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Sample records for quitting intentions reasons

  1. Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina Mahavera; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Hoe, Victor Cw

    2016-12-01

    The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022-2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement 'Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes' were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045-2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.

  2. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  3. Use of E-Cigarettes Among Current Smokers: Associations Among Reasons for Use, Quit Intentions, and Current Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly D; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Grana, Rachel A; Wilson, Patrick M; Ebbert, Jon O; Okamoto, Janet; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-10-01

    Research has documented growing availability and use of e-cigarettes in the United States over the last decade. We conducted a national panel survey of current adult cigarette smokers to assess attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relating to e-cigarette use in the United States (N = 2,254). Among current cigarette smokers, 20.4% reported current use of e-cigarettes on some days and 3.7% reported daily use. Reported reasons for e-cigarette use included: quit smoking (58.4%), reduce smoking (57.9%), and reduce health risks (51.9%). No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between e-cigarette users and nonusers were observed. Prior quit attempts were reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (82.8%) than nonusers (74.0%). Intention to quit was reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (64.7%) than nonusers (46.8%). Smokers intending to quit were more likely to be e-cigarette users than those not intending to quit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, CI =1.36-2.65). Those who used e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.25-4.05), reduce stress (OR = 3.66, CI = 1.11-12.09), or because they cost less (OR = 3.42, CI = 1.64-7.13) were more likely to report decreases in cigarette smoking than those who did not indicate these reasons. Smokers who reported using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 16.25, CI = 8.32-31.74) or reduce stress (OR = 4.30, CI = 1.32-14.09) were significantly more likely to report an intention to quit than those who did not indicate those reasons for using e-cigarettes. Nearly a quarter of smokers in our study reported e-cigarettes use, primarily motivated by intentions to quit or reduce smoking. These findings identify a clinical and public health opportunity to re-engage smokers in cessation efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Use of E-Cigarettes Among Current Smokers: Associations Among Reasons for Use, Quit Intentions, and Current Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D.; Agunwamba, Amenah A.; Grana, Rachel A.; Wilson, Patrick M.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Okamoto, Janet; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has documented growing availability and use of e-cigarettes in the United States over the last decade. Methods: We conducted a national panel survey of current adult cigarette smokers to assess attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relating to e-cigarette use in the United States (N = 2,254). Results: Among current cigarette smokers, 20.4% reported current use of e-cigarettes on some days and 3.7% reported daily use. Reported reasons for e-cigarette use included: quit smoking (58.4%), reduce smoking (57.9%), and reduce health risks (51.9%). No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between e-cigarette users and nonusers were observed. Prior quit attempts were reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (82.8%) than nonusers (74.0%). Intention to quit was reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (64.7%) than nonusers (46.8%). Smokers intending to quit were more likely to be e-cigarette users than those not intending to quit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, CI =1.36–2.65). Those who used e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.25–4.05), reduce stress (OR = 3.66, CI = 1.11–12.09), or because they cost less (OR = 3.42, CI = 1.64–7.13) were more likely to report decreases in cigarette smoking than those who did not indicate these reasons. Smokers who reported using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 16.25, CI = 8.32–31.74) or reduce stress (OR = 4.30, CI = 1.32–14.09) were significantly more likely to report an intention to quit than those who did not indicate those reasons for using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Nearly a quarter of smokers in our study reported e-cigarettes use, primarily motivated by intentions to quit or reduce smoking. These findings identify a clinical and public health opportunity to re-engage smokers in cessation efforts. PMID:25589678

  5. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  6. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  7. Reasons Why Some Women Quit Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabazadeh, A.

    2002-12-01

    Nearly half of all graduate students majoring in various disciplines of science today are women, yet men still predominate the faculty makeup at most universities and research institutions. This issue was discussed at length last year in the journal Science and also in the Chemical Engineering News (the ACS weekly publication magazine). The question is: why do so many women decide to major in science but not to pursue a career in science? Over the years I have seen highly capable women quit science for two main reasons. First, intimidation that can be very difficult to deal with when someone is just starting a career in science. Thus, I encourage young women to make a sincere effort to surround themselves with colleagues who are both knowledgeable and considerate. Keep in my mind that you have a choice to choose your future collaborators, so make some smart choices early on and throughout your career. Second, is the need to balance the demands of work with those of family life. Personally, I don't believe a tenure system is fair to young women who wish to have children during this appointment. The level of stress can be very high, which prevents women from applying to a position where they are given only a few short years to prove themselves. Also, try not to make a radical decision (i.e. quit science) if you are too stressed. Talk to more senior women in the field to learn how to better deal with your stress. After all a career in science has many ups and downs, and to survive, one needs to balance the good and bad days. In this talk I will address the questions outlined in the announcement as they relate to me. Overall, my advice to young women who are just starting their scientific careers is to celebrate your accomplishments and learn from your mistakes.

  8. Motivation and Reasons to Quit: Predictive Validity among Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey R.; Mermelstein, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives : To examine reasons to quit among adolescents in a smoking cessation program, and whether reasons were associated with subsequent cessation. Methods : Participants were 351 adolescents. At baseline, adolescents reported motivation, reasons to quit, and stage of change for cessation. Quit status was assessed at end of treatment. Results…

  9. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecia Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in HEIs. Motivation for the study: Higher education institutions are more dependent on the abilities and commitment of their staff than most other organisations. More than 4000 academics will retire and need to be replaced by 2018, providing justification for the study of intention to quit of academics. Research design, approach and method: An ex post facto quantitative research design was followed. Academics at six HEIs in South Africa were sampled. Measurement instruments included abridged versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Arnold and Feldman Intention to Quit Scale, Job Descriptive Scale and Chew’s reward scale. Main findings: Employee engagement, job satisfaction, remuneration, reward, recognition and transformational leadership were significantly related to intention to quit. In the partial model, three of these variables explained 45% of the variance in intention to quit. Partial least square path modelling revealed that employee engagement and job satisfaction have significant negative impacts on intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: The findings serve as input for the development of efficacious strategies to retain Generation Y academics at HEIs in South Africa. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to our knowledge of intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics. It provides evidence of the complexity and inter-relatedness of variables in the phenomenological network of intention to quit.

  10. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Evaluation of factors influencing intention to quit smokeless and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smokeless and cigarette tobacco use is becoming increasingly popular among Nigerian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of intention to quit tobacco use among adolescents that currently use tobacco products in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 536 male and female high school ...

  13. Perceived Job Insecurity, Job Satisfaction And Intention To Quit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationships between perceived job insecurity, job satisfaction and intention to quit among employees of selected banks in Nigeria. A total of two hundred and nine (n = 209) randomly selected employees of Guaranty Trust Bank, Oceanic International Bank, Zenith Bank, First Bank of Nigeria, Union ...

  14. Work-Related Stress, Quitting Intentions and Absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Leontaridi, Rannia M.; Ward, Melanie E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper uses data from the International Social Surveys Program (ISSP) to investigate work-related stress among a group of 15 OECD countries. It examines the determinants of work-related stress and explores the importance of work-related stress as a predictor of individuals' quitting behaviour and the rate of absenteeism. We find that those individuals reporting to experience at least some stress in their current position are 10 - 14 % more likely to hold intentions to quit or be absent fro...

  15. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  16. Incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity in terms of motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, and barriers to quitting among community-recruited daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Miller, Marcel O Bonn; Bernstein, Amit; Yartz, Andrew R; Gregor, Kristin L; McLeish, Alison C; Marshall, Erin C; Gibson, Laura E

    2007-09-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and motivation to quit smoking, barriers to smoking cessation, and reasons for quitting smoking among 329 adult daily smokers (160 females; M (age) = 26.08 years, SD = 10.92). As expected, after covarying for the theoretically relevant variables of negative affectivity, gender, Axis I psychopathology, nonclinical panic attack history, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and current levels of alcohol consumption, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally related to level of motivation to quit smoking as well as current barriers to quitting smoking. Partially consistent with the hypotheses, after accounting for the variance explained by other theoretically relevant variables, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly associated with self-control reasons for quitting smoking (intrinsic factors) as well as immediate reinforcement and social influence reasons for quitting (extrinsic factors). Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of anxiety sensitivity in psychological processes associated with smoking cessation.

  17. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  18. Teachers’ occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Korpershoek, Hanke; Wang, Hui; Morin, Alexandre J.S.

    Little is known about the determinants of teachers' psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. In this paper, teachers' occupational attributes (i.e. professional and personal characteristics) were investigated as determinants. Henceforth, the

  19. Impact of nurses' perceptions of work environment and communication satisfaction on their intention to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Özlem; Şantaş, Fatih; Şantaş, Gülcan; Şahin, Deniz Say

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association of nurses' perception of their work environment and communication satisfaction with their intention to quit. The implementation part of the study was conducted with nurses working in a public hospital in the city of Burdur, Turkey. Data were collected in January 2017 from 175 participants and then assessed. The analysis showed that perceptions of the work environment and communication satisfaction taken together explain the total variance of the intention to quit. While participants' perceptions of the work environment become increasingly positive, their communication satisfaction increases and their intention to quit decreases. The findings of this study suggest that making improvements to the nursing work environment and nurses' communication satisfaction will decrease their intention to quit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Intention to quit betel quid: a comparison of betel quid chewers and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the global significance of betel quid chewing and the associated health risks, there have been no studies assessing chewers' intention to quit. Given the difficulties associated with quitting betel quid and the serious health consequences of chewing, it is important for researchers to develop interventions aimed at helping chewers quit. Betel quid chewers experience similar patterns of dependence and withdrawal symptoms as tobacco smokers, and the use of both substances causes serious adverse health effects. Therefore, it is possible that intention to quit betel quid and tobacco would also be similar. If similarities were found, researchers could look to existing tobacco cessation interventions to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. In the current study we sought to understand chewers' intention to quit and how it compares to smokers' intention to quit cigarettes. A total of 351 adult betel quid chewers from Guam were compared against 1,555 adult tobacco users from Hawaii. These comparisons were made possible because of the deliberate use of identical questionnaire items (mutatis mutandis) for betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking. Smokers reported higher levels of wanting to quit, intending to quit, and wishing they have never started in the first place compared to chewers (p'sbetel quid cessation interventions.

  1. Do commitment based human resource practices influence job embeddedness and intention to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper provides evidence that commitment based human resource practices (CBHRP influence employees' turnover intentions by embedding newcomers more extensively into organisations. The study was conducted with 501 managers in 19 financial service organisations in India. Results reveal that CBHRP enable organisations to actively embed employees. The results also indicate that on-the-job embeddedness (on-the-JE is negatively related to turnover intentions and mediates relationships between CBHRP and employees' intention to quit.

  2. Where To Go? Workers' Reasons to Quit and Intra- versus Interindustry Job Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper employs survey data on the reasons to quit of Dutch job changers who entered or left a public sector job in 2001. We show that workers' reasons to quit their public sector job influence their decision to stay in or leave their industry of employment. A bad experience with, for

  3. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  4. Interactions Among Psychological Capital, Performance, Intention to Quit and Job Satisfaction: Moderating Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Çetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the psychological capital on job satisfaction, job performance and intention to quit and to determine the mediator and moderator roles of job satisfaction and gender in these relations. Focusing just the relations between variables, the data were collected with using survey method from 237 employees working different positions in a large scale private company in Ankara. The instruments were psychological capital scale (Luthans et al, 2007, job satisfaction scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1975, intention to quit scale (Mobley et al, 1978 and job performance ratings. Results showed that psychological capital has positive relations with job satisfaction and job performance, and negative relations with intention to quit; also job satisfaction has a mediator role in the relations between psychological capital and intention to quit. Moreover it was determined that gender has a moderator role in the relations of psychological capital- job satisfaction, and psychological capital-intention to quit. All these results were discussed in the light of previous findings.

  5. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  6. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  7. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses' demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses' job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses' job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  8. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service. PMID:27168960

  9. Factors associated with intent to quit tobacco use in Cyprus adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Elena Charis G; Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kinnunen, Taru; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors associated with adolescent smokers' desire to quit based on the 2006 Cyprus Global Youth Tobacco Survey. A cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from all registered middle and high schools in Cyprus with >40 students in academic year 2005-2006. Multivariable logistic regression was used taking into account the weight associated with each of the respondents. Out of the total sample with available information (N=12,629), 1591 students were current smokers (weighted frequency=14%) and were included in the analysis, with 734 (46.1%) of them reporting that they want to quit smoking. In both males and females, strong predictors of intention to quit smoking include past quit attempts and physical activity. Intention to quit is also associated with the belief that smoking is harmful to them and inversely associated with having peers who smoke, in boys, and the belief that smoking is harmful to others and perceiving smokers as less attractive, and inversely associated with pocket money, in girls. The present study has identified factors that appear to influence youth's intention to quit tobacco, which is of major importance in developing successful tobacco cessation programs targeting adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring socio-contextual factors associated with male smoker’s intention to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker’s intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Results Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–6.82. In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11–5.10. Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07–3.46. Conclusions A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.

  11. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  12. Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive

  13. Job Insecurity As Moderating Employee Engagement Toward Intention To Quit At Goverment Bank In Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Rusyandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the importance of employee engagement and its relationship to employee intent to quit witch moderated by job insecurity on employees frontline state bank in Bandung City Indonesia. The method used is explanatory survey method that this study took a sample of the population with a questionnaire and interview techniques as the primary means of data collection. The subjects of the study were also as the unit of analysis in this study is the frontline employees teller and customer service that serve the general customers where the position is vulnerable to employee turnover whereas they are the spearhead or the forefront frontline that connects to the customers bank the customer . A randomly selected sample of 4 bank was used in this study. A total of 270 respondents participated. Data were analyzed using Smart PLS 2.0. The linear regression analysis indicated there was a significant strong and negative linear relationship between employee engagement level and employee intent to quit rate. The results of this research promote employee engagement is a significant negative effect amounted 4142 of the intention to quit while the variable job insecurity is not proven significantly. The conclusion from this study is that the employe engagement give significant influence on the intention to quit and variable job insecurity is not a variable moderation.

  14. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Burnout, Rejuvenation Strategies, Job Satisfaction, and Quitting Intentions in Childcare Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie L.; Kuhn, Ann Pulling; Durr, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Guided by affective events theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the temporal aspects of childcare teacher burnout, particularly as to how feelings of exhaustion throughout the day relate to perceptions of end-of-day job satisfaction and quitting intentions. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the frequency and type of…

  15. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  16. Employee perceptions of management relations as influences on job satisfaction and quit intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, S.; Sanders, Karin; Bednall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use a relational approach to investigate how employee perceptions of their relationships with three types of managers—senior, line, and human resource managers—are related to employees’ job satisfaction and intention to quit. Based on an employee survey (n = 1,533), and manager

  17. Exploration of the Affecting Factors on the Quit Intentions of Online-Game Players in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online-games are products of hedonic information technology. Players’ addiction will lead to seriously negative consequences. That how to prevent online-game addiction exclusively becomes a problem concerned by whole society. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence factors and its mechanism that can weaken or even eliminate online-game addiction. On the basis of the theory of planned behaviour, anticipated guilt and past behaviour are introduced into the model to explain players’ quit intention of online-game. Data collected from 393 online-game players around China mainland indicate that negative attitude, negative-subjective norm and perceived behavioural control significantly affect the quit intention of online-game players, while the anticipated guilt plays a mediator role. Past behaviour can moderate the relations between the anticipated guilt and the quit intention of online-game players. The more the past game behaviour the player owns, the stronger the positive effects of anticipated guilt on game quit intention he/she will harbor. Conclusions are helpful to the intervention of player’s game behaviour and strengthen the self-control ability of players.

  18. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Persistence and amplitude of cigarette demand in relation to quit intentions and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Heckman, Bryan W; Adkison, Sarah E; Rees, Vaughan W; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Bickel, Warren K; Cummings, K Michael

    2016-06-01

    The cigarette purchase task (CPT) is a method that can be used to assess the relative value of cigarettes. Based on cigarettes purchased across a price range, five derived metrics (Omax, Pmax, breakpoint, intensity, and elasticity) can assess cigarette demand. A study with adolescent smokers found that these could be reduced to two latent factors: persistence (price insensitivity) and amplitude (volumetric consumption). We sought to replicate this structure with adult smokers and examine how these variables relate to cessation efforts. Web-based survey conducted in 2014 among adult (18 years and above) current daily cigarette smokers (N = 1194). Participants completed the CPT, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), reported past-year quit attempts, and future quit intentions. We included published scales assessing perceived prevalence of smoking, social reactivity, smoker identity, and risk perception. Our analysis supported two latent variables, persistence and amplitude, which correlated positively with FTND. Persistence was correlated with several psychosocial factors and was higher among those intending to quit very soon, but did not vary by number of past-year quit attempts. Amplitude differed across quit attempts and intention (p intention (OR = 0.76, p = 0.001). Persistence and amplitude factors characterized CPT data in adults, discriminated known groups (e.g., smokers by intentions to quit), and were positively associated with nicotine dependence. Factor scores also appear to relate to certain psychosocial factors, such as smoker identity and perceptions of risk. Future research should examine the predictive validity of these constructs.

  20. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  1. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  2. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  3. Psychosocial risks, burnout and intention to quit following the introduction of new software at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knani, Mouna; Fournier, Pierre-Sébastien; Biron, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Despite a rich literature on association between psychosocial factors, the demand-control-support (DCS) model and burnout, there are few integrated frameworks encompassing the DCS model, burnout and intention to quit, particularly in a technological context. This manuscript examines the relationships between psychosocial risks, the demand-control-support (DCS) model, burnout syndrome and intention to quit following the introduction of new software at work. Data was collected from agents and advisors working at a Canadian university and using newstudy management software. An online questionnaire was sent via the university's internal mail. Finally, 112 people completed the online survey for a response rate of 60.9% . The results of structural equation modeling show that psychological demands, decision latitude and social support are associated with burnout. It is also clear that burnout, in particular depersonalization and emotional exhaustion, is positively associated with intention to quit. The few studies that raise the negative consequences of technology on quality of life in the workplace, and particularly on health, have not succeeded in establishing a direct link between a deterioration of health and the use of technology. This is due to the fact that there are few epidemiological studies on the direct consequences of the use of ITC on health.

  4. Intention to quit and the role of dark personality and perceived organizational support: A moderation and mediation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkov, Katarina; Zarola, Anthony; Furnham, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of individual differences (dark personality) and situational factors (perceived organisational support) in explaining intention to quit. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 of which females) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires (Hogan Development Survey; Perceived Organisational Support Survey; and a single item Intention to Quit measure) as a part of a selection and development assessment. Employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, and Mischievous, but low on Colourful were found to have greater intentions to quit. Additionally, employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, Reserved, and Leisurely, but low on Dutiful and Diligent had lower perceptions of organisational support. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived organisational support plays both a mediating and moderating role on dark personality and intention to quit. Theoretical implications of personality’s role in perceived organisational support and intention to quit are discussed. PMID:29596532

  5. Intention to quit and the role of dark personality and perceived organizational support: A moderation and mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglown, Luke; Zivkov, Katarina; Zarola, Anthony; Furnham, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of individual differences (dark personality) and situational factors (perceived organisational support) in explaining intention to quit. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 of which females) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires (Hogan Development Survey; Perceived Organisational Support Survey; and a single item Intention to Quit measure) as a part of a selection and development assessment. Employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, and Mischievous, but low on Colourful were found to have greater intentions to quit. Additionally, employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, Reserved, and Leisurely, but low on Dutiful and Diligent had lower perceptions of organisational support. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived organisational support plays both a mediating and moderating role on dark personality and intention to quit. Theoretical implications of personality's role in perceived organisational support and intention to quit are discussed.

  6. The relationships between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate, team commitment and intention to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Munyaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit. Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample. Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector. Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling. Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving

  7. Team Reasoning and Intentional Cooperation for Mutual Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Sugden Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit. This concept uses a form of team reasoning in which team members aim to achieve common interests, rather than maximising a common utility function, and in which team reasoners can coordinate their behaviour by following pre-existing practices. I argue that a market transaction can express intentions for mutually beneficial cooperation even if, extensionally, participation in the transaction promotes each party’s self...

  8. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  9. The impact of individual and organizational resources on nurse outcomes and intent to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Rodwell, John; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Demir, Defne

    2016-12-01

    To examine the impact of an individual resource factor (psychological capital) and an organizational resource (management support) on nurses' intentions to quit. Nursing work can be stressful and as a consequence, nurses suffer greater stress and stress-related sickness, including depression, than the general population. Stress can be mitigated in the workplace depending on the availability of resources in the workplace. Resources can come from the organization or the individual themselves. The study is quantitative using a cross-sectional design. The study analysed data from 242 nurses working in five Australian hospitals in the one regional network during 2013. The predictors explained almost half of the variance of nurses' intent to quit. Psychological capital had the dual benefits of reducing nurses' perceptions of psychological distress and simultaneously increasing their job satisfaction. Psychological capital is an example of the personal resources a nurse brings to work. Nurse managers can now understand the impact of a new form of protective resources that influence the levels of strain felt by nurses. If nurses present with low psychological capital, then up-skilling nurses with these personal attributes will positively impact on their health and well-being and, in turn, enhance the care of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  11. The role of support antecedents in nurses' intentions to quit: the case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacklock, Kate; Brunetto, Yvonne; Teo, Stephen; Farr-Wharton, Rod

    2014-04-01

    The study used Social Exchange Theory as a lens to examine associations between nurses' support antecedents (supervisor-nurse relationships and perceived organizational support) and their job attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and engagement). Similar to many other westernized countries, there is a shortage of nurses working as nurses in Australia. The attrition of nurses from the workplace continues to be a challenge for many countries, with resultant calls for improved retention rates. The design employed in this study was a Survey. A self-report survey of 1600 nurses employed in five private sector hospitals throughout Australia was completed during 2010-2011, resulting in 510 completed surveys. A mediation path model was developed to test the hypotheses and results of Partial Least Squares analysis showed that both support antecedents (supervisor-nurse relationships and perceived organizational support) positively led to engagement and job satisfaction. Subsequently, nurses more satisfied with their jobs were also more committed to their organizations, ultimately leading to lower intentions to quit. In addition, job satisfaction was found to mediate the relationships between organizational commitment and turnover intentions, plus between supervisor-subordinate relationships and turnover intentions. In the context of a shortage of nurses and higher than average turnover rates, the findings suggest that it is important to improve nurses' job satisfaction and organizational commitment to improve retention. However, the findings also suggest that workplace relationships and organizational management are currently far from ideal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marjolein; van den Putte, Bas

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two separate waves from current cigarette smokers with varying levels of nicotine dependence (N=151). In the second wave, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, participants read a smoking cessation message which emphasized the benefits of quitting (positive frame). In the second group participants read a message which emphasized the costs of not quitting (negative frame). Results show that smokers' intentions to quit smoking and their level of nicotine dependence jointly influence the persuasiveness of positive and negative message frames. When nicotine dependence and quitting intention are both high, a negative frame works best. Conversely, a positive frame is preferable when nicotine dependence or quitting intention is low. Smokers' level of processing is proposed as the underlying mechanism explaining the different effects of message frames.

  13. Loving and Leaving Public Health: Predictors of Intentions to Quit Among State Health Agency Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    State health agencies play a critical role in protecting and promoting the health and well-being of the people they serve. To be effective, they must maintain a highly skilled, diverse workforce of sufficient size and with proper training. The goal of this study was to examine demographics, job and workplace environment characteristics, job satisfaction, and reasons for initially joining the public health workforce as predictors of an employee's intentions to leave an organization within the next year. This study used a cross-sectional design. Respondents were selected on the basis of a stratified sampling approach, with 5 geographic (paired Health and Human Services [HHS] regions) as the primary strata. Balanced repeated replication was used as a resampling method for variance estimation. A logistic regression model was used to examine the correlates of intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. The independent variables included several measures of satisfaction, perceptions about the workplace environment, initial reasons for joining public health, gender, age, education, salary, supervisory status, program area, and paired HHS region. The sample for this study consisted of 10,246 permanently employed state health agency central office employees who responded to the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Considering leaving one's organization within the next year. Being a person of color, living in the West (HHS regions 9 and 10), and shorter tenure in one's current position were all associated with higher odds of intentions to leave an organization within the next year. Conversely, greater employee engagement, organizational support, job satisfaction, organization satisfaction, and pay satisfaction were all significant predictors of lower intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. Results from this study suggest several variables related to demographics, job characteristics, workplace environment, and

  14. Exercise Facilitates Smoking Cessation Indirectly via Intention to Quit Smoking: Prospective Cohort Study Among a National Sample of Young Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the specific association between exercise and smoking cessation via smoking-mediated intentions to quit smoking among a national sample of young daily smokers in the United States. Prospective cohort study over a 2-year period, with daily smokers assessed across all 50 states in the United States. Data from the 2003 to 2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used. A total of 1175 young adult smokers aged between 18 and 24 years. Baseline exercise and intent to quit smoking were assessed via validated survey measures. Smoking status at the 2-year follow-up period was assessed via survey assessment. After adjustments, meeting exercise guidelines at baseline was associated with an increased baseline intent to quit smoking among this national sample of daily smokers (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.07; P = .01). After adjustments, those with a baseline intent to quit smoking had a 71% increased odds ratio (OR) of being a nonsmoker at the 2-year follow-up (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20-2.44; P = .003). Baseline exercise was not associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60-1.28; P = .50). In this nationally representative sample of young daily smokers, there was a positive association between exercise participation and intention to quit smoking. Baseline intent to quit smoking was independently associated with nonsmoking status at a 2-year follow-up. Thus, this indirect link between exercise and smoking status may be partially explained by the influence of exercise engagement on smoking-specific intentions.

  15. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were "noticing warning labels during last month," "reading or looking closely at warning labels," "avoiding looking at labels during last month," "thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, "more likely to quit because of the warning labels," and "stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels." A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. The responses "more likely to quit because of the warning labels" and "stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one" significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries.

