generated by the clustering procedure, the spatial network of the next survey could be carefully tailored, leading to a decreasing of sampling sites by more than 30%. The approach of target oriented sampling strategy based on the selected multivariate statistics can provide a strong reduction in dimensionality of the original data and corresponding costs as well, without any loss of information.

  15. What the public knows and wants to know about medicines research and development: a survey of the general public in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Suzanne; Starling, Bella; Mullan-Jensen, Christine; Tham, Su-Gwan; Warner, Kay; Wever, Kim

    2015-04-08

    To explore public knowledge of, and interest in, learning more about medicines R&D in six European countries. Online survey of 6931 members of the public across Europe. The survey formed part of a public omnibus survey. A quota sampling approach was used with quotas set according to national census data on age, gender and government region. The survey explored the public's knowledge and awareness of medicines R&D, their interest in learning more and the perceived influences on this. The survey was completed by 6931 members of the public, over 75% of whom reported having no or less than good knowledge of medicines R&D. Males were more likely than females to report good knowledge (17% vs 15%), and knowledge appeared to decrease with age. Those who were currently or had previously been involved in medical research were almost five times more likely to report good knowledge of medicines R&D overall (43% vs 13%). Participants reported good knowledge of medicines safety and clinical trials but little knowledge of pharmacoeconomics. They were most interested in learning more about medicines safety and personalised and predictive medicine and least interested in pharmacoeconomics. Older people, women and respondents with current good knowledge of medicines R&D were most interested in learning more about medicines R&D. Experience of medical research appears to play a key role in increasing public awareness of and future interest in medicines R&D. Some groups may need to be specifically targeted to increase their awareness of medicines R&D, for example, women expressed great interest in learning more but reported less knowledge than men. It may be useful to explore further the views of those who are currently uninterested in learning more. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B, as determined from dried blood spots, among children and their mothers in central Lao People's Democratic Republic: a multistage, stratified cluster sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Masaya; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphan; Kitamura, Tomomi; Kiyohara, Tomoko; Wakita, Takaji; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    There is limited information regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B in Lao PDR, where the hepatitis disease burden is substantial. Thus, reliable seroprevalence data is needed for the disease, based on probability sampling. A stratified, multistage, cluster sampling survey of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity among children aged 5-9 years and their mothers aged 15-45 years was conducted. Participants were selected randomly from the central region of Lao PDR via probability-proportional-to-size sampling. Blood samples were collected onto filter paper and subsequently analyzed using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. A total of 911 mother-and-child pairs were collected; the seroprevalence of HBsAg was estimated to be 2.1% (95% confidence interval 0.8-3.4%) among children and 4.1% (95% confidence interval 2.6-5.5%) in their mothers after taking into account the sampling design and the weight of each sample. The children's HBsAg positivity was positively associated with maternal infection and being born in a non-health facility, while the maternal infection status was not associated with any background characteristic. Lao PDR has a relatively lower HBsAg prevalence in the general population compared to surrounding countries. To ensure comparability to other countries and to future data, rapid field tests are recommended for a nationwide prevalence survey. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  18. Mental Health Issues Facing a Diverse Sample of College Students: Results from the College Student Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soet, Johanna; Sevig, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been increased attention given to mental health issues on college and university campuses across the country. However, few research efforts have been conducted to systematically investigate the mental health of college students. The College Student Mental Health Survey was undertaken as a first step towards gaining…

  19. A Survey of the Use of Antiepileptic and Muscle Relaxant Medication in a Sample of Children with Neuromotor Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Bobby G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal survey of 424 preschoolers and infants with neuromotor disorders served by a children's rehabilitation center was conducted to determine the number who were receiving muscle relaxant or anticonvulsant medication, as well as average daily dosages. An increase in the number of antiepileptic prescriptions was found from 1962 to 1986.…

  20. The Factorial Validity of The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey in Representative Samples of Eight Different Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Falkum, Erik; Innstrand, Siw Tone; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow

    2006-01-01

    The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey (MBI-GS) is designed to measure the three subdimensions (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) of burnout in a wide range of occupations. This article examines the factorial validity of the MBI-GS across eight different occupational groups in Norway: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers,…

  1. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  2. Survey of attitudes toward and experiences with animal abuse encounters in a convenience sample of US veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Rishniw, Mark; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca A

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey. PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation. RESULTS 1,209 completed surveys were received (3.5% response rate); 1,155 (95.5%) surveys were submitted by currently practicing veterinarians. One thousand five (87.0%) practicing veterinarians reported having encountered at least 1 case of animal abuse while in practice; 561 (55.8%) of these veterinarians indicated that they had reported at least 1 case. The most common reasons selected for reporting abuse were to protect the animal, ethical beliefs, and to protect other animals in the household. The most common reasons selected for not reporting the abuse were uncertainty that the animal had been abused, belief that client education would be better, and belief that the injury or illness was accidental versus intentional. Most respondents were unaware of the current status of laws in their state regarding animal abuse reporting. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a need for state and national veterinary and humane-law enforcement organizations to increase communication and education efforts on recognition and reporting by veterinarians of animal abuse and the related laws.

  3. SDSS-II Supernova Survey: An Analysis of the Largest Sample of Type Ia Supernovae and Correlations with Host-Galaxy Spectral Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Rachel C; Gupta, Ravi R; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A; Kessler, Rick; Jha, Saurabh W; March, Marisa C; Scolnic, Daniel M; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopically-confirmed SNeIa discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6{\\sigma} significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and s...

  4. A survey of a pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster (Arctiodactyla, Cervidae, population in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, using the distance sampling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás, W. M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer is an endangered South American species which occurs in open grasslands and savannas. This aim of this survey was to evaluate the use of the distance sampling technique to estimate densities of the species in the Pantanal wetland, as well as to analyze the applicability of the method for a monitoring program. The surveys were conducted on roads from vehicles and also on foot along 26 parallel transects in November 1999 and 2000 at Campo Dora ranch, south-central Pantanal, Brazil. Deer densities were estimated using the program DISTANCE, and the program MONITOR was used to run a power analysis to estimate the probability of detection of a decline in the population. The deer density estimated from vehicles, with data from both years, was 9.81±3.8 individual/km2, and 5.53±0.68 individuals/km2 from transects sampled on foot. The power analysis of these data revealed a monitoring program would require at least two surveys per year over seven years to obtain a 90% chance of detecting a 5% decline in the population. Our results also indicate surveys from roads are not recommended for pampas deer counts as the animals appear to keep a relatively safe distance from cars.

  5. Costs and benefits of reaching parents for survey participation through school communication systems: testing the potential of a straightforward convenience sample

    OpenAIRE

    Vercruyssen, Anina

    2014-01-01

    Drawing a random sample for surveys from official registers is an expensive and time-consuming procedure in Belgium as in other countries. In order to obtain a sample for a study on work-family life balance amongst working mothers in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), I opted for a promising, economical procedure by first selecting children in schools and day-care facilities. Given the compulsory nature of schooling in Belgium and the widespread use of day-care facilities, this of...

  6. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VIII. CO data and the L(CO3-2)-L(FIR) correlation in the SINGS sample

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Attewell, D; Bendo, G J; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Golding, J; Heesen, V; Irwin, J; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muhle, S; Mortier, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sanchez-Gallego, J R; Sinukoff, E; Shorten, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M; Alexander, D M; Alexander, P; Azimlu, M; Barmby, P; Borys, C; Brar, R; Bridge, C; Brinks, E; Brooks, S; Coppin, K; Cote, S; Cote, P; Courteau, S; Davies, J; Eales, S; Fich, M; Hudson, M; Hughes, D H; Ivison, R J; Knapen, J H; Page, M; Parkin, T J; Pope, A; Rigopoulou, D; Rosolowsky, E; Seaquist, E R; Spekkens, K; Tanvir, N; van der Hulst, J M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Webb, T M; Weferling, B; White, G J