  16. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  17. A study of role stress, organizational commitment and intention to quit among male nurses in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Dai, Hung-Da

    2007-03-01

    Gender and sex role stereotyping are recognized as having the potential to limit the professional development of males within the nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationships between demographic data and the dimensions of role stress, organizational commitment, and intentions to quit among male nurses in southern Taiwan. Research also investigated the correlations with three dependent variables and identified best predictors of male nurse intentions to quit the nursing profession. A total of 91 male nurses volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional research. Research results were based on data collected from questionnaires sent by mail to participants. A total of 76 valid questionnaires were returned and used in analysis (response rate = 83.5%). Findings pointed to patients, colleagues and society as the major sources of role stress for male nurses. These sources of stress, and the resultant intention to quit on the part of male nurses, are due in significant part to the widespread stereotyping of the profession of nursing as a "woman's occupation". Such stress pressures male nurses to consider quitting to take jobs in other professional fields. Role stress is correlated to intention to quit among male nurses. Role stress and years of service are highly relevant predictors of male nurse intention to quit and leave the nursing profession, explaining 33.8% of variability. We suggest that at various levels of education and society, promotion of male and female equality should be increased. There is also a need for psychological consultation as well as the promotion of male nurse role models to prevent male nurses turning away from nursing careers.

  18. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  19. Predictors of Registered Nurses' Intention To Quit: Implications for the Management of Health Care Human Resources in North Dakota Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyan, Abdullah; And Others

    Turnover rates for nurses are among the highest for all professional employees. This study investigated the potential predictors of registered nurses' intention to quit. Survey questionnaires were mailed to a population of 779 registered nurses from two hospitals in North Dakota. Approximately 4 weeks later, usable responses were received from 353…

  20. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  1. QUALITY OF NURSING WORK LIFE IMPROVEMENT MODEL TO DECREASE NURSE INTENTION TO QUIT IN PREMIER SURABAYA HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jany Prihastuty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of Nursing Work Life (QNWL is a thing that needs attention by human resource management approach. The purpose of this research was to provide develop model to increase QNWL in order to lower nurse’s intention to quit the Premier Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Design used in the structure was explanatory research. The independent variables was Internal factors (Individual factors, social and environment conceptual factors, operational factors, administrative factors where as the dependent variable from this study was intention to quit, and moderator variables QNWL random sampling technique. Total sample was 160 nurses, taken according to inclusion criteria. The research was conducted in Premier Hospital Surabaya from October 2012 - July 2013. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Data were then analyzed by using multiple linear regression test with level of significance of ≤ 0.05. Result: The results showed, QNWL was influenced by relationships inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors, supervision monitoring part of variabel operational factors, career development part of variabel administrative factors. Intention to quit influenced by relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors and salaries and benefits part of variabel administrative factors with significant value p = 0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded good inter-professional relation, supervision monitoring, and good career development affected QNWL. Good relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter- professional led to lower intention to quit. Low salary and benefits led nurse’s intention to quit getting stronger.

  2. Sources of motivation for abstinence: a replication analysis of the reasons for quitting questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, L; Rosengren, D B; Donovan, D M

    2001-01-01

    The Reasons for Quitting Questionnaire (RFQ) as modified by McBride and colleagues (C. M. McBride et al., 1994) for use with substance users other than tobacco smokers, was administered to individuals approved for public-sector addiction treatment. Four motivation dimensions, similar to those found by McBride et al., were identified: self-concept issues, health concerns, legal issues, and social influence. A forced two-component solution yielded dimensions interpretable as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Self-concept issues provided the highest levels of motivation for abstinence in this sample, with moderate levels provided by health concerns, and the lowest levels provided by legal and social influence components. Intrinsic motivation was higher than extrinsic motivation. Logistic regression models, with adjustment for total motivation, tested the association of successful abstinence during a follow-up period with baseline extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and with the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic levels. All three associations were significant: intrinsic motivation (positive association), extrinsic motivation (negative association), and the difference score (positive association). The results suggest the usefulness of the 20-item modified RFQ in evaluating motivation for abstinence among treatment seekers exhibiting severe negative consequences of addiction. Testing with samples varying in severity of addiction consequences is recommended.

  3. [The effect of perceived work and organizational chracteristics on psychological distress and intention to quit of information technology professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The information technology (IT) and service industry in Japan is known to have many work-related stressors, and requires more effective stress reduction to control an elevated turnover rate and adverse health effects. However, little research has been performed using either individual or organizational outcomes (e.g., psychological distress and intention to quit) to determine micro and macro-level stressors on information technology (IT) professionals. This study aimed to examine the effect of perceived work and organizational characteristics (PWOC) as micro and macro-level stressors on psychological distress and intention to quit, controlling for profitability of the organization and individual characteristics on IT professionals in Japan. We conducted a web-based questionnaire at fifty-three Japanese IT-related companies. From May to June of 2003, ten to thirty people from each company, who were chosen according to quota method indicators through the labor unions, voluntarily participated in this study. Participants accessed our webpage, which was designed with a self-administrated questionnaire and was accessible by password. The data they entered were sent to our database automatically. The questionnaire consisted of items concerning socio-demographic status; office size; employment characteristics; work hour characteristics; profitability of the organization; a novel 29-item scale (PWOC); as well as individual characteristics. The response rate was 66% (n = 1049). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed data on an IT engineers' group separately (n = 871). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that each model explained 23% and 26% of the variance in psychological distress and intention to quit, respectively. PWOC sub-scales, which are related to macro-level stressors (e.g., undeveloped management systems and career and future ambiguity), affect not only psychological distress but also intention to quit. Objective data of macro-level stressors such

  4. The applicability of the theory of planned behavior to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S C; Lanese, R R

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces was conducted. Subjects were randomly selected from three workplaces in southern Taiwan. Those from a large public steel-manufacturing company were used for model building, and those from two private auto-parts-manufacturing companies served to cross-validate the model. Eligible subjects were divided into three study samples: a learning sample and two test samples. Three predictors--priority of quitting, past behavior (measured as previous quit attempt), and habit (measured as nicotine dependence)--were added to the TPB model. The results of this study show that TPB based on the learning sample fit well in another sample from the same workplace but poorly in other workplaces. When priority of quitting and past behavior were added to the TPB model, prediction to other workplaces significantly improved. Habit had no significant contribution to the intention to quit in the TPB model. Detailed discussions of the results are provided.

  5. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  6. Inductive reasoning and the understanding of intention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2003-08-01

    The study explored the relationship between the understanding of intention in veiled speech acts and the ability to reason inductively. A total of 39 people with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia with no behavioural signs and 44 healthy participants performed the Hinting Task, a measure of pragmatic language in which the speaker's intention must be inferred, and a measure of inductive reasoning (Aha! Sentences) in which the meaning of ambiguous nonsocial sentences had to be inferred. The participants also completed measures of general intellectual ability, immediate memory for narrative and social problem-solving ability. A substantial correlation was found between performance on the inductive reasoning task and the Hinting Task in the sample of people with schizophrenia. The same relationship was not seen in the normal control sample. The robust relationship between these two measures in this sample survived when the roles of immediate memory for narrative and intellectual ability were controlled for. Furthermore, the relationship was distinctly more compelling for the patients who were currently ill compared to those in remission. These data suggest that people with schizophrenia use a different strategy to infer the meaning behind pragmatic language than that used by normally functioning adults. It is suggested that a reliance on different, possibly less specialised, skills in this group to perform this simple social inference task underlies their deficient performance on this and other measures of social inference. The fact that the relationship between the tasks in patients in remission is not as robust implies that the use of specialised skills to perform social inference tasks may be compromised most significantly during acute phases.

  7. Functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs among Thai healthcare workers in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital: its association with intention to quit tobacco and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Jiraniramai, Surin; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Jakkaew, Nalinee; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual health beliefs are likely to play a key role in how people respond to knowledge and information about the potential harm from smoking and alcohol abuse. The objectives of the study were to 1) explore whether functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs were associated with intention to quit smoking and confidence to quit smoking and 2) explore whether functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs were associated with intention to quit alcohol drinking and confidence t...

  8. I am quitting my job. Specialist nurses in perioperative context and their experiences of the process and reasons to quit their job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögde, Ann; Rudolfsson, Gudrun; Broberg, Roma Runesson; Rask-Andersen, Anna; Wålinder, Robert; Arakelian, Erebouni

    2018-05-01

    The lack of specialist nurses in operating theatres is a serious problem. The aim of this study was to describe reasons why specialist nurses in perioperative care chose to leave their workplaces and to describe the process from the thought to the decision. Twenty specialist nurses (i.e. anaesthesia, NA, and operating room nurses) from seven university- and county hospitals in Sweden participated in qualitative individual in-depth interviews. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation. We identified four themes of reasons why specialist nurses quitted their jobs: the head nurses' betrayal and dismissive attitude, and not feeling needed; inhumane working conditions leading to the negative health effects; not being free to decide about one's life and family life being more important than work; and, colleagues' diminishing behaviour. Leaving one's job was described as a process and specialist nurses had thought about it for some time. Two main reasons were described; the head nurse manager's dismissive attitude and treatment of their employees and colleagues' mistreatment and colleagues' diminishing behaviour. Increasing knowledge on the role of the head nurse managers in specialist nurses' decision making for leaving their workplace, and creating a friendly, non-violent workplace, may give the opportunity for them to take action before it is too late.

  9. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  10. Functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs among Thai healthcare workers in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital: its association with intention to quit tobacco and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiraniramai, Surin; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Jakkaew, Nalinee; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-07-12

    Individual health beliefs are likely to play a key role in how people respond to knowledge and information about the potential harm from smoking and alcohol abuse. The objectives of the study were to 1) explore whether functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs were associated with intention to quit smoking and confidence to quit smoking and 2) explore whether functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs were associated with intention to quit alcohol drinking and confidence to quit alcohol drinking. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among health care workers working in Thailand. Using predicted factor scores from factor analysis, the relationship between factor scores for each of the two beliefs and intention to quit and confidence to quit were tested using ANOVA and further adjusted for age and sex using linear regression. Functional beliefs were inversely associated with the intention to quit and confidence to quit smoking. Both functional beliefs and risk minimizing beliefs were each inversely associated with the intention to quit and confidence to quit alcohol drinking. Our study enhances the understanding of the complexities of health beliefs regarding these two commonly abused substances. As functional beliefs were associated with smoking and alcohol use, interventions to counter the cultural values and individual beliefs about the benefits of smoking and alcohol use are needed. Tackling risk minimizing beliefs by providing individualized feedback regarding harm may also be useful in alcohol drinkers.

  11. Employees' psychological capital, job satisfaction, insecurity, and intentions to quit: The direct and indirect effects of authentic leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeniyi Samuel Olaniyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of an authentic leader on employees' psychological capital (PsyCap, job satisfaction, job insecurity, and intentions to quit the organisation, mediation analyses, as well as a conditional process analyses, were conducted using data collected from an offshore organisation. Findings showed that employees who perceived their leader as being authentic reported more job satisfaction and less job insecurity and intentions to quit the organisations. Moreover, results also showed an indirect effect of authentic leadership through PsyCap. Finally, the influence of the captains' authenticity did not vary depending on whether or not the captain was the employees' immediate superior. Results from this study suggest that efforts should be made to focus on the components of an authentic leader during recruitment, training, or intervention. Conclusively, employees working in the marine/offshore sector are faced with persistent fluctuations and uncertainties, and having an authentic leader will promote job satisfaction, while reducing both job insecurities and turnover intentions among employees.

  12. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7%...

  13. The effects of midwives' job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Dominique; Fournier, Pierre; Philibert, Aline; Mbengue, Betty; Dumont, Alexandre

    2012-04-30

    Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Despite nearly two thirds (58.9%) of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training), only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years). Departures were largely voluntary (92%) and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their "remuneration" and "work environment" and most satisfied with the "morale" and "job security" facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0%) and depersonalization (57.8%) were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%). Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%). Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with "remuneration" and "task" satisfaction, actively job

  14. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9%) of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training), only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years). Departures were largely voluntary (92%) and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0%) and depersonalization (57.8%) were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%). Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%). Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with

  15. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9% of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training, only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years. Departures were largely voluntary (92% and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0% and depersonalization (57.8% were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%. Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%. Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely

  16. Reasons and Motivations for Cigarette Smoking and Barriers against Quitting Among a Sample of Young People in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Bakarman, Marwan A; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Khabaz, Mohamad N; Ahmed, Tahir J; Qureshi, Imtiaz A; Hussain, Muhammad B; Alzahrani, Ali H; AlShehri, Ali A; Basendwah, Mohammad A; Altherwi, Fahd B; AlShehri, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Tobacco consumption has grave negative consequences for health so that it is important to understand the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking among the young generation for developing effective policies to control this widespread problem. This crosssectional survey was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 438 young smokers participated from the University and the general population. Data were collected through anonymous, selfadministered questionnaires in the Arabic language that contained questions about the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking. The questionnaire also contained several questions regarding knowledge and attitude of the participants towards cigarette smoking. The data was analyzed on SPSS16. The mean age of the respondents was 22.9±3.48, out of 438 subjects 87 (19.9%) were married, and 351 (80.1%) were unmarried, and 331 (75.6%) belonged to urban areas while 107 (24.5%) were from the rural areas. Responding to a question about a number of cigarettes smoked per day, 31% answered 1120, 29% answered 2130, and 25% answered 110. Questioned about smokers in the family, 34.5% responded more than one, with 19% for brother and 13% for father. About the reasons for not quitting smoking, 26% described lack of willpower, 25% had no reason, 22% said that people around me smoke, and 15.3% responded stress at home/work. The major motivation for smokers was smoker friends (42%), for 33.8% others, for 12% father/brother and 7.8% media. There are several avoidable and preventable reasons and barriers against quitting smoking. However, knowledge and attitude about smoking were good, and the majority of the smokers were well aware of the associated hazards. Therefore, there is a need to search out ways and means to help them to

  17. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  18. Reasons for quitting: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation in a population-based sample of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S J; Grothaus, L; McBride, C

    1997-01-01

    An intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation is extended to a population-based sample of smokers (N = 1,137), using a previously validated Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Psychometric evaluation of the RFQ replicated the model that includes health concerns and self-control as intrinsic motivation dimensions and immediate reinforcement and social influence as extrinsic motivation dimensions. Compared to volunteers, the population-based sample of smokers reported equivalent health concerns, lower self-control, and higher social influence motivation for cessation. Within the population-based sample, women compared to men were less motivated to quit by health concerns and more motivated by immediate reinforcement; smokers above age 55 expressed lower health concerns and higher self-control motivation than smokers below age 55. Higher baseline levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation were associated with more advanced stages of readiness to quit smoking and successful smoking cessation at a 12-month follow-up. Among continuing smokers, improvement in stage of readiness to quit over time was associated with significant increases in health concerns and self-control motivation.

  19. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  20. Increasing tobacco quitline calls from pregnant african american women: the "one tiny reason to quit" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, May G; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L; Garland, Sheryl L; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but "quitlines" are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality.

  1. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  2. Nurses' intention to leave: critically analyse the theory of reasoned action and organizational commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    To systematically analyse the Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action and determine concepts that can better explain nurses' intention to leave their job. The Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action have been proposed and applied to understand intention to leave and turnover behaviour, which are major contributors to nursing shortage. However, the appropriateness of applying these two models in nursing was not analysed. Three main criteria of a useful model were used for the analysis: consistency in the use of concepts, testability and predictability. Both theories use concepts consistently. Concepts in the Theory of Reasoned Action are defined broadly whereas they are operationally defined in the Organizational Commitment model. Predictability of the Theory of Reasoned Action is questionable whereas the Organizational Commitment model can be applied to predict intention to leave. A model was proposed based on this analysis. Organizational commitment, intention to leave, work experiences, job characteristics and personal characteristics can be concepts for predicting nurses' intention to leave. Nursing managers may consider nurses' personal characteristics and experiences to increase their organizational commitment and enhance their intention to stay. Empirical studies are needed to test and cross-validate the re-synthesized model for nurses' intention to leave their job.

  3. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo B. Mahlaola

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of and reasons for confidentiality breaches by PACS users in a South African context. Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 115 health professionals employed in a private hospital setting, including its radiology department and a second independent radiology department. The questionnaire sought to explore the attitudes of participants towards confidentiality breeches and reasons for suchbehaviour. Results: Breach incidences were expressed as percentage compliance and classified according to the nature and reasons provided by Sarkar's breach classification. Cross tabulations indicated a statistical significance (p < 0.00 between the expected and observed confidentiality practices of participants and also the adequacy of training, system knowledge and policy awareness. Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  4. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  5. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  6. Engaging Élitism: The Mediating Effect of Work Engagement on Affective Commitment and Quit Intentions in Two Australian University Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Justine L.; Morris, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Some universities rely on their élitism as one mechanism to attract and retain talented faculty. This paper examines two groups of élite and non-élite universities and the mediating effect that work engagement has on affective commitment and intention to quit. Findings indicate partial support for the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

  7. Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels Are Not Created Equal: They Can Increase or Decrease Smokers' Quit Intentions Relative to Text-Only Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Romer, Daniel; Tusler, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette graphic-warning labels elicit negative emotion. Research suggests negative emotion drives greater risk perceptions and quit intentions through multiple processes. The present research compares text-only warning effectiveness to that of graphic warnings eliciting more or less negative emotion. Nationally representative online panels of 736 adult smokers and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers were randomly assigned to view one of three warning types (text-only, text with low-emotion images, or text with high-emotion images) four times over 2 weeks. Participants recorded their emotional reaction to the warnings (measured as arousal), smoking risk perceptions, and quit intentions. Primary analyses used structural equation modeling. Participants in the high-emotion condition reported greater emotional reaction than text-only participants (bAdult = 0.21; bTeen = 0.27, p's labels with images that elicit more negative emotional reaction are associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions in adults and teens relative to text-only warnings. However, graphic warnings containing images which evoke little emotional reaction can backfire and reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. This research is the first to directly manipulate two emotion levels in sets of nine cigarette graphic warning images and compare them with text-only warnings. Among adult and teen smokers, high-emotion graphic warnings were associated with increased risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. Low-emotion graphic warnings backfired and tended to reduce risk perceptions and quit intentions versus text-only warnings. Policy makers should be aware that merely placing images on cigarette packaging is insufficient to increase smokers' risk perceptions and quit intentions. Low-emotion graphic warnings will not necessarily produce desired population-level benefits relative to text-only or high-emotion warnings. © The Author 2016

  8. How Children with Autism Reason about Other's Intentions: False-Belief and Counterfactual Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasga, Célia; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We examine false belief and counterfactual reasoning in children with autism with a new change-of-intentions task. Children listened to stories, for example, Anne is picking up toys and John hears her say she wants to find her ball. John goes away and the reason for Anne's action changes--Anne's mother tells her to tidy her bedroom. We asked,…

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Risk perception and intention to quit among a tri-ethnic sample of nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Elaine; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Agarwal, Mohit; Mathur, Charu; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-10-01

    Although the relationship between risk perceptions and quit intentions has been established, few studies explore the potential impact of smoking level on these associations, and none have done so among diversely-aged samples of multiple ethnicities. Participants, ranging in age from 25 to 81, were 1133 nondaily smokers (smoked ≥1 cigarette on 4 to 24days in the past 30days), 556 light daily smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day), and 585 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>10 cigarettes per day). Each smoking level comprised approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, self-rated health, time to the first cigarette of the day and smoking level, was used to examine the association between risk perception (perceived risk of acquiring lung cancer, lung disease, and heart disease) and intention to quit (≤6months versus >6months/never). A second adjusted model tested moderation by smoking level with an interaction term. Greater risk perception was associated with a higher odds of planning to quit within 6months (AOR=1.34, CI.95=1.24, 1.45). Smoking level did not moderate this association (p=.85). Results suggest that educating all smokers, irrespective of their smoking level, about increased risk of developing smoking-related diseases might be a helpful strategy to enhance their intention to make a smoking quit attempt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs – a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one’s job as a GP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Mari; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Schenck Gustafsson, Karin; Wall, Maja; Fridner, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objective General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one’s job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention. Practice implications The organisations need to recognise that foreign-born GPs may face increased rates of threats and/or violence from patients, which may ultimately cause job turnover and be harmful to the exposed individual. PMID:28587508

  12. Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Mari; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Schenck Gustafsson, Karin; Wall, Maja; Fridner, Ann

    2017-06-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention. The organisations need to recognise that foreign-born GPs may face increased rates of threats and/or violence from patients, which may ultimately cause job turnover and be harmful to the exposed individual.

  13. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Macatee, Richard J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Sarawgi, Shivali

    2014-09-01

    Hostility has emerged as an important predictor of smoking cessation difficulties, though the mechanisms underlying the hostility and smoking relationship are poorly understood. Further, research has yet to explore relations between hostile interpretation biases and different aspects of smoking behavior. In the present study, current daily smokers (N = 106) were administered measures of smoking characteristics, smoking motivation, reasons for quitting, hostility, and hostile interpretation bias. Neither trait hostility nor hostile interpretation bias were uniquely associated with motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, nicotine dependence, or problematic symptoms following past cessation attempts. However, hostility and hostile interpretation biases were uniquely associated with different reasons for smoking. Additionally, greater hostile interpretation bias (but not hostility) was uniquely associated with early relapse following past cessation attempts. The current findings add uniquely to the growing, but still relatively small, literature on hostility and smoking and implicate hostile interpretation bias as a potential treatment target in smoking cessation interventions.

  14. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.

  15. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand, and four Western nations: A cross-cultural comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642

  16. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand and four Western nations: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind.

  17. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  18. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Association Between Media Doses of the Tips From Former Smokers Campaign and Cessation Behaviors and Intentions to Quit Among Cigarette Smokers, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Shafer, Paul; Duke, Jennifer; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; Ridgeway, William; Cox, Shanna

    2018-02-01

    Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has implemented Tips From Former Smokers ( Tips), the first federally funded tobacco education campaign in the United States. To date, there are no evaluations of its long-term impact. To assess the impact of varied doses of the Tips campaign from 2012 through 2015 on cessation-related behaviors and intentions among U.S. smokers. We used a national probability-based online survey of cigarette smokers ( n = 22,189) and recent quitters ( n = 776) to examine associations between doses of Tips advertising, measured by gross rating points (GRPs), and intentions to quit smoking in the next 30 days and quit attempts within the past 3 months. A curvilinear (i.e., square root) functional form of GRPs was used to capture patterns of diminishing effects at higher GRP levels. An increase of 1,000 quarterly Tips GRPs at the media market level was associated with increased odds of making a quit attempt in the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio = 1.23, p campaign has had a substantial impact on cessation behaviors among U.S. adult smokers over time. These data support the continued use of graphic and/or emotional media campaigns that encourage smokers to quit to further reduce tobacco use in the United States.

  20. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP India Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh S. Pednekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the health risks of smoking is an important factor in predicting smoking-related behaviour; however, little is known about the knowledge of health risks in low-income countries such as India. The present study examined beliefs about the harms of smoking and the impact of health knowledge on intentions to quit among a sample of 249 current smokers in both urban and rural areas in two states (Maharashtra and Bihar from the 2006 TCP India Pilot Survey, conducted by the ITC Project. The overall awareness among smokers in India of the specific health risks of smoking was very low compared to other ITC countries, and only 10% of respondents reported that they had plans to quit in the next six months. In addition, smokers with higher knowledge were significantly more likely to have plans to quit smoking. For example, 26.2% of respondents who believed that smoking cause CHD and only 5.5% who did not believe that smoking causes CHD had intentions to quit (χ2 = 16.348, p < 0.001. Important differences were also found according to socioeconomic factors and state: higher levels of knowledge were found in Maharashtra than in Bihar, in urban compared to rural areas, among males, and among smokers with higher education. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower.

  1. Job conditions, psychological climate, and affective commitment as predictors of intention to quit among two groups of bank employees in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun,, Anthony G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which job conditions (job demands and job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment predict turnover intention among Tellers and Interpersonal Relation Officers in some Nigerian Banks and whether affective commitment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and turnover intention. Five hundred and nineteen(tellers = 321, IRO = 198bank employees (266 males and 253 females whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 years with a mean of 34.02 years and SD of 9.54, from 11 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. Validated scales were used for data collections. The study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression, Baron and Kenny’s (1986 mediation analysis, and t-independent sample analyses. The results revealed significant joint and independent influence of job demands, job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment on turnover intention of bank employees. Furthermore, affective commitment directly and fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and intention to quit. The results also revealed that interpersonal relation officers (IRO showed higher tendency to quit their jobs than tellers. The researchers therefore suggested the need for bank management to modify or re-design the aspect of the job taxing their employees and invest and create positive climate that would improve their employees’ well-being.

  2. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  3. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  4. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  5. The theory of reasoned action and intention to seek cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Levi; Kohler, Connie L; Grimley, Diane M; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to explain men's intentions to seek prostate cancer information. Three hundred randomly selected African American men participated in telephone interviews. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships among measures. All relationships were significant in regression analyses. Attitudes and subjective norm were significantly related to intentions. Indirect measures of beliefs derived from elicitation research were associated with direct measures of attitude and subjective norms. The data are sufficiently clear to support the applicability of the theory for this behavioral domain with African American men and suggest several important areas for future research.

  6. The Intention to Quit Smoking: The Impact of Susceptibility, Self-Efficacy, Social Norms and Emotional Intelligence Embedded Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…

  7. Gambling and the Reasoned Action Model: Predicting Past Behavior, Intentions, and Future Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ethan; Tagler, Michael J; Hohman, Zachary P

    2018-03-01

    Gambling is a serious concern for society because it is highly addictive and is associated with a myriad of negative outcomes. The current study applied the Reasoned Action Model (RAM) to understand and predict gambling intentions and behavior. Although prior studies have taken a reasoned action approach to understand gambling, no prior study has fully applied the RAM or used the RAM to predict future gambling. Across two studies the RAM was used to predict intentions to gamble, past gambling behavior, and future gambling behavior. In study 1 the model significantly predicted intentions and past behavior in both a college student and Amazon Mechanical Turk sample. In study 2 the model predicted future gambling behavior, measured 2 weeks after initial measurement of the RAM constructs. This study stands as the first to show the utility of the RAM in predicting future gambling behavior. Across both studies, attitudes and perceived normative pressure were the strongest predictors of intentions to gamble. These findings provide increased understanding of gambling and inform the development of gambling interventions based on the RAM.

  8. Reasons for dropout in swimmers, differences between gender and age and intentions to return to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Diogo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Moutão, João M; Vitorino, Anabela P; Antunes, Raúl N; Cid, Luís

    2018-01-01

    This study's main purpose was to analyze reasons for dropout in competitive swimmers and differences between gender and age groups. The influence of dropout on swimmers intentions to return to competition, invariance across gender and validation of Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition were also analyzed. Study 1 - 366 athletes participated (N.=366; mean age 15.96, SD 5.99) and the data gathered was used for the exploratory analysis, and data gathered on 1008 athletes were used for the confirmatory analysis and the structural equations (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12); Study 2: 1008 athletes participated (N.=1008; mean age 16.26, SD 6.12) on the descriptive and inferential analysis of the reasons behind the practice dropout. The Questionnaire of Reasons Attrition was used in both studies to assess the reasons associated with the practice dropout. In study 1, the results showed an acceptable fit of the measurement model and invariance across gender and also predictive validity regarding swimmers intentions to return to competition (e.g., "demands/pressure" negatively predict intentions). In study 2, the main results showed that the most significant reason for dropout in both genders and all age groups was "dissatisfaction/other priorities"; the study also showed there to be differences between gender and age groups (e.g., female and younger athletes valued "demands/ pressure "more). This study offers useful guidelines for the training process and to support decisions on sports politics to be implemented to overcome the dropout rate. However, it is important to broaden the evidence to other sports and implement programs on identified priority areas based on longitudinal perspectives.

  9. Application of Theory Reasoned Action in Intention to Use Islamic Banking in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Reni, Andi; Ahmad, Nor Hayati

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the constructs of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (attitude, subjective norm, religion, knowledge, pricing, and government support) on customer behavioral intention and Islamic banking selection. This research using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling with variables such as: attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledge and government support, and pricing. The result shows that attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledg...

  10. Betting on Life: Associations Between Significant Life Events and Gambling Trajectories Among Gamblers with the Intent to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2018-03-24

    Considerable evidence has suggested that problem gambling may be transitory and episodic, with gamblers routinely moving in and out of clinical thresholds. Findings in qualitative and quantitative studies have converged on identifying preliminary evidence for the role of life events as motivators and contributing factors for gambling changes over time. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between life events, their respective experience as positive or negative, and gambling trajectories among problem gamblers intending to quit. Life event occurrence and ratings as positive or negative, and changes in gambling severity were analyzed over a 12-month period for 204 adult problem gamblers intending to reduce or quit their gambling. Overall, mixed effects models revealed several relationships between life events and both the magnitude and direction of gambling change over time. In particular, gamblers who experienced a greater number of positive events or specific events such as legal events, the adoption/loss of a child, or negative changes to their social relationships, finances, work environments or social/health activities were more likely to exhibit greater gambling reductions over time. Conversely, gamblers who experienced a greater number of negative events, such as family bereavement, the dissolution of a marriage, or negative changes to their residence exhibited smaller gambling reductions or increases in gambling severity. Possible mechanisms which may explain the findings and the importance of examining the subjective experience of life events are discussed. Recommendations for future studies examining associations between life events and gambling trajectories are provided.

  11. How effective is the plain packaging of tobacco policy on rates of intention to quit smoking and changing attitudes to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Nick; Stretton, Matthew; Prakash, Minesh

    2018-06-05

    The aim of this study is to critically appraise the evidence for the effectiveness of the plain packaging of tobacco products policy. A systematic approach to a literature review was undertaken using five databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Global Health and Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluate attitudes towards smoking, starting smoking and quitting intentions when plain packaging use is compared with standard cigarette packaging use were included. A total of 1923 studies were identified. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, nine studies were included in the review. The overall quality of the data was variable but a significant number of the studies had major methodological flaws. However, data analysed in the literature review suggest that exposure to plain packaging increases intention to quit amongst exposed individuals, increases negative attitudes to both smoking and starting smoking. Although the evidence for plain packaging of tobacco is not strong, the evidence that is available indicates that it is an effective tobacco cessation policy. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Using the theory of reasoned action to explain physician intention to prescribe emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Marjorie R; Schwartz, Lisa R; Kelly, Patricia J; Lisbon, Eleanor; Hall, Matthew A

    2006-03-01

    Although research has examined providers' knowledge, attitudes and prescribing behaviors with regard to emergency contraception, none has used a theory-based approach to understanding the interplay of these factors. A cross-sectional survey of 96 faculty physicians from one Southern and three Midwestern universities was conducted in 2004 to assess factors associated with intention to prescribe emergency contraception. The theory of reasoned action guided the study hypotheses and survey design. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the data. Only 42% of respondents strongly intended to prescribe emergency contraception for teenagers, but 65-77% intended to do so for all other specified groups (women who ask for the method, who have had a method problem, who have experienced rape or incest, and who have had unprotected sex). Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, high intention to prescribe emergency contraception was associated with positive attitudes toward doing so and with the perception that specific colleagues or professional groups support prescribing it; however, the perception of support by colleagues or professional groups in general did not predict intention. Also consistent with the theory, physicians' knowledge about emergency contraception and their demographic characteristics were not significant. Interventions to encourage physicians to provide emergency contraception should take into account their attitudes toward the method and the components of those attitudes.

  13. Predicting Intention Perform Breast Self-Examination: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Triana Kesuma; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-11-26

    Objective: The present study aimed to examine the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to explain intention to perform breast self-examination (BSE). Methods: A questionnaire was constructed to collect data. The hypothesis was tested in two steps. First, to assess the strength of the correlation among the constructs of theory of reasoned action (TRA), Pearson’s product moment correlations were applied. Second, multivariate relationships among the constructs were examined by performing hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis. Result: The findings supported the TRA model, explaining 45.8% of the variance in the students’ BSE intention, which was significantly correlated with attitude (r = 0.609, p = 0.000) and subjective norms (r = 0.420, p =0 .000). Conclusion: TRA could be a suitable model to predict BSE intentions . Participants who believed that doing BSE regularly is beneficial for early diagnosis of breast cancer and also believed that their significant referents think that doing BSE would significantly detect breast cancer earlier, were more likely to intend to perform BSE regularly. Therefore, the research findings supported the conclusion that promoting the importance of BSE at the community/social level would enhance individuals to perform BSE routinely. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  15. Physicians' intention to prescribe hydrocodone combination products after rescheduling: A theory of reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Driver, Larry; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan M; Wanat, Matthew; Sawant, Ruta V; Ferries, Erin; Reeve, Kathleen; Todd, Knox H

    The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) rescheduled hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) in an attempt to mitigate the prescription opioid epidemic. Many in the medical and pharmacy community expressed concerns of unintended consequences as a result of rescheduling. This study examined physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling using the framework of the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A cover letter containing a link to the online questionnaire was sent to physicians of the Texas Medical Association who were likely to prescribe opioids. The questionnaire assessed physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. Predictor variables included attitude toward rescheduling, subjective norm toward HCP prescribing, and past prescribing behavior of schedule II prescriptions. All variables were measured on a 7-point, Likert-type scale. Intention to prescribe as a dependent variable was regressed over TRA variables and respondent characteristics. A total of 1176 usable responses were obtained, yielding a response rate of 13.3%. Mean (M) age was 53.07 ± 11 and most respondents were male (70%) and Caucasian (75%). Physicians held a moderately positive intention to prescribe HCPs (M = 4.36 ± 2.08), held a moderately negative attitude towards rescheduling, M = 4.68 ± 1.51 (reverse coded). Subjective norm was moderately low, M = 3.06 ± 1.78, and past prescribing behavior M = 2.43 ± 1.21. The linear regression analysis indicated that attitude (β = 0.10; P = 0.006), subjective norm (β = 0.35; P < 0.0001) and past prescribing behavior (β = 0.59; P < 0.0001) were significant predictors of intention to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. TRA was shown to be a predictive model of physicians' intentions to prescribe HCPs after rescheduling. Overall, physicians held a moderately positive intention to prescribe HCPs. Past behavior concerning schedule II prescribing was found to be the most significant predictor

  16. APPLICATION OF THEORY REASONED ACTION IN INTENTION TO USE ISLAMIC BANKING IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Reni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the constructs of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB (attitude, subjective norm, religion, knowledge, pricing, and government support on customer behavioral intention and Islamic banking selection. This research using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling with variables such as: attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledge and government support, and pricing. The result shows that attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledge and government support are statistically significant effect on intention to select Islamic bank in Indonesia. Pricing however is not significant. The results imply that Indonesian Islamic banks should strategize ways to develop positive attitude and reference amongst their customers through greater dissemination of knowledge about Islamic banking while emphasizing on the religious compliance.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.1998

  17. Application of Theory Reasoned Action In Intention to Use Islamic Banking In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Reni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the constructs of Theoryof Reasoned Action (TRA, and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB (attitude,subjective norm, religion, knowledge, pricing, and government support oncustomer behavioral intention and Islamic banking selection. This research usingPartial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling with variables such as:attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledge and government support, and pricing.The result shows that attitude, subject norm, religion, knowledge and governmentsupport are statistically significant effect on intention to select Islamic bank inIndonesia. Pricing however is not significant. The results imply that IndonesianIslamic banks should strategize ways to develop positive attitude and referenceamongst their customers through greater dissemination of knowledge about Islamicbanking while emphasizing on the religious compliance.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2513

  18. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Brenda Mahlaola

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  19. Examining and Predicting College Students' Reading Intentions and Behaviors: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the recreational reading attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of college students. The theory of reasoned action provided the framework for the investigation and prediction of the students' intentions and behaviors. Two hundred and one students completed questionnaires developed according to the guidelines for the construction…

  20. A Pro-Environmental Reasoned Action Model for Measuring Citizens’ Intentions regarding Ecolabel Product Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Nadlifatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecolabel products are one approach towards environmental sustainability. Ecolabel programs have been socialized by governments all over the world to reduce environmental harm caused by the daily life cycles of the products that citizens use. The present study was aimed at measuring citizens’ behavior intention (BI regarding ecolabel product usage. An extended theory of reasoned action (TRA, namely that of pro-environmental reasoned action (PERA, is used as the predictor model. A total of 213 questionnaire data, collected from citizens of Indonesia, was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The analysis results show that the PERA model is able to describe 68% of citizens’ BI regarding ecolabel product usage. The analysis results also reveal that attitude is a key determinant factor. Several practical suggestions based on the results can be used as input for policy makers and company management to consider in their efforts to increase citizens’ BI to use ecolabel products.

  1. How Children with Autism Reason about Other's Intentions: False-Belief and Counterfactual Inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasga, Célia; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2017-06-01

    We examine false belief and counterfactual reasoning in children with autism with a new change-of-intentions task. Children listened to stories, for example, Anne is picking up toys and John hears her say she wants to find her ball. John goes away and the reason for Anne's action changes-Anne's mother tells her to tidy her bedroom. We asked, 'What will John believe is the reason that Anne is picking up toys?' which requires a false-belief inference, and 'If Anne's mother hadn't asked Anne to tidy her room, what would have been the reason she was picking up toys?' which requires a counterfactual inference. We tested children aged 6, 8 and 10 years. Children with autism made fewer correct inferences than typically developing children at 8 years, but by 10 years there was no difference. Children with autism made fewer correct false-belief than counterfactual inferences, just like typically developing children.

  2. Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Krzysztof Buczkowski,1 Ludmila Marcinowicz,2 Slawomir Czachowski,1 Elwira Piszczek3 1Department of Family Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 3Sociology Institute, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Background: Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse.Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting.Methods: We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods.Results: Three main themes were identified: (1 motivations to quit smoking, (2 reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3 modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1 a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2 the high cost of cigarettes, (3 the unpleasant smell, (4 health concern, (5 pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6 a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1 stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2 the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3 the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts.Conclusion: Two

  3. Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Di; Tian, Hui; Zuo, Fang; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-11-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture out-patient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Physicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within 1 month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counsellor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise and diet advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline, and a telephone counsellor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (approximately 1 minute each) at 1 week and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview. By intention-to-treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3 versus 6.9%, OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  5. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  6. Psychosocial factors associated with young elementary school children's intentions to consume legumes: a test of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Bell, Rick; Economos, Christina; Landers, Stewart; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in explaining young elementary school children's intention to consume legumes. A survey was conducted with children in an urban, multicultural community in Massachusetts. A total of 336 children participated. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the relationship between attitude and subjective norm and intention. Although attitude was significantly associated with intention, the pseudo-R2 for the regression model that included only the TRA constructs was extremely low (.01). Adding demographic factors and preference improved the model's predictive ability, but attitude was no longer significant. The results of this study do not provide support for the predictive utility of the TRA with young elementary school children for this behavior, when demographic factors are accounted for. Hedonic factors, rather than reasoned judgments, may help drive children's intentions.

  7. Reasons behind Greek problem drug users’ decisions to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition: sense of self and the Greek filotimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Greek problem drug users’ perceptions of the reasons that led them to quit using drugs and engage in treatment of their own volition. Qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews. Two state drug agencies in Thessaloniki, Greece. A total of 40 adult problem drug-using men and women participated in the study. Participants were asked to reflect on their decisions to wean themselves from drugs and enter treatment. Findings Participants reported that their decisions centred on the re-conceptualization of the drug-using community and their membership in it, the desire to restore aspects of identities thatwere deemed to be spoiled, and finally memories of their drug-free selves. The importance of the distinctively Greek notion of filotimo in this discussion is highlighted. Primarily in relation to filotimo (a concept that represents a complex array of virtues that regulates behaviour towards one’s family), the desire to restore one’s spoiled identity plays a pivotal role in Greek problem drug users’ decisions to cease drug use and engage in treatment.

  8. What influences pre-hospital cannulation intentions in paramedics? An application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-02-01

    Intravenous cannulation is a common and important intervention undertaken by paramedics for administration of fluids and drugs in the pre-hospital setting. This study was a partial application of the theory of reasoned action to the prediction of pre-hospital cannulation intentions as part of an evaluation of an educational intervention to change cannulation behaviour in paramedics in line with national guidance. In 2008 a self-completion questionnaire was sent to paramedics from Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire divisions of East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK. This included measures of prior behaviour related to cannulation, attitude towards cannulation, normative influence related to cannulation and intention to cannulate as well as demographic information. Of the 323 paramedics sent questionnaires 137 (42.2%) responded. Attitude towards cannulation (but not normative or peer influence) was a necessary factor for prediction of intention to cannulate in respondents. Past cannulation behaviour was indirectly related to intention to cannulate through the mediation of attitude towards cannulation. The theory of reasoned action provides a parsimonious way to predict intentions to cannulate. This study suggests that design and evaluation of interventions to reduce inappropriate cannulation should be targeted towards changing attitudes of paramedics, rather than towards addressing behavioural norms. Future research could utilize social-psychological theories to better understand clinical behaviour prior to implementation of complex educational or organizational interventions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  10. Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Shaw, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Nursing staff members' intentions to use physical restraints with older people: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Mendelsson, G

    2001-09-01

    To examine nursing staff members' attitudes, subjective norms, moral obligations and intentions to use physical restraints, using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). During the last two decades an extensive body of research has examined nurses' attitudes as one of the main factors affecting the decision to use or not to use physical restraints with older persons. However, no studies have examined empirically the antecedents to nurses' intentions to use physical restraints within a theoretically based framework. A correlational design was used with 303 nursing staff members from an 800-bed elder care hospital in central Israel. Participants completed a questionnaire including questions based on the TRA as well as socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Regression analyses found attitudes, subjective norms and moral considerations to be significantly associated to intention to use physical restraints with older people. The TRA explained 48% of the variance in nurses' intentions. The TRA proved to be a useful framework for examining nurses' intentions to use physical restraints. Nurses' attitudes, beliefs and expectations of significant others should be examined before implementing educational programmes regarding the use of physical restraints.

  12. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  13. Investigating the reasons behind the intention to report cycling crashes to the police and hospitals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    to allocate time to other activities, the concerns about family distress and social image, the distrust in the police, and the medical consultation aversion. The survey elicited the reasons as well as socio-economic characteristics, cycling habits and last crash experience of cyclists, and yielded 1512...... time to other activities; (ii) medical consultation aversion has a higher weight than the distrust in the police in demotivating cycling crash reporting intentions; (iii) the reasons are all strongly related to cyclists' characteristics and last cycling crash characteristics; and (iv) information...

  14. Modeling the intention to choose natural vaginal delivery: using reasoned action and social cognitive theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, Safieh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The Behavioral Intention Model is one of the best and most widely models used regarding attitude of behavioral of pregnancy and decrease the rate of cesarean section (CS) among pregnant women, except effect of attitude and subjective norms on behavioral intention. Two variables of self-efficacy, and outcome expectation, relate to individual's behavior in an upcoming situation, and both of them are important at the development of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to explain women's inten-tion to choose natural vaginal delivery (NVD). The variables of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and Behavioral Intention Model constructs were used to define the model. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in nature and took place in Pars Abad, Iran in 2014. The non-probability sample consisted of 200 pregnant women who voluntarily participated in the study and provided the data. SPSS 21 and MPLUS 6.8 were employed to analyze the data. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and attitude toward NVD were associated with intention to choose the NVD. The study findings may play a role in designing educational interventions aimed at influencing the NVD and improving childbirth programs.

  15. A national survey of young women's beliefs about quitting indoor tanning: implications for health communication messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Lazovich, DeAnn; Grossman, Sara; Glanz, Karen

    2018-03-15

    Indoor tanning is a risk factor for melanoma among young white women. Health communications can be an effective way of reaching this population and promoting behavior change. The purpose of this study was (i) to investigate the associations between intention to quit indoor tanning and attitudes, normative pressure, and efficacy about quitting, and (ii) to identify beliefs about quitting indoor tanning that can be used to design effective health communication messages to reduce skin cancer risk. A national online survey was conducted with 279 non-Hispanic white women ages 18-25 in the USA who are indoor tanners. The survey, based on the reasoned action approach, assessed intention, attitudes, norms, and efficacy and their corresponding underlying beliefs related to quitting indoor tanning, along with other known covariates. Data were collected in November/December 2015. Intention to quit indoor tanning was significantly associated with attitudes, specifically with the beliefs that it would "reduce damage to skin" (increased intention) and "make me less happy" (decreased intention). While self-efficacy was not related to intention to quit indoor tanning, injunctive normative beliefs were with key referent groups including mothers, friends, and romantic partners. Messages aimed at discouraging indoor tanning among young, non-Hispanic, white women should highlight the salient belief that quitting indoor tanning will reduce skin damage, counter the belief that it will make them less happy, and highlight key people who would approve of them quitting indoor tanning.

  16. Using the theory of reasoned action to determine physicians' intention to measure body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Kavookjian, Jan; Scott, Virginia Ginger; Kamal, Khalid M; Miller, Lesley-Ann N; Neal, William A

    2009-06-01

    Over the past few decades, childhood obesity has become a major public health issue in the United States. Numerous public and professional organizations recommend that physicians periodically screen for obesity in children and adolescents using the body mass index (BMI). However, studies have shown that physicians infrequently measure BMI in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to use the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to explain physicians' intentions to measure BMI in children and adolescents. The study objectives were to (1) determine if attitude and subjective norm predict physicians' intention to measure BMI in children and adolescents; (2) determine if family physicians and pediatricians differ in terms of theoretical factors; and (3) assess differences in behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply among physicians based on their level of intention to measure BMI. A cross-sectional mailed survey of 2590 physicians (family physicians and pediatricians) practicing in 4 states was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was designed that included items related to the TRA constructs. The association between the theoretical constructs was examined using correlation and regression analyses. Student's t test was used to determine differences between family physicians and pediatricians on theoretical constructs and to compare the underlying beliefs of nonintenders with intenders. The usable response rate was 22.8%. Less than half (44%) of the physicians strongly intended to measure BMI in children and adolescents. Together, the TRA constructs attitude and subjective norm explained up to 49.9% of the variance in intention. Pediatricians had a significantly (P<.01) higher intention to measure BMI as compared to family physicians. There were significant (P<.01) behavioral and normative belief differences between physicians who intend and those who do not intend to measure BMI. The TRA is a useful model

  17. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use.

  18. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions.

  19. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  20. National Trends in Parental HPV Vaccination Intentions and Reasons for Hesitancy, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kayla E; Koch, Brandon; Bonner, Kimberly; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Basta, Nicole E

    2018-03-27

    HPV vaccination uptake remains lower than other recommended adolescent vaccines in the United States. Parental attitudes are important predictors of vaccine uptake, yet little is known about how they have changed over time. Participants included U.S. residents aged 13-17 years with documented vaccination status who were unvaccinated (had not initiated) or undervaccinated (initiated, but had not completed) with the HPV vaccination series whose parents responded to the National Immunization Surveys-Teen, 2010-2015. Of the 76,971 participants, 63.0% were male, 58.8% were non-Hispanic white, and 14.4 years was the median age. The percentage of unvaccinated teens decreased 2010-2015, yet, annually, parents of unvaccinated teens of both sexes most often reported that they were "not likely at all" to vaccinate their teen. The percentage decreased significantly from 41.5% to 31.2% (Pparents of unvaccinated females from 2010-2015 but did not change among parents of males from 2012-2015. Conversely, parents of undervaccinated teens of both sexes reported higher and increasing vaccination intent over time. In 2015, nearly one third of parents of unvaccinated teens reported that their low intent stemmed from the belief that the vaccine was "not needed/necessary." Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects declined over time among parents of unvaccinated females but increased among parents of males (7.3% to 14.8%; Pparental intent and knowledge increased over time, lack of perceived importance of HPV vaccination and parental concerns about vaccine safety remain barriers to both HPV vaccination series initiation and completion in the U.S.

  1. Applying Analytic Reasoning to Clarify Intention and Responsibility in Joint Criminal Enterprise Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Amatrudo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that both criminologists and lawyers need a far more philosophically robust account of joint action, notably as it relates to technical matters of intentionality and responsibility when dealing with joint criminal enterprise cases. Criminology seems unable to see beyond the superficiality of cultural explanations ill-suited to understanding matters of action. Law seems wedded to mystical notions of foresight. As regards the law there seems common agreement that joint enterprise prosecutions tend to over-criminalise secondary parties. This paper suggests that the current discussions around joint criminal enterprise will benefit from a critical engagement with analytical philosophy. The paper will examine a series of technical accounts of shared commitment and intention in order to explain the problems of joint criminal enterprise (multi-agent criminal activity. Este artículo defiende que tanto criminólogos como abogados necesitan ofrecer una acción conjunta más robusta, desde el punto de vista filosófico, especialmente en lo que se refiere a aspectos técnicos de intencionalidad y responsabilidad, al tratar casos de colaboración criminal. La criminología parece incapaz de ver más allá de la superficialidad de las explicaciones culturales, inadecuadas para entender cuestiones de acción. El derecho parece aliado con nociones místicas de previsión. En lo que respecta al derecho, parece que existe un consenso en que los fiscales de asociaciones de malhechores tienden a penalizar en exceso a los cómplices. Este artículo sugiere que el debate actual sobre asociaciones criminales se beneficiará de un compromiso crítico con la filosofía analítica. El artículo analiza un conjunto de explicaciones técnicas de compromiso e intención compartidos para explicar los problemas de las asociaciones criminales (actividad criminal multi-agente. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2847796

  2. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.

  3. Reducing Teacher Turnover by Utilizing a National List of Reasons for Teacher Dissatisfaction or How to Keep Teachers from Declaring "Dear Folks, I Quit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Angela J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teacher turnover is a national problem and has been investigated on the national level since the 1920's. This study compares the reasons teachers give for leaving teaching positions from data collected nationwide with local data. Purpose: To examine whether the same problems that arise on the local level have been identified in the…

  4. Yearning, learning, and conceding: reasons men and women change their childbearing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovou, Maria; Tavares, Lara Patrício

    2011-01-01

    People's childbearing intentions change over the course of their reproductive lives. These changes have been conceptualized as occurring in response to the realization that an individual is unlikely to achieve his or her intended fertility, because of constraints such as the "biological clock" or lack of a partner. In this article, we find that changes to child-bearing plans are influenced by a much wider range of factors than this. People change their plans in response to the wishes of their partners, in response to social norms, as the result of repartnering, and as the result of learning about the costs and benefits of parenthood; there are also differences between the factors that influence men's and women's decision-making. In a departure from existing studies in this area, we use a flexible analytical framework that enables us to analyze increases in planned fertility separately from decreases. This allows us to uncover several complexities of the decision-making process that would otherwise be hidden, and leads us to conclude that the determinants of increases in planned fertility are not simply equal and opposite to the determinants of decreases.

  5. Örgütsel Politika Algısının İhmalkârlık Üzerindeki Etkisinde İşten Ayrılma Niyetinin Aracı Rolü(Intention to Quit as A Mediator of The Relationship between Perceptions of Organizational Politics and Neglect of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk BAŞAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to uncover whether employees’ perceptions of organizational politics have positive effect on both intention to quit and neglect of work as well as intention to quit has a mediating role in this process. Research data were collected from a total of 314 employees who work at central managerial department of a public organization, in Ankara, in October 2015 by means of questionnaire. Data were analyzed through regression analyses over structural equation models. Findings supported the approach that evaluates organizational politics as a threat to employees’ well being. According to the findings participants’ perceptions of organizational politics resulted in both intention to quit and neglect of work. Besides that, participants’ intention to quit mediated the effect of perceptions of organizational politics on neglect of work.

  6. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  7. Predicting and understanding undergraduate students' intentions to gamble in a casino using an extended model of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok

    2013-06-01

    Given that current television programming contains numerous gambling portrayals, it is imperative to understand whether and to what extent these gambling behaviors in media influence individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. This study explores an extended model of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by including gambling media exposure as a distal, mediating and mediated factor in predicting undergraduate students' intentions to gamble in a casino. Findings show that the extended model of TRA clearly indicates that the constructs of gambling media exposure, prior gambling experience, and level of gambling addiction contribute to the prediction of undergraduate students' casino gambling intentions. Theoretical implications of gambling media effects and practical implications for public policy are discussed, and future research directions are outlined.