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an HI-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection, and the observing strategy. We also present an atlas and analysis of the CO J=3-2 maps for the 47 galaxies in the NGLS which are also part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We find a wide range of molecular gas mass fractions in the galaxies in this sample and explore the correlation of the far-infrared luminosity, which traces star formation, with the CO luminosity, which traces the molecular gas mass. By comparing the NGLS data with merging galaxies at low and high redshift which have also been observed in the CO J=3-2 line, we show that the correlation of far-infrared and CO luminosity shows a significant trend with luminosity. This trend is consistent with a molecular gas depletion time which is more than an order of magnitude faster in the ...

  7. Comparing Data Characteristics and Results of an Online Factorial Survey between a Population-Based and a Crowdsource-Recruited Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill D. Weinberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared to older kinds of sample surveys, online platforms provide a fast and low-cost platform for factorial surveys, as well as a more demographically diverse alternative to student samples. Two distinct strategies have emerged for recruitment: using panels based on population-based samples versus recruiting people actively seeking to complete online tasks for money. The latter is much cheaper but prompts various concerns about data quality and generalizability. We compare results of three vignette experiments conducted using the leading online panel that uses a population-based paradigm (Knowledge Networks, now GfK and the leading platform for crowdsource recruitment (Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our data show that, while demographic differences exist, most notably in age, the actual results of our experiments are very similar, especially once these demographic differences have been taken into account. Indicators of data quality were actually slightly better among the crowdsource subjects. Although more evidence is plainly needed, our results support the accumulating evidence for the promise of crowdsource recruitment for online experiments, including factorial surveys.

  8. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Data Release 10 and 11 galaxy samples

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Lauren; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Blanton, Michael; Bolton, Adam S; Brinkmann, J; Brownstein, Joel R; Burden, Angela; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J; Dawson, Kyle S; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Escoffier, Stephanie; Gunn, James E; Guo, Hong; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Howlett, Cullan; Kirkby, David; Lupton, Robert H; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K; Mena, Olga; Montesano, Francesco; Nichol, Robert C; Nuza, Sebastian E; Olmstead, Matthew D; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Parejko, John; Percival, Will J; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Reid, Beth; Roe, Natalie A; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Sabiu, Cristiano G; Saito, Shun; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Ariel G; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Donald P; Scoccola, Claudia G; Seo, Hee-Jong; Skibba, Ramin A; Strauss, Michael A; Swanson, Molly E C; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Magana, Mariana Vargas; Verde, Licia; Wake, David A; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weinberg, David H; White, Martin; Xu, Xiaoying; Yeche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-01-01

    We present a one per cent measurement of the cosmic distance scale from the detections of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the clustering of galaxies from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). Our results come from the Data Release 11 (DR11) sample, containing nearly one million galaxies and covering approximately 8500 square degrees and the redshift range $0.2samples. Assuming a concordance $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model, the DR11 sample covers a volume of 13Gpc${}^3$ and is the largest region of the Universe ever surveyed at this density. We measure the correlation function and power spectrum, including density-field reconstruction of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature. The acoustic features are detected at a significance of over $7\\sigma$ in both the correlation function and power spectrum. Fitting for the position of the ...

  9. Statistical Searches for Microlensing Events in Large, Non-Uniformly Sampled Time-Domain Surveys: A Test Using Palomar Transient Factory Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agüeros, Adrian M Price-Whelan Marcel A; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O; Covey, Kevin R; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ R; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its $\\sim$$20,000 \\mathrm{deg}^2$ footprint. While the median $7.26 \\mathrm{deg}^2$ PTF field has been imaged $\\sim$40 times in \\textit{R}-band, $\\sim$$2300 \\mathrm{deg}^2$ have been observed $>$100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade-off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a ...