  8. Factors associated with parental reasons for "no-intent" to vaccinate female adolescents with human papillomavirus vaccine: National Immunization Survey - Teen 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K; Bhatta, Madhav P; Drinkard, Lauren N

    2017-02-13

    1) To identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental "no-intent" for their 13-17 year old unvaccinated daughter to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series within the next twelve months, 2) to describe patterns in "no-intent" by socio-demographic factors, and 3) to identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental reasons for "no-intent". Data from 2008-2012 National Immunization Survey - Teen (NIS - Teen) were examined in this study. Parents with "no-intent" to vaccinate their daughters were asked to identify reasons for their decision. All responses were categorized into five domains identified as barriers to receive the HPV vaccine series: 1) Safety and Effectiveness Concerns; 2) Systemic Barriers; 3) Vaccine Misinformation; 4) Lack of Knowledge about the Vaccine; and 5) Socio-cultural Barriers. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to address the study objectives. Number of people in the household, household income, mother's age, education, health insurance, recommendation of a health care provider, and the survey year were significantly associated with parental "no-intent". Race/ethnicity, mother's education, marital status, recommendation of a health care provider, household income, age of the unvaccinated daughter, and the survey year, were significantly associated with one or more domains identified as barriers to receive the HPV vaccine. This study identified sub-groups of parents across different socio-demographic factors with "no-intent" for their adolescent daughters to receive the HPV vaccine. Developing strategies that target educational tools towards the identified sub-groups of parents about the purpose, safety, and efficacy of the HPV vaccine, and HPV infection, may help increase HPV vaccine acceptance, initiation and completion rates.

  9. Understanding human papillomavirus vaccination intentions: comparative utility of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in vaccine target age women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Salisbury, Claire M A; Salvadori, Marina I

    2013-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an exceedingly prevalent sexually transmitted infection with serious medical, sexual, and relationship consequences. HPV vaccine protection is available but vaccine uptake is very inconsistent. This research applies two major theories of health behavior uptake, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, in an effort to understand intentions to receive HPV vaccine among vaccine target age women and men. The Theory of Reasoned Action asserts that attitudes toward HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated, whereas the Theory of Planned Behavior holds that attitudes toward vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, and perceived ability to get vaccinated are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated. Canadian university men (N=118) and women (N=146) in the HPV vaccine target age range took part in this correlational study online. Participants completed standard measures of attitudes toward HPV vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, perceived ability to get vaccinated, beliefs about vaccination, and intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Findings confirmed the propositions of the Theory of Reasoned Action and indicated that attitudes toward undergoing HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for undergoing HPV vaccination contributed uniquely to the prediction of women's (R2=0.53) and men's (R2=0.44) intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Clinical and public health education should focus on strengthening attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, and on the basic beliefs that appear to underlie attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, in efforts to promote HPV vaccine uptake. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Gender differences in purchase intentions and reasons for meal selection among fast food customers – Opportunities for healthier and more sustainable fast food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Lehmann, Charlotte; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2016-01-01

    and their purchase intentions. Based on this background, possible opportunities toward implementing healthier and more sustainable fast food options are discussed. Data were collected at three fast food restaurants from different parts of Denmark among randomly selected customers (aged 15 or above). The customers......Understanding the factors that influence food selection and dietary behavior is fundamental to support the successful translation of dietary goals into consumer behavior. The present study aims to identify gender differences in fast food consumers’ reasons for actual fast food meal selection...... were approached after having ordered their meal. They filled out a questionnaire on reasons for their actual fast food meal selection and purchase intentions in relation to four hypothesized burger menus, including a regular beef burger menu, a wholegrain beef burger menu, a nutrition labeled beef...

  11. Experiences of young smokers in quitting smoking in twin cities of Pakistan: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Kanwal; Oyebode, Oyinlola; Masud, Haleema

    2018-04-10

    Smoking is highly prevalent in Pakistan claiming the lives of over 100,000 individuals every year. A significant proportion of smokers (24.7%) make an attempt to quit each year but 97.4% fail to quit successfully. Little is known about the reasons for, and experiences of, failed quit attempts. This study was carried out to explore the experiences of young male smokers in quitting smoking in the twin cities of Pakistan METHOD: A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A total of 11 participants were interviewed. All study participants were male and had made at least one quit attempt. Study participants were a mix of smokers who failed to quit smoking, intermittent smokers and successful quitters. Streubert's (1991) method of phenomenology was followed during data analysis. The experiences of smokers while smoking "the smoking phase" have major effects on their journey towards quitting smoking. The smoking phase consists of three major stages: contact with initial smoking stimuli, the journey from first puff to enjoying smoking and then finally smoking becoming part of life. However, the journey towards quitting smoking is not as simple as the journey towards becoming a smoker. Instead, smokers get trapped in three overlapping cycles of smoking and quit attempts: smoking & forced quitting, smoking & intentional quitting, and smoking & intermittent smoking before successful quitting. Breaking the cycle is not easy in the presence of trapping factors (addiction, high availability, easy affordability, conducive social setup and low perceived risks of smoking). Three factors play a major role in breaking these cycles which are strong will power, continuous peer support and avoidance of smokers' company. A young smoker, during his experience of quitting smoking gets entrapped in several overlapping cycles of smoking & quit attempts before successful quitting. There are known entrapping factors as well as factors

  12. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK CLOSE SMOKEFREE.GOV HOME Create My Quit Plan Quitting starts now. Make a plan . Step 1 of 7 mark Step 2 of ... boosts your chances of success. Build a quit plan to get ready and find out what to ...

  13. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  14. Prevalence and reasons for intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine as an adjunct to future visits to a medical doctor for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Lillenes, Ola; Norheim, Arne Johan

    2018-03-27

    Intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has previously only been researched in small, possibly biased, samples. There seems to be a lack of scientific information regarding healthy individual's attitudes and presumed use of CAM. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence and characteristics of participants who intend to see a CAM provider compared to participants who intend to see a medical doctor (MD) only when suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and in the need of treatment. Further to describe differences between the groups regarding expected reasons for CAM use and expected skills of CAM providers. The survey was conducted in January 2016 as part of the "TNS Gallup Health policy Barometer". In total, 1728 individuals aged 16-92 years participated in the study, constituting an overall response rate of 47%. The survey included questions regarding opinions and attitudes towards health, health services and health politics in Norway. The majority of the participants (90.2%) would see a MD only if they were suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and were in the need of treatment. Men over the age of 60 with a university education tended to see a MD only. Only 9.8% of all respondents would in addition visit a CAM provider. Being an intentional user of a MD + CAM provider was associated with being a woman under the age of 60. The respondents believed that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in CAM. They also believed that individuals seeing a CAM provider have poor health and are driven by the hope of being cured. Further, that they have heard that others have good experience with such treatment. Intentional use of CAM is associated with positive attitudes, trustworthiness, and presumed positive experiences in the CAM-patient-setting. Intentional CAM users also have the impression that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in alternative

  15. [Predictors for 'successful quitting smoking' among males carried out in a smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi; Liu, Miao; Chen, Hongyan

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the predictors for 'quitting' among male smokers in a smoking cessation clinic. The target population consisted of smokers who volunteered to seek treatment for cessation at our clinic in Beijing. Smokers received face-to-face counseling and psychological intervention at the first visit by trained physicians and standardized telephone discussion, was carried out with counselors at 1 week, 1/3/6 months a follow-up study. The main outcomes would involve 'successful quitting' at the 7-day point, continuous quit rates at 3 and 6 months as well as the predictors of 'quitting'. From October 2008 to December 2012, we collected 355 eligible male smokers among whom 255 had completed the 6-month follow-up program. Results from the analysis (n = 255) showed that the quitting rates at the 7-day point and 3 months were 34.9% and 25.5%, while the rates were 25.1% and 18.3% among the 355 smokers who had the intention for treatment. Data from the stepwise logistic regression model analysis showed that lower exhaled CO level at the first visit, higher perceived confidence in quitting, lower expenditure on cigarettes and had diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases by physicians, were important predictors for quitting smoking. The main reasons of failure to quit were addiction of tobacco cigarette, craving for cigarettes to relieve pressure from work, peer influence from other smokers, lack of mental preparation and perseverance to quit, etc. Smokers who smoked less cigarettes, had higher perceived confidence in quitting and had physician-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases seemed easier to quit. Regular follow-up intervention services for smokers should be established to enhance the motivation for quitting so as to create a favorable environment for the smokers.

  16. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  17. Crack smokers' intention to use condoms with loved partners: intervention development using the theory of reasoned action, condom beliefs, and processes of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M; McCoy, H V; McCoy, C B

    2001-10-01

    Prevalence rates of HIV infection acquired through heterosexual contacts have risen steadily since 1982. Crack cocaine smokers are at particular risk of HIV infection due to heterosexual exposure. HIV risk reduction interventions seeking to increase condom use among drug users have met with minimal success, and there is a need for interventions to be strongly grounded in psychosocial models of behaviour change. This study presents the results of an investigation of predictors of intention to use condoms and related therapy processes among heterosexual drug users. Data were analyzed from 586 crack smokers recruited in Washington, DC, Miami, Florida, and Collier County, Florida who reported having both primary and casual sex partners. Participants responded to items derived from the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change. Condom use beliefs and therapy processes used to initiate and maintain condom use were assessed. Outcome expectancies and normative beliefs were the strongest predictors of intention to use condoms with a primary sexual partner. In turn, beliefs that condoms inhibit sexual romance and decrease sexual pleasure strongly predicted outcome expectancies. Therapy processes found to be associated with these constructs included: self-liberation, counter conditioning and stimulus control/reinforcement. Results suggest that HIV risk reduction interventions using a group format and targeting condom beliefs related to sexual romance and pleasure will decrease negative outcome expectancies about condom use. Also, reinforcing attempts to use condoms with intimate partners should increase positive outcome expectancies and intention to initiate or maintain condoms with a primary sexual partner.

  18. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W.; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Methods: Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. Results: A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Conclusion: Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion. PMID:19390679

  19. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion.

  20. Nurses' behavioural intentions towards self-poisoning patients: a theory of reasoned action, comparison of attitudes and subjective norms as predictive variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, A; Couston, M; Cowan, S

    2001-04-01

    The incidence of self-poisoning is on the increase. Most patients who self-poison are dealt with initially in the general hospital. Therefore, the type and quality of care self-poisoning patients receive will depend, in part, on how they are viewed by nursing staff within the general hospital setting. A knowledge and understanding of the attitudes held by nurses towards self-poisoning patients is therefore important to those involved in the planning and delivery of care towards this client group. Previous studies have examined health care professionals' attitudes towards people who self-poison. Usually, however, these have not focused specifically on nurses' attitudes, and they have ignored the relationship between the attitudes expressed by staff and their intentions to engage in subsequent caring behaviour of one sort or another. It is hence unclear how the findings of such studies are relevant or applicable to nursing policy and practice. The present study aims to address these limitations using a methodology informed by the theory of reasoned action. The study aims to separate out the distinctive roles played by nurses' own attitudes, and the social pressures represented by other people's attitudes, in determining the types of caring behaviour in which nurses intend to engage when dealing with self-poisoning patients. The study adopts a questionnaire-based approach incorporating two specially designed vignettes. The results show that nurses' own attitudes, and what they believe about the attitudes of others, predict their behavioural intentions towards self-poisoning patients. The study also shows that nurses with a more positive orientation towards self-poisoning patients differ in behavioural and normative beliefs from nurses who have a less positive orientation. The implications for future attempts to explore the relationship between nurses' attitudes and subsequent caring behaviour are considered, along with implications for nursing policy and practice.

  1. Intent to receive HPV vaccine and reasons for not vaccinating among unvaccinated adolescent and young women: findings from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole C; Hood, Julia E; Leichliter, Jami S

    2012-03-30

    HPV vaccine coverage for females has increased in the U.S., although challenges to achieving high coverage remain. HPV vaccine coverage continues to lag behind that of other routinely recommended adolescent vaccines and these gaps in coverage are widening. To inform strategies to improve uptake, we explore correlates of vaccine intention and describe reasons for refusing HPV vaccination among unvaccinated females in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and young adults during early stages of HPV vaccine availability. In 2007-2008, 1243 females aged 15-24 years were asked about HPV vaccination in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). For unvaccinated women (n=955), we evaluated demographic and sexual behavior correlates of likelihood to receive the vaccine in the next 12 months in bivariate and multivariable analyses by age. Correlates to the main reasons for foregoing vaccination are described. A minority (42.5%) of unvaccinated respondents said they intended to receive HPV vaccine in the next 12 months: 37.6% of adolescents (15-19 years) and 42.0% of young adults (20-24 years). Sexually experienced women were more than twice as likely as non-sexually experienced women to intend to receive HPV vaccine (15-19 years: aOR=2.39, 95% CI=1.15, 4.94; 20-24 years: aOR=2.17, 95% CI=1.08, 4.33). Having health insurance was associated with being likely to receive HPV vaccine among adolescents. Hispanic young adults were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to be likely to receive HPV vaccine. The belief of not being at risk for HPV and institutional barriers were the two most commonly cited reasons for foregoing vaccination.Among unvaccinated women who did not intend to get vaccinated, respondents who never had sex were more likely to report not being at risk as the main reason for not needing the vaccine compared to women with sexual experience (44.5 vs. 24.4%) but this finding was only marginally significant in our limited sample. In the first years

  2. Motivation to quit or reduce gambling: Associations between Self-Determination Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-01-01

    Motivation for change and recovery from addiction has been commonly assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Analogous to readiness for change, this measure of motivation may not recognize other elements of motivation relevant to successful change. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stages of change and reasons for change according to the Self-Determination Theory among problem gamblers motivated to quit. Motivations for change were examined for 200 adult problem gamblers with intent to quit in the next 6 months (contemplation stage) or 30 days (preparation stage). Analyses revealed that higher autonomous motivation for quitting gambling predicted greater likelihood of being in the preparation stage, whereas those with higher external motivation for change were less likely to be farther along the stage of change continuum. The findings suggest that autonomous motivations relate to readiness for quitting gambling, and may predict successful resolution from problem gambling.

  3. The reasonable timing of the adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent: suggestion based on progression patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Ryul; Bae, Duk Soo

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to identify and suggest the reasonable timing of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent and patterns of progression. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 50 carcinosarcoma patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. Among these 50 patients, 32 underwent curative surgery and 13 underwent maximal tumor debulking surgery. The remaining five patients underwent biopsy only. Twenty-six patients received chemotherapy, and 15 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 17.3 months. Curative resection (p < 0.001) and stage (p < 0.001) were statistically significant factors affecting survival. During follow-up, 30 patients showed progression. Among these, eight patients (16.0%) had loco-regional progression only. The patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy did not show loco-regional progression, and radiotherapy was a significant negative risk factor for loco-regional progression (p = 0.01). The time to loco-regional progression was much earlier for non-curative than curative resection (range, 0.7 to 7.6 months vs. 7.5 to 39.0 months). Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinosarcoma might be related to a low loco-regional progression rate. Radiotherapy should be considered in non-curatively resected patients as soon as possible.

  4. Finding the critical cue: implementation intentions to change one's diet work best when tailored to personally relevant reasons for unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F

    2009-01-01

    Implementation intentions promote acting on one's good intentions. But does specifying where and when to act also suffice when goals involve complex change that requires not merely initiating a behavior but rather substituting a habit with a new response? In a pilot study and two experiments, the authors investigated the efficacy of implementation intentions to replace unhealthy snacks with healthy snacks by linking different types of cues for unhealthy snacking (if-part) to healthy snacking (then-part). The pilot study identified cues for unhealthy snacking, differentiating between situational (where/when) and motivational (why) cues. Studies 1 and 2 tested the efficacy of implementation intentions that specified either situational or motivational cues in altering snacking habits. Results showed that implementation intentions specifying motivational cues decreased unhealthy snack consumption whereas the classic specification of where and when did not. Extending previous research, for complex behavior change "why" seems more important than "where and when."

  5. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns, Readiness to Quit, and Quit Attempts Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighting, Quentaxia; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; LeBlanc, Hannah; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2017-11-07

    Cigarette purchasing patterns may be linked with greater readiness to make a quit attempt and more quit attempts among domiciled samples. However, little is known about the cigarette purchasing patterns of homeless smokers or their potential relations to quitting intention and behaviors. This study redressed this gap among a convenience sample of homeless adult smokers from a large shelter in Dallas, Texas. Participants (N = 207; Mage = 43; 71.5% male) smoked ≥100 cigarettes over the lifetime and endorsed current daily smoking. Variables assessed included cigarette dependence (time to first cigarette of the day), monthly income, quantity of cigarettes most recently purchased, average money spent on cigarettes weekly, readiness/motivation to quit smoking, and the number intentional quit attempts lasting ≥24h in the past year. Regression analyses were conducted to characterize associations of cigarette purchasing patterns with readiness to quit and quit attempts controlling for sex, age, cigarette dependence, and income. Most participants purchased cigarettes by the pack (61.4%), and more than half the sample spent ≤$20 on cigarettes per week. Results indicated that spending less money per week on cigarettes was associated with greater readiness to quit (P = .016), even when controlling for income, cigarette dependence, and other covariates. Stratified analyses indicated that this association was significant only for homeless smokers reporting no regular monthly income. Homeless daily smokers with no reported income who spend little money on cigarettes may make particularly apt targets for cessation interventions due to potential associations with quitting motivation. Adults who are homeless smoke at greater rates and quit at lower rates than domiciled adults, leading to significant smoking-related health disparities among this group. Findings suggest that cigarette purchasing patterns are linked with readiness to quit smoking among smokers who are homeless

  6. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Quit Smoking? What's in this article? Where ... addictive drug. But with the right approach , you can overcome the cravings. Where to Start Smokers often ...

  7. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K

    2013-01-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....

  8. A comparative test of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of condom use intentions in a national sample of English young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S; McVey, D; Glanz, A

    1999-01-01

    Based on the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), predictors of condom use intentions were investigated in 949 young people (16-24 years of age) from a national survey conducted in England. Contrary to expectations, the TPB did not perform significantly better than the TRA, even among women. Measures of past behavior were the best predictors of intentions and attenuated the effects of attitude and subjective norm. There was only weak evidence for the multiplicative assumption underlying the TRA and TPB. Although the TRA components were not the strongest predictors, the beliefs on which they are based are potentially amenable to change through information-based intervention programs. A number of practical suggestions for developing intervention strategies are offered.

  9. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Raisamo, Susanna; Wiium, Nora

    2012-08-15

    In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths' future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  10. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond "True" or "False" to the statement: "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next." Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next" was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

  11. Metacognition and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes. PMID:22492753

  12. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  13. An investigation of appearance motives for tanning: The development and evaluation of the Physical Appearance Reasons For Tanning Scale (PARTS) and its relation to sunbathing and indoor tanning intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; van den Berg, Patricia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Stark, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Motives for UV exposure have been shown to be related to appearance concerns, yet little research has examined specific tan appearance attitudes. Given this lacuna, Study 1 involved the identification of six factors among college female tanners: general attractiveness, media influence, family/friends influence, physical fitness appearance, acne reasons, and skin aging concerns. In Study 2, a separate sample of college female tanners were used to validate a higher order factor model, which demonstrated acceptable fit. Additionally, the factors converged in the expected directions, with the general attractiveness and skin aging concerns being the best correlate of UV exposure and sun-protection intentions. The relevance of these findings to skin cancer prevention is discussed.

  14. Using the theory of reasoned action to predict organizational misbehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yoav; Weitz, Ely

    2002-12-01

    A review of literature on organizational behavior and management on predicting work behavior indicated that most reported studies emphasize positive work outcomes, e.g., attachment, performance, and satisfaction, while job related misbehaviors have received relatively less systematic research attention. Yet, forms of employee misconduct in organizations are pervasive and quite costly for both individuals and organizations. We selected two conceptual frameworks for the present investigation: Vardi and Wiener's model of organizational misbehavior and Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action. The latter views individual behavior as intentional, a function of rationally based attitudes toward the behavior, and internalized normative pressures concerning such behavior. The former model posits that different (normative and instrumental) internal forces lead to the intention to engage in job-related misbehavior. In this paper we report a scenario based quasi-experimental study especially designed to test the utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action in predicting employee intentions to engage in self-benefitting (Type S), organization-benefitting (Type O, or damaging (Type D) organizational misbehavior. Results support the Theory of Reasoned Action in predicting negative workplace behaviors. Both attitude and subjective norm are useful in explaining organizational misbehavior. We discuss some theoretical and methodological implications for the study of misbehavior intentions in organizations.

  15. Counseling parents to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Free, Teresa A

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that 20%-50% of adult smokers reside with children, and the majority of these smokers (70%) continue to smoke inside their homes despite the adverse health effects of second hand smoke (SHS) for their children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997). Smoking is more prevalent among parents with lower incomes and less education (U.S. Surgeon General's Report, 2002a). Young persons, ages 20-40 in the family child-rearing stage, are more likely to be smokers. However, they usually have less time and financial resources for quitting smoking. To prevent the adverse health effects of SHS for children, pediatric nurses must provide parents with accurate information on affordable smoking cessation education resources. Evidenced-based smoking cessation guidelines, the cost and efficacy of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacological aids, and essential counseling tips for parents are reviewed.

  16. Unravelling intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one’s own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing...... results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention......, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial...

  17. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  18. Analysis of the morality of intention in nuclear deterrence, with special reference to final retaliation. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quite apart from its apparent political obsolescence, the policy of nuclear deterrence is vulnerable to attack for its seemingly obvious immorality. Nuclear war is blatantly immoral, and nuclear deterrence requires a genuine intention to resort to the nuclear retaliation which would precipitate such a war. Therefore, since it is wrong to intend that which is wrong to do, deterrence is immoral. This thesis seeks to examine the nature of the deterrent intention as a means of verifying the soundness of the above deontological argument. This examination is carried out by first suggesting an acceptable notion of intention in general and then, after analysing the views of deterrent intention by other writers, proceeding to demonstrate the uniqueness of that intention. Having done this, and having explored the possibility that deterrence need not contain a genuine intention to retaliate, the thesis moves on to suggest and defend a moral principle which states that endeavours requiring the formation of an immoral intention may nevertheless be moral. Called the Principle of Double Intention (and based on the Principle of Double Effect), it offers a method for the moral assessment of agents who form immoral intentions within larger contexts. By applying this principle to nuclear deterrence, it is demonstrated that agents who undertake such a policy may be morally justified in doing so, provided certain conditions are met. The thesis closes with a refutation of the objection that an agent cannot rationally form an intention (such as that required in deterrence) which he has no reason to carry out.

  19. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data

  20. Analysis of students’ mathematical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirwan; Darhim; Herman, T.

    2018-01-01

    The reasoning is one of the mathematical abilities that have very complex implications. This complexity causes reasoning including abilities that are not easily attainable by students. Similarly, studies dealing with reason are quite diverse, primarily concerned with the quality of mathematical reasoning. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of mathematical reasoning based perspective Lithner. Lithner looked at how the environment affects the mathematical reasoning. In this regard, Lithner made two perspectives, namely imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning can be memorized and algorithmic reasoning. The Result study shows that although the students generally still have problems in reasoning. Students tend to be on imitative reasoning which means that students tend to use a routine procedure when dealing with reasoning. It is also shown that the traditional approach still dominates on the situation of students’ daily learning.

  1. Reason, Action, and Weakness of the Will. A Semantic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Barrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops some of Austin’s ideas on excuses, stressing their “dimensional” character and relating it to Searle’s distinction between intention-in-action and previous intention, in order to show that the original speech-act shaped distinction between weakness of the will and moral weakness can be embedded in a quite different theoretical framework such as Davidson’s, while Austin’s dimensional classification of actions cannot. Finally, the article analyzes how Grice’s critique of Davidson’s views on akrasia is more faithful to Austin and more radical in its conclusions concerning the justificatory aspect of reasons and the rational features of action.

  2. Understanding quit decisions in primary care: a qualitative study of older GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Anna; Calitri, Raff; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John

    2016-02-19

    To investigate the reasons behind intentions to quit direct patient care among experienced general practitioners (GPs) aged 50-60 years. Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews with GPs in the South West region of England. Transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. 23 GPs aged 50-60 years: 3 who had retired from direct patient care before age 60, and 20 who intended to quit direct patient care within the next 5 years. The analysis identified four key themes: early retirement is a viable option for many GPs; GPs have employment options other than undertaking direct patient care; GPs report feeling they are doing an (almost) undoable job; and GPs may have other aspirations that pull them away from practice. Findings from this study confirmed those from earlier research, with high workload, ageing and health, family and domestic life, and organisational change all influencing GPs' decisions about when to retire/quit direct patient care. However, in addition, GPs expressed feelings of insecurity and uncertainty regarding the future of general practice, low morale, and issues regarding accountability (appraisal and revalidation) and governance. Suggestions about how to help retain GPs within the active clinical workforce were offered, covering individual, practice and organisational levels. This research highlights aspects of the current professional climate for GPs that are having an impact on retirement decisions. Any future changes to policy or practice to help retain experienced GPs will benefit from this informed understanding of GPs' views. Key factors to take into account include: making the GP workload more manageable; managing change sympathetically; paying attention to GPs' own health; improving confidence in the future of general practice; and improving GP morale. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality and morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eAstuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the role of intentionality in reasoning about wrong doing. Anthropologists have claimed that, in certain non-western societies, people ignore whether an act of wrong doing is committed intentionally or accidentally. To examine this proposition, we look at the case of Madagascar. We start by analyzing how Malagasy people respond to incest, and we find that in this case they do not seem to take intentionality into account: catastrophic consequences follow even if those who commit incest are not aware that they are related as kin; punishment befalls on innocent people; and the whole community is responsible for repairing the damage. However, by looking at how people reason about other types of wrong doing, we show that the role of intentionality is well understood, and that in fact this is so even in the case of incest. We therefore argue that, when people contemplate incest and its consequences, they simultaneously consider two quite different issues: the issue of intentionality and blame, and the much more troubling and dumbfounding issue of what society would be like if incest were to be permitted. This entails such a fundamental attack on kinship and on the very basis of society thatissues of intentionality and blame become irrelevant. Using the insights we derive from this Malagasy case study, we re-examine the results of Haidt’s psychological experiment on moral dumbfoundedness, which uses a story about incest between siblings as one of its test scenarios. We suggest that the dumbfoundedness that was documented among North American students may be explained by the same kind of complexity that we found in Madagascar. In light of this, we discuss the methodological limitations of experimental protocols, which are unable to grasp multiple levels of response. We also note the limitations of anthropological methods and the benefits of closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  4. Relationship of Autonomy Social Support to Quitting Motivation in Diverse Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A; Clinic, Mayo; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber; Williams, Karen; Decker, Paul A; Clinic, Mayo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Research examining relationships between social support and smoking cessation has paid little attention to non-treatment seeking smokers and not considered the role of autonomy support for fostering quitting motivation. This study examined if autonomy support received from family and friends was associated with quitting motivation and making a quit attempt among diverse smokers with varying levels of quitting motivation. Demographic characteristics associated with autonomy support were explored. Participants (N=312) responded to advertisements seeking smokers "not quite ready to quit," and were primarily Black, low-income, and unemployed. Most (255) enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation induction strategies (treatment sample). An additional 57 not meeting the trial eligibility criteria of low quitting motivation enrolled for baseline assessments only. Participants completed baseline measures of autonomy support received from friends and autonomous quitting motivation. In the treatment sample, quit attempts were assessed at 6-months follow-up. Females reported higher levels than males of autonomy support from friends (p=0.003). Participants with a high school diploma/GED reported higher levels of support from family (pautonomy support scores were significantly, albeit weakly, associated with autonomous quitting motivation. Autonomy support was not associated with making a quit attempt. Support from family and friends may promote autonomous reasons to quit among diverse smokers. Research is needed to assess the role of social support in the pre-quitting phases among racial and socio-economically diverse populations.

  5. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  7. Desertions in nineteenth-century shipping: modelling quit behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jari Ojala; Jaakko Pehkonen; Jari Eloranta

    2013-01-01

    Ship jumping in foreign ports was widespread throughout the age of sail. Desertion by seamen was illegal, it occurred abroad, and men who deserted only seldom returned home. We analyse desertion quantitatively and link it to the broader question of quit behaviour and labour turnover. Though the better wages paid at the foreign ports were the main reason for desertion, the regression model of the determinants of desertion indicates that outside opportunities, such as migration, and monetary in...

  8. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  9. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  10. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  11. Smoking - tips on how to quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SOME GOALS Set short-term quitting goals and reward yourself when you meet them. Every day, put ... surgery - discharge Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge ...

  12. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  13. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  14. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  15. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working... Add to Want to watch this again later? Sign in to add this video to a ... is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is ...

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  17. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  18. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  19. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  20. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  1. Quitting and Peer Effects at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaz , Julie; Slonim , Robert; Villeval , Marie Claire

    2015-01-01

    While peer effects have been shown to affect worker's productivity when workers are paid a fixed wage, there is little evidence on their influence on quitting decisions. This paper presents results from an experiment in which participants receive a piece-rate wage to perform a real-effort task. After completing a compulsory work period, the participants have the option at any time to continue working or quit. To study peer effects, we randomly assign participants to work alone or have one oth...

  2. Pertinent reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors venture beyond one of the fundamental assumptions in the non-monotonic reasoning community, namely that non-monotonic entailment is supra-classical. They investigate reasoning which uses an infra-classical entailment...

  3. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transcript: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.drugabuse.gov/comment-policy Category Education License Standard YouTube License Source videos View attributions ...

  4. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  5. Risk perception and motivation to quit smoking: a partial test of the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca J; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Simmons, Vani N

    2011-07-01

    The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) posits a distinction between pre-intentional motivation processes and a post-intentional volition process that leads to the actual behavior change. For smoking cessation, the HAPA predicts that increased risk perceptions would foster a decision to quit smoking. From a cross-sectional perspective, the HAPA predicts that those who do not intend to quit (non-intenders) should have lower risk perceptions than those who do intend to quit (intenders). Adult smokers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Multiple measures of motivation to quit smoking and risk perceptions for smoking were assessed. ANOVA and contrast analysis were employed for data analysis. The results were generally supportive of the HAPA. Non-intenders had systematically lower risk perceptions compared to intenders. Most of these findings were statistically significant. The results demonstrated that risk perceptions distinguish non-intenders from intenders. These results suggest that smokers low in motivation to quit could benefit from information and reminders about the serious health problems caused by smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Online Asynchronous Counseling With Tobacco Treatment Specialists in the QUIT-PRIMO and National Dental PBRN HI-QUIT Studies: Who Uses It and What Do They Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica H; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Volkman, Julie E; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Ray, Midge N; Gilbert, Gregg H; Houston, Thomas K

    2018-06-01

    To describe the content of messages sent by smokers through asynchronous counseling within a Web-based smoking cessation intervention. Qualitative. National community-based setting of patients who had been engaged by the medical or dental practices at which they attended or via Google advertisements. Adults older than 19 years who were current smokers and interested in quitting. Participants throughout the United States referred to a Web-based cessation intervention by their medical or dental provider or by clicking on a Google advertisement. We conducted a qualitative review of 742 asynchronous counseling messages sent by 270 Web site users. Messages were reviewed, analyzed, and organized into qualitative themes by the investigative team. The asynchronous counseling feature of the intervention was used most frequently by smokers who were white (87%), female (67%), aged 45 to 54 (32%), and who had at least some college-level education (70%). Qualitative analysis yielded 7 basic themes-Talk about the Process of Quitting, Barriers to Quitting, Reasons to Quit, Quit History, Support and Strategies for Quitting, Quitting with Medication, and Quit Progress. The most common theme was Support and Strategies for Quitting with 255 references among all messages. We found rich communication across the spectrum of the quit process, from persons preparing to quit to those who had successfully quit. Asynchronous smoking cessation counseling provides a promising means of social support for smokers during the quit process.

  7. Career intentions of Australian physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers’ career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers’ work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the respondents wanted a change from their current PE teacher job and 39.8% were intending to leave PE teaching. The most frequent reasons for wanting to...

  8. Reasoning about Codata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Ralf

    Programmers happily use induction to prove properties of recursive programs. To show properties of corecursive programs they employ coinduction, but perhaps less enthusiastically. Coinduction is often considered a rather low-level proof method, in particular, as it departs quite radically from equational reasoning. Corecursive programs are conveniently defined using recursion equations. Suitably restricted, these equations possess unique solutions. Uniqueness gives rise to a simple and attractive proof technique, which essentially brings equational reasoning to the coworld. We illustrate the approach using two major examples: streams and infinite binary trees. Both coinductive types exhibit a rich structure: they are applicative functors or idioms, and they can be seen as memo-tables or tabulations. We show that definitions and calculations benefit immensely from this additional structure.

  9. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  10. [Evaluation of motivation to quit smoking in outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokłosa, Anna; Skoczylas, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Anna; Bednarek, Michał; Krzyzanowski, Krystian; Górecka, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The success in smoking cessation depends not only on a method of treatment but also on patient motivation. The aim of this study was to estimate the motivation and the main reason to quit smoking among outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic. One hundred and eleven patients (50 men and 61 women), mean age 58, filled in a motivation test, nicotine dependence test and a questionnaire of the clinic. The main motivation to quit was for the health reasons (83%). Mean motivation test result was 6.93; mean nicotine addiction evaluated in dependence test was 5.49. Eighty seven percent of patients were ready to quit smoking during one month (36% in 24 hours; 23% in one week; 28% in four weeks). There was no significant difference between men and women. The main motivation to quit smoking were the health reasons as well among men as women. There was no correlation between the readiness to quit smoking determined as time to quit attempt and the motivation test.

  11. Strong smoker interest in 'setting an example to children' by quitting: national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Weerasekera, Deepa; Edwards, Richard

    2011-02-01

    To further explore smoker views on reasons to quit. As part of the multi-country ITC Project, a national sample of 1,376 New Zealand adult (18+ years) smokers was surveyed in 2007/08. This sample included boosted sampling of Māori, Pacific and Asian New Zealanders. 'Setting an example to children' was given as 'very much' a reason to quit by 51%, compared to 45% giving personal health concerns. However, the 'very much' and 'somewhat' responses (combined) were greater for personal health (81%) than 'setting an example to children' (74%). Price was the third ranked reason (67%). In a multivariate analysis, women were significantly more likely to state that 'setting an example to children' was 'very much' or 'somewhat' a reason to quit; as were Māori, or Pacific compared to European; and those suffering financial stress. The relatively high importance of 'example to children' as a reason to quit is an unusual finding, and may have arisen as a result of social marketing campaigns encouraging cessation to protect families in New Zealand. The policy implications could include a need for a greater emphasis on social reasons (e.g. 'example to children'), in pack warnings, and in social marketing for smoking cessation. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  13. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieminska, Alicja; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Jassem, Ewa; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Ucinska, Romana; Chelminska, Marta

    2008-08-04

    The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers) who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76%) used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001), mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%). The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%), personal health problems (32%) and social reasons (32%). However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3%) abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is a need for a broader professional help for them. There is

  14. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.

  15. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  16. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  17. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...

  18. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  19. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovators Intent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Maria Luisa; Rai, Sudhanshu

    With this paper we want to explore further the innovators intent, where social enterprises use imaginative ways to take advantage of information technology to create, share and manage the knowledge pool of their small enterprise. We draw on several perspectives on how information processing needs...... are addressed, as well as the manner in which IT enables and facilitates sense-making. Studies exploring the role of IT in organisations abound, however our focus is not large organisations but small social enterprises (SEs) and how they use IT to further their business objectives. Hence there is still a lack......, and less the collaborative work and communication among enterprise members. However, it was established that SEs were using different technologies, such as, cloud solutions and web 2.0 tools to manage informally their knowledge. The possible impediments for SEs to support themselves more on IT solutions...

  1. Adversarial reasoning: challenges and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kott, Alexander; Ownby, Michael

    2005-05-01

    This paper defines adversarial reasoning as computational approaches to inferring and anticipating an enemy's perceptions, intents and actions. It argues that adversarial reasoning transcends the boundaries of game theory and must also leverage such disciplines as cognitive modeling, control theory, AI planning and others. To illustrate the challenges of applying adversarial reasoning to real-world problems, the paper explores the lessons learned in the CADET -- a battle planning system that focuses on brigade-level ground operations and involves adversarial reasoning. From this example of current capabilities, the paper proceeds to describe RAID -- a DARPA program that aims to build capabilities in adversarial reasoning, and how such capabilities would address practical requirements in Defense and other application areas.

  2. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  5. Quite a few reasons for calling carnivores 'the most wonderful plants in the world'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Król, E.; Plancho, B. J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Stolarz, M.; Dziubińska, H.; Trebacz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2012), s. 47-64 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * gland functioning * plant excitability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  6. Nine reasons why ecstasy is not quite what it used to be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounteney, Jane; Griffiths, Paul; Bo, Alessandra; Cunningham, Andrew; Matias, Joao; Pirona, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of change, linked with both supply and demand for the drug. Factors discussed include: innovation in production techniques; changes in precursor chemical availability; the role of online markets; competition with other stimulants and new psychoactive substances; the increased availability of high-strength MDMA; and the shift from subcultural towards more mainstream use of the drug. The paper proposes that the MDMA on Europe's contemporary market is in some respects a third generation product with a different consumer profile, with implications that responses developed at the time of the drug's earlier iteration, may be in need of a review and revamp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  8. Navy Recruit’s Expectations of Productivity, Liking, and Intentions to Quit under Different Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Further research in this area , however, is clearly necessary. The Hispanic/Mainstream contrast, in this study, did not reveal any important differences...1977, 3, 143-158 (b). Triandis, H. C. Influencias culturales en el comportamiento social. Inter- american Journal of Psychology, 1981, 1 5, 1-28

  9. Second-Class Citizen? Contract Workers' Perceived Status, Dual Commitment and Intent to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Wendy R.; Watkins, Maria Baskerville; Triana, Maria del Carmen; Zardkoohi, Asghar; Ren, Run; Umphress, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing of jobs to contract workers who work alongside a client's employees has changed the human resource landscape of many organizations. In this study we examine how a contract worker's perceived employment status similarity to the client's own standard employees influences his/her affective commitment to both the client and the employer…

  10. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  11. A qualitative and quantitative study of the reasons of attrition in an Indian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study attempts to evaluate the reasons of attrition in the organization from the perspective of the existing as well as the leaving employees; compare and identify the gaps, if any between the perspectives of these two employees groups. The study also aims to critically analyze the utility of ′exit interviews′ for analyzing the reasons of attrition. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a 150-bedded hospital in Ahmedabad, India, during May-July 2015. Exit interview data of forty leaving employees were collected and reviewed. One hundred existing employees were interviewed through quantitative and qualitative methods to understand their perceptions about attrition in the organization. Results: Attrition rate of 26% was observed in the study and 57% leaving employees were nurses. 70% leaving employees cite "blanket reasons" such as better opportunity and personal reasons during exit interviews. 72.5% leaving employees believed that exit interview is largely for record purpose and 11% were unsure of its utility. However, when existing employees were probed qualitatively, a variety of responses were received. 65% existing employees quoted salary issues, partiality/poor recognition, improper assignment of tasks, and monotonous work as reasons for attrition in the organization. Conclusion: Exit interviews somewhere fail to probe into the real reasons of attrition. To improve retention, organizations must monitor their existing employee′s intention to continue working in the organization and any sign indicating a poor intention to continue must be addressed immediately to avoid ripple effects. Moreover, to use exit interview as a tool to improve employee retention, leaving employees must be interviewed in-depth to uncover the actual reasons for quitting the job.

  12. Graphic and Arousing? Emotional and Cognitive Reactions to Tobacco Graphic Health Warnings and Associated Quit-Related Outcomes Among Low SEP Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-02-01

    Research on graphic health warnings (GHWs) indicates that beyond changing cognitions about the health effects of smoking, GHWs evoke emotional reactions that can influence quit-related outcomes. Emotions can be classified based on valence (positive or negative) and arousal (calm or excited). However, although considerable research has examined the differential effectiveness of positive versus negative GHW-evoked emotions, research investigating the role of arousal activation in quit-related behaviors is scarce. This study examined associations between quit-related outcomes (intention and attempt to quit) and GHWs-evoked negative emotions classified as high and low in arousal activation as well as cognitive reactions among smokers of low socioeconomic position (SEP). It also examined whether perceived health risks of smoking moderate the relationship between emotional and cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit-related outcomes. Data were collected from low SEP smokers in three Massachusetts communities. Participants were screened and randomized to view one of the nine GHWs initially proposed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and answered pre- and post-exposure questions. Results showed that GHW-evoked negative emotions high in arousal activation and cognitive reactions were both significantly associated with intention to quit during immediate post-test, controlling for age, warning label difference, and prior quit intention. However, these associations did not hold for quit attempts at follow-up. Perceived health risks of smoking moderated the association between cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit attempts at follow-up. The findings suggest that not all negative emotions evoked by GHWs are effective. Negative emotions high in arousal activation may be more effective in influencing quit-related behavioral intentions in low SEP groups. Additionally, unlike emotional reactions, cognitive reactions to GHWs may have effects that last relatively

  13. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  14. [The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.

  15. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-12

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.  Created: 1/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/12/2017.

  16. A reasoned action approach to health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and abilities can moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Similar to the theory of planned behavior, the IM also assumes that intentions are a function of attitudes, perceived normative pressure and self-efficacy, but it views perceived normative pressure as a function of descriptive as well as of injunctive (i.e., subjective) norms. After describing the theory and addressing some of the criticisms directed at a reasoned action approach, the paper illustrates how the theory can be applied to understanding and changing health related behaviors.

  17. Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Planning before quitting smoking is widely believed to be beneficial and is usually recommended in cessation counseling, but there is little evidence on the efficacy of specific planning activities. Using data from 1140 respondents who reported quit attempts at Wave 8 of the ITC 4-Country Survey, we analyzed use of 8 specific planning strategies before (5) and after (3) implementation of a quit attempt, in relation to cessation outcomes, delay in implementation of the attempt, and recent quitting history. Most participants reported some planning both before and after quitting, even among those reporting quitting 'spontaneously.' Younger smokers, those who cut down before quitting, and users of stop-smoking medication were more likely to report planning. Those who planned prequit were also more likely to plan postquit. Unexpectedly, we found no clear benefit of planning on short-term (1 month) cessation outcomes, whereas one prequit strategy (practicing not smoking) was negatively related to outcome. There was evidence for a predicted moderating effect of recent quitting experience on planning for the prequit task 'practice replacement strategies.' This predicted quit success among those with multiple quit attempts in the past year, but failure among those without. This finding suggests that the quality of planning may be critical. More research, particularly on the moderating effect of quit experience, and where measures of planning are collected before outcomes become evident, is needed before clear recommendations can be made on the utility of various forms of planning for the success of quit attempts.

  18. Definition of a quit attempt: a replication test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    The incidence of quit attempts is often used to measure the effects of tobacco control interventions. Many surveys of quit attempts require that the attempt last ≥24 hr, presumably to provide a more objective definition and to eliminate less serious attempts; however, this criterion may bias outcomes by excluding the more dependent quitters who cannot stop for 1 day despite a serious quit attempt. We examined the 2003 and the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine the prevalence of quit attempts that did and did not last 24 hr, both in the last 12 months and in one's lifetime among current daily smokers. We also tested the hypothesis that those unable to quit for 24 hr were the more dependent smokers. Requiring quit attempts to last 24 hr excluded 6%-17% of smokers who stated they made a quit attempt. Whether smokers who could not quit for more than 24 hr were more dependent varied across survey, recall duration, and measure. We conclude restricting quit attempts to those who have quit for 24 hr underestimates the prevalence of attempts. Whether those unable to quit for 24 hr are the more dependent smokers is unclear. Empirical tests of whether the addition of a 24-hr criterion increases reliability or validity are needed.

  19. Motivational interviewing and the decisional balance procedure for cessation induction in smokers not intending to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigel, Susan W; Grobe, James E; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Moreno, Jose L; Catley, Delwyn

    2017-01-01

    The decisional balance (DB) procedure examines the pros and cons of behavior change and was considered a component in early formulations of Motivational Interviewing (MI). However, there is controversy and conflicting findings regarding the use of a DB exercise within the treatment of addictions and a need to clarify the role of DB as a component of MI. College tobacco smokers (N=82) with no intentions on quitting were randomly assigned to receive a single counseling session of either Motivational Interviewing using only the decisional balance component (MIDB), or health education around smoking cessation (HE). Assessments were obtained at baseline, immediately post-treatment, 1week, and 4weeks. Compared to HE, the MIDB sessions scored significantly higher on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale (all standardized differences d>1, pmotivation to quit, quit attempts, and self-reported abstinence, with no significant group differences. Changes in the Pros of smoking were correlated with MITI scores, but not with cessation outcomes. In contrast, increases in the Cons of smoking and therapeutic alliance were predictive of better cessation outcomes. The decisional balance exercise as formulated by earlier versions of MI may be counter-productive and cautions around its use are warranted. Instead, improved cessation outcomes appear associated with increasing perceived benefits of quitting and positive therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reasons for not using smoking cessation aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völzke Henry

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few smokers use effective smoking cessation aids (SCA when trying to stop smoking. Little is known why available SCA are used insufficiently. We therefore investigated the reasons for not using SCA and examined related demographic, smoking behaviour, and motivational variables. Methods Data were collected in two population-based studies testing smoking cessation interventions in north-eastern Germany. A total of 636 current smokers who had never used SCA and had attempted to quit or reduce smoking within the last 12 months were given a questionnaire to assess reasons for non-use. The questionnaire comprised two subscales: "Social and environmental barriers" and "SCA unnecessary." Results The most endorsed reasons for non-use of SCA were the belief to be able to quit on one's own (55.2%, the belief that help is not necessary (40.1%, and the belief that smoking does not constitute a big problem in one's life (36.5%. One quarter of all smokers reported that smoking cessation aids are not helpful in quitting and that the aids cost too much. Smokers intending to quit agreed stronger to both subscales and smokers with lower education agreed stronger to the subscale "Social and environmental barriers". Conclusion Main reasons for non-use of SCA are being overly self-confident and the perception that SCA are not helpful. Future interventions to increase the use of SCA should address these reasons in all smokers.

  1. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  2. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behavior and responses to a smoking ban

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how ‘smoker’ and ‘non-smoker’ self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Design: Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Main outcome measures: Intention to quit, quit attempts and ‘rejecting...

  3. What does it mean to want to quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Borland, Ron

    2008-01-01

    To report on the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about the importance of wanting to quit and need for use of cessation assistance, that may act as barriers to quitting smoking and adopting cessation assistance. National telephone survey of 802 randomly selected adults (685 smokers, 117 recent quitters). Seventy per cent of smokers believed that 'wanting to quit' was both a necessary and sufficient condition for being able to quit. While only one-third of smokers believed that they were too addicted to be able to quit, only a quarter believed they could quit any time they want to. Belief that use of cessation assistance is a sign of weakness was endorsed by 35% of participants, and related to stage of change. Beliefs about the importance of wanting to quit are commonly held. Many smokers appear to believe that a rational, unambivalent desire to quit is needed before it is worthwhile trying. Short-term impulses to act are not perceived as sufficient. The role of cessation assistance in helping smokers form a rational desire to quit appears to be poorly understood by the majority of smokers. There is a need to engender greater understanding of the potential value of cessation aids to smokers experiencing ambivalence about wanting to quit.

  4. Sociodemographic differences in triggers to quit smoking: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeli, E; West, R

    2008-12-01

    Reasons for quitting smoking and triggers that finally precipitate a quit attempt are not necessarily the same thing. We sought to assess variation in reported triggers of attempts to stop smoking as a function of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional household survey in England. A total of 2441 smokers and ex-smokers aged 16 and over, who reported making at least one serious quit attempt in the last 12 months, were recruited. The main outcome measure was participants' responses to the question "What finally triggered your most recent quit attempt?". Respondents selected from a list of options or specified a trigger not on the list. In the event, smokers typically reported as triggers similar factors as have previously been reported as "reasons". "A concern about future health problems" (28.5%) was the most commonly cited trigger followed by "health problems I had at the time" (18%) and then "a decision that smoking was too expensive" (12.2%). The most common external trigger was advice from a health professional (5.6%). Future health concern was more common in smokers with higher socioeconomic status (SES), whereas cost and current health problems were more often cited by lower SES smokers. Younger smokers were more likely to report their quit attempt being triggered by a TV advertisement while older smokers were more likely to cite advice from a health professional. Concern about future health problems was cited less often by 16 to 24 year olds and those aged 65+ than those aged 25 to 64 years. There are significant differences in reported triggers for quit attempts as a function of sociodemographic factors. Most notably, smokers with higher SES are more likely to report concern about future health whereas those from lower SES are more likely to cite cost and current health problems.

  5. FURTHER INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUIT RATES AND THE WAGE-TENURE PROFILE IN JAPANESE MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 聰一; OHKUSA, Yasushi

    1996-01-01

    We examine the relationship between actual quit rates and the slope of wage-tenure profile. The results obtained clarify that there is a negative relationship between these series when we use the definition with monetary units. Conversely, the slope defined in terms of growth is found to be positively correlated with the quit rate. As the theory predicts a negative relationship between these variables, it seems reasonable to conclude from the results that the definition of the slope in moneta...

  6. [Motivation to quit smoking among ex-smoker university workers and students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, V; Sotomayor, H; Cruz, M; Naveas, R

    2001-05-01

    In Chile, 10% of deaths in adults are directly attributed to smoking. To identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to quit smoking among a group of subjects that quitted without external help. The motivations to quit smoking were measured using the 20 items Reasons for Quitting Scale (RFQ), in 145 ex smokers (80 students and 65 workers at The University of Conception). The scale identifies intrinsic motivations in the categories health and self control and extrinsic motivations in the categories immediate reinforcement and social pressure. Factorial analysis with orthogonal rotation of the 20 items of the scale, suggested an optimal solution with five factors, that had a maximal impact of 0.43 and explained the motivations in up to a 66% of workers and 65% of students. The factors with the greater impact were the items of immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The category health had only a 6% influence in the modification of smoking habits. The most important motivations to quit smoking in this sample were an immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The analysis of motivations will help to orient smoking cessation programs.

  7. Gender Differences in Quits and Absenteeism in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2007-01-01

    Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada and attempts to assess whether the traditional view is still valid today. The study found that Canadian women's quitting behaviour chang...

  8. Reasons for use, potential use, or discontinued use of hookah among us young adult college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Existing research regarding hookah use among young adults highlights the influences of perceptions of harm, social factors, and the draw of product design and marketing. However, limited research has quantitatively examined who is most likely to initiate or sustain hookah use, the characteristics of hookah use among users, or the range of potential reasons for hookah use or discontinued use. This study addresses these gaps by assessing: 1 differences in sociodemographics and other substance use among current, never, and former hookah users; 2 use characteristics among current users (e.g., types of devices/flavors used, quit intentions; and 3 reasons for use, potential use, and discontinued use among young adult current, never, and former hookah users. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort study of students aged 18-25 recruited from seven United States colleges/universities. Results Of 2,865 participants, 56.3% were never users, 12.4% current (past 4-month, and 31.3% former. Correlates of being a current (vs. never hookah user included being “other race” (vs. White, attending an HBCU (vs. a technical college, and use of any other tobacco product, marijuana, or alcohol. Correlates of being a former (vs. never hookah user included being older, being “other race” (vs. White, attending an HBCU (vs. a technical college, and use of any other tobacco product (except cigars, marijuana, or alcohol. Among current users, 73.7% reported no intention to quit; only 26.2% reported attempting to quit in the past 12 months. Two factors regarding current hookah use included: 1 instrumentality (e.g., flavors; and 2 social reasons. One factor emerged regarding potential use among never users, reflecting influences related to social factors and flavors. Three factors regarding discontinued use included: 1 inconvenience (e.g., messy/expensive; 2 anti-tobacco attitude (e.g., unhealthy; and 3 social reasons. Conclusions These results may inform

  9. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2015-01-01

    -2008. In all, 6445 persons reporting quitting successfully within the last 5 years were included in analyses. Users and non-users of cessation aid (medical or behavioural support) were compared with regards to age, education, years smoked, tobacco amount, tobacco type and smoking-related disease using logistic......, those who had smoked for 15 years or more also had lower odds of quitting unaided. Smoking 15 or more grams of tobacco daily was inversely associated with quitting unaided (eg, OR among men were 0.38, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Quitting smoking without the use of formalised aid was the most...