  10. The Application of Iterative Method to Sample Survey of Multi-Objective Population%迭代方法在多目标总体抽样调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢山

    2005-01-01

    The paper makes suggestion to apply raking methodology to solve the multi-subpopulations problem in the field of sampling design, and introduces the approach in details with the background of the Underscale Industry Sampling Survey.

  11. Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? An analysis of the sample bias of 10 web and face-to-face surveys from Africa, Asia, and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Steinmetz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the sample composition biases of web surveys have been discussed extensively for developed countries, studies for developing countries are scarce. This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys

  12. Assessment of the structural validity of the domestic violence healthcare providers’ survey questionnaire using a Nigerian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Lawoko; Ime Akpan John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: There has been increased advocacy to involve healthcare providers in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) through screening for it in healthcare. Yet, only one in ten providers screen for IPV, suggesting barriers. Understanding the readiness of healthcare providers to screen for IPV is therefore paramount. The Domestic Violence Healthcare Provider Survey Scales (DVHPSS) is a previously validated, comprehensive scale to study readiness of healthcare providers...

  13. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS Survey (SLUGGS): Sample definition, methods, and initial results

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Jean P; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A; Foster, Caroline; Jennings, Zachary G; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C; Spitler, Lee R; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A; Kartha, Sreeja S; Woodley, Kristin A

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SLUGGS (SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin^2 field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR CaII triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ~8 R_e, and to ~15 R_e in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (~2-3 R_e) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial exten...

  14. Incentivising selective fishing under catch quotas: using an FCube modelling approach to evaluate management options for North Sea mixed fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condie, Harriet M.; Dolder, Paul J.; Catchpole, Thomas L.

    Reforms of EU Common Fisheries Policy will make fundamental changes to European fisheries management, including a discard ban with catch quotas for regulated species and management to achieve MSY. We evaluate the impact of these changes on revenue of North Sea demersal finfish fleets and fish...... stocks. With no change in behaviour, revenue is reduced by a mean of 31% compared to current management in the first year, but partly recovers by year 3, as fishing mortality is reduced and stocks increase. There are large differences in revenue changes between fleets, varying from -99% to +36...... in revenue create a strong incentive to avoid catching the limiting species, particularly if it is not a primary target. Selectivity changes that avoid 30% cod catch reduced the economic impact for some fleets in moving to catch quotas. Increased flexibility will therefore be important in maintaining...

  15. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  16. Discussion on budeget quota preparation of municipal engineering%市政工程预算定额的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美玲

    2015-01-01

    Taking the municipal engineering budget quota preparation as the research object,this paper analyzed the engineering budget planning steps,and elaborated the matters needing attention in each section of budget preparation,pointed out that the municipal engineering budget quota preparation was an important basis and guarantee of project cost control.%以市政工程预算定额的编制为研究对象,分析了工程预算编制的步骤,并对预算编制各环节的注意事项进行了阐述,指出市政工程预算定额的编制是项目成本控制的重要依据与保证。

  17. CO 2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO 2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Coussy Paula; Raynal Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Carbon capture technology (and associated storage), applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of captu...

  18. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Derong eDong; Wei eLiu; Huan eLi; Yufei eWang; Xinran eLi; Dayang eZou; Zhan eYang; Simo eHuang; Dongsheng eZhou; Liuyu eHuang; Jing eYuan

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to...

  19. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Derong; Liu, Wei; Li, Huan; Wang, Yufei; Li, Xinran; Zou, Dayang; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniaein clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to ...

  20. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yunmiao Yu; Xiuxian Yang; Yanjie Yang; Lu Chen; Xiaohui Qiu; Zhengxue Qiao; Jiawei Zhou; Hui Pan; Bo Ban; Xiongzhao Zhu; Jincai He; Yongqing Ding; Bing Bai

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adap...