  10. A Reasoned Action Approach to Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and ...

  11. Entrepreneurial Phenomenon: Some Reasons for Career Choice Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Valeria TOMA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-employment and entrepreneurship become increasingly important in our modern economies. This paper tries to provide a timely, definitive and comprehensive overview of the field. The key issues addressed include the impact of ability, risk, personal characteristics to the entrepreneurship. The aim of this article is to provide some information that someone needs in order to decide if the life of an entrepreneur is right for him or the decision to be a self employed is a good one. Making the choice on becoming an entrepreneur can be a challenge. How to know if entrepreneurship is right or not is another question. Also, understanding the attitude towards risk and the correspondent reward for an entrepreneur is very important. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review and offer a theoretical extension of research on the psychological factors that influence the entrepreneur behavior. There is a meaningful and positive relationship between all psychological dimensions of empowerment (self-efficiency, self-determination, personal consequence, meaning, trust in others and entrepreneurship.

  12. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  14. The Impact of Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience Toward Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Danurdoro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of internet in Indonesia is quite fast and the majority of users are students. Internet growth made every fields include banking provided internet based service that called internet banking. The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that affect student’s intention to use internet banking by used the combination model of TAM (Technology Acceptance Model. Independent variables used in this research are Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Subjective Norm, and Experience. While the dependent variable is Student’s Intention to Use Internet Banking. The results show that perceived ease of use and experience are significantly influence students to use internet banking and perceived usefulness and subjective norm are unsignificantly influence students to use internet banking. The usefulness of internet banking did not make the students feel interested to use internet banking, one of the reasons is usefulness of internet banking is limited to non-cash transaction

  15. A randomised controlled trial to prevent smoking relapse among recently quit smokers enrolled in employer and health plan sponsored quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anna M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Weaver, Michael T; Carlini, Beatriz H; Champion, Victoria L; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2015-06-29

    To test adding an interactive voice response (IVR)-supported protocol to standard quitline treatment to prevent relapse among recently quit smokers. Parallel randomised controlled trial with three arms: standard quitline, standard plus technology enhanced quitline with 10 risk assessments (TEQ-10), standard plus 20 TEQ assessments (TEQ-20). Quit For Life (QFL) programme. 1785 QFL enrolees through 19 employers or health plans who were 24+ h quit. QFL is a 5-call telephone-based cessation programme including medications and web-based support. TEQ interventions included 10 or 20 IVR-delivered relapse risk assessments over 8 weeks with automated transfer to counselling for those at risk. Self-reported 7-day and 30-day abstinence assessed at 6-month and 12-month post-enrolment (response rates: 61% and 59%, respectively). Missing data were imputed. 1785 were randomised (standard n=592, TEQ-10 n=602, TEQ-20 n=591). Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat 30-day quit rates (95% CI) at 6 months were 59.4% (53.7% to 63.8%) for standard, 62.3% (57.7% to 66.9%) for TEQ-10, 59.4% (53.7% to 65.1%) for TEQ-20 and 30-day quit rates at 12 months were 61.2% (55.6% to 66.8%) for standard, 60.6% (56.0% to 65.2%) for TEQ-10, 54.9% (49.0% to 60.9%) for TEQ-20. There were no significant differences in quit rates. 73.3% of TEQ participants were identified as at-risk by IVR assessments; on average, participants completed 0.41 IVR-transferred counselling calls. Positive risk assessments identified participants less likely (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76) to be abstinent at 6 months. Standard treatment was highly effective, with 61% remaining abstinent at 12 months using multiple imputation intent-to-treat (intent-to-treat missing=smoking quit rate: 38%). TEQ assessments identified quitters at risk for relapse. However, adding IVR-transferred counselling did not yield higher quit rates. Research is needed to determine if alternative designs can improve outcomes. NCT00888992. Published by

  16. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  18. [Epidemiological study of factors associated with quitting a job among pregnant working women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kenryo; Saeki, Keigo; Konoike, Yoshizumi; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nishioka, Hisayuki; Kurumatani, Norio

    2012-01-01

    More women in Japan continue to quit a job when they find out they are pregnant than in other industrialized countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify factors affecting the quitting rate among female workers who become aware they are pregnant. All pregnant women visiting or admitted to seven obstetrics medical institutions in Nara Prefecture between November and December 2004 for examination or delivery were surveyed. Of these women, 603 who were working when they discovered their pregnancy were subjects of the analysis. Quitting a job was treated as an event occurrence, and those working at the time of the survey were considered censored cases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the trend of the quitting rate associated with gestational weeks. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the relationship between quitting a job and workplace factors such as number of staff at the workplace, types of employment, and availability of a legal maternity protection system, and individual factors such as age and thoughts (both subject's and husband's) on continuing work. The quitting rate up to delivery was 63.1%, but this increased to 69.8% when limited to pregnancy with a first child. Significantly independent factors behind continuation of work after discovering pregnancy were the following: receiving time off for medical examinations (HR=0.59, 95% CI (0.41-0.83)), availability of a child care leave system (0.37 (0.22-0.63)), arranged support system after returning from maternity and child care leave (0.60 (0.42-0.87)), workplace ambience is supportive of working after marriage and childbirth (0.59 (0.43-0.81)), and the subject (0.63 (0.43-0.93)) or husband (0.50 (0.30-0.86)) considers it good to continue working during pregnancy. In contrast, a non-regular employee (1.93 (1.46-2.56)) and being young (1.74 (1.10-2.75)) were factors behind quitting a job. Key conditions that encourage work continuation after becoming aware of pregnancy

  19. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  20. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  1. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. This two-group experimental study was conducted on 60 clients (30 clients in test group and 30 in control group) referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. The study tools were demographic and addiction-quitting self-efficacy questionnaires. After gathering demographic data and conducting pretest, the intervention was carried out based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for the test group and post-test was taken 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS using related tests. According to the results, test group was more successful than the control group in addiction quitting. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence; it was less in the test group. A significant difference was also found between self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention in the test group. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory was effective on addiction quitting. So, it is recommended to apply it for clients referring to addiction quitting clinics.

  2. Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit: The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Shadel, William G; Klein, David J

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking. Data were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking. Bivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies. Results suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 3. Depiction and Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Blumson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the analysis of meaning in terms of intention is orthodoxy in the philosophy of language, it is highly controversial in the philosophy of art. So even if it is agreed that inserting resemblance into the analysis of speaker meaning in terms of intention escapes counterexamples to the sufficiency of resemblance for depiction, it’s likely to be argued that defining depiction as a kind of intentional representation draws too close an analogy between depiction and description. Counterexamp...

  4. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  5. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  6. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  7. Factors influencing Dutch practice nurses' intention to adopt a new smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitlein, Lisa; Smit, Eline Suzanne; de Vries, Hein; Hoving, Ciska

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report of a study that aimed to identify factors influencing practice nurses' and nurse practitioners' intention to adopt a new smoking cessation intervention. Although effective smoking cessation interventions exist and practice nurses can offer a considerable resource in advertising patients to quit smoking, due to several reasons the majority of practice nurses do not implement these interventions. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among Dutch practice nurses and nurse practitioners working in general practices (n = 139) using electronic questionnaires. Data were collected from January until March in 2009. T-tests were used to compare adopters with non-adopters about their predisposing and motivational factors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the variation in intention explained by these factors. The majority of practice nurses did not intend to adopt the new intervention (n = 85; 61.2%). More practice nurses than nurse practitioners intended to adopt the intervention. Attitude and perceived social norms were found to be positively correlated with the intention to adopt the intervention whereas satisfaction with current smoking cessation activities was found to be negatively correlated. Important associations were found between profession, attitude, social norms and satisfaction, and the intention to adopt the new smoking cessation intervention. Practice nurses who do not intend to adopt need to be persuaded of the advantages of adopting. Perceived social norms need to be restructured and before presenting the intervention to a general practice current smoking cessation activities should be determined to increase the intervention's compatibility with these current practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing: Cessation Induction Among Smokers With Low Desire to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S; Moreno, Jose L; Grobe, James E

    2016-05-01

    Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Randomized clinical trial. Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010-2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients' own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Self-reported quit attempts; smoking abstinence (biochemically verified); use of cessation pharmacotherapies; motivation; and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% risk difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing (Cohen's d=0.36, 95% CI=0.12, 0.60). Although Motivational Interviewing was generally

  9. Determinants of Quit Behavior Among Managerial and Professional Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    to socialization or discrimination is the major cause of women’s over representation in crowded occupations. Some studies relate the amount of specific...c.l ^16 Arrowood Determinan ^t:^ of quit behavior aifiong managerial and professional women.

  10. Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information and resources, including Create My Quit Plan , smartphone apps , and text message programs Call the NCI ... 2017. Hatsukami DK, Stead LF, Gupta PC. Tobacco addiction. Lancet 2008; 371(9629):2027–2038. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  11. YouTube as a source of quitting smoking information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backinger, Cathy L; Pilsner, Alison M; Augustson, Erik M; Frydl, Andrea; Phillips, Todd; Rowden, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To conduct analyses to determine the extent to which YouTube videos posted specific to smoking cessation were actually about quitting smoking and if so, whether or not they portrayed evidence-based practices (EBPs). In August 2008, researchers identified YouTube videos by search strategies, 'relevance' and 'view count' using the following three search terms: 'stop smoking', 'quit smoking' and 'smoking cessation (n=296 for full sample and n=191 for unique videos). Overall, almost 60% of videos contained a message about quitting smoking. Differences were found across search terms for videos about quitting smoking, with 'stop smoking' yielding the highest percentage (80.8%) of videos about quitting smoking. Almost half of the videos (48.9%) contained EBPs for cessation strategies; however, a significant portion contained either non--EBPs (28.4%) or both EBPs and non-EBPs (22.7%). The number of views per an individual video across the six categories ranged from a low of 8 in the 'relevance' strategy and 'smoking cessation' search term to a high of 1,247,540 in the 'view count' strategy and 'stop smoking' search term. Of the top three most viewed videos by strategy and search term, 66.7% included a specific mention of quitting smoking and, of these, the majority included EBPs. Results highlight the need to develop and upload videos containing EBPs both to increase the overall proportion of EBP videos in all categories, particularly in 'quit smoking' and 'stop smoking.' Research is needed to study whether YouTube videos influence knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding quitting smoking.

  12. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  13. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  14. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  15. Intentionality and Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Jacquette, Dale

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter I concentrate on the notion of intentionality and its relation to consciousness. Ever since its re-introduction into contemporary philosophy in the works of Franz Brentano, intentionality has been associated in various ways with consciousness. In the continental and analytic

  16. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  17. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  18. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...... be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner....

  19. Revisiting Phenomenal Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Masrour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The goal of the first section is to raise a few clarificatory questions about the exact contour of Crane’s account of intentionality, its relation to phenomenology, and his motivation for it. The second section aims to describe a general worry about programs that combine a broadly anti-externalist outlook on intentionality with the idea that there is an intimate connection between phenomenology and intentionality. I argue that programs like this either suffer from a problem that I call intentional luck or, in the attempt to avoid this problem, have to weaken the connection between intentionality and phenomenology. Since Crane’s general outlook falls under this program, it is subject to this worry.

  20. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner.......The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...

  1. Educational inequalities in smoking: the role of initiation versus quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Vida

    2013-05-01

    The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Using data from 31 waves of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (N = 587,174), the analyses show the relative likelihood of being a never versus former smoker by education, sex, and age from 1966 to 2010 and for birth cohorts from 1920 to 1979. The analyses also describe differences in the cumulative probability of quitting over the life course, and the role of initiation versus quitting in producing educational gaps in smoking. The results show that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking. Differences in former smoking play a small and decreasing role in producing these gaps. This is true across the life course, whether measured at age 25 or age 50, and for both men and women. While the prevalence and age patterns of former smoking by education converge across birth cohorts, differences in never smoking by education increase dramatically. At the population level, educational gaps in adult smoking are produced by the combination of inequalities in initiation and quitting, with differences in initiation playing a larger role in producing the observed gaps. The portion of the gap explained by differences in quitting is itself a function of educational differences in initiation. Thus, educational gradients in adult smoking are tethered to experiences in adolescence. These findings have important implications for both understanding and addressing disparities in this important health behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Relations between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

    2010-05-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments. Experiment 1 showed 2 dissociations: For a common set of arguments, deduction judgments were more affected by validity, and induction judgments were more affected by similarity. Moreover, Experiment 2 showed that fast deduction judgments were like induction judgments-in terms of being more influenced by similarity and less influenced by validity, compared with slow deduction judgments. These novel results pose challenges for a 1-process account of reasoning and are interpreted in terms of a 2-process account of reasoning, which was implemented as a multidimensional signal detection model and applied to receiver operating characteristic data. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Normative reasons and the possibility of motivation | Luco | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... objects of psychological states –particularly beliefs, desires and intentions. In reply to the objection that normative reasons can never be objects of psychological states, I contend that all normative reasons are capable of being represented as the objects of psychological states. South African Journal of Philosophy 2014, ...

  4. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  5. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  6. Unravelling intention: distal intentions increase the subjective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Pedersen, Michael N; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one's own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial distinction between at least two types of intention when addressing the efficacy of conscious intentions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.

  8. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm......We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM......-algorithm to this problem. The models are extended to account for the panel data structure of the data set by including random effects. We use exclusion restrictions to identify quits and lay offs. We find many quitters among young and old women but only few among men....

  9. E-cigarette use in adults: a qualitative study of users' perceptions and future use intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Harrell, Paul T; Meltzer, Lauren R; Correa, John B; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids. We also obtained perspectives on future use intentions and interest in e-cigarette cessation interventions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants reported several aspects of e-cigarette appeal as compared to approved cessation treatment options. These included similarities to combustible cigarettes, fewer side effects, and control of e-cigarettes to suit personal preferences. Participants were split on whether they preferred flavors that mimicked or contrasted with their combustible cigarettes (i.e., tobacco vs. alternative flavors, such as candy). Some participants who were unmotivated to quit smoking reported an unanticipated disinterest in continuing use of combustible cigarettes shortly after initiating e-cigarettes. Despite strong interest in reducing nicotine dosage, the majority did not intend to fully discontinue e-cigarettes. Understanding e-cigarette users' perspectives can inform policy and treatment development. Regulatory and policy initiatives will need to balance the appealing characteristics of e-cigarettes with the potential for negative public health outcomes.

  10. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  11. Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-09-01

    Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment). Overall, gender differences were not observed in clinical and demographic characteristics. However, women exhibited greater shame [F(1,204) = 12.11, p = 0.001] and guilt proneness [F(1,204) = 14.16, p motivation for change was associated with higher guilt-proneness, greater problem gambling severity, and the preparation stage of change; whereas controlled forms of motivation were significantly associated with higher shame-proneness and greater problem gambling severity. No gender effects were observed for either motivation for change. These findings suggest that the process of change can be different for shame-prone and guilt-prone problem gamblers, which may impact behavioral outcomes.

  12. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  13. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  15. Factors associated with quitting areca (betel) quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Shiun; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin Connie; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide useful data for a future abstinence project by identifying the factors related to quitting areca (betel) quid chewing. The study was cross-sectional. Data on demographic variables, psychological factors and substance-use behaviors were collected via questionnaires from 326 participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the areca/betel quid chewers who were less educated (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) were least likely to try to give up. Among the chewers who tried to quit, those employed as full-time drivers (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.14-4.39), who had drinking habits (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.24-4.66), and who preferred to chew only betel quid wrapped with leaf (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 1.99-9.90) were more likely to fail. Chewers who successfully quit had a higher internal health locus of control compared with those who failed to quit (one-point increments, OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.98). The results suggest that health educators and researchers can better influence people's chewing behavior if the importance of chewers' education level, job type, substance use (i.e. drinking habits, type of betel quid), and level of health locus of control are all taken into consideration when devising interventions.

  16. THYROID FUNCTION Quitting smoking-transient risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for Graves disease. However, Carle et al. have demonstrated that individuals have a transient increased risk of developing overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in the first 2 years after quitting smoking. The mechanisms involved in these two opposing effects of smoking on the

  17. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  18. Cannabis use during a voluntary quit attempt: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H

    2013-10-01

    There is little research that has sought to identify factors related to quit success and failure among cannabis users. The current study examined affective, cognitive, and situational factors related to cannabis use among current cannabis users undergoing a voluntary, self-guided quit attempt. The sample consisted of 30 (33% female) current cannabis users, 84% of whom evinced a current cannabis use disorder. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of cannabis withdrawal, negative affect, peer cannabis use, reasons for use, and successful coping strategies over two weeks. Findings from generalized linear models indicated that cannabis withdrawal and positive and negative affect were significantly higher during cannabis use than non-use episodes. Additionally, when negative and positive affect were entered simultaneously, negative affect, but not positive affect, remained significantly related to use. Participants were significantly more likely to use in social situations than when alone. When participants were in social situations, they were significantly more likely to use if others were using. Participants tended to use more behavioral than cognitive strategies to abstain from cannabis. The most common reason for use was to cope with negative affect. Overall, these novel findings indicate that cannabis withdrawal, affect (especially negative affect), and peer use play important roles in cannabis use among self-quitters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  20. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  1. What price quitting? The price of cigarettes at which smokers say they would seriously consider trying to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Hayes, Linda; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-07-13

    Deciding on an appropriate level for taxes on tobacco products is a critical issue in tobacco control. The aim of the present study was to describe the critical price points for packs for smokers of each pack size, to calculate what this would equate to in terms of price per stick, and to ascertain whether price points varied by age, socio-economic status and heaviness of smoking. In November 2011, 586 Victorian smokers of factory-made cigarettes were asked during a telephone survey about their usual brand, including the size and cost of their usual pack. They were also asked about use of illicit tobacco. Smokers estimated what price their preferred pack would need to reach before they would seriously consider quitting. Three-quarters of regular smokers of manufactured cigarettes could envisage their usual brand reaching a price at which they would seriously consider quitting. Analyses revealed that answers clustered around whole numbers, (AUD$15, $20, $25 and $30), with a median nominated price point of AUD$20 per pack. The median price point at which regular smokers would consider quitting was calculated to be 80 cents per stick, compared to the current median reported stick price of 60 cents.Of the smokers who nominated a price point, 60.1% indicated they would seriously consider quitting if the cost of their usual brand equated to 80 cents per stick or less; 87.5% would seriously consider quitting if sticks reached one dollar each. These results do suggest a potentially useful approach to setting taxes in Australia. If taxes can be set high enough to ensure that the cost of the smokers' preferred packs exceeds critical price points, then it seems likely that more people would seriously attempt to quit than if the price increased to a level even slightly below the price points. Our study suggests that a tax increase large enough to ensure that a typical pack of 25 cigarettes in Australia cost at least AUD$20 would prompt more than 60% of smokers able to nominate

  2. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  3. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  4. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  5. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  6. Husserl on Collective Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. On this background, I will concentrate on Husserl’s alternative construal and demonstrate how it entails a robust anti-individualism regarding both the form and the subject of we-intentions. I will suggest that, contrary to appearances, Husserl does not fall prey to committing a content/vehicle...... type of fallacy, by inferring from the jointness of the contents of collective intentionality that there is one joint vehicle or, worse, some collectively conscious bearer of such. Rather, the Husserlian alternative yields a robust formal-cum-subject anti-individualism and undercuts the need...

  7. Predictors of parents' intention to limit children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-12-01

    Scientific evidence demonstrates a link between viewing time and several poor health outcomes. We use a reasoned action approach to identify the determinants and beliefs associated with parents' intention to limit their children's television viewing. We surveyed a random sample of 516 caregivers to children ages 3-16 in a large Northeastern city. Multiple regression analyses were used to test a reasoned action model and examine the differences across demographic groups. The intention to limit viewing (-3 to 3) was low among parents of adolescents (M: 0.05) compared with parents of 3-6 year olds (M: 1.49) and 7-12 year olds (M: 1.16). Attitudes were the strongest determinant of intention (β = 0.43) across all demographic groups and normative pressure was also significantly related to intention (β = 0.20), except among parents of adolescents. Relevant beliefs associated with intention to limit viewing included: limiting television would be associated with the child exercising more, doing better in school, talking to family more and having less exposure to inappropriate content. Attitudes and normative pressure play an important role in determining parents' intention to limit their child's television viewing. The beliefs that were associated with parents' intention to limit should be emphasized by health professionals and in health communication campaigns.

  8. Revealing the complexity of quitting smoking: a qualitative grounded theory study of the natural history of quitting in Australian ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-11-23

    To explore the quitting histories of Australian ex-smokers in order to develop an understanding of the varied contribution of smoking cessation assistance (either pharmacotherapy or professionally mediated behavioural support) to the process of quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study; in-depth interviews. 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 men, 22 women) who quit in the past 6-24 months. Although participants' individual quitting histories and their overall experiences of quitting were unique, when the 37 quitting histories were compared it was clear two experiences were common to almost all participants: almost no one quit at their first quit attempt and almost everyone started out quitting unassisted. Furthermore, distinct patterns existed in the timing and use of assistance, in particular the age at which assistance was first used, how some participants were resolutely uninterested in assistance, and how assistance might have contributed to the process of successful quitting even if not used on the final quit attempt. Importantly, three patterns in use of assistance were identified: (1) only ever tried to quit unassisted (n=13); (2) started unassisted, tried assistance but reverted back to unassisted (n=13); (3) started unassisted, tried assistance and quit with assistance (n=11). For most participants, insight into what quitting would require was only gained through prior quitting experiences with and without assistance. For a number of participants, interest in assistance was at its lowest when the participant was most ready to quit. Quitting should be viewed as a process drawing on elements of assisted and unassisted quitting rather than a stand-alone event that can be labelled as strictly assisted or unassisted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Newly Qualified Teachers' Work Engagement and Teacher Efficacy Influences on Job Satisfaction, Burnout, and the Intention to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoigaard, Rune; Giske, Rune; Sundsli, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Teacher policy is high on national agendas and countries are seeking to improve schools. Demands on schools and teachers are more complex and it is expected that a larger number of teachers will enter the profession. Studies indicate that the period when teachers are newly qualified is a peak time for leaving the profession. The purpose of this…

  10. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  11. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    . The article develops this argument via a sensorial orientation to politics that not only re-frames existing critiques of neo-Kantianism but also includes an alternative, renaturalized conception of public reason, one that allows us to overcome the disconnect between the account we give of reason and the way......This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances...... it is mobilized in a world of deep pluralism. The article concludes with a discussion of how a renaturalized conception of public reason might change the positioning of contemporary democratic theory vis-a-vis the struggle for empowerment and pluralization in an age of neo-liberalism and state-surveillance....

  12. Learning clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Ralph; Welch, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality, despite evidence-based guidelines and improved technology. Experts in clinical reasoning often use unconscious cognitive processes that they are not aware of unless they explain how they are thinking. Understanding the intuitive and analytical thinking processes provides a guide for instruction. How knowledge is stored is critical to expertise in clinical reasoning. Curricula should be designed so that trainees store knowledge in a way that is clinically relevant. Competence in clinical reasoning is acquired by supervised practice with effective feedback. Clinicians must recognise the common errors in clinical reasoning and how to avoid them. Trainees can learn clinical reasoning effectively in everyday practice if teachers provide guidance on the cognitive processes involved in making diagnostic decisions. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED QUALITY, BRAND IMAGE, AND EMOTIONAL VALUE TOWARDS PURCHASE INTENTION OF CONSINA BACKPACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basrah Saidani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the descriptive and empirical impact of perceived quality, brand image and emotional value toward purchase intention. The object of this research was respondents of backpack users in East Jakarta. Methods of data collection using survey methods. Data analysis using SPSS to process and analyze the research data. The results of descriptive test explained that perceived quality, brand image and emotional value of backpack Consina is good according most respondents answer, so they have quite high purchase intention. The hypothesis test shows, perceived quality has positive and significant effect on purchase intention, brand image has positive and significant effect on purchase intention, emotional value has positive and significant effect on purchase intention, perceived quality, brand image and emotional value have simultaneous effect on purchase intention.

  14. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Intuition, Reason, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised…

  17. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  18. Clinical reasoning: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of clinical reasoning in nursing. Clinical reasoning is an ambiguous term that is often used synonymously with decision-making and clinical judgment. Clinical reasoning has not been clearly defined in the literature. Healthcare settings are increasingly filled with uncertainty, risk and complexity due to increased patient acuity, multiple comorbidities, and enhanced use of technology, all of which require clinical reasoning. Data sources. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and OvidMEDLINE, for the years 1980 to 2008. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. Multiple terms have been used synonymously to describe the thinking skills that nurses use. Research in the past 20 years has elucidated differences among these terms and identified the cognitive processes that precede judgment and decision-making. Our concept analysis defines one of these terms, 'clinical reasoning,' as a complex process that uses cognition, metacognition, and discipline-specific knowledge to gather and analyse patient information, evaluate its significance, and weigh alternative actions. This concept analysis provides a middle-range descriptive theory of clinical reasoning in nursing that helps clarify meaning and gives direction for future research. Appropriate instruments to operationalize the concept need to be developed. Research is needed to identify additional variables that have an impact on clinical reasoning and what are the consequences of clinical reasoning in specific situations.

  19. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first Level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second Level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  20. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  1. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  2. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  3. A reasonable Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzler, Pascal; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which forces us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches. We argue that reasoning for

  4. Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  5. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  6. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally...

  7. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally satisfactory, ...

  8. Measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve quitting: a qualitative grounded theory study of the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-05-11

    To better understand the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective, and to explore the role spontaneity and planning play in quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study using in-depth interviews with 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 males, 22 females) who quit smoking in the past 6-24 months (26 quit unassisted; 11 used assistance). Based on participants' accounts of quitting, we propose a typology of quitting experiences: measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve. Two key features integral to participants' accounts of their quitting experiences were used as the basis of the typology: (1) the apparent onset of quitting (gradual through to sudden); and (2) the degree to which the smoker appeared to have prepared for quitting (no evidence through to clear evidence of preparation). The resulting 2 × 2 matrix of quitting experiences took into consideration three additional characteristics: (1) the presence or absence of a clearly identifiable trigger; (2) the amount of effort (cognitive and practical) involved in quitting; and (3) the type of cognitive process that characterised the quitting experience (reflective; impulsive; reflective and impulsive). Quitting typically included elements of spontaneity (impulsive behaviour) and preparation (reflective behaviour), and, importantly, the investment of time and cognitive effort by participants prior to quitting. Remarkably few participants quit completely out-of-the-blue with little or no preparation. Findings are discussed in relation to stages-of-change theory, catastrophe theory, and dual process theories, focusing on how dual process theories may provide a way of conceptualising how quitting can include elements of both spontaneity and preparation.

  9. Daniel Dennett: intentionality system. An interpretation of intentional strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROTILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show some of the meanings in which Daniel Dennett uses the term intentionality, in an attempt to establish to it the quality of key concept for understanding the mind, namely consciousness. By analyzing the American thinker’s ideas, we consider that in all of them an intentionality system can be identified, which includes the approaches and different names that he dedicates to this concept. Qualitative differences in the discourse about intentionality can open the way of the approach of intentionality from an evolutionary perspective, indicating the changes over time. The intentionality system is a proposal for understanding Dennett’s thinking in a coherent paradigm.

  10. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  11. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Intention Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Sonia; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi; Sparaci, Laura; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Santelli, Erica; Cossu, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping) and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking). Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD) children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the “why” trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object (“why-use” trials), in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object (“why-place” trials). The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the “why-place” trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues. PMID:19440332

  13. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  14. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  15. Intention-to-treat

    OpenAIRE

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-01-01

    The randomized clinical trial paradigm is sketched, as well as the foundations on which its validity is based. Issues that jeopardize this validity, such as patient noncompliance and early withdrawal, are discussed. Intention to treat, being an important historical answer to this problem, is introduced, together with a set of criticisms and an indication of alternative approaches. as-treated analysis;clinical trial;incomplete data;last observation carried forward;randomization

  16. Prevalence and Frequency of mHealth and eHealth Use Among US and UK Smokers and Differences by Motivation to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Tooley, Erin; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison

    2015-07-04

    Both mHealth and eHealth interventions for smoking cessation are rapidly being developed and tested. There are no data on use of mHealth and eHealth technologies by smokers in general or by smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking. The aims of our study were to (1) assess technology use (eg, texting, social media, Internet) among smokers in the United States and United Kingdom, (2) examine whether technology use differs between smokers who are motivated to quit and smokers who are not motivated to quit, (3) examine previous use of technology to assist with smoking cessation, and (4) examine future intentions to use technology to assist with smoking cessation. Participants were 1000 adult smokers (54.90%, 549/1000 female; mean age 43.9, SD 15.5 years; US: n=500, UK: n=500) who were recruited via online representative sampling strategies. Data were collected online and included demographics, smoking history, and frequency and patterns of technology use. Among smokers in general, there was a high prevalence of mobile and smartphone ownership, sending and receiving texts, downloading and using apps, using Facebook, and visiting health-related websites. Smokers who were unmotivated to quit were significantly less likely to own a smartphone or handheld device that connects to the Internet than smokers motivated to quit. There was a significantly lower prevalence of sending text messages among US smokers unmotivated to quit (78.2%, 179/229) versus smokers motivated to quit (95.0%, 229/241), but no significant differences between the UK groups (motivated: 96.4%, 239/248; unmotivated: 94.9%, 223/235). Smokers unmotivated to quit in both countries were significantly less likely to use a handheld device to read email, play games, browse the Web, or visit health-related websites versus smokers motivated to quit. US smokers had a high prevalence of app downloads regardless of motivation to quit, but UK smokers who were motivated to quit had greater prevalence of app

  17. A Conceptual Exploration of Succession Intent in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Botero, Isabel; Fediuk, Tomasz

    Succession has been the most studied topic in family firms. The reason for this is that many family firms fail during the transition of leadership and ownership between the current owner/manager and the next generation. Traditionally research on succession has focused on the family member...... as they enter the leadership role (i.e., how a family firm successfully transition to the next generation) or on the different issues that affect the succession process. In this approach there seems to be an underlying assumption that family business owners have the intent to engage in succession efforts. We...... believe that this is not always the case. Thus, we suggest that to better understand the succession process in family firms we first need to understand succession intent and the factors that influence an owner’s intent to pass on the business. This manuscript defines succession intent and provides...

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  19. Design as intentional action: a conceptual analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on methods and literature from the field of philosophy, an account is given of the general nature of the artefact production process in order to provide a conceptual platform for design research. Designing itself is defined as the production of design representations; and the latter notion......, and so the major philosophical difficulty is to propose a reasonably precise definition of ‘design representation’ without implying the existence of such non-existent things. To overcome that difficulty, a definition is developed in terms of human agents, their actions and ideas (including intentions...

  20. Effects of Framing Proximal Benefits of Quitting and Motivation to Quit as a Query on Communications About Tobacco Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-10-01

    Little is known on how to communicate messages on tobacco constituents to tobacco users. This study manipulated three elements of a message in the context of a theory-based communication campaign about tobacco constituents: (1) latency of response efficacy (how soon expected health benefits would accrue), (2) self-efficacy (confidence about quitting), and (3) interrogative cue ("Ready to be tobacco-free?"). Smokers (N = 1669, 55.4% women) were recruited via an online platform, and were randomized to a 3 (Latency of response efficacy) × 2 (Self-efficacy) × 2 (Interrogative cue) factorial design. The dependent variables were believability, credibility, perceived effectiveness of the communication message, and action expectancies (likelihood of seeking additional information and help with quitting). Latency of response efficacy influenced believability, perceived effectiveness, credibility, and action expectancies. In each case, scores were higher when specific health benefits were said to accrue within 1 month, as compared to general health benefits occurring in a few hours. The interrogative cue had a marginal positive effect on perceived effectiveness. The self-efficacy manipulation had no reliable effects, and there were no significant interactions among conditions. Smokers appear less persuaded by a communication message on constituents where general health benefits accrue immediately (within a few hours) than specific benefits over a longer timeframe (1 month). Additionally, smokers appeared to be more persuaded by messages with an interrogative cue. Such findings may help design more effective communication campaigns on tobacco constituents to smokers. This paper describes, for the first time, how components of tobacco constituent messages are perceived. We now know that smokers appear to be less persuaded by communication messages where general health benefits accrue immediately (within a few hours) than specific benefits over a longer timeframe (1 month

  1. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  2. Adolescent Marijuana Use Intentions: Using Theory to Plan an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…

  3. Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E.; Fortune, Jennifer L.; Liang, Lindie H.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor’s distal intent (a focus on a broader goal) and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act) were manipulated. In Studies 1–2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor’s mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3–4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology. PMID:27123858

  4. Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Plaks

    Full Text Available Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's distal intent (a focus on a broader goal and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act were manipulated. In Studies 1-2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor's mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3-4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology.

  5. Determinants of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Eklund, Robert C.; Reed, Brett

    2001-01-01

    Investigated elementary and secondary teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes, examining a model hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Teacher surveys supported the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.…

  6. A dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for intentions and information changes in strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I present a dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for reasoning about information and intention changes in situations of strategic interaction. I provide a complete axiomatization for this logic, and then use it to study intentions-based transformations of decision problems.

  7. Further examination of predictors of turnover intention among mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchus, N J; Periard, D; Osatuke, K

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data. Mainly fragmented evidence is available about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intention (i.e. different mental health occupations examined in separate studies). Only two existing studies that examined broader mental health provider groups were limited by including few workforce settings, small sample sizes and insufficiently rigorous statistical analyses. We examined four occupations (mental health nurses, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists), each represented through a large sample in multiple settings, all within one large healthcare network with complex patients. Our contribution is finding additional predictors (supervisory support, emotional exhaustion) of job satisfaction/turnover intention. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Organizations can consider using culture change initiatives to increase civility at work; this includes leadership support and role modelling of workplace behaviours. Leaders should monitor staffing levels and high workloads to pre-empt emotional exhaustion, which predicts turnover. Hiring and training supervisors should involve not only technical expertise, but also 'soft skills' necessary for creating civil and supportive work environments. Leaders and managers should use employee feedback data (e.g. organizational surveys) to learn about the workplace environments, and address areas of employees' concern. Introduction Given the global shortage of mental health professionals, high turnover

  8. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  9. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Blanton

    Full Text Available Graphic warnings (GWs on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance. One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions.Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers were assessed before and after message exposure.GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes, and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes. Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers. No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup.Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  10. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  11. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.

  12. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions: evidence from Nigerian paramilitary organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotun Olaleye Faloye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical link between different dimensions of organizational commitment and turnover intentions on Nigeria paramilitary organisation. A literature review of organizational commitment and employee turnover provides the basis for the research hypotheses. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 95% and 99% confidence level. The study adopted a survey research design. A self-administered questionnaire was used, involving 144 respondents from selected paramilitary organisation in Akure, Nigeria to collect data and testing the existing theory. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. In contrary to theory, the study revealed a weak positive relationship between organizational commitment dimensions (affective, continuance and normative and turnover intentions. The relationships are statistically significant expect the one between turnover intention and normative commitment which is statistically insignificant. The study concluded that the commitment of an employee to organisational goals, missions, and values is not enough to predict his/her stay in the organisation. There are other variables apart from organisational commitment that are predictor of employees’ intentions to quit. Thus, organisations should look beyond forces in their internal environment, when considering reduction in employee’s turnover intentions and the actual employee’s turnover.

  13. Nash Equilibria in Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leando; Cruz, José; Ferreira, Helena; Pinto, Alberto Adrego

    2009-08-01

    Game theory and Decision Theory have been applied to many different areas such as Physics, Economics, Biology, etc. In its application to Psychology, we introduce, in the literature, a Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action by establishing an analogy between two specific theories. In this study we take in account that individual decision-making is an outcome of a process where group decisions can determine individual probabilistic behavior. Using Game Theory concepts, we describe how intentions can be transformed in behavior and according to the Nash Equilibrium, this process will correspond to the best individual decision/response taking in account the collective response. This analysis can be extended to several examples based in the Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action.

  14. Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracín, Dolores; Johnson, Blair T.; Fishbein, Martin; Muellerleile, Paige A.

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models’ key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action’s predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were ...

  15. Reasons Internalism and the function of normative reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Neil

    2017-01-01

    What is the connection between reasons and motives? According to Reasons Internalism there is a non-trivial conceptual connection between normative reasons and the possibility of rationally accessing relevant motivation. Reasons Internalism is attractive insofar as it captures the thought that reasons are for reasoning with and repulsive insofar as it fails to generate sufficient critical distance between reasons and motives. Rather than directly adjudicate this dispute, I extract from it two...

  16. Does the number of free nicotine patches given to smokers calling a quitline influence quit rates: results from a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offer of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT can be a cost-effective marketing strategy to induce smokers to call a telephone quitline for quitting assistance. However, the most cost-effective supply of free NRT to provide to smokers who call a quitline remains unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that smokers who call a telephone quitline and are given more free nicotine patches would report higher quit rates upon follow-up 12 months later. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to assess nicotine patch usage patterns and quit rates among five groups of smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline (NYSSQL between April 2003 and May 2006 and were mailed 2-, 4-, 6- or 8-week supplies of free nicotine patches. The study population included 2,442 adult (aged 18 years or older current daily smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day, who were willing to make a quit attempt, and reported no contraindications for using the nicotine patch. Outcome variables assessed included the percentage of smokers who reported that they had not smoked for at least 7-days at the time of a 12 months telephone follow-up survey, sustained quitting, delayed quitting and nicotine patch use. Results Quit rates measured at 12 months were higher for smokers in the groups who received either 2, 6, or 8 weeks of free patches. The lowest quit rate was observed among the group of Medicaid/uninsured smokers who were eligible to receive up to six weeks of free patches. The quit rate for the 4-week supply group did not differ significantly from the 6-week or 8-week groups. These patterns remained similar in an intent-to-treat analysis of 12-month quit rates and in an analysis of sustained quitting. Conclusion No clear cut dose response relationship was observed between the number of free nicotine patches sent to smokers and smoking outcomes. Baseline diferences in the characteristics of the groups compared could account for the null

  17. Causal reasoning in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.

  18. Training propositional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, K C; Meiser, T; Naumer, B

    2000-08-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of four training conditions on propositional reasoning. A syntactic training demonstrated formal derivations, in an abstract semantic training the standard truth-table definitions of logical connectives were explained, and a domain-specific semantic training provided thematic contexts for the premises of the reasoning task. In a control training, an inductive reasoning task was practised. In line with the account by mental models, both kinds of semantic training were significantly more effective than the control and the syntactic training, whereas there were no significant differences between the control and the syntactic training, nor between the two kinds of semantic training. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of effects using a different set of syntactic and domain-specific training conditions.

  19. Thimerosal in vaccines - white, black, or quite the opposite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recent controversy regarding the introduction of a bill to Chilean Congress that aims to ban thiomersal and/or any trace of organomercurial compounds from vaccines in the country. Rather than providing a formal overview of all available evidence, this analysis focuses on the reasons behind the controversy, the scientific evidence invoked by both sides in the debate, and the anomalies in the healthcare decision-making process.

  20. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  2. Design for reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to position interaction design and information architecture in relation to design of interfaces to ICT applications meant to serve the goal of supporting users’ reasoning, be it learning applications or self-service applications such as citizen self-service. Interaction...... with such applications comprises three forms of reasoning: deduction, induction and abduction. Based on the work of Gregory Bateson, it is suggested that the disciplines of interaction design and information architecture are complementary parts of information processes. To show that abduction, induction and deduction...

  3. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  4. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  5. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  6. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  7. Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldhammer, F.; Klein Entink, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying

  8. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  9. The reason project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.; Blankenbecler, R.; Kunz, P.F.; Mours, B.; Weir, A.; Word, G.

    1990-01-01

    Reason is a software package to allow one to do physics analysis with the look and feel of the Apple Macintosh. It was implemented on a NeXT computer which does not yet support the standard HEP packages for graphics and histogramming. This paper will review our experiences and the program

  10. Reason destroys itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Penrose, Roger

    2008-01-01

    "Do we know for certain that 2 lus 2 equals 4? Of course we don't. Maybe every time everybody in the whole world has ever done that calculation and reasoned it through, they've made a mistake." (1 page0

  11. Reasoning=working Memoryattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, M.; Krumm, S.; Pick, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between attention, components of working memory, and reasoning. Therefore, twenty working memory tests, two attention tests, and nine intelligence subtests were administered to 135 students. Using structural equation modeling, we were able to replicate a functional model of working memory…

  12. Reasoning about the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In this extended abstract, we briefly recall the abstract (categorical) notion of bisimulation from open morphisms, as introduced by Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The approach is applicable across a wide range of models of computation, and any such bisimulation comes automatically with characterist...... of reasoning about the past....

  13. Diagnostic reasoning in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    of system failures; and in medicine, diagnosis is the basis for any patient treatment. The paper presents a discussion of the basic nature of causal reasoning as applied for diagnosis and the mental strategies applied when diagnosis is viewed as an integrated part of ''natural decision making...

  14. Reason and Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod eGoel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is be-cause they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4 tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4 tall? These are examples of instinctual biases affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phe-nomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of the article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an adulterated rationality account of reasoning to explain them.

  15. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  16. Reasoning with Causal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…

  17. Varieties of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Clinical reasoning comprises a variety of different modes of inference. The modes that are practiced will be influenced by the sociological characteristics of the clinical settings and the tasks to be performed by the clinician. This article presents C.S. Peirce's typology of modes of inference: deduction, induction and abduction. It describes their differences and their roles as stages in scientific argument. The article applies the typology to reasoning in clinical settings. The article describes their differences, and their roles as stages in scientific argument. It then applies the typology to reasoning in typical clinical settings. Abduction is less commonly taught or discussed than induction and deduction. However, it is a common mode of inference in clinical settings, especially when the clinician must try to make sense of a surprising phenomenon. Whether abduction is followed up with deductive and inductive verification is strongly influenced by situational constraints and the cognitive and psychological stamina of the clinician. Recognizing the inevitability of abduction in clinical practice and its value to discovery is important to an accurate understanding of clinical reasoning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  19. Reason and less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is because they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4″ tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4″ tall? These are examples of "instinctual biases" affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phenomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of this article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an "adulterated rationality" account of reasoning as a first step in trying to explain them.

  20. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  1. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  2. 3 Tools to Help You Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 3 Tools to Help You Quit Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... others. Understanding what tempts you and when can help control the urge to smoke. Whether you use ...

  3. Quit tobacco clinics in Bahrain: smoking cessation rates and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

    2017-01-01

    A high tobacco-quit rate among smokers seeking treatment at QTC is encouraging and indicates that the clinics contributed to tobacco cessation in Bahrain. Counselling sessions and more frequent visits to QTC helped participants to successfully quit tobacco.

  4. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  5. How reasonable is ALARA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear extrapolation of the established dose-effect relation at higher doses was accepted as a simple working hypothesis to determine dose limits for professional radiation personnel. It has been misused, however, for calculations of population risks in the very low dose region. This lead to an overestimation of radiation hazards by the public, followed by an overregulation of radiation protection. The ALARA recommendations of ICRP - justification of radiation application, optimisation of protection, and protection of the individual, - was aimed at counterpoising this trend and elucidate the aims of radiation protection. But even the ALARA principle will only be successful if it is applied with reason. The lend more weight to reason in radiation protection, an award for FS members is proposed, as well as an anti-award for the most nonsensical action in radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  6. Do They Reason the Same?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, Florian; Hockerts, Kai; Grichnik, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    We develop a structural equation model for business and social entrepreneurial intention and behavior to understand similarities and differences for-profit and social entrepreneurs. We conduct a conjoint field experiment to collect data in order to test how the mutual (social) entrepreneurial...... intentions relate to five dimensions of behavior: Knowledge relatedness, future predictability, personal value correspondence, social performance, and economic performance. Using an innovative research design with 1,544 assessments nested within the actions of 193 respondents, we find that individuals...... with a higher level of social entrepreneurial intentions are more likely to pursue opportunities than respondents with for-profit intentions. Moreover, we find proof that participants with intense social entrepreneurial intentions are more likely to act on opportunities with higher impact on society...

  7. Developing geometrical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Margaret; Jones, Keith; Taylor, Ron; Hirst, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises a report (Brown, Jones & Taylor, 2003) to the UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the work of one geometry group. The group was charged with developing and reporting on teaching ideas that focus on the development of geometrical reasoning at the secondary school level. The group was encouraged to explore what is possible both within and beyond the current requirements of the UK National Curriculum and the Key Stage 3 strategy, and to consider the whole atta...

  8. Tactical Diagrammatic Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Linker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although automated reasoning with diagrams has been possible for some years, tools for diagrammatic reasoning are generally much less sophisticated than their sentential cousins. The tasks of exploring levels of automation and abstraction in the construction of proofs and of providing explanations of solutions expressed in the proofs remain to be addressed. In this paper we take an interactive proof assistant for Euler diagrams, Speedith, and add tactics to its reasoning engine, providing a level of automation in the construction of proofs. By adding tactics to Speedith's repertoire of inferences, we ease the interaction between the user and the system and capture a higher level explanation of the essence of the proof. We analysed the design options for tactics by using metrics which relate to human readability, such as the number of inferences and the amount of clutter present in diagrams. Thus, in contrast to the normal case with sentential tactics, our tactics are designed to not only prove the theorem, but also to support explanation.

  9. REASON for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussessian, A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Plaut, J. J.; Patterson, G. W.; Gim, Y.; Schroeder, D. M.; Soderlund, K. M.; Grima, C.; Young, D. A.; Chapin, E.

    2015-12-01

    The science goal of the Europa multiple flyby mission is to "explore Europa to investigate its habitability". One of the primary instruments selected for the scientific payload is a multi-frequency, multi-channel ice penetrating radar system. This "Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON)" would revolutionize our understanding of Europa's ice shell by providing the first direct measurements of its surface character and subsurface structure. REASON addresses key questions regarding Europa's habitability, including the existence of any liquid water, through the innovative use of radar sounding, altimetry, reflectometry, and plasma/particles analyses. These investigations require a dual-frequency radar (HF and VHF frequencies) instrument with concurrent shallow and deep sounding that is designed for performance robustness in the challenging environment of Europa. The flyby-centric mission configuration is an opportunity to collect and transmit minimally processed data back to Earth and exploit advanced processing approaches developed for terrestrial airborne data sets. The observation and characterization of subsurface features beneath Europa's chaotic surface require discriminating abundant surface clutter from a relatively weak subsurface signal. Finally, the mission plan also includes using REASON as a nadir altimeter capable of measuring tides to test ice shell and ocean hypotheses as well as characterizing roughness across the surface statistically to identify potential follow-on landing sites. We will present a variety of measurement concepts for addressing these challenges.

  10. Measurement of factors that negatively influence the outcome of quitting smoking among patients with COPD: psychometric analyses of the Try To Quit Smoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Törnkvist, Lena; Gilljam, Hans; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-12-01

    To test internal consistency and factor structure of a brief instrument called Trying to Quit smoking. The most effective treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to quit smoking. Constant thoughts about quitting and repeated quit attempts can generate destructive feelings and make it more difficult to quit. Development and psychometric testing of the Trying to Quit smoking scale. The Trying to Quit smoking, an instrument designed to assess pressure-filled states of mind and corresponding pressure-relief strategies, was tested among 63 Swedish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among these, the psychometric properties of the instrument were analysed by Exploratory Factor Analyses. Fourteen items were included in the factor analyses, loading on three factors labelled: (1) development of pressure-filled mental states; (2) use of destructive pressure-relief strategies; and (3) ambivalent thoughts when trying to quit smoking. These three factors accounted for more than 80% of the variance, performed well on the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and had high internal consistency.

  11. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God. Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  12. Love conquers all but nicotine: Spousal peer effects on the decision to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is

  13. Evaluation of a mass media campaign promoting using help to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Parvanta, Sarah A; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. The effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking-cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines were analyzed from March to November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign's impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2,786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  15. Psychosocial factors associated with non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Bean, Melanie K; Mitchell, Karen S; Speizer, Ilene S; Fries, Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents' smoking intentions. Participants from three high schools (n = 785) were surveyed to assess smoking-related characteristics and behaviors as part of a statewide evaluation of tobacco prevention programming. Attitudes, subjective norms (and other normative factors) and perceived behavioral control were all associated with non-smokers' intentions to smoke. Having more favorable attitudes toward remaining tobacco free and perceiving that friends would not be supportive of smoking were both associated with decreased likelihood of intending to smoke. Normative influence and peer use were significant factors, such that having more friends who smoke was associated with increased odds of intent to smoke. Lastly, perceived difficulty to quit was related to smoking intentions, with higher confidence to quit significantly associated with intentions to smoke. Findings are consistent with the TPB--attitudes, normative factors and perceived behavioral control each helped account for non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke. Implications for theory and intervention building are discussed.

  16. Mirror neurons and motor intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    Our social life rests to a large extent on our ability to understand the intentions of others. What are the bases of this ability? A very influential view is that we understand the intentions of others because we are able to represent them as having mental states. Without this meta-representational (mind-reading) ability their behavior would be meaningless to us. Over the past few years this view has been challenged by neurophysiological findings and, in particular, by the discovery of mirror neurons. The functional properties of these neurons indicate that intentional understanding is based primarily on a mechanism that directly matches the sensory representation of the observed actions with one's own motor representation of those same actions. These findings reveal how deeply motor and intentional components of action are intertwined, suggesting that both can be fully comprehended only starting from a motor approach to intentionality.

  17. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience ...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...... predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...

  18. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  19. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A.; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Dodd, Michael D.; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  20. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  1. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  2. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention Among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallam A.A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.

  3. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sallam Abdullah AbdulElah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process.. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  5. The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to

  6. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Pepper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%; because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%; and quitting or reducing smoking (30%. Nearly two-thirds (65% of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001. The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%, using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%, and users did not like the taste (14%. Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  7. Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Ribisl, Kurt M; Emery, Sherry L; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-10-03

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  8. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  9. Reasoning about geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A; Brown, N R

    2000-06-01

    To understand the nature and etiology of biases in geographical judgments, the authors asked people to estimate latitudes (Experiments 1 and 2) and longitudes (Experiments 3 and 4) of cities throughout the Old and New Worlds. They also examined how people's biased geographical judgments change after they receive accurate information ("seeds") about actual locations. Location profiles constructed from the pre- and postseeding location estimates conveyed detailed information about the representations underlying geography knowledge, including the subjective positioning and subregionalization of regions within continents; differential seeding effects revealed between-region dependencies. The findings implicate an important role for conceptual knowledge and plausible-reasoning processes in tasks that use subjective geographical information.

  10. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  11. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  12. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  13. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  14. A not quite random walk: Experimenting with the ethnomethods of the algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Ziewitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms have become a widespread trope for making sense of social life. Science, finance, journalism, warfare, and policing—there is hardly anything these days that has not been specified as “algorithmic.” Yet, although the trope has brought together a variety of audiences, it is not quite clear what kind of work it does. Often portrayed as powerful yet inscrutable entities, algorithms maintain an air of mystery that makes them both interesting and difficult to understand. This article takes on this problem and examines the role of algorithms not as techno-scientific objects to be known, but as a figure that is used for making sense of observations. Following in the footsteps of Harold Garfinkel’s tutorial cases, I shall illustrate the implications of this view through an experiment with algorithmic navigation. Challenging participants to go on a walk, guided not by maps or GPS but by an algorithm developed on the spot, I highlight a number of dynamics typical of reasoning with running code, including the ongoing respecification of rules and observations, the stickiness of the procedure, and the selective invocation of the algorithm as an intelligible object. The materials thus provide an opportunity to rethink key issues at the intersection of the social sciences and the computational, including popular concerns with transparency, accountability, and ethics.

  15. Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution towards Mair and Noboa ‘s (2006) model of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions. The Mair/Noboa model builds on Krueger’s (1993) proposal of a theory of planned behavior for entrepreneurial intention formation by suggesting that social entrepreneurial...... intentions are driven by an individual’s perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of starting a social venture. This article proposes and validates measures of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior with a sample of nascent social entrepreneurs. The measures developed adapt constructs...

  16. Heuristic reasoning and relative incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Treur, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an approach is presented in which heuristic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to derive which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional architecture for reasoning systems that perform such heuristic reasoning is introduced, called SIX (for Strategic Interactive eXpert systems). This compositional architecture enables user interaction a...

  17. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is treated in the essay. Here it is argued that Bonhoeffer may be appropriated in attempting to outline a Christological ontology of reason holding essential implications for the sources and conditions of public discourse....

  18. Perceived Risk and Trust as Major Determinants of Actual Purchase, Transcending The Influence of Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Indiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed online purchasing behavior in the hotel industry through an integrative framework, utilizing sets of variables rarely used in previous studies. The analysis was focused on the influence of online purchase intention, perceived risk, and trust upon actual purchase, with the idea of further determining which construct has the strongest impact. It also analyzed two new measurement items for website quality. The sample consisted of travelers who have recently made hotel reservations online. The model was tested with Structural Equation Modeling. Perceived risk was found to have the strongest impact on actual purchase, followed by trust and online purchase intention. The weak influence of online purchase intention is quite interesting since it stands in contrast to previous research findings. Perceived risk also perfectly mediates the relationship between website quality and eWOM towards online purchase intention. Being descriptive in nature, this study did not manipulate the antecedents in the manner of an experimental study.

  19. Two kinds of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, L J

    2001-03-01

    According to one view of reasoning, people can evaluate arguments in at least two qualitatively different ways: in terms of their deductive correctness and in terms of their inductive strength. According to a second view, assessments of both correctness and strength are a function of an argument's position on a single psychological continuum (e.g., subjective conditional probability). A deductively correct argument is one with the maximum value on this continuum; a strong argument is one with a high value. The present experiment tested these theories by asking participants to evaluate the same set of arguments for correctness and strength. The results produced an interaction between type of argument and instructions: In some conditions, participants judged one argument deductively correct more often than a second, but judged the second argument inductively strong more often than the first. This finding supports the view that people have distinct ways to evaluate arguments.

  20. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy Intention In Medicaid Managed Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Thiel de Bocanegra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical guidelines recommend the documentation of pregnancy intention and family planning needs during primary care visits. Prior to the 2014 Medicaid expansion and release of these guidelines, the documentation practices of Medicaid managed care providers are unknown. Methods: We performed a chart review of 1054 Medicaid managed care visits of women aged 13 to 49 to explore client, provider, and visit characteristics associated with documentation of immediate or future plans for having children and contraceptive method use. Five managed care plans used Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes to identify providers with at least 15 women who had received family planning or well-woman care in 2013. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses with documentation of contraceptive method and pregnancy intention as outcome variables and clinic site as the level 2 random effect. Results: Only 12% of charts had documentation of pregnancy intention and 59% documented contraceptive use. Compared to women with a family planning visit reason, women with an annual, reproductive health, or primary care reason for their visit were significantly less likely to have contraception documented (odds ratio [OR] = 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.8-17.7. Age was also a significant predictor with women aged 30 to 49 (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9, and women aged 13 to 19 (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.6 being less likely to have a note about pregnancy intention in their chart. Pregnancy intention was more likely to be documented in multispecialty clinics (OR = 15.5; 95% CI = 2.7-89.2. Conclusions: Interventions to improve routine medical record documentation of contraception and pregnancy intention regardless of patient age and visit characteristics are needed to facilitate the provision of family planning in managed care visits and, ultimately, achieving better maternal infant health outcomes

  1. Using Relational Reasoning Strategies to Help Improve Clinical Reasoning Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Torre, Dario M; Durning, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    Clinical reasoning-the steps up to and including establishing a diagnosis and/or therapy-is a fundamentally important mental process for physicians. Unfortunately, mounting evidence suggests that errors in clinical reasoning lead to substantial problems for medical professionals and patients alike, including suboptimal care, malpractice claims, and rising health care costs. For this reason, cognitive strategies by which clinical reasoning may be improved-and that many expert clinicians are already using-are highly relevant for all medical professionals, educators, and learners.In this Perspective, the authors introduce one group of cognitive strategies-termed relational reasoning strategies-that have been empirically shown, through limited educational and psychological research, to improve the accuracy of learners' reasoning both within and outside of the medical disciplines. The authors contend that relational reasoning strategies may help clinicians to be metacognitive about their own clinical reasoning; such strategies may also be particularly well suited for explicitly organizing clinical reasoning instruction for learners. Because the particular curricular efforts that may improve the relational reasoning of medical students are not known at this point, the authors describe the nature of previous research on relational reasoning strategies to encourage the future design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for relational reasoning within the medical education literature. The authors also call for continued research on using relational reasoning strategies and their role in clinical practice and medical education, with the long-term goal of improving diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  3. Decoding intention at sensorimotor timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Salvaris

    Full Text Available The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a 'holy grail' of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered.

  4. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  5. Reason with me : 'Confabulation' and interpersonal moral reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    According to Haidt’s ‘social intuitionist model’, empirical moral psychology supports the following conclusion: intuition comes first, strategic reasoning second. Critics have responded by arguing that intuitions can depend on non-conscious reasons, that not being able to articulate one’s reasons

  6. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Eva E; Tsai, Chia-Hung; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Arbee L P; Lin, Wei-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices)--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes) in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious) preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest otherwise.

  7. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest

  8. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  9. Motivated reasoning during recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David

    2018-03-01

    This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. VIRTUAL PURCHASE INTENTION: INFLUENCE OF SECURITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Asma javed*, Dr Wasif Ali Waseer, Dr Babak Mehmood

    2018-01-01

    The fast growth of online transaction and e-commerce inspired many companies to setup their business on web pages. It is fact that online purchasing is still poor as compared to other online activities. Research study will explore factors that affect consumer’s virtual purchase intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Theory Acceptance Model (TAM) are the groundwork theories that are used in research to investigate those factors that affect the virtual...

  11. When satisfied customers do not return : Variety seeking’s effect on short-and long-term intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-García, I.; Pieters, R.; Zeelenberg, M.; Bigné, E.

    2012-01-01

    Even satisfied consumers frequently do not come back, which challenges loyalty theory and marketing practice. It is reasoned that variety-seeking tendencies will significantly affect short-term revisit intentions, whereas satisfaction and regret will mostly determine long-term revisit intentions.

  12. Subjective social status predicts quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.

  13. Exposure to smoking in soap operas and movies: smoking cessation and attempts to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Harbertson, Judith; Pérez, Ramona L; Novotny, Thomas

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate whether there was an association between seeing an actor smoke in telenovelas, Brazilian films, or international films, and trying to quit and quitting among adult Brazilian smokers. Data from 39,425 participants in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used. Quit ratio (former smoker/former smoker + ever smoker) and proportions of current, former, and never smokers were calculated. Multivariable weighted regression was used to determine significant associations between quitting smoking and exposure to telenovelas and films. For current smokers, the odds of trying to quit were significantly higher among those who saw an actor smoking in a Brazilian film. Those who believed smoking caused serious illness and had rules in the home prohibiting smoking were significantly more likely to have tried to quit or had quit smoking. Exposure to smoking in the media may be different in adults than adolescents. Influential factors for trying to quit and quitting are rules prohibiting smoking at home, belief that smoking causes serious illness, and hearing about dangers of smoking in media.

  14. Component Processes in Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes alternative theoretical positions regarding (a) the component information processes used in analogical reasoning and (b) strategies for combining these processes. Also presents results from three experiments on analogical reasoning. (Author/RK)

  15. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  16. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  17. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  18. Heuristic reasoning and relative incompleteness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an approach is presented in which heuristic reasoning is interpreted as strategic reasoning. This type of reasoning enables one to derive which hypothesis to investigate, and which observable information to acquire next (to be able to verify the chosen hypothesis). A compositional

  19. Heuristic Elements of Plausible Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    At least some of the reasoning processes involved in argumentation rely on inferences which do not fit within the traditional categories of inductive or deductive reasoning. The reasoning processes involved in plausibility judgments have neither the formal certainty of deduction nor the imputed statistical probability of induction. When utilizing…

  20. Analogical Reasoning and Computer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Catherine A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of correlations between analogical reasoning and Logo programming mastery among female high school students related the results of pretests of analogical reasoning to posttests of programming mastery. A significant correlation was found between analogical reasoning and the ability to write subprocedures for use in several different…

  1. Dropout Reasons in Iranian Youth Roller Skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein H E Y D A R I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  3. Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Mull, Kristin E; McClure, Jennifer B; Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L

    2018-05-01

    Millions of people world-wide use websites to help them quit smoking, but effectiveness trials have an average 34% follow-up data retention rate and an average 9% quit rate. We compared the quit rates of a website using a new behavioral approach called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; WebQuit.org) with the current standard of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Smokefree.gov website. A two-arm stratified double-blind individually randomized trial (n = 1319 for WebQuit; n = 1318 for Smokefree.gov) with 12-month follow-up. United States. Adults (n = 2637) who currently smoked at least five cigarettes per day were recruited from March 2014 to August 2015. At baseline, participants were mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 46.2 years (13.4), 79% women and 73% white. WebQuit.org website (experimental) provided ACT for smoking cessation; Smokefree.gov website (comparison) followed US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 months. The 12-month follow-up data retention rate was 88% (2309 of 2637). The 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at the 12-month follow-up were 24% (278 of 1141) for WebQuit.org and 26% (305 of 1168) for Smokefree.gov [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76, 1.10; P = 0.334] in the a priori complete case analysis. Abstinence rates were 21% (278 of 1319) for WebQuit.org and 23% (305 of 1318) for Smokefree.gov (OR = 0.89 (0.74, 1.07; P = 0.200) when missing cases were imputed as smokers. The Bayes factor comparing the primary abstinence outcome was 0.17, indicating 'substantial' evidence of no difference between groups. WebQuit.org and Smokefree.gov had similar 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 12 months that were descriptively higher than those of prior published website-delivered interventions and telephone counselor-delivered interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Health behaviour procrastination: a novel reasoned route towards self-regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we highlight a novel perspective on health behaviour failure by considering reasoned procrastination as a contributing factor. We argue that the failure to enact intentions does not necessarily occur because people are victims of their strong impulses, but that people may also knowingly and wilfully postpone their intended actions. While procrastination is acknowledged as a factor associated with intention-behaviour gaps in other domains, it has surprisingly received only very little attention in the domain of health behaviour. We argue that it is particularly important to recognise the waxing and waning of intentions: rather than being truly abandoned, intentions may sometimes be temporarily put aside. This paper describes how the procrastination account relates to the intention-behaviour gap as we know it, what is known about procrastination and health behaviour, and what theoretical and practical implications can be derived from the addition of this novel perspective to our understanding of health behaviour change.

  5. Beyond Human Intentions and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eJuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON, these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person’s position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/ bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in an interpersonal and emotional context. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of fMRI studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions versus those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help further develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  6. The fate of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Francis T; Einstein, Gilles O

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether and how people deactivate prospective memory (PM) intentions after they have been completed. One view proposes that PM intentions can be deactivated after completion, such that they no longer come to mind and interfere with current tasks. Another view is that now irrelevant completed PM intentions exhibit persisting activation, and continue to be retrieved. In Experiment 1, participants were given a PM intention embedded within the ongoing task during Phase 1, after which participants were told either that the PM task had been completed or suspended until later. During Phase 2, participants were instructed to perform only the ongoing task and were periodically prompted to report their thoughts. Critically, the PM targets from Phase 1 reappeared in Phase 2. All of our measures, including thoughts reported about the PM task, supported the existence of persisting activation. In Experiment 2, we varied conditions that were expected to mitigate persisting activation. Despite our best attempts to promote deactivation, we found evidence for the persistence of spontaneous retrieval in all groups after intentions were completed. The theoretical and practical implications of this potential dark side to spontaneous retrieval are discussed.

  7. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is specifically Christian and yet maintains a universality. With a focus on Bonhoeffer’s »Ethik« as the hermeneutical key to his theology, Bonhoeffer’s notion is also discussed in the light of contemporary Christian ethics. In this part it is particularly the role of reason within a public dis-course which...

  8. Efficacy of a Nurse-Delivered Intervention to Prevent and Delay Postpartum Return to Smoking: The Quit for Two Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I; Fish, Laura J; Lyna, Pauline; Peterson, Bercedis L; Myers, Evan R; Gao, Xiaomei; Swamy, Geeta K; Brown-Johnson, Angela; Whitecar, Paul; Bilheimer, Alicia K; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2016-10-01

    Most pregnant women who quit smoking return to smoking postpartum. Trials to prevent this return have been unsuccessful. We tested the efficacy of a nurse-delivered intervention in maintaining smoking abstinence after delivery among pregnant women who quit smoking that was tailored on their high risk of relapse (eg, had strong intentions to return). We recruited 382 English-speaking spontaneous pregnant quitters from 14 prenatal clinics and randomized them to receive either a smoking abstinence booklet plus newsletters about parenting and stress (control) or a nurse-delivered smoking abstinence intervention that differed in intensity for the high and low risk groups. Our primary outcome was smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum. Using intent-to-treat analyses, there was a high rate of biochemically validated smoking abstinence at 12 months postpartum but no arm differences ( 36% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-43] vs. 35% [95% CI: 28-43], P = .81). Among women at low risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was significantly higher in the control arm (46%) than in the intervention arm (33%); among women at high risk of returning to smoking, the crude abstinence rate was slightly lower but not different in the control arm (31%) than in the intervention arm (37%). Low-risk women fared better with a minimal intervention that focused on parenting skills and stress than when they received an intensive smoking abstinence intervention. The opposite was true for women who were at high risk of returning to smoking. Clinicians might need to tailor their approach based on whether women are at high or low risk of returning to smoking. Results suggest that high-risk and low-risk women might benefit from different types of smoking relapse interventions. Those who are lower risk of returning to smoking might benefit from stress reduction that is devoid of smoking content, whereas those who are higher risk might benefit from smoking relapse prevention. © The

  9. Antecedents and consequence of employee turnover intention: Empirical evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gyensare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the theory of reasoned action, this study found support for the hypothesized inverse relationship between work-related factors and employee turnover intention on the one hand, and turnover intention and perceptions of accountable absence legitimacy on the other hand. Specifically, the higher employees’ turnover intent, the lower their perceptions about the accountability of their absence behavior and vice versa. The findings highlight the need to consider turnover intention as a salient construct that plays a dual role, first as a consequence variable to job satisfaction, affective and normative commitments, and next as an antecedent to accountable absence legitimacy in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion on the significance of lessening employee turnover intent as a means of mitigating the perceptions of absence legitimacy in the workplace.

  10. An empirical study on consumer intention to participate in mobile marketing in China

    OpenAIRE

    Junhong He; Depeng Zhang; Yixia Mao

    2013-01-01

    Mobile marketing is a kind of marketing activities through personal mobile devices. In recent years, mobile marketing is widely carried out in China. However, many enterprises which carried out mobile marketing did not achieve the desired effects. One of the reasons is that consumers? intention to participate in mobile marketing is not high. The article constructed the model of factors influencing consumers? intention to participate in mobile marketing on the basis of literature research. The...

  11. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  12. Cognitive effects on entrepreneurial intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Wherry, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive characteristics of individuals have previously been established as important predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. Yet, we know little about this relationship in a transnational and ethnic entrepreneurship context. In this paper, we examine if and how émigrés differs from those...... individuals staying at home with regard to entrepreneurial intentions and with regard to their cognitive make-up. Also, we examine differences in the impact of cognitions of émigrés and homeland individuals respectively on their entrepreneurial intentions. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor...... also find that both first and second generation émigrés are less likely to have entrepreneurially oriented cognitions....

  13. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  14. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  15. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  16. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  17. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response. The present study further examined emotional reasoning in childeren aged 7-13 years (N=508). In addition, it was investigated whether children also show parent-based reasoning, which can be defined...

  18. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  19. The role of salient beliefs in graduates’ intention to apply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations compete fiercely to recruit the best graduates, because they consider them a rich source of future talent. In the recruitment literature, it has become increasingly important to understand the factors that influence graduate applicant intentions. Research purpose: Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, we tested a model proposing that applicant intention is a function of their attitude towards applying, beliefs about referent other’s expectations (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control with respect to this behaviour. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need to shed light on graduate applicants’ decisions to apply to an organisation of their choice. Research approach, design and method: The study used a quantitative design to test hypotheses that attitudes towards behaviour, norms and control beliefs would influence intention to apply. We surveyed prospective job seekers (N = 854 studying at a South African university about their beliefs regarding the job application process. Main findings: Structural equation modelling showed reasonable fit of the proposed model to the survey data. Latent variable analysis demonstrated that perceived behavioural control and subjective norm explained intention to apply. With the combination of all three variables, only attitude towards applying did not play a significant role in the prediction of intention to apply, which is contrary to previous research. Practical/managerial implications: The findings highlight the role of salient control beliefs in the application process. Efforts by universities and organisations to affect intentions to apply may potentially benefit from focusing on support services that could enhance feelings of control and minimise perceived obstacles. Recruiters could focus on control to increase potential recruitment pools. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the recruitment literature in three ways

  20. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Jampaklay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43% (57% remaining quit; (b surviving at least six months (medium-term (31%; (c relapse between one and six months (45%; (d having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence (14%; and (e relapse from six months on (44% compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%. Predictors for early relapse (<1 month differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  1. Cigarette smoking and quit attempts among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Moreno, Patricia Gonzalez; Rao, Smriti; Garfein, Richard S; Novotny, Thomas E; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-12-01

    Injection drug use and cigarette smoking are major global health concerns. Limited data exist regarding cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among injection drug users (IDUs) in low- and middle-income countries to inform the development of cigarette smoking interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs were recruited through community outreach and administered in-person interviews. Multivariable Poisson regression models were constructed to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) for quit attempts. Of the 670 participants interviewed, 601 (89.7%) were current smokers. Of these, median number of cigarettes smoked daily was 10; 190 (31.6%) contemplated quitting smoking in the next 6 months; 132 (22.0%) had previously quit for ≥1 year; and 124 (20.6%) had made a recent quit attempt (lasting ≥1 day during the previous 6 months). In multivariable analysis, recent quit attempts were positively associated with average monthly income (≥3,500 pesos [US$280] vs. <1,500 pesos [US$120]; PR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.57-3.36), smoking marijuana (PR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), and smoking heroin (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.23-2.78), and they were negatively associated with number of cigarettes smoked daily (PR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94-0.98). One out of 5 IDUs attempted to quit cigarette smoking during the previous 6 months. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of the association between drug use patterns and cigarette smoking quit attempts, including the higher rate of quit attempts observed among IDUs who smoke marijuana or heroin compared with IDUs who do not smoke these substances.

  2. Understanding African American women's decisions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables: an application of the reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2013-01-01

    Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracing Young Children's Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Peterson, Suzanne

    2003-08-01

    This paper explores the scientific reasoning of 14 children across their first two years of primary school. Children's view of experimentation, their approach to exploration, and their negotiation of competing knowledge claims, are interpreted in terms of categories of epistemological reasoning. Children's epistemological reasoning is distinguished from their ability to control variables. While individual children differ substantially, they show a relatively steady growth in their reasoning, with some contextual variation. A number of these children are reasoning at a level well in advance of curriculum expectations, and it is argued that current recommended practice in primary science needs to be rethought. The data is used to explore the relationship between reasoning and knowledge, and to argue that the generation and exploration of ideas must be the key driver of scientific activity in the primary school.

  4. Learning in Order to Reason

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Any theory aimed at understanding commonsense reasoning, the process that humans use to cope with the mundane but complex aspects of the world in evaluating everyday situations, should account for its flexibility, its adaptability, and the speed with which it is performed. In this thesis we analyze current theories of reasoning and argue that they do not satisfy those requirements. We then proceed to develop a new framework for the study of reasoning, in which a learning component has a princ...

  5. Logical Reasoning and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, D; Khaddaj, Souheil; Bashroush, Rabih

    2011-01-01

    Most intelligent systems have some form of \\ud decision making mechanisms built into their \\ud organisations. These normally include a logical \\ud reasoning element into their design. This paper reviews \\ud and compares the different logical reasoning strategies, \\ud and tries to address the accuracy and precision of \\ud decision making by formulating a tolerance to \\ud imprecision view which can be used in conjunction with \\ud the various reasoning strategies.

  6. Clinical reasoning and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Bastos Cerullo, Josinete Aparecida; de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Diná

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.

  7. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  8. Quitting-Unmotivated and Quitting-Motivated Cigarette Smokers Exhibit Different Patterns of Cue-Elicited Brain Activation When Anticipating an Opportunity to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of smoking expectancy on cue-reactivity among those motivated and those unmotivated to quit smoking using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cue-elicited activation was observed in the rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in smokers who expected to smoke within seconds, but not in those who expected to have to wait hours before having the chance to smoke, regardless of quitting motivation. For quitting-unmotivated smokers expecting to smoke, rostral PFC activation was strongly positively correlated with the activation of several areas previously linked to cue-reactivity, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, there was a non-significant negative relationship between activation of the rostral PFC and activation of the medial OFC/rostral ACC in quitting-motivated smokers expecting to smoke. Results extend previous work examining the effects of smoking expectancy and highlight the utility of examining interregional covariation during cue exposure. Findings also suggest that investigators may need to pay close attention to the motivational contexts associated with their experiments when studying cue-reactivity, as these contexts can modulate not only responses to drug cues, but perhaps also the functional implications of observed activity. PMID:21859165

  9. Sleep to implement an intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Sleep laboratory. A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. N/A. All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions.

  10. Modeling intentional inhibition of actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by cognitive and neurological literature on action ownership and action awareness, in this paper a computational cognitive model for intentional inhibition (i.e.; the capacity to voluntarily suspend or inhibit an action) is introduced. The interplay between (positive) potential selection of

  11. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  12. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2018-01-01

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Software that meets its Intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Bos, Herbert; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; van Deursen, Arie; Groote, Jan Friso; Lago, Patricia; van de Pol, Jaco; Visser, Eelco; Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Software is widely used, and society increasingly depends on its reliability. However, software has become so complex and it evolves so quickly that we fail to keep it under control. Therefore, we propose intents: fundamental laws that capture a software systems’ intended behavior (resilient,

  14. Entrepreneurial intention of Danish students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietze, Simon; Boyd, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the entrepreneurial intention (EI) among Danish university students applying the theory of planned behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – Using cross-sectional data from the Danish Global University Student Spirit Survey 2013 (n=1...

  15. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  16. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  17. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  18. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  19. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  20. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  1. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Heuristics Reasoning in Diagnostic Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Eileen S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes three heuristics--short-cut mental strategies that streamline information--relevant to diagnostic reasoning: accessibility, similarity, and anchoring and adjustment. Analyzes factors thought to influence heuristic reasoning and presents interventions to be tested for nursing practice and education. (JOW)

  3. Hurrah for the Reasonable Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Dorothy

    1994-01-01

    Recent court cases on sexual harassment, and the outcomes, were reviewed in terms of how the court viewed a "reasonable" woman. Rulings in such cases can vary because of different interpretations of the "reasonable" concept. Also discusses how recent rulings will affect sexual harassment policymakers in the workplace and educational institutions.…

  4. Competent Reasoning with Rational Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John P. III

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed students' reasoning with fractions. Found that skilled students applied strategies specifically tailored to restricted classes of fractions and produced reliable solutions with a minimum of computation effort. Results suggest that competent reasoning depends on a knowledge base that includes numerically specific and invented strategies,…

  5. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  6. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.

  7. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  8. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  9. Archivists Killed for Political Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six

  10. Learning to reason from samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of learning to reason from samples, which is the focus of this special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics on statistical reasoning. Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular

  11. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  12. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  13. Determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Goossensen, Dorien; Genugten, Lenneke van; Lingsma, Hester; Dippel, Diederik; Koudstaal, Peter; Hertog, Heleen den

    2016-04-01

    To assess determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. In this prospective cohort study, 100 patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on behavioral intention and sociocognitive factors including perception of severity, susceptibility, fear, response-efficacy and self-efficacy at baseline. Questionnaires on physical activity, diet and smoking were completed at baseline and at 3 months. Associations between sociocognitive factors and behavioral intention and actual change were studied with multivariable linear and logistic regression. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and fear were independently associated with behavioral intention, with self-efficacy as the strongest determinant of intention to increase physical activity (aBeta 0.40; 95% CI 0.12-0.71), adapt a healthy diet (aBeta 0.49; 95% CI 0.23-0.75), and quit smoking (aBeta 0.51; 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Intention to change tended to be associated with actual health-related behavior change. Self-efficacy, fear, and response-efficacy were determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke. These determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke should be taken into account in the development of future interventions promoting health-related behavior change in these group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  15. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage......, 44% of the 12-week abstainers were abstinent from the target quit date (TQD), while the rest stopped smoking later. We examined the relationship between quit pattern and the varenicline versus placebo difference in continuous abstinence rates at week 52 and contributions of baseline patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: With increasing delay in initial quitting, 12-month success rates declined. Participants who had their last cigarette at week 11 of open-label treatment had quit rates at 52 weeks of 5.7% compared with 54.9% in those who last smoked in week 1 [odds ratio (OR) 20.3 (6.3, 65.9); P

  16. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be effective in helping smokers quit. ​​​​​​​ The mind and body practices discussed here are generally considered safe for healthy people when they’re performed appropriately. If you ...

  17. Twitter=quitter? An analysis of Twitter quit smoking social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Pechmann, Cornelia; Kim, Romina; Leonhardt, James M

    2012-07-01

    Widely popular, Twitter, a free social networking and micro-blogging service, offers potential for health promotion. This study examined the activity of Twitter quit smoking social network accounts. A cross-sectional analysis identified 153 activated Twitter quit smoking accounts dating back to 2007 and examined recent account activity for the month of August 2010. The accounts had a median of 155 followers and 82 total tweets per account; 49% of accounts had >100 tweets. Posted content was largely inconsistent with clinical guidelines; 48% linked to commercial sites for quitting smoking and 43% had tweets on e-cigarettes. In August 2010, 81 of the accounts (53%) were still active. Though popular for building quit smoking social networks, many of the Twitter accounts were no longer active, and tweet content was largely inconsistent with clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to examine the effectiveness of Twitter for supporting smoking cessation.

  18. How to Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be used to smoking when drinking beer, wine, liquor, or mixed drinks, and you may associate ... Related Resources Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting Where To Get Help When You ...

  19. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  20. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